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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917321/a-panel-of-microsatellite-markers-to-discriminate-and-study-interactions-between-haemonchus-contortus-and-haemonchus-placei
#1
Michelle C Santos, Elizabeth Redman, Mônica R V Amarante, John S Gilleard, Alessandro F T Amarante
Haemonchus contortus and Haemonchus placei are two closely related economically important parasites of ruminants. Their close morphological similarity, common occurrence as co-infections and ability to hybridize makes definitive diagnosis and epidemiological studies in field populations challenging. In this paper, we describe the development of a panel of microsatellite markers that can be used to discriminate and study the genetics of these two parasite species in co-infections and mixed field populations...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917314/evaluation-of-cardiopulmonary-and-inflammatory-markers-in-dogs-with-heartworm-infection-treated-using-the-slow-kill-method
#2
W-K Yoon, Y-W Kim, S-I Suh, C Hyun
This study evaluated the changes in the levels of cardiac, hemostatic, and inflammatory biomarkers in 12 dogs with different severities of heartworm infection treated using the slow kill protocol, consisting of 6-10μg/kg of ivermectin and 10mg/kg of doxycycline combination. The serum levels of cardiac troponin-I, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 were measured on the day of diagnosis (D0), after termination of doxycycline administration (D30), after termination of the slow kill treatment (D180), and 10 months after the initiation of therapy (D300)...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915832/dogs-as-victims-of-their-own-worms-serodiagnosis-of-canine-alveolar-echinococcosis
#3
C F Frey, N Marreros, S Renneker, L Schmidt, H Sager, B Hentrich, S Milesi, B Gottstein
BACKGROUND: Besides acting as definitive hosts for Echinococcus multilocularis, dogs can become infected by the larval form of this parasite and thereby develop life-threatening alveolar echinococcosis (AE). Although AE is a zoonotic disease, most therapeutic and diagnostic approaches have been developed for human patients. In dogs, AE is typically diagnosed in the advanced stage of the disease when the parasitic mass has already caused abdominal distension. At that stage, complete resection of the parasitic mass is often impossible, leaving a guarded prognosis for the affected dogs...
September 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915560/pharynx-mitochondrial-ca-2-dynamics-in-live-c-elegans-worms-during-aging
#4
Pilar Alvarez-Illera, Paloma García-Casas, Jessica Arias-Del-Val, Rosalba I Fonteriz, Javier Alvarez, Mayte Montero
Progressive decline in mitochondrial function is generally considered one of the hallmarks of aging. We have expressed a Ca(2+) sensor in the mitochondrial matrix of C. elegans pharynx cells and we have measured for the first time mitochondrial [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]M) dynamics in the pharynx of live C. elegans worms during aging. Our results show that worms stimulated with serotonin display a pharynx [Ca(2+)]M oscillatory kinetics that includes both high frequency oscillations (up to about 1Hz) and very prolonged "square-wave" [Ca(2+)]M increases, indicative of energy depletion of the pharynx cells...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915354/rose-essential-oil-delayed-ad-like-symptoms-by-skn-1-pathway-in-c-elegans
#5
Shuqian Zhu, Hong-Yu Li, Juan Dong, Wenqi Yang, Ting Liu, Yu Wang, Xin Wang, Meizhu Wang, Dejuan Zhi
There are no effective medications for delaying the progress of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disease in the world. In this study, our results with C. elegans showed that rose essential oil (REO) significantly inhibited AD-like symptoms of worm paralysis and hypersensivity to exogenous 5-HT in a dose-dependent manner. Its main components of β-citronellol and geraniol acted less effectively than the oil itself. REO significantly suppressed Aβ deposits and reduced the Aβ oligomers to alleviate the toxicity induced by Aβ over-expression...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914311/comparing-caenorhabditis-elegans-gentle-and-harsh-touch-response-behavior-using-a-multiplexed-hydraulic-microfluidic-device
#6
Patrick D McClanahan, Joyce H Xu, Christopher Fang-Yen
The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model system for understanding the genetics and physiology of touch. Classical assays for C. elegans touch, which involve manually touching the animal with a probe and observing its response, are limited by their low throughput and qualitative nature. We developed a microfluidic device in which several dozen animals are subject to spatially localized mechanical stimuli with variable amplitude. The device contains 64 sinusoidal channels through which worms crawl, and hydraulic valves that deliver touch stimuli to the worms...
