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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353011/genetic-diversity-and-phylogenetic-relations-of-salmon-trematode-nanophyetus-japonensis
#1
Anastasia Voronova, Galina N Chelomina
Nanophyetiasis is the severe zoonotic disease caused by parasitic worms from the genus Nanophyetus. Humans and carnivorous animals become infected when they ingest raw fish containing metacercariae, especially Pacific salmonids. Nanophyetiasis is detected in limited geographical areas which include the coastal regions of the North Pacific: the United States of America, Russian Federation and Japan. Despite the epidemiological significance, Nanophyetus species have not been well studied genetically. In this research, we for the first time explored genetic diversity of Nanophyetus japonensis from Japan in comparison with those of related species, N...
January 15, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351649/sex-dependent-interactions-between-leptin-wasting-and-humoral-immunity-in-two-ethnic-communities-of-school-aged-children-differentially-exposed-to-schistosoma-haematobium
#2
Emmanuel Hermann, Lobna Gaayeb, Papa S Sow, Modou Seck, Andre B Sagna, Simon Senghor, Lydie Bandagny, Clement Brinkhuizen, Delphine Delcroix-Genete, Anne-Marie Schacht, Gilles Riveau
Background: Leptin is a nutritional hormone whose production is generally higher in females. We investigated how leptin is associated with sex dimorphism during urinary schistosomiasis in relation with wasting. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in three villages in northern Senegal. Ninety-eight school-aged children belonging to the Fulani or Wolof villages were enrolled. We performed parasitic diagnosis and anthropometric measurement to evaluate nutritional status...
January 17, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351392/young-mice-expel-the-tapeworm-hymenolepis-diminuta-and-are-protected-from-colitis-by-triggering-a-memory-response-with-worm-antigen
#3
Toshio Arai, Fernando Lopes, Adam Shute, Arthur Wang, Derek M McKay
Infection with helminth parasites reduces the severity of concomitant inflammatory disease in adult mice. There is an alarming increase of IBD in children. It is important to determine if helminth therapy would be of value in pediatric IBD, and if triggering immunological memory to the worm would be anti-colitic. Three-week (young) and eight-week (adult) old Balb/c mice were infected with H. diminuta, and infectivity and T helper (TH)-2 immunity assessed. Other mice received H. diminuta {plus minus} a crude worm extract (HdE) 28-42 days post-infection (dpi) {plus minus} dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS; 1...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351090/parasitic-infections-of-the-skin-and-subcutaneous-tissues
#4
Andrew P Norgan, Bobbi S Pritt
A variety of arthropods, protozoa, and helminths infect the skin and subcutaneous tissues and may be identified by anatomic pathologists in standard cytology and histology preparations. The specific organisms seen vary greatly with the patient's exposure history, including travel to or residence in endemic countries. Arthropods are the most commonly encountered parasites in the skin and subcutaneous tissues and include Sarcoptes scabei, Demodex species, Tunga penetrans, and myiasis-causing fly larvae. Protozoal parasites such as Leishmania may also be common in some settings...
