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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141043/lateral-migration-of-electrospun-hydrogel-nanofilaments-in-an-oscillatory-flow
#1
Sylwia Pawłowska, Paweł Nakielski, Filippo Pierini, Izabela K Piechocka, Krzysztof Zembrzycki, Tomasz A Kowalewski
The recent progress in bioengineering has created great interest in the dynamics and manipulation of long, deformable macromolecules interacting with fluid flow. We report experimental data on the cross-flow migration, bending, and buckling of extremely deformable hydrogel nanofilaments conveyed by an oscillatory flow into a microchannel. The changes in migration velocity and filament orientation are related to the flow velocity and the filament's initial position, deformation, and length. The observed migration dynamics of hydrogel filaments qualitatively confirms the validity of the previously developed worm-like bead-chain hydrodynamic model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139484/ftir-imaging-detects-diet-and-genotype-dependent-chemical-composition-changes-in-wild-type-and-mutant-c-elegans-strains
#2
A Bouyanfif, S Liyanage, J E Hewitt, S A Vanapalli, N Moustaid-Moussa, E Hequet, N Abidi
This study focuses on the use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy to determine chemical changes induced in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by supplementation of C. elegans maintenance media (CeMM) by Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Wild-type C. elegans (N2) and mutant strains (tub-1 and fat-3) were grown in CeMM alone, and CeMM supplemented with EPA at 25 or 100 μM. Feeding was performed for 72 h. FTIR imaging was performed in transmission mode on individual worms. The FTIR imaging analysis of wild-type animals revealed the presence of vibrations assigned to unsaturated fatty acids, specifically bands at 3008 cm(-1) ([double bond, length as m-dash]C-H, olefinic stretch) and 1744 cm(-1) (C[double bond, length as m-dash]O, unsaturated fatty acids)...
November 15, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137189/microscopic-and-molecular-tracing-of-cryptosporidium-oocysts-identifying-a-possible-reservoir-of-infection-in-red-grouse
#3
David Baines, Michaela Giles, Michael Richardson
Infection by Cryptosporidiumbaileyi causes respiratory cryptosporidiosis in red grouse Lagopuslagopusscotica. First diagnosed in 2010, it has since been detected across half of moors managed for grouse shooting in northern England. We hypothesised that contaminated grouse faeces within communal trays visited by grouse containing grit coated with flubendazole, provided to control Trichostrongylustenuis parasites of grouse, is a reservoir of infection. To establish the basis to this hypothesis, contents of 23 trays from a grouse moor were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts...
November 13, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136295/genome-wide-association-study-identifies-galc-as-susceptibility-gene-for-mucous-membrane-pemphigoid
#4
C D Sadik, J Bischof, N van Beek, A Dieterich, S Benoit, M Sárdy, M Worm, S Meller, R Gläser, D Zillikens, B Homey, J Setterfield, D Minassian, E Schmidt, J Dart, S M Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) is a rare, chronic, and often aggressive subepidermal autoimmune blistering disease potentially affecting several mucous membranes with blisters and secondary erosions and scars. The pathogenesis of MMP is poorly understood, and the contribution of genetic predispositions, other than HLA class II allele variants to MMP, is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to identify susceptibility genes for MMP in a British cohort of MMP patients...
November 14, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132905/purification-and-biochemical-characterization-of-a-22-kda-stable-cysteine-like-protease-from-the-excretory-secretory-product-of-the-liver-fluke-fasciola-hepatica-by-using-conventional-techniques
#5
Ahmed Hemici, Roumaila Sabrina Benerbaiha, Dalila Bendjeddou
This study describes the purification and characterization of a stable protease activity isolated from Fasciola hepatica adult worms maintained in vitro by employing acetone precipitation (40-60%) followed by a gel filtration through Sephadex G-100 and DEAE- cellulose ion exchange column. Through this three-step purification, the enzyme was purified 11-fold with a specific activity of 1893.9U/mg and 31.5% recovery. After the final ultrafiltration step, the purification fold was increased up to 13.1 and the overall activity yield reached a rate of 18...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132718/bioturbation-effects-on-bioaccumulation-of-cadmium-in-the-wetland-plant-typha-latifolia-a-nature-based-experiment
#6
Trung Kien Hoang, Anne Probst, Didier Orange, Franck Gilbert, Arnaud Elger, Jean Kallerhoff, François Laurent, Sabina Bassil, Thi Thuy Duong, Magali Gerino
The development of efficient bioremediation techniques to reduce aquatic pollutant load in natural sediment is one of the current challenges in ecological engineering. A nature-based solution for metal bioremediation is proposed through a combination of bioturbation and phytoremediation processes in experimental indoor microcosms. The invertebrates Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta Tubificidae) was used as an active ecological engineer for bioturbation enhancement. The riparian plant species Typha latifolia was selected for its efficiency in phyto-accumulating pollutants from sediment...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132375/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-soybean-response-to-bean-pyralid-larvae
#7
Weiying Zeng, Zudong Sun, Zhaoyan Cai, Huaizhu Chen, Zhenguang Lai, Shouzhen Yang, Xiangmin Tang
BACKGROUND: Soybean is one of most important oilseed crop worldwide, however, its production is often limited by many insect pests. Bean pyralid is one of the major soybean leaf-feeding insects in China. To explore the defense mechanisms of soybean resistance to bean pyralid, the comparative transcriptome sequencing was completed between the leaves infested with bean pyralid larvae and no worm of soybean (Gantai-2-2 and Wan82-178) on the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. RESULTS: In total, we identified 1744 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the leaves of Gantai-2-2 (1064) and Wan82-178 (680) fed by bean pyralid for 48 h, compared to 0 h...
