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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230214/antioxidant-response-is-a-protective-mechanism-against-nutrient-deprivation-in-c-elegans
#1
Jun Tao, Qin-Yi Wu, Yi-Cheng Ma, Yuan-Li Chen, Cheng-Gang Zou
Animals often experience periods of nutrient deprivation; however, the molecular mechanisms by which animals survive starvation remain largely unknown. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the nuclear receptor DAF-12 acts as a dietary and environmental sensor to orchestrate diverse aspects of development, metabolism, and reproduction. Recently, we have reported that DAF-12 together with co-repressor DIN-1S is required for starvation tolerance by promoting fat mobilization. In this report, we found that genetic inactivation of the DAF-12 signaling promoted the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during starvation...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229043/detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-the-mosquito-borne-filarial-nematode-setaria-tundra-in-danish-roe-deer-capreolus-capreolus
#2
Heidi Larsen Enemark, Antti Oksanen, Mariann Chriél, Jakob le Fèvre Harslund, Ian David Woolsey, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman Al-Sabi
Setaria tundra is a mosquito-borne filarial nematode of cervids in Europe. It has recently been associated with an emerging epidemic disease causing severe morbidity and mortality in reindeer and moose in Finland. Here, we present the first report of S. tundra in six roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) collected between October 2010 and March 2014 in Denmark. The deer originated from various localities across the country: the eastern part of the Jutland peninsular and four locations on the island Zealand. With the exception of one deer, with parasites residing in a transparent cyst just under the liver capsule, worms (ranging from 2 to >20/deer) were found free in the peritoneal cavity...
April 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228846/decoupling-the-downstream-effects-of-germline-nuclear-rnai-reveals-that-h3k9me3-is-dispensable-for-heritable-rnai-and-the-maintenance-of-endogenous-sirna-mediated-transcriptional-silencing-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#3
Natallia Kalinava, Julie Zhouli Ni, Kimberly Peterman, Esteban Chen, Sam Guoping Gu
BACKGROUND: Germline nuclear RNAi in C. elegans is a transgenerational gene-silencing pathway that leads to H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) and transcriptional silencing at the target genes. H3K9me3 induced by either exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or endogenous siRNA (endo-siRNA) is highly specific to the target loci and transgenerationally heritable. Despite these features, the role of H3K9me3 in siRNA-mediated transcriptional silencing and inheritance of the silencing state at native target genes is unclear...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228583/food-responsiveness-regulates-episodic-behavioral-states-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#4
Richard J McCloskey, Anthony D Fouad, Matthew A Churgin, Christopher Fang-Yen
Animals optimize survival and reproduction in part through control of behavioral states, which depend on the organism's internal and external environments. In the nematode C. elegans, a variety of behavioral states have been described, including roaming, dwelling, quiescence, and episodic swimming. These states have been considered in isolation, under varied experimental conditions, making it difficult to establish a unified picture of how they are regulated. Using long-term imaging, we examined C. elegans episodic behavioral states under varied mechanical and nutritional environments...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226209/production-of-high-performance-bioinspired-silk-fibers-by-straining-flow-spinning
#5
Rodrigo Madurga, Alfonso M Ganan-Calvo, Gustavo Ramón Plaza, Gustavo V Guinea, Manuel Elices, José Pérez-Rigueiro
In the last years there has been an increasing interest on bioinspired approaches for different applications, including the spinning of high performance silk fibers. Bioinspired spinning is based on the natural spinning system of spiders and worms and requires combining changes in the chemical environment of the proteins with the application of mechanical stresses. Here we present the novel Straining Flow Spinning (SFS) process and prove its ability to produce high performance fibers under mild, environmentally friendly conditions, from aqueous protein dopes...
February 22, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224374/mri-findings-of-knee-abnormalities-in-adolescent-and-adult-volleyball-players
#6
Heide Boeth, Aoife MacMahon, Felix Eckstein, Gerd Diederichs, Arne Schlausch, Wolfgang Wirth, Georg N Duda
BACKGROUND: To longitudinally and cross-sectionally evaluate knee abnormalities by sex and age in adolescent and adult volleyball athletes over 2 years using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Thirty-six high-level volleyball athletes (18 adolescents: 56% female, mean age 16.0 ± 0.8 years; and 18 adults: 50% female, mean age 46.8 ± 5.1 years) were imaged by MRI at BL and at 2-year follow-up (FU). Prevalence and severity of cartilage lesions, subarticular bone marrow lesions (BMLs), subarticular cysts, osteophytes, and ligament and meniscus integrity were evaluated by sex and by age cohort (adolescents and adults) using the whole-organ MRI score (WORMS)...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224177/joint-toxicity-of-arsenic-copper-and-glyphosate-on-behavior-reproduction-and-heat-shock-protein-response-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Yunbiao Wang, Anastasia N Ezemaduka, Zhuheng Li, Zhanyan Chen, Chuantao Song
The soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was used in 24-h acute exposures to arsenic (As), copper (Cu) and glyphosate (GPS) and to mixtures of As/Cu and As/GPS to investigate the effects of mixture exposures in the worms. A synergistic type of interaction was observed for acute toxicity with the As/Cu and As/GPS mixtures. Sublethal 24-h exposures of 1/1000, 1/100 and 1/10 of the LC50 concentrations for As, Cu and GPS individually and for As/Cu and As/GPS mixtures were conducted to observe responses in locomotory behavior (head thrashing), reproduction, and heat shock protein expression...
