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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791850/the-memory-of-environmental-chemical-exposure-in-c-elegans-is-dependent-on-the-jumonji-demethylases-jmjd-2-and-jmjd-3-utx-1
#1
Jessica Camacho, Lisa Truong, Zeyneb Kurt, Yen-Wei Chen, Marco Morselli, Gerardo Gutierrez, Matteo Pellegrini, Xia Yang, Patrick Allard
How artificial environmental cues are biologically integrated and transgenerationally inherited is still poorly understood. Here, we investigate the mechanisms of inheritance of reproductive outcomes elicited by the model environmental chemical Bisphenol A in C. elegans. We show that Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure causes the derepression of an epigenomically silenced transgene in the germline for 5 generations, regardless of ancestral response. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq), histone modification quantitation, and immunofluorescence assays revealed that this effect is associated with a reduction of the repressive marks H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 in whole worms and in germline nuclei in the F3, as well as with reproductive dysfunctions, including germline apoptosis and embryonic lethality...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789726/worm-eating-mountain-mice-showcase-evolution-in-action
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784876/chca-1-is-a-copper-regulated-ctr1-homolog-required-for-normal-development-copper-accumulation-and-copper-sensing-behavior-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#3
Sai Yuan, Anuj Kumar Sharma, Alexandria Richart, Jaekwon Lee, Byung-Eun Kim
Copper (Cu) plays key roles in catalytic and regulatory biochemical reactions essential for normal growth, development, and health. Dietary Cu deficiencies or mutations in Cu homeostasis genes can lead to abnormal musculoskeletal development, cognitive disorders, and poor growth. In yeast and mammals, Cu is acquired through the activities of the Ctr1 family of high-affinity Cu transporters. However, the mechanisms of systemic responses to dietary or tissue-specific Cu deficiency remain unclear. Here, taking advantage of the animal model Caenorhabditis elegans for studying whole-body Cu homeostasis, we investigated the role of a C...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782012/a-microfluidic-platform-for-longitudinal-imaging-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#4
Kyung Suk Lee, Erel Levine
In the last decade, microfluidic techniques have been applied to study small animals, including the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and have proved useful as a convenient live imaging platform providing capabilities for precise control of experimental conditions in real time. In this article, we demonstrate live imaging of individual worms employing WormSpa, a previously-published custom microfluidic device. In the device, multiple worms are individually confined to separate chambers, allowing multiplexed longitudinal surveillance of various biological processes...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781422/spirocerca-vulpis-sp-nov-spiruridae-spirocercidae-description-of-a-new-nematode-species-of-the-red-fox-vulpes-vulpes-carnivora-canidae
#5
Alicia Rojas, Gloria Sanchis-Monsonís, Amer Alić, Adnan Hodžić, Domenico Otranto, Daniel Yasur-Landau, Carlos Martínez-Carrasco, Gad Baneth
Previous studies have reported nematodes of the Spirocercidae family in the stomach nodules of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) described as Spirocerca sp. or Spirocerca lupi (Rudolphi, 1819). We characterized spirurid worms collected from red foxes and compared them to S. lupi from domestic dogs by morphometric and phylogenetic analyses. Nematodes from red foxes differed from S. lupi by the presence of six triangular teeth-like buccal capsule structures, which are absent in the latter. Additionally, in female worms from red foxes, the distance of the vulva opening to the anterior end and the ratio of the glandular-to-muscular oesophagus lengths were larger than those of S...
May 21, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781415/mammomonogamus-nematodes-in-felid-carnivores-a-minireview-and-the-first-molecular-characterization
#6
Barbora Červená, Kristýna Hrazdilová, Peter Vallo, Jennifer Ketzis, Pompei Bolfa, Edgar Tudor, Estevam G Lux-Hoppe, Caroline Blanvillain, David Modrý
Five of the 13 known species of Mammomonogamus have been described in members of the family Felidae, including domestic cats, making felids the most frequent hosts of Mammomonogamus. The occurrence of Mammomonogamus in felids is geographically scattered and information on the life cycle and other aspects of infections is lacking. The paucity of data opens the questions on possible conspecificity of some of the described species of Mammomonogamus and on the existence of possible reservoirs for infections in domestic cats in geographically isolated endemic foci of infection...