January 18, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351080/ultrastructure-of-digenean-trematode-eggs-platyhelminthes-neoophora-a-review-emphasizing-new-comparative-data-on-four-european-microphalloidea
#5
David Bruce Conn, Zdzisław Świderski, Jordi Miquel
Despite their tremendous diversity and their medical and veterinary importance, details of egg ultrastructure among the digenean trematodes has been studied rather little. The available literature is spread over several decades and several species, but has not been adequately reviewed to reveal patterns of similarity and divergence. We present this review to synthesize and analyse what is known from the available literature reporting studies using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351077/molecular-and-morphological-characterisation-of-rhabdias-picardiae-junker-lhermitte-vallarino-et-bain-2010-nematoda-rhabdiasidae-from-delaland-s-river-frog-amietia-delalandii-dum%C3%A3-ril-et-bibron-1841-amphibia-pyxicephalidae-in-south-africa
#6
Roman Svitin, Yuriy Kuzmin, Louis du Preez
Rhabdias picardiae previously known from the Guttural Toad, Sclerophrys gutturalis (Bufonidae) is described from a new host, Delaland's River Frog, Amietia delalandii (Pyxicephalidae). The species identification is confirmed by analysis of the COI gene sequence and morphological comparison with the original description. Morphological details of apical structures in adult parasitic R. picardiae, namely, the shape and position of lips, the number and position of external labial papillae, and the buccal capsule morphology are described using light and scanning electron microscopy...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351071/a-frequent-roundworm-baylisascaris-transfuga-in-overpopulated-brown-bears-ursus-arctos-in-slovakia-a-problem-worthy-of-attention
#7
Gabriela Štrkolcová, Mária Goldová, Viliam Šnábel, Marta Špakulová, Tatiana Orosová, Miloš Halán, Jana Mojžišová
The genus Baylisascaris (order Ascaridida) includes numerous relatively host-specific nematodes, which are common in intestines of wild mammals. Some of them may have impact on veterinary and public health, as their larvae have the potential to cause visceral, ocular, and/or neural larva migrans in a wide range of mammals, birds, and humans. Baylisascaris transfuga is a parasite occurring in a range of bear species throughout the world. We present the current data on B. transfuga occurrence in brown bears from a relatively restricted territory of the Poľana Protected Landscape Area in Central Slovakia, obtained by traditional methods (faecal examination, morphology)...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349444/non-invasive-force-measurement-reveals-the-number-of-active-kinesins-on-a-synaptic-vesicle-precursor-in-axonal-transport-regulated-by-arl-8
#8
Kumiko Hayashi, Shin Hasegawa, Takashi Sagawa, Sohei Tasaki, Shinsuke Niwa
Kinesin superfamily protein UNC-104, a member of the kinesin-3 family, transports synaptic vesicle precursors (SVPs). In this study, the number of active UNC-104 molecules hauling a single SVP in axons in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans was counted by applying a newly developed non-invasive force measurement technique. The distribution of the force acting on a SVP transported by UNC-104 was spread out over several clusters, implying the presence of several force-producing units (FPUs). We then compared the number of FPUs in the wild-type worms with that in arl-8 gene-deletion mutant worms...
January 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348603/comprehensive-list-of-sumo-targets-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-its-implication-for-evolutionary-conservation-of-sumo-signaling
#9
Krzysztof Drabikowski, Jacqueline Ferralli, Michal Kistowski, Jacek Oledzki, Michal Dadlez, Ruth Chiquet-Ehrismann
Post-translational modification by small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is a key regulator of cell physiology, modulating protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. Recently, SUMO modifications were postulated to be involved in response to various stress stimuli. We aimed to identify the near complete set of proteins modified by SUMO and the dynamics of the modification in stress conditions in the higher eukaryote, Caenorhabditis elegans. We identified 874 proteins modified by SUMO in the worm. We have analyzed the SUMO modification in stress conditions including heat shock, DNA damage, arsenite induced cellular stress, ER and osmotic stress...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348098/safety-of-fenbendazole-in-common-peafowl-pavo-cristatus
#10
Sajid Umar, Seema Abbas, Muhammad Irfan Khan, Qamarun Nisa, Muhammad Younus, Kiran Aqil, Rizwan Qayyum, Muhammad Yaqoob, Asif Ali, Muhammad Asif Yaseen, Muhammad Ali Shah
The present study was undertaken to find out the safety levels of fenbendazole in common peafowl. This bird, raised on aviaries and zoos, can be severely parasitized with Ascaridia galli (enteric worms) and Syngamus trachea (gapeworm) along with other parasitic worms. Fenbendazole is a highly effective benzimidazole-class anthelmintic in animals. The objective of this work was to provide target animal safety data in young peafowl and to demonstrate reproductive safety in adult birds. During the experimental study, diets containing fenbendazole at 0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm were fed for 21 days (three times the normal treatment duration)...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348075/benzalkonium-chloride-benzethonium-chloride-and-chloroxylenol-three-replacement-antimicrobials-are-more-toxic-than-triclosan-and-triclocarban-in-two-model-organisms
#11
Virinchipuram S Sreevidya, Kade A Lenz, Kurt R Svoboda, Hongbo Ma
With the recent ban of triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) from some personal care products, many replacement antimicrobial compounds have been used. Yet the potential health risk and environmental impact of these replacement compounds are largely unknown. Here we investigated the toxicological effects of three commonly used replacement antimicrobials, benzalkonium chloride (BAC), benzethonium chloride (BEC), and chloroxylenol (CX) to two model organisms, the nematode C. elegans and zebrafish (Danio rerio), and compared them to the banned TCS and TCC...