February 21, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224157/smart-worm-like-micelles-responsive-to-co2-n2-and-light-dual-stimuli
#8
Jianzhong Jiang, Guozheng Wang, Yuxuan Ma, Zhenggang Cui, Bernard P Binks
CO2/N2 and light dual stimuli-responsive worm-like micelles (WLMs) were obtained by addition of a relatively small amount of a switchable surfactant, 4-butyl-4'-(4-N,N-dimethylhexyloxy-amine) azobenzene bicarbonate (AZO-B6-CO2), sensitive to the same triggers to a binary aqueous solution of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium salicylate (NaSal).
February 22, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222680/field-evaluation-of-a-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-schistosoma-japonicum-infection-in-hunan-province-of-china
#9
Weiwei Xing, Xinling Yu, Jingtao Feng, Kui Sun, Wenliang Fu, Yuanyuan Wang, Minji Zou, Wenrong Xia, Zhihong Luo, Hongbin He, Yuesheng Li, Donggang Xu
BACKGROUND: Current diagnostic methods for Schistosoma japonicum infection are insensitive for low-density infections. Therefore, a new diagnostic assay based on recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) technology was established and assessed for field applification. METHODS: The S.japonicum RPA assay was developed to target highly repetitive retrotransposon SjR2 gene of S japonicum, and its sensitivity and specificity were assessed by serial dilution of S. japonicum genomic DNA and other related worm genomic DNA respectively...
February 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221832/what-explains-patterns-of-diversification-and-richness-among-animal-phyla
#10
Tereza Jezkova, John J Wiens
Animal phyla vary dramatically in species richness (from one species to >1.2 million), but the causes of this variation remain largely unknown. Animals have also evolved striking variation in morphology and ecology, including sessile marine taxa lacking heads, eyes, limbs, and complex organs (e.g., sponges), parasitic worms (e.g., nematodes, platyhelminths), and taxa with eyes, skeletons, limbs, and complex organs that dominate terrestrial ecosystems (arthropods, chordates). Relating this remarkable variation in traits to the diversification and richness of animal phyla is a fundamental yet unresolved problem in biology...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221003/trends-in-high-throughput-and-functional-neuroimaging-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#11
REVIEW
Yongmin Cho, Charles L Zhao, Hang Lu
The nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model system for understanding the development and function of larger, more complex nervous systems. It is prized for its ease of handling, rapid life cycle, and stereotyped, well-cataloged development, with the development of all 302 neurons mapped all the way from zygote to adult. The combination of easy genetic manipulation and optical transparency of the worm allows for the direct imaging of its interior with fluorescent microscopy, without physically compromising the normal physiology of the animal itself...
February 21, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220886/earth-s-oldest-bobbit-worm-gigantism-in-a-devonian-eunicidan-polychaete
#12
Mats E Eriksson, Luke A Parry, David M Rudkin
Whilst the fossil record of polychaete worms extends to the early Cambrian, much data on this group derive from microfossils known as scolecodonts. These are sclerotized jaw elements, which generally range from 0.1-2 mm in size, and which, in contrast to the soft-body anatomy, have good preservation potential and a continuous fossil record. Here we describe a new eunicidan polychaete, Websteroprion armstrongi gen. et sp. nov., based primarily on monospecific bedding plane assemblages from the Lower-Middle Devonian Kwataboahegan Formation of Ontario, Canada...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220336/micrornas-in-model-and-complex-organisms
#13
EDITORIAL
Hikmet Budak, Baohong Zhang
Non-coding RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs) are very tiny ribonucleotides having an essential role in gene regulation at both post-transcriptional and translational levels. They are very conserved and expressed in worms, flies, plants, and mammals in a sequence-specific manner. Furthermore, it is now possible to clone miRNAs using the new genome editing tool CRISPR/cas9, which shows benefit in control of untargeted effect. In this special issue, we tried to cover researches associated with functional roles of miRNAs accross model and complex organisms...
February 20, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219625/a-novel-%C3%AE-conotoxin-from-worm-hunting-conus-tessulatus-that-selectively-inhibit-rat-ttx-resistant-sodium-currents
#14
Manyi Yang, Shuang Zhao, Xiaoli Min, Meiying Shao, Yongheng Chen, Zhuchu Chen, Maojun Zhou
μ-conotoxins are a group of marine Conus peptides that inhibit sodium currents, so μ-conotoxins are valuable in sodium channel research and new analgesic drug discovery. Here, a novel μ-conotoxin TsIIIA was identified from a worm-hunting Conus tessulatus. TsIIIA was chemical synthesized according to its amino acid sequence GCCRWPCPSRCGMARCCSS and identified by mass spectrum. Patch clamp on rat dorsal root ganglion cells showed that 10 μM TsIIIA specifically inhibit TTX-resistant sodium currents but has no effect on TTX-sensitive sodium currents...