May 21, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779954/construction-of-fluorescent-analogs-to-follow-the-uptake-and-distribution-of-cobalamin-vitamin-b-12-in-bacteria-worms-and-plants
#7
Andrew D Lawrence, Emi Nemoto-Smith, Evelyne Deery, Joseph A Baker, Susanne Schroeder, David G Brown, Jennifer M A Tullet, Mark J Howard, Ian R Brown, Alison G Smith, Helena I Boshoff, Clifton E Barry, Martin J Warren
Vitamin B12 is made by only certain prokaryotes yet is required by a number of eukaryotes such as mammals, fish, birds, worms, and Protista, including algae. There is still much to learn about how this nutrient is trafficked across the domains of life. Herein, we describe ways to make a number of different corrin analogs with fluorescent groups attached to the main tetrapyrrole-derived ring. A further range of analogs were also constructed by attaching similar fluorescent groups to the ribose ring of cobalamin, thereby generating a range of complete and incomplete corrinoids to follow uptake in bacteria, worms, and plants...
April 28, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779499/efficacy-of-artemisinin-naphthoquine-phosphate-against-schistosoma-haematobium-adult-flukes-dose-effect-relationship-and-tegumental-alterations
#8
S N El-Beshbishi, S El Bardicy, M Tadros, M Ayoub, A Taman
Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni infections have broadly overlapping geographical distributions. Praziquantel is the only treatment for human schistosomiasis, so drug tolerance and/or resistance are major concerns. Artemisinin-naphthoquine phosphate (CO-ArNp), an artemisinin-based combination therapy endorsed by the World Health Organization as a gold standard therapy for malaria, has also been identified as a promising treatment for S. mansoni. In this in vitro study, we tested the effect of 1-40 μg/ml CO-ArNp on S...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779247/randomised-controlled-trials-define-shape-of-dose-response-for-pollinex-quattro-birch-allergoid-immunotherapy
#9
Margitta Worm, Tim Higenbottam, Oliver Pfaar, Ralph Mösges, Werner Aberer, Kulasiri Gunawardena, Dorothea Wessiepe, Denise Lee, Matthias F Kramer, Murray Skinner, Bev Lees, Stefan Zielen
BACKGROUND: The Birch Allergoid, Tyrosine Adsorbate, Monophosphoryl Lipid A (POLLINEX® Quattro Plus 1.0 ml Birch 100%) is an effective, well-tolerated short course subcutaneous immunotherapy. We performed two phase II studies to determine its optimal cumulative dose. METHODS: The studies were conducted in Germany, Austria and Poland (EudraCT numbers: 2012-004336-28 PQBirch203 and 2015-000984-15 PQBirch204) using a wide range of cumulative doses. In both studies, subjects were administered 6 therapy injections weekly outside the pollen season...
May 19, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778984/the-role-of-cuzn-and-mn-superoxide-dismutases-in-earthworm-eisenia-andrei-kept-in-two-distinct-field-contaminated-soils
#10
Radka Roubalová, Jiří Dvořák, Petra Procházková, František Škanta, Isabel Navarro Pacheco Natividad, Jaroslav Semerád, Tomáš Cajthaml, Martin Bilej
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), together with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), represent highly toxic and persistent organic environmental pollutants, especially due to their capability for bioaccumulation in fatty tissues. To observe the environmentally relevant effect of these compounds on earthworms, two soils naturally contaminated with PCDD/Fs and PAHs were used in our experiments. We focused on the role of CuZn- and Mn-superoxide dismutases. We assembled a full-length sequences of these molecules from Eisenia andrei earthworm and confirmed their activity...
