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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742146/immunomodulatory-effects-of-excretory-secretory-compounds-from-contracaecum-osculatum-larvae-in-a-zebrafish-inflammation-model
#1
Foojan Mehrdana, Per Walter Kania, Sasan Nazemi, Kurt Buchmann
Excretory/secretory (ES) compounds isolated from third-stage larvae of the anisakid nematode Contracaecum osculatum parasitizing liver of Baltic cod were investigated for effects on immune gene expression in a zebrafish LPS-induced inflammation model. ES products containing a series of proteins, of which some had enzymatic activity, were injected solely or with LPS. ES proteins alone induced up-regulation of a number of immune-related genes, but generally to a lower degree compared to LPS. When co-injected with LPS, the worm products exacerbated merely expression of five genes affecting Th1, Th2, Th17 and innate responses compared to the LPS-injected group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742107/analyzing-the-locomotory-gaitprint-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-on-the-basis-of-empirical-mode-decomposition
#2
Li-Chun Lin, Han-Sheng Chuang
The locomotory gait analysis of the microswimmer, Caenorhabditis elegans, is a commonly adopted approach for strain recognition and examination of phenotypic defects. Gait is also a visible behavioral expression of worms under external stimuli. This study developed an adaptive data analysis method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to reveal the biological cues behind intricate motion. The method was used to classify the strains of worms according to their gaitprints (i.e., phenotypic traits of locomotion)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740757/using-electroretinograms-and-multi-model-inference-to-identify-spectral-classes-of-photoreceptors-and-relative-opsin-expression-levels
#3
Nicolas Lessios
Understanding how individual photoreceptor cells factor in the spectral sensitivity of a visual system is essential to explain how they contribute to the visual ecology of the animal in question. Existing methods that model the absorption of visual pigments use templates which correspond closely to data from thin cross-sections of photoreceptor cells. However, few modeling approaches use a single framework to incorporate physical parameters of real photoreceptors, which can be fused, and can form vertical tiers...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739480/the-changing-face-of-aging-highly-sulfated-glycosaminoglycans-induce-amyloid-formation-in-a-lattice-corneal-dystrophy-model-protein
#4
Kirsten G Malmos, Marcel Stenvang, Cagla Sahin, Gunna Christiansen, Daniel Otzen
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are related to multiple biological functions and diseases. There is growing evidence that GAG concentration and sulfate content increase with age. The destabilizing mutation A546T in the corneal protein TGFBIp leads to lattice-type corneal dystrophy, but symptoms only appear in the fourth decade of life. We hypothesize that this delayed phenotype can be explained by increased GAG sulfation over time. Using in vitro assays with the C-terminal TGFIBIp domain Fas1-4, previously shown to recapitulate many properties of full-length TGFBIp, we find that only long GAGs with multiple sulfate groups on each repeating unit increase the amount of worm-like aggregates and induce long, straight fibrils in A546T...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737259/homopolymer-nanolithography
#5
Moritz Tebbe, Elizabeth Galati, Gilbert C Walker, Eugenia Kumacheva
Future progress in nanoscience and nanotechnology necessitates further development of versatile, labor-, and cost-efficient surface patterning strategies. A new approach to nanopatterning is reported, which utilizes surface segregation of a smooth layer of an end-grafted homopolymer in a poor solvent. The variation in polymer grafting density yields a range of surface nanostructures, including randomly organized pinned spherical micelles, worm-like structures, networks, and porous films. The capability to use the polymer patterns for site-specific deposition of small molecules, polymers, or nanoparticles is shown...
July 24, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736213/beyond-expectations-the-responses-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-to-visual-food-cues
#6
Luz Verastegui-Tena, Aurelia Schulte-Holierhoek, Hans van Trijp, Betina Piqueras Fiszman
Self-report measures rely on cognitive and rational processes and may not, therefore, be the most suitable tools to investigate implicit or unconscious factors within a sensory experience. The responses from the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which are not susceptible to bias due to their involuntary nature, may provide a better insight. Expectations are important for the consumer-product interaction and should be considered. However, research using ANS responses has not focused thoroughly on expectations...
July 20, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735356/evaluation-of-anthelmintic-antimicrobial-and-antioxidant-activity-of-chenopodium-album
#7
Bashir A Lone, M Z Chishti, Fayaz Ahmad Bhat, Hidayatullah Tak, Suhaib A Bandh, Abida Khan
The objective of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Chenopodium album against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and some pathogenic microbes. A worm motility inhibition assay was used for in vitro study, and a faecal egg count reduction assay was used for an in vivo study. Various concentrations ranging from 100 to 500 μg/ml of the extract were subjected to antimicrobial screening by disc diffusion method against four selected bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas multocida and Escherichia coli) and two fungal (Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans) strains in order to estimate the medicinal potential of the herb...