November 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132177/an-insight-on-silk-protein-sericin-from-processing-to-biomedical-application
#8
Farogh Ahsan, Tarique Mahmood Ansari, Shazia Usmani, Paramdeep Bagga
Silks are naturally occurring polymers that have been used clinically as sutures for hundreds of years. It's so for obtained from insects or worms, silk consists of a filament core protein, termed fibroin, and a glue-like coating made up of sericin proteins. An important component of silk has an extended history of being discarded as a waste in the course of silk processing. The cost of sericin for tissue engineering is underestimated and its capability in using as regenerative remedy has simply began to be explored...
November 13, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130360/autophagy-and-innate-immunity-insights-from-invertebrate-model-organisms
#9
Cheng-Ju Kuo, Malene Hansen, Emily Troemel
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a fundamental intracellular degradation process with multiple roles in immunity, including direct elimination of intracellular microorganisms via 'xenophagy.' In this review, we summarize studies from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans that highlight the roles of autophagy in innate immune responses to viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens. Research from these genetically tractable invertebrates has uncovered several conserved immunological paradigms, such as direct targeting of intracellular pathogens by xenophagy and regulation of autophagy by pattern recognition receptors in D...
November 13, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129677/upregulated-bmp6-pathway-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-a%C3%AE-toxicity-in-vivo
#10
Sun Lin, Li Wei, Yang Ping, Li Xia, Xiao Shifu
In our previous work, we demonstrated the protective effect of BMP6 on neuron against Aβ toxicity in vitro. In the present study, our aim was to determine the effects of BMP6 in Aβ toxicity in vivo. Firstly, we evaluated the levels and localization of endogenous BMP6 in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Secondly, dose-response effects of exogenous BMP6 and BMP6 pathway antagonists were tested in transgenic CL2006C. elegans (expressing Aβ3-42) lifespan and locomotor activity. We have three findings: 1) BMP6 was upregulated in the hippocampus in APP/PS1 mice...
November 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128645/kunitz-type-protease-inhibitor-as-a-vaccine-candidate-against-schistosomiasis-mansoni
#11
Shiwanthi L Ranasinghe, Mary Duke, Marina Harvie, Donald P McManus
OBJECTIVES: To develop a vaccine against schistosomiasis, which is a major challenge due to the complex life cycle of the causative schistosome parasite. METHODS: SmKI-1 is a 16kDa Kunitz type protease inhibitor present in the excretory/secretory products and tegument of adult worms and eggs of Schistosoma mansoni. Two independent vaccine trials were carried out in mice to determine the efficacy of rSmKI-1 in developing protective immunity. RESULTS: The results obtained showed reductions of 23-33% in adult worms, 28-31% in intestinal eggs, 33-39% in fecal eggs and 20-43% in liver eggs...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127616/worm-infestation-diagnosis-treatment-and-prevention
#12
REVIEW
Bhavneet Bharti, Sahul Bharti, Sumeeta Khurana
Worm infections continue to be among the most common diseases affecting children from low and middle income countries. Major worm infections of public health importance include Ascariasis, Trichuriasis, Hookworm, and Enterobiasis, which are transmitted through contaminated soil. In India, combined prevalence rates of worm infestation as per pooled data of 127 surveys is over 20%. Although most helminthic infections are mild and are often asymptomatic, but moderate to heavy worm infestations are generally associated with growth faltering, nutritional compromise, anemia and suboptimal academic performance among children from endemic regions...
November 11, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126431/successful-long-term-maintenance-of-mansonella-perstans-in-an-in-vitro-culture-system
#13
Abdel Jelil Njouendou, Manuel Ritter, Winston Patrick Chounna Ndongmo, Chi Anizette Kien, Gandjui Tchamatchoua Victor Narcisse, Fanny Fri Fombad, Dizzle Bita Tayong, Kenneth Pfarr, Laura E Layland, Achim Hoerauf, Samuel Wanji
BACKGROUND: Approximately 114 million people are infected with Mansonella perstans in large proportions of Africa. In contrast to other filariae that infect humans, M. perstans-infected individuals show no distinct pathology or specific clinical picture, indicating a well-tuned adaptation to the host. In addition, since M. perstans adult worms reside in serous cavities which are difficult to access, research has been hindered and there is a paucity of knowledge about the biology of M...