September 15, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913417/parasite-biodiversity-faces-extinction-and-redistribution-in-a-changing-climate
#7
Colin J Carlson, Kevin R Burgio, Eric R Dougherty, Anna J Phillips, Veronica M Bueno, Christopher F Clements, Giovanni Castaldo, Tad A Dallas, Carrie A Cizauskas, Graeme S Cumming, Jorge Doña, Nyeema C Harris, Roger Jovani, Sergey Mironov, Oliver C Muellerklein, Heather C Proctor, Wayne M Getz
Climate change is a well-documented driver of both wildlife extinction and disease emergence, but the negative impacts of climate change on parasite diversity are undocumented. We compiled the most comprehensive spatially explicit data set available for parasites, projected range shifts in a changing climate, and estimated extinction rates for eight major parasite clades. On the basis of 53,133 occurrences capturing the geographic ranges of 457 parasite species, conservative model projections suggest that 5 to 10% of these species are committed to extinction by 2070 from climate-driven habitat loss alone...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912965/medically-important-parasites-carried-by-cockroaches-in-melong-subdivision-littoral-cameroon
#8
R J Atiokeng Tatang, H G Tsila, J Wabo Poné
Cockroaches have been recognized as mechanical vectors of pathogens that can infest humans or animals. A total of 844 adult cockroaches (436 males and 408 females) were caught. In the laboratory, cockroaches were first washed in saturated salt solution to remove ectoparasites and then rinsed with 70% alcohol, dried, and dissected for endoparasites. An overall transport rate of 47.39% was recorded. Six genera of parasites were identified. These were Ascaris (33.76%), Trichuris (11.97%), Capillaria (6.16%), Toxocara (4...
2017: Journal of Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912692/calsyntenins-are-expressed-in-a-dynamic-and-partially-overlapping-manner-during-neural-development
#9
Gemma de Ramon Francàs, Tobias Alther, Esther T Stoeckli
Calsyntenins form a family of linker proteins between distinct populations of vesicles and kinesin motors for axonal transport. They were implicated in synapse formation and synaptic plasticity by findings in worms, mice and humans. These findings were in accordance with the postsynaptic localization of the Calsyntenins in the adult brain. However, they also affect the formation of neural circuits, as loss of Calsyntenin-1 (Clstn1) was shown to interfere with axonal branching and axon guidance. Despite the fact that Calsyntenins were discovered originally in embryonic chicken motoneurons, their distribution in the developing nervous system has not been analyzed in detail so far...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912432/mitigating-motor-neuronal-loss-in-c-elegans-model-of-als8
#10
Wendy Zhang, Antonio Colavita, Johnny K Ngsee
ALS8 is a late-onset familial autosomal dominant form of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) caused by a point mutation (P56S) in the VAPB gene (VAMP associated protein isoform B). Here, we generated two C. elegans models of the disease: a transgenic model where human VAPB wild-type (WT) or P56S mutant was expressed in a subset of motor neurons, and a second model that targeted inducible knockdown of the worm's orthologue, vpr-1. Overexpression of human VAPB in DA neurons caused a backward locomotion defect, axonal misguidance, and premature neuronal death...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910305/aspirin-increases-metabolism-through-germline-signalling-to-extend-the-lifespan-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#11
Xiao-Bing Huang, Xiao-Hui Mu, Qin-Li Wan, Xiao-Ming He, Gui-Sheng Wu, Huai-Rong Luo
Aspirin is a prototypic cyclooxygenase inhibitor with a variety of beneficial effects on human health. It prevents age-related diseases and delays the aging process. Previous research has shown that aspirin might act through a dietary restriction-like mechanism to extend lifespan. To explore the mechanism of action of aspirin on aging, we determined the whole-genome expression profile of Caenorhabditis elegans treated with aspirin. Transcriptome analysis revealed the RNA levels of genes involved in metabolism were primarily increased...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910277/interplay-between-microtubule-bundling-and-sorting-factors-ensures-acentriolar-spindle-stability-during-c-elegans-oocyte-meiosis
#12
Timothy J Mullen, Sarah M Wignall
In many species, oocyte meiosis is carried out in the absence of centrioles. As a result, microtubule organization, spindle assembly, and chromosome segregation proceed by unique mechanisms. Here, we report insights into the principles underlying this specialized form of cell division, through studies of C. elegans KLP-15 and KLP-16, two highly homologous members of the kinesin-14 family of minus-end-directed kinesins. These proteins localize to the acentriolar oocyte spindle and promote microtubule bundling during spindle assembly; following klp-15/16 depletion, microtubule bundles form but then collapse into a disorganized array...
September 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905295/between-breed-variations-in-resistance-resilience-to-gastrointestinal-nematodes-among-indigenous-goat-breeds-in-uganda
#13
R B Onzima, R Mukiibi, A Ampaire, K K Benda, E Kanis
Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs), Haemonchus contortus, are a major health problem in goat production. Resistance to H. contortus, the most prevalent GIN in Uganda, was studied among three indigenous goat breeds to assess their differences. Twelve male goats of each breed approximately 7 months old of small East African (SEA), Mubende, and Kigezi goats from smallholder farmers in Arua, Mubende, and Kabale were assembled for the study. At the station, they were dewormed with a combination therapy of the broad-spectrum dewormers closantel and albendazole to free the goats of gastrointestinal parasites...