May 17, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778721/worms-that-suck-phylogenetic-analysis-of-hirudinea-solidifies-the-position-of-acanthobdellida-and-necessitates-the-dissolution-of-rhynchobdellida
#11
Michael Tessler, Danielle de Carle, Madeleine L Voiklis, Olivia A Gresham, Johannes Neumann, Stanisław Cios, Mark E Siddall
Annelids possessing a posterior sucker and a fixed number of somites - most famously leeches (Hirudinida), but also crayfish worms (Branchiobdellida) and salmonid parasites (Acanthobdellida) - form a clade; however, determining the relationships between these orders has proven challenging. Here, we compile the largest molecular phylogenetic dataset yet analysed for these groups, including new sequences for key taxa. We find robust model-based support for a clade formed by Hirudinida and Acanthobdellida, contrasting the largest prior studies...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774289/high-prevalence-of-intestinal-worms-in-children-up-to-5-years-of-age-in-huaphan-province-lao-people-s-democratic-republic-pdr
#12
Naphavanh Nanthavong, Antony P Black, Phonepadith Khattignavong, Lavy Lorphachan, Keooudomphone Vilivong, Sylvie Goossens, Yves Buisson, Fabrice Quet, Claude P Muller, Satoshi Nakamura
Background: The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infection is high in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), reaching 62% among school-children. However, this prevalence presents wide regional variations, due to differences in healthcare access and environmental factors. Curiously, there are few studies on helminth infections in pre-school children - an age group targeted by the national de-worming campaign. Therefore, a preliminary study was conducted in a remote region of Huaphan Province, North Laos, to determine the prevalence of helminth infections in pre-school children...
August 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773143/sex-and-vaccination-insights-from-female-rats-vaccinated-with-juvenile-specific-proteases-from-fasciola-hepatica
#13
Agnieszka Wesołowska, Katarzyna Basałaj, Luke J Norbury, Alicja Sielicka, Halina Wędrychowicz, Anna Zawistowska-Deniziak
Most animal research is less evidence-based for females, with the majority of studies conducted on males. Since immune responses vary between males and females, sexual dimorphism in immunity contributes, among other things, to sex-based differences post-vaccination. However, the issue of sex effects in animal vaccine research is rarely considered in vaccine study design. Previously, we have evaluated the efficacy of cathepsin L3 (FhCL3-1 and FhCL3-2) and B3 proteases (FhCB3) from juvenile Fasciola hepatica as vaccines against fasciolosis in male rats...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773140/first-ocular-report-of-gurltia-paralysans-wolffh%C3%A3-gel-1933-in-cat
#14
Raquel Udiz-Rodríguez, Katherine Garcia-Livia, Maria Valladares-Salmerón, Maria Naira Dorta-Almenar, Natalia Martín-Carrillo, Aaron Martin-Alonso, Elena Izquierdo-Rodriguez, Carlos Feliu, Basilio Valladares, Pilar Foronda
A two-year-old cat from Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain), presented with two months history of uveitis in the left eye. It had been treated for two months but still showed an active uveitis. After new treatment, eye examination showed a mobile worm in the anterior chamber. Following surgical removal, the worm was obtained. Morphological study revealed that it was a male metastrongyloid nematode (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) with caudal bursa and two similar spicules. Molecular tools based on the 18Sr RNA gene sequence identified the parasite as Gurltia paralysans, which is a neurotropic nematode previously found in South America...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773130/identification-of-emu-tegp11-an-ef-hand-domain-containing-tegumental-protein-of-echinococcus-multilocularis
#15
Yadong Zheng, Xiaola Guo, Meng Su, Xiaoqian Chen, Xiaoliang Jin, Juntao Ding, Zhengrong Wang, Xinwen Bo, Mazhar Ayaz, Ivan Kutyrev, Wanzhong Jia, Xichen Zhang, Jing Zhang
Tegumental proteins (TegPs) are a group of proteins that coat on the surface of worms, mainly being involved in ion uptake and immune evasion. Echinococcus species have many TegPs, but none of them have been characterized and their role remains unclear. The genome-wide analysis revealed that there were at least 14 tegp genes (tegp1 - 14) in Echinococcus species, the majority of which were found to contain an EF-hand domain or a dynein light chain-like domain or both. Despite low identity, all TegP11 proteins from 25 flatworms were conserved in structure...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773128/time-and-dose-dependent-development-of-humoral-immune-responses-to-ascaridia-galli-in-experimentally-and-naturally-infected-chickens