February 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219418/new-insights-on-serodiagnosis-of-trichinellosis-during-window-period-early-diagnostic-antigens-from-trichinella-spiralis-intestinal-worms
#15
Zhong-Quan Wang, Ya-Li Shi, Rou-Dan Liu, Peng Jiang, Ya-Yi Guan, Ying-Dan Chen, Jing Cui
The clinical diagnosis of trichinellosis is difficult because its clinical manifestations are nonspecific. Detection of anti-Trichinella IgG by ELISA using T. spiralis muscle larval excretory-secretory (ES) antigens is the most commonly used serological method for diagnosis of trichinellosis, but the main disadvantage is false negativity during the early stage of infection. There is an obvious window period between Trichinella infection and antibody positivity.During the intestinal stage of Trichinella infection, the ES antigens of intestinal worms (intestinal infective larvae and adults) are exposed to host's immune system at the earliest time and elicit the production of specific anti-Trichinella antibodies...
February 20, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219407/development-of-dirofilaria-immitis-and-dirofilaria-repens-in-aedes-japonicus-and-aedes-geniculatus
#16
Cornelia Silaghi, Relja Beck, Gioia Capelli, Fabrizio Montarsi, Alexander Mathis
BACKGROUND: The mosquito-borne filarial nematodes Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens primarily affect dogs but also cats, causing heartworm disease or subcutaneous dirofilariosis, respectively, and both may also cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Several mosquito species have been reported as competent vectors for these nematodes, but no data are available for the invasive mosquito species Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The objective of this study was to describe the development of both D...
February 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219062/the-impact-on-allergy-related-cells-of-a-birch-pollen-allergoid-with-and-without-monophosphoryl-lipid-a-in-comparison-with-the-native-equivalent
#17
Margitta Worm, Dennis Ernst, Markus Kraller, Magda Babina
BACKGROUND: The clinical efficacy and safety of allergoid immunotherapy have been demonstrated in clinical trials. However, simultaneous monitoring of the immunological changes by allergoids versus allergens in the cells of the same individual has not been extensively performed, and the impact of concurrent Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligation has not been specified. METHODS: Three types of birch allergen were utilized: glutaraldehyde-treated allergoid (extract A), the same allergoid plus monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), i...
February 21, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216792/effect-of-monomer-solubility-on-the-evolution-of-copolymer-morphology-during-polymerization-induced-self-assembly-in-aqueous-solution
#18
Amy A Cockram, Thomas J Neal, Matthew J Derry, Oleksandr O Mykhaylyk, Neal S J Williams, Martin W Murray, Simon N Emmett, Steven P Armes
Polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) has become a widely used technique for the rational design of diblock copolymer nano-objects in concentrated aqueous solution. Depending on the specific PISA formulation, reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) aqueous dispersion polymerization typically provides straightforward access to either spheres, worms, or vesicles. In contrast, RAFT aqueous emulsion polymerization formulations often lead to just kinetically-trapped spheres. This limitation is currently not understood, and only a few empirical exceptions have been reported in the literature...
February 14, 2017: Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215939/live-imaging-analysis-of-germ-cell-proliferation-in-the-c-elegans-adult-supports-a-stochastic-model-for-stem-cell-proliferation
#19
Simona Rosu, Orna Cohen-Fix
The C. elegans adult hermaphrodite contains a renewable pool of mitotically dividing germ cells that are contained within the progenitor zone (PZ), at the distal region of the germline. From the PZ, cells enter meiosis and differentiate, ensuring the continued production of oocytes. In this study, we investigated the proliferation strategy used to maintain the PZ pool by using a photoconvertible marker to follow the fate of selected germ cells and their descendants in live worms. We found that the most distal pool of 6-8 rows of cells in the PZ (the distal third) behave similarly, with a fold expansion corresponding to one cell division every 6h on average...
February 17, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215876/in-vitro-lectin-binding-to-the-outer-surface-of-spirocerca-lupi-at-different-life-stages
#20
I Aroch, I Arogeti, A Marcovics, Y Spiegel, E Lavy
Spirocerca lupi is the esophageal nematode of dogs. Early, transient eosinophilia occurs in experimentally infected dogs, but is absent in advanced cases, suggesting that the nematode evades the dog's immune system. Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins of plant or animal origin, binding different saccharides, with varying specificities and avidities, used to characterize surface haptens in plant and animal parasitic helminths. This study investigated the in vitro binding of six lectins (Concanavalin A [ConA], wheat germ agglutinin [WGA], peanut agglutinin [PNA], soybean agglutinin [SBA], Dolichus biflorus agglutinin [DBA] and Ulex earopaeus agglutinin I [UEA]) to the surface of S...
February 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
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