July 22, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735242/transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-larva-taenia-multiceps
#8
W H Li, N Z Zhang, L Yue, Y Yang, L Li, H B Yan, T T Li, Z G Qu, W Z Jia, B Q Fu
Taenia multiceps is an adult worm affiliated to Taeniidae family, Platyhelminthes phylum. The larvae of the parasite (Coenurus cerebralis) parasitic in the brain and spinal cord in domestic and wild ruminants or humans can led to a fatal central nervous system (CNS) disease. The aims of the present study were to define the transcriptome profiles of the larvae of T. multiceps by RNA-Seq approach, and to generate large functional gene datasets that could be used to predict the key molecular pathways linked to this cestode...
July 12, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733289/an-enterotoxin-like-binary-protein-from-pseudomonas-protegens-with-potent-nematicidal-activity
#9
Jun-Zhi Wei, Daniel L Siehl, Zhenglin Hou, Barbara Rosen, Jarred Oral, Christopher G Taylor, Gusui Wu
Soil microbes are a major food source for free-living soil nematodes. It is known that certain soil bacteria have evolved systems to combat predation. We identified the nematode-antagonistic Pseudomonas protegens strain 15G2 from screening of microbes. Through protein purification we identified a binary protein, designated as Pp-ANP, that is responsible for the nematicidal activity. This binary protein inhibits Caenorhabditis elegans growth and development by arresting larvae at L1 stage and killing older staged worms...
July 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732272/screening-of-the-open-scaffolds-collection-from-compounds-australia-identifies-a-new-chemical-entity-with-anthelmintic-activities-against-different-developmental-stages-of-the-barber-s-pole-worm-and-other-parasitic-nematodes
#10
Sarah Preston, Yaqing Jiao, Jonathan B Baell, Jennifer Keiser, Simon Crawford, Anson V Koehler, Tao Wang, Moana M Simpson, Ray M Kaplan, Karla J Cowley, Kaylene J Simpson, Andreas Hofmann, Abdul Jabbar, Robin B Gasser
The discovery and development of novel anthelmintic classes is essential to sustain the control of socioeconomically important parasitic worms of humans and animals. With the aim of offering novel, lead-like scaffolds for drug discovery, Compounds Australia released the 'Open Scaffolds' collection containing 33,999 compounds, with extensive information available on the physicochemical properties of these chemicals. In the present study, we screened 14,464 prioritised compounds from the 'Open Scaffolds' collection against the exsheathed third-stage larvae (xL3s) of Haemonchus contortus using recently developed whole-organism screening assays...
May 28, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732178/reproductive-plasticity-in-the-nematode-gyrinicola-batrachiensis-does-an-intermediate-reproductive-strategy-exist-in-sexually-reproducing-didelphic-pinworms
#11
Jasmine N Childress, Sean C Rogers, Matthew G Bolek, Gabriel J Langford
Phenotypic plasticity is a process in which multiple phenotypes arise from one genotype due to environmental selection pressures. Gyrinicola batrachiensis has a heterogeneous reproductive strategy such that females reproduce either via parthogenesis with thick-shelled eggs in a single uterus or sexual reproduction with thick and thin-shelled eggs in separate uterine horns. No evidence exists that strains of G. batrachiensis are able to switch between parthenogenetic and sexual reproduction. Thin-shelled eggs are autoinfective while thick-shelled eggs act as transmission agents once shed into the aquatic environment...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732077/mutations-in-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-orthologs-of-human-genes-required-for-mitochondrial-trna-modification-cause-similar-electron-transport-chain-defects-but-different-nuclear-responses
#12
Carmen Navarro-González, Ismaïl Moukadiri, Magda Villarroya, Ernesto López-Pascual, Simon Tuck, M-Eugenia Armengod
Several oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) diseases are caused by defects in the post-transcriptional modification of mitochondrial tRNAs (mt-tRNAs). Mutations in MTO1 or GTPBP3 impair the modification of the wobble uridine at position 5 of the pyrimidine ring and cause heart failure. Mutations in TRMU affect modification at position 2 and cause liver disease. Presently, the molecular basis of the diseases and why mutations in the different genes lead to such different clinical symptoms is poorly understood...
July 21, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729558/early-life-disruption-of-amphibian-microbiota-decreases-later-life-resistance-to-parasites
#13
Sarah A Knutie, Christina L Wilkinson, Kevin D Kohl, Jason R Rohr
Changes in the early-life microbiota of hosts might affect infectious disease risk throughout life, if such disruptions during formative times alter immune system development. Here, we test whether an early-life disruption of host-associated microbiota affects later-life resistance to infections by manipulating the microbiota of tadpoles and challenging them with parasitic gut worms as adults. We find that tadpole bacterial diversity is negatively correlated with parasite establishment in adult frogs: adult frogs that had reduced bacterial diversity as tadpoles have three times more worms than adults without their microbiota manipulated as tadpoles...