#16
Gürbüz Daş, Mark Hennies, Armin Tuchscherer, Matthias Gauly
Factors affecting the development of Ascaridia galli-specific humoral responses and their protective roles are largely unknown. We investigated the effects of time and infection dose on A. galli-specific IgY antibody levels following experimental infection. The acquisition and development of new infections and reinfections were also monitored by using tracer birds. Relationships between the retrospective IgY and the final worm burden of the birds were investigated to determine whether humoral immune responses generated during infection provide protection to the host animal...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772240/identification-and-characterization-of-the-zinc-finger-protein-sjzf-in-schistosoma-japonicum
#17
Ruixiang Zhang, Jian Li, Manyu Xiang, Qinghua Hong, Bin Xu, Wei Hu
Schistosomiasis represents one of the most prevalent parasitic infections affecting over 249 million people worldwide. The pathological damage is mainly caused by the eggs laid by female schistosomes. Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) usually play critical roles in many biological functions. In this study, we cloned, identified and characterized the zinc finger protein SjZF of Schistosoma japonicum. SjZF ortholog proteins were also identified in S. mansoni, S. haematobium, Opisthorchis viverrini and O. sinensis. Fluorescence localization showed that SjZF was particularly expressed in the worm gut of both genders and the vitelline glands of females...
May 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772216/human-liver-fluke-opisthorchis-viverrini-trematoda-opisthorchiidae-in-central-myanmar-new-records-of-adults-and-metacercariae-identified-by-morphology-and-molecular-analysis
#18
Oranuch Sanpool, Win Pa Pa Aung, Rutchanee Rodpai, Wanchai Maleewong, Pewpan M Intapan
Opisthorchis-like metacercariae were found in cyprinoid fish, Puntius brevis, bought from markets in the Bago region, Central Myanmar. Adult worms recovered from experimentally-infected hamsters resembled Opisthorchis viverrini. DNA was extracted from adults and metacercariae. A portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) regions were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced. The sequences confirmed that the flukes were O...
May 14, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772005/atrophy-of-skin-draining-lymph-nodes-predisposes-for-impaired-immune-responses-to-secondary-infection-in-mice-with-chronic-intestinal-nematode-infection
#19
Xiaogang Feng, Cajsa Classon, Graciela Terán, Yunlong Yang, Lei Li, Sherwin Chan, Ulf Ribacke, Antonio Gigliotti Rothfuchs, Jonathan M Coquet, Susanne Nylén
Intestinal nematodes suppress immune responses in the context of allergy, gut inflammation, secondary infection and vaccination. Several mechanisms have been proposed for this suppression including alterations in Th2 cell differentiation and increased Treg cell suppressive function. In this study, we show that chronic nematode infection leads to reduced peripheral responses to vaccination because of a generalized reduction in the available responsive lymphocyte pool. We found that superficial skin-draining lymph nodes (LNs) in mice that are chronically infected with the intestinal nematode Heligmosomides polygyrus, do not reach the same cellularity as worm-free mice upon subsequent BCG infection in the skin...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770425/dynamic-microfluidic-nanocalorimetry-system-for-measuring-caenorhabditis-elegans-metabolic-heat
#20
Roger Krenger, Thomas Lehnert, Martin A M Gijs
Basal heat production is a key phenotype for assessing the metabolic activity of small living organisms. Here, we present a new nanocalorimetric system, based on thin film thermopile sensors combined with microfluidic chips for measuring metabolic heat signals generated by Caenorhabditis elegans larval populations (60 to 220 organisms). In addition to versatile on-chip fluidic manipulation, our microfluidic approach allows confining worm populations close to the sensor surface, thus increasing the sensitivity of the assays...
May 17, 2018: Lab on a Chip
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