November 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126054/a-study-of-genotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress-induced-by-mercuric-chloride-in-the-marine-polychaete-perinereis-aibuhitensis
#14
Lai Jun Zhang, Yao Li, Pan Chen, Xiao Mei Li, Yong Gan Chen, Yu Yu Hang, Wei Jie Gong
The marine polychaete worm Perinereis aibuhitensis was used to study the genotoxic effects of mercuric chloride by means of the comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test. P. aibuhitensis was subjected in vivo to two different concentrations of mercuric chloride (0.05mgL(-1) and 0.5mgL(-1)) for 96h. The comet assay of coelomocytes demonstrated that TailDNA% values increased with extended exposure to or increased concentrations of HgCl2 (p<0.01). The frequency of MNs was the highest in the treatment with 96h of exposure at all concentrations (p<0...
October 28, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122387/protection-against-schistosoma-haematobium-infection-in-hamsters-by-immunization-with-schistosoma-mansoni-gut-derived-cysteine-peptidases-smcb1-and-smcl3
#15
Hatem Tallima, Marwa Abou El Dahab, Sahira Kareem, John Pius Dalton, Rashika El Ridi
We examined the immunogenicity and protective potential of SmCB1 and SmCL3 cysteine peptidases, alone and in combination, in hamsters challenged with S. haematobium. For each of two independent experiments, eight Syrian hamsters were immunized twice with a three week-interval with 0 (controls), 20 µg SmCB1, 20 µg SmCL3, or 10 µg SmCB1 plus 10 µg SmCL3, and then percutaneously exposed eight weeks later to 100 S. haematobium cercariae. Hamsters from each group were assessed for humoral and whole blood culture cytokine responses on day 10 post challenge infection, and examined for parasitological parameters 12 weeks post infection...
November 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121987/sequence-analysis-and-characterization-of-pyruvate-kinase-from-clonorchis-sinensis-a-53-1-kda-homopentamer-implicated-immune-protective-efficacy-against-clonorchiasis
#16
Tingjin Chen, Hongye Jiang, Hengchang Sun, Zhizhi Xie, Pengli Ren, Lu Zhao, Huimin Dong, Mengchen Shi, Zhiyue Lv, Zhongdao Wu, Xuerong Li, Xinbing Yu, Yan Huang, Jin Xu
BACKGROUND: Clonorchis sinensis, the causative agent of clonorchiasis, is classified as one of the most neglected tropical diseases and affects more than 15 million people globally. This hepatobiliary disease is highly associated with cholangiocarcinoma. As key molecules in the infectivity and subsistence of trematodes, glycolytic enzymes have been targets for drug and vaccine development. Clonorchis sinensis pyruvate kinase (CsPK), a crucial glycolytic enzyme, was characterized in this research...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121176/breaking-the-ceiling-of-human-maximal-lifespan
#17
Moshe Shay Ben-Haim, Yariv Kanfi, Sarah J Mitchel, Noam Maoz, Kelli Vaughan, Ninette Amariglio, Batia Lerrer, Rafael de Cabo, Gideon Rechavi, Haim Y Cohen
While average human life expectancy has increased dramatically in the last century, the maximum lifespan has only modestly increased. These observations prompted the notion that human lifespan might have reached its maximal natural limit of ~115 years. To evaluate this hypothesis, we conducted a systematic analysis of all-cause human mortality throughout the 20 th century. Our analyses revealed that, once cause of death is accounted for, there is a proportional increase in both median age of death and maximum lifespan...
November 7, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120747/pla2g1b-places-worms-in-peril
#18
Mark Palma, Darine W El-Naccache, William C Gause
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120477/droplet-array-for-screening-acute-behaviour-response-to-chemicals-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#19
G Aubry, H Lu
Caenorhabditis elegans is an excellent model organism for studying chemosensation as a significant part of its nervous system and genome are devoted to the detection of chemical cues. Studies of decision-making, learning, mating behaviour, and intraspecies communication require measuring the acute behavioural response to chemical stimulation. Such assays require precise and repeatable chemical delivery and are often arduous when performed manually. Microfluidic platforms have been developed for chemosensation studies in C...
November 9, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120414/genetic-variation-in-glia-neuron-signalling-modulates-ageing-rate
#20
Jiang-An Yin, Ge Gao, Xi-Juan Liu, Zi-Qian Hao, Kai Li, Xin-Lei Kang, Hong Li, Yuan-Hong Shan, Wen-Li Hu, Hai-Peng Li, Shi-Qing Cai
The rate of behavioural decline in the ageing population is remarkably variable among individuals. Despite the considerable interest in studying natural variation in ageing rate to identify factors that control healthy ageing, no such factor has yet been found. Here we report a genetic basis for variation in ageing rates in Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that C. elegans isolates show diverse lifespan and age-related declines in virility, pharyngeal pumping, and locomotion. DNA polymorphisms in a novel peptide-coding gene, named regulatory-gene-for-behavioural-ageing-1 (rgba-1), and the neuropeptide receptor gene npr-28 influence the rate of age-related decline of worm mating behaviour; these two genes might have been subjected to recent selective sweeps...
November 8, 2017: Nature
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