July 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729552/new-insights-into-the-karyotype-evolution-of-the-free-living-flatworm-macrostomum-lignano-platyhelminthes-turbellaria
#14
Kira S Zadesenets, Lukas Schärer, Nikolay B Rubtsov
The free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano is a model organism for evolutionary and developmental biology studies. Recently, an unusual karyotypic diversity was revealed in this species. Specifically, worms are either 'normal' 2n = 8, or they are aneuploid with one or two additional large chromosome(s) (i.e. 2n = 9 or 2n = 10, respectively). Aneuploid worms did not show visible behavioral or morphological abnormalities and were successful in reproduction. In this study, we generated microdissected DNA probes from chromosome 1 (further called MLI1), chromosome 2 (MLI2), and a pair of similar-sized smaller chromosomes (MLI3, MLI4)...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729070/abc-transporters-in-the-liver-fluke-opisthorchis-felineus
#15
Viatcheslav A Mordvinov, Nikita I Ershov, Darya S Pirozhkova, Yuri V Pakharukov, Maria Y Pakharukova
ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are essential components of normal cellular physiological machinery in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic species, including parasites. Some ABC transporters, e.g., P-glycoproteins, are involved in the efflux of toxins and xenobiotics from the cell. At present, nothing is known about ABC transporter genes in epidemiologically important liver flukes from the Opisthorchiidae family, including European liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus. Opisthorchiasis caused by O...
July 17, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728817/piezo2-in-cutaneous-and-proprioceptive-mechanotransduction-in-vertebrates
#16
E O Anderson, E R Schneider, S N Bagriantsev
Mechanosensitivity is a fundamental physiological capacity, which pertains to all life forms. Progress has been made with regard to understanding mechanosensitivity in bacteria, flies, and worms. In vertebrates, however, the molecular identity of mechanotransducers in somatic and neuronal cells has only started to appear. The Piezo family of mechanogated ion channels marks a pivotal milestone in understanding mechanosensitivity. Piezo1 and Piezo2 have now been shown to participate in a number of processes, ranging from arterial modeling to sensing muscle stretch...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728358/tropical-plant-supplementation-effects-on-the-performance-and-parasite-burden-of-goats
#17
Juan Jose Romero, Miguel Augusto Zarate, Ibukun M Ogunade, Kathy G Arriola, Adegbola Tolulope Adesogan
Objective: Examine the effects of supplementing bahiagrass hay (BG) with potentially anthelmintic quantities of hays of perennial peanut (PEA) or sericea lespedeza (LES) or seeds of velvet bean (MUC) or papaya (PAP) on the intake and nutritive value (Experiment 1), and the performance and parasite burden (Experiment 2) of goats. Methods: In experiment 1, 38 male goats (27.4 ± 5.7 kg BW) were randomly assigned to each of 5 treatments: 1) BG alone and BG plus 2) PEA; 3) LES; 4) MUC; and 5) PAP...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727765/defining-the-target-and-the-effect-of-imatinib-on-the-filarial-c-abl-homologue
#18
Elise M O'Connell, Olena Kamenyeva, Sara Lustigman, Aaron Bell, Thomas B Nutman
BACKGROUND: Previously we demonstrated the micro- and macrofilaricidal properties of imatinib in vitro. Here we use electron and multiphoton microscopy to define the target of imatinib in the adult and microfilarial stages of Brugia malayi, and assess the effects of pharmacologically relevant levels of imatinib on the adult parasites. METHODS: After fixation of adult B. malayi males and females, sections were stained with polyclonal rabbit anti-c-Abl antibody (or isotype control) and imaged with multiphoton fluorescent microscopy...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726623/candidatus-dirofilaria-hongkongensis-as-causative-agent-of-human-ocular-filariosis-after-travel-to-india
#19
Stefan Winkler, Andreas Pollreisz, Michael Georgopoulos, Zsuzsanna Bagò-Horvath, Herbert Auer, Kelvin Kai-Wang To, Jürgen Krücken, Sven Poppert, Julia Walochnik
We report a human case of ocular Dirofilaria infection in a traveler returning to Austria from India. Analysis of mitochondrial sequences identified the worm as Candidatus Dirofilaria hongkongensis, a close relative of Dirofilaria repens, which was only recently described in Hong Kong and proposed as a new species.
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725552/repeated-inoculations-with-the-lung-and-heartworm-nematode-angiostrongylus-vasorum-result-in-increasing-larval-excretion-and-worm-burden-in-the-red-fox-vulpes-vulpes
#20
Ian David Woolsey, P Webster, S Thamsborg, Manuela Schnyder, Jesper Monrad, C M O Kapel
The French heartworm Angiostongylus vasorum is found in European red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and dog populations, where it appears to be spreading geographically. Once introduced into new areas, it establishes in local fox populations, typically to over 50% prevalence in a few years. High susceptibility and constant excretion of first stage larvae (L1) by the definitive hosts are prerequisites for sustaining high parasite biomass in a particular habitat. The present study explores the hypothesis that repeated ingestion of gastropods in nature will result in accumulation of adult worms and elevated excretion of L1 in feces...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
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