September 13, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902915/social-interactions-between-live-and-artificial-weakly-electric-fish-electrocommunication-and-locomotor-behavior-of-mormyrus-rume-proboscirostris-towards-a-mobile-dummy-fish
#14
Martin Worm, Frank Kirschbaum, Gerhard von der Emde
Mormyrid weakly electric fish produce short, pulse-type electric organ discharges for actively probing their environment and to communicate with conspecifics. Animals emit sequences of pulse-trains that vary in overall frequency and temporal patterning and can lead to time-locked interactions with the discharge activity of other individuals. Both active electrolocation and electrocommunication are additionally accompanied by stereotypical locomotor patterns. However, the concrete roles of electrical and locomotor patterns during social interactions in mormyrids are not well understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902870/reduced%C3%A2-insulin-signaling-maintains-electrical-transmission-in-a-neural-circuit-in-aging-flies
#15
Hrvoje Augustin, Kieran McGourty, Marcus J Allen, Sirisha Kudumala Madem, Jennifer Adcott, Fiona Kerr, Chi Tung Wong, Alec Vincent, Tanja Godenschwege, Emmanuel Boucrot, Linda Partridge
Lowered insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling (IIS) can extend healthy lifespan in worms, flies, and mice, but it can also have adverse effects (the "insulin paradox"). Chronic, moderately lowered IIS rescues age-related decline in neurotransmission through the Drosophila giant fiber system (GFS), a simple escape response neuronal circuit, by increasing targeting of the gap junctional protein innexin shaking-B to gap junctions (GJs). Endosomal recycling of GJs was also stimulated in cultured human cells when IIS was reduced...
September 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902487/angiostrongylus-cantonensis-agent-of-a-sometimes-fatal-globally-emerging-infectious-disease-rat-lungworm-disease
#16
Robert H Cowie
Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, is a dangerous invasive species that is the agent of a potentially fatal globally emerging infectious disease. Humans are infected most commonly by ingestion, deliberately or inadvertently, of the parasite larvae in their intermediate snail hosts. The larvae make their way to the brain where they can cause severe neurological damage before eventually dying. Symptoms of the disease are diverse, making it difficult to diagnose. Treatment is primarily with corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, while treatment with anthelmintics to kill the worms remains controversial...
September 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900448/scolicidal-agents-for-protoscolices-of-echinococcus-granulosus-hydatid-cyst-review-of-literature
#17
REVIEW
Seyedeh Maryam Sharafi, Raheleh Rafiei Sefiddashti, Behnam Sanei, Morteza Yousefi, Hossein Yousofi Darani
Hydatid cyst is the larval stage of dog tape worm Echinococcus granulosus. Protoscolices are parasite larvae that develop into adult worms in the final host intestine. During surgical treatment of human hydatidsosis spillage of live protoscolices is the major cause of hydatidosis recurrence. To prevent this problem scolicidal agent such as hypertonic salt are used to kill the protoscolices that may disseminate into the patient's tissues during surgery. However, they may have some unacceptable side effects. To find scolicidal agents with high efficacy, the effect of different compounds on protoscolices of hydatid cyst in vitro has been reviewed...
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900141/dianxianning-improved-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-pathological-characteristics-partially-through-daf-2-daf-16-insulin-like-pathway-in-transgenic-c-elegans
#18
Dejuan Zhi, Dong Wang, Wenqi Yang, Ziyun Duan, Shuqian Zhu, Juan Dong, Na Wang, Ningbo Wang, Dongqing Fei, Zhanxin Zhang, Xin Wang, Meizhu Wang, Hongyu Li
Dianxianning (DXN) is a traditional Chinese formula, and has been approved in China for treating epilepsy since 1996. Here anti-Alzheimer's disease activity of DXN has been reported. DXN improved AD-like symptoms of paralysis and 5-HT sensitivity of transgenic Aβ1-42 C. elegans. In worms, DXN significantly increased Aβ monomers and decreased the toxic Aβ oligomers, thus reducing Aβ toxicity. DXN significantly suppressed the expression of hsp-16.2 induced by juglone, and up-regulated sod-3 expression. These results indicated that DXN increased stress resistance and protected C...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898810/the-european-water-based-environmental-quality-standard-for-pentachlorophenol-is-not-protective-of-benthic-organisms
#19
Roberta Bettinetti, Annette Kopp-Schneider, Davide A L Vignati
Risk management of toxic substances is often based on Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) set for the water compartment, assuming they will also protect benthic organisms. In the absence of experimental data, EQS for sediments can be estimated by the equilibrium partitioning approach. The present study investigates whether this approach is protective of benthic organisms against pentachlorophenol (PCP), a legacy contaminant and EU priority substance still used in some parts of the world. Three freshwater species of invertebrates with different life cycles and feeding behaviors (the oligochaetes Lumbriculus variegatus, Tubifex tubifex and the dipteran insect Chironomus riparius) were exposed to PCP spiked sediments (2...
September 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898599/transcriptomic-basis-of-metamorphic-competence-in-the-salt-marsh-dwelling-polychaete-capitella-teleta
#20
Robert Burns, Jan Pechenik
Marine invertebrate larvae typically take hours to weeks after being released into the plankton before becoming "competent" to metamorphose. The mechanisms that govern this transition between the precompetent and metamorphically competent states are unknown. We studied gene expression patterns in precompetent and competent larvae of the salt-marsh-dwelling polychaete worm Capitella teleta (Blake, Grassle & Eckelbarger, 2009)-a species in which precompetent larvae are unusually easy to distinguish from competent larvae-to determine differences in gene expression associated with the onset of metamorphic competence...
June 2017: Biological Bulletin
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