January 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346747/sensorimotor-integration-for-decision-making-how-the-worm-steers
#12
Harris S Kaplan, Manuel Zimmer
Animals' movements actively shape their perception and subsequent decision making. In this issue of Neuron, Liu et al. (2018) show how C. elegans nematodes steer toward an odorant: a dedicated interneuron class integrates oscillatory olfactory signals, generated by head swings, with corollary discharge motor signals.
January 17, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346705/effect-of-dys-1-mutation-on-gene-expression-profile-in-space-flown-c-elegans
#13
Dan Xu, Ying Gao, Lin Guo, Chenggang Lin, Yeqing Sun
INTRODUCTION: Dystrophin-like dys-1 gene expression increases in the body-wall muscles of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) after spaceflight. Here, we utilized a dys-1(cx18) mutant to analyze the molecular adaptive responses of C. elegans to spaceflight. METHODS: DNA microarrays were performed to identify differentially expressed genes between wild-type and dys-1 mutant worms after spaceflight. We performed Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses, predicted human diseases and screened out key genes for human muscle diseases with NextBio...
January 18, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346383/seasonally-timed-treatment-programs-for-ascaris-lumbricoides-to-increase-impact-an-investigation-using-mathematical-models
#14
Emma L Davis, Leon Danon, Joaquín M Prada, Sharmini A Gunawardena, James E Truscott, Johnny Vlaminck, Roy M Anderson, Bruno Levecke, Eric R Morgan, T Deirdre Hollingsworth
There is clear empirical evidence that environmental conditions can influence Ascaris spp. free-living stage development and host reinfection, but the impact of these differences on human infections, and interventions to control them, is variable. A new model framework reflecting four key stages of the A. lumbricoides life cycle, incorporating the effects of rainfall and temperature, is used to describe the level of infection in the human population alongside the environmental egg dynamics. Using data from South Korea and Nigeria, we conclude that settings with extreme fluctuations in rainfall or temperature could exhibit strong seasonal transmission patterns that may be partially masked by the longevity of A...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345618/necaps-are-negative-regulators-of-the-ap2-clathrin-adaptor-complex
#15
Gwendolyn M Beacham, Edward A Partlow, Jeffrey J Lange, Gunther Hollopeter
Eukaryotic cells internalize transmembrane receptors via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, but it remains unclear how the machinery underpinning this process is regulated. We recently discovered that membrane-associated muniscin proteins such as FCHo and SGIP initiate endocytosis by converting the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex to an open, active conformation that is then phosphorylated (Hollopeter et al., 2014). Here we report that loss of ncap-1, the sole C. elegans gene encoding an adaptiN Ear-binding Coat-Associated Protein (NECAP), bypasses the requirement for FCHO-1...
January 18, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343694/sertraline-paroxetine-and-chlorpromazine-are-rapidly-acting-anthelmintic-drugs-capable-of-clinical-repurposing
#16
Janis C Weeks, William M Roberts, Caitlyn Leasure, Brian M Suzuki, Kristin J Robinson, Heather Currey, Phurpa Wangchuk, Ramon M Eichenberger, Aleen D Saxton, Thomas D Bird, Brian C Kraemer, Alex Loukas, John M Hawdon, Conor R Caffrey, Nicole F Liachko
Parasitic helminths infect over 1 billion people worldwide, while current treatments rely on a limited arsenal of drugs. To expedite drug discovery, we screened a small-molecule library of compounds with histories of use in human clinical trials for anthelmintic activity against the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. From this screen, we found that the neuromodulatory drugs sertraline, paroxetine, and chlorpromazine kill C. elegans at multiple life stages including embryos, developing larvae and gravid adults...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341305/plasmid-templated-control-of-dna-cyclodextrin-nanoparticle-morphology-through-molecular-vector-design-for-effective-gene-delivery
#17
Laura Gallego-Yerga, Juan M Benito, Laura Blanco-Fernández, María Martínez-Negro, Itziar Vélaz, Emilio Aicart, Elena Junquera, Carmen Ortiz Mellet, Conchita Tros de Ilarduya, Jose M Garcia Fernandez
Engineering self-assembled superstructures through complexation of plasmid DNA (pDNA) and single-isomer nanometric size macromolecules (molecular nanoparticles) is a promising strategy for gene delivery. Notably, the functionality and overall architecture of the vector can be precisely moulded at the atomic level by chemical tailoring, enabling unprecedented opportunities for structure/self-assembling/pDNA delivery relationship studies. Beyond this notion, by judiciously preorganizing the functional elements in cyclodextrin (CD)-based molecular nanoparticles through covalent dimerization, here we demonstrate that the morphology of the resulting nanocomplexes (CDplexes) can be tuned, from spherical to ellipsoidal, rod-type or worm-like nanoparticles, which makes it possible to gain understanding of their shape-dependent transfection properties...
January 17, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340386/on-chip-functional-neuroimaging-with-mechanical-stimulation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-larvae-for-studying-development-and-neural-circuits
#18
Yongmin Cho, David N Oakland, Sol Ah Lee, William R Schafer, Hang Lu
Mechanosensation is fundamentally important for the abilities of an organism to experience touch, hear sounds, and maintain balance. Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful system for studying mechanosensation as this worm is well suited for in vivo functional imaging of neurons. Many years of research using labor-intensive methods have generated a wealth of knowledge about mechanosensation in C. elegans, and the recent microfluidic-based platforms continue to push the boundary for this field. However, developmental aspects of sensory biology, including mechanosensation, are still not fully understood...
January 17, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339359/genetic-variants-in-immune-related-pathways-and-breast-cancer-risk-in-african-american-women-in-the-amber-consortium
#19
Chi-Chen Hong, Lara E Sucheston-Campbell, Song Liu, Qiang Hu, Song Yao, Kathryn L Lunetta, Stephen A Haddad, Edward A Ruiz-Narváez, Jeannette T Bensen, Ting-Yuan David Cheng, Elisa V Bandera, Lynn A Rosenberg, Christopher A Haiman, Kelvin P Lee, Sharon S Evans, Scott I Abrams, Elizabeth A Repasky, Andrew F Olshan, Julie R Palmer, Christine B Ambrosone
BACKGROUND: Constitutional immunity shaped by exposure to endemic infectious diseases and parasitic worms in Sub-Saharan Africa may play a role in the etiology of breast cancer among African American (AA) women. METHODS: A total of 13,235 gene variants in 433 genes across 45 immune pathways were analyzed in the AMBER consortium among 3,663 breast cancer cases and 4,687 controls. Gene-based pathway analyses were conducted using the adaptive rank truncated product statistic for overall breast cancer risk, and risk by estrogen receptor (ER) status...
January 16, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338709/wormachine-machine-learning-based-phenotypic-analysis-tool-for-worms
#20
Adam Hakim, Yael Mor, Itai Antoine Toker, Amir Levine, Moran Neuhof, Yishai Markovitz, Oded Rechavi
BACKGROUND: Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes are powerful model organisms, yet quantification of visible phenotypes is still often labor-intensive, biased, and error-prone. We developed WorMachine, a three-step MATLAB-based image analysis software that allows (1) automated identification of C. elegans worms, (2) extraction of morphological features and quantification of fluorescent signals, and (3) machine learning techniques for high-level analysis. RESULTS: We examined the power of WorMachine using five separate representative assays: supervised classification of binary-sex phenotype, scoring continuous-sexual phenotypes, quantifying the effects of two different RNA interference treatments, and measuring intracellular protein aggregation...
January 16, 2018: BMC Biology
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