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N Sharma, P W Hunt, B C Hine, N K Sharma, A Chung, R A Swick, I Ruhnke
A study was conducted to determine the performance, egg quality, and liver lipid reserves of laying hens exposed to ranges contaminated with Ascaridia galli. Sixteen-week-old Lohmann Brown laying hens (n = 200) were divided into 4 treatments with 5 replicates containing 10 hens per pen. Hens of treatment 1 [negative control (NC)] ranged on a decontaminated area, and hens of treatments 2 (low infection) and 3 (medium infection) ranged on areas previously contaminated by hens artificially infected with 250 and 1,000 embryonated A...
March 16, 2018: Poultry Science
Suraiya Haroon, Annie Li, Jaye L Weinert, Clark Fritsch, Nolan G Ericson, Jasmine Alexander-Floyd, Bart P Braeckman, Cole M Haynes, Jason H Bielas, Tali Gidalevitz, Marc Vermulst
Genetic instability of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) plays an important role in human aging and disease. Thus far, it has proven difficult to develop successful treatment strategies for diseases that are caused by mtDNA instability. To address this issue, we developed a model of mtDNA disease in the nematode C. elegans, an animal model that can rapidly be screened for genes and biological pathways that reduce mitochondrial pathology. These worms recapitulate all the major hallmarks of mtDNA disease in humans, including increased mtDNA instability, loss of respiration, reduced neuromuscular function, and a shortened lifespan...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Esben S Worm, Morten Høyer, Rune Hansen, Lars P Larsen, Britta Weber, Cai Grau, Per R Poulsen
PURPOSE: Intrafraction motion can compromise the treatment accuracy in liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Respiratory gating can improve treatment delivery; however, gating based on external motion surrogates is inaccurate. The present study reports the use of Calypso-based internal electromagnetic motion monitoring for gated liver SBRT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifteen patients were included in a study of 3-fraction respiratory gated liver SBRT guided by 3 implanted electromagnetic transponders...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Francisco Javier Navas González, Jordi Jordana Vidal, María Esperanza Camacho Vallejo, Jose Manuel León Jurado, Manuel Rafael de la Haba Giraldo, Cecilio Barba Capote, Juan Vicente Delgado Bermejo
Cutaneous habronematidosis (CH) is a highly prevalent seasonally recurrent skin disease that affects donkeys as a result from the action of spirurid stomach worm larvae. Carrier flies mistakenly deposit these larvae on previous skin lesions or on the moisture of natural orifices, causing distress and inflicting relapsing wounds to the animals. First, we carried out a meta-analysis of the predisposing factors that could condition the development of CH in Andalusian donkeys. Second, basing on the empirical existence of an inter and intrafamilial variation previously addressed by owners, we isolated the genetic background behind the hypersensibility to this parasitological disease...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
D R B Brito, L M Costa-Júnior, J L Garcia, J F J Torres-Acosta, H Louvandini, J A A Cutrim-Júnior, J F M Araújo, E D S Soares
Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) cause considerable economic losses in grazing goat herds. At present, GIN control cannot rely on conventional anthelmintic (AH) drugs because parasites have developed resistance against such drugs. Thus, alternative control methods are being sought to reduce the dependence on AH. Many tannin-rich plants exhibit AH activity and may be used as alternatives for GIN control. Mimosa caesalpiniifolia is a tannin-rich shrub consumed by small ruminants in Brazil. This study evaluated the in vivo AH effect of M...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Elke von Son-de Fernex, Ángel Alonso-Díaz Miguel, Braulio Valles-de la Mora, Pedro Mendoza-de Gives, Epigmenio Castillo-Gallegos, Alejandro Zamilpa, Manases González-Cortazar
The aims of this study were: 1) to assess the anthelmintic effect of Gliricidia sepium on the establishment of C. punctata third-stage larvae (L3 ) in calves, and 2) to isolate and to elucidate an anti-exsheathment phytochemical from the plant offered during the trial. Twelve ¾ Holstein × Zebu calves were divided in two experimental groups: control (T1) and treatment (T2) (n = 6). After adaptation, each calf was infected with an oral dose of 400 C. punctata L3 /Kg LW. Basal diet consisted of Digitaria decumbens hay (6...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Valentina Marino, Rosa Gálvez, Vito Colella, Juliana Sarquis, Rocío Checa, Ana Montoya, Juan P Barrera, Sonia Domínguez, Riccardo Paolo Lia, Domenico Otranto, Guadalupe Miró
BACKGROUND: The fruit fly Phortica variegata (Drosophilidae: Steganinae) feeds on the ocular secretions of animals and humans, and has been described as an intermediate host of the eye worm Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida: Thelaziidae) in Italy. Despite the increased detection of T. callipaeda in many European countries, information about its vector role in natural conditions is still limited. In the Iberian Peninsula, thelaziosis caused by T. callipaeda has been reported in dogs, cats, red foxes, wild rabbits and humans...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Hinrich Schulenburg
Oomycetes are best known as plant pathogens, causing for example potato blight. Other oomycetes are deadly yet less well studied pathogens of animals including humans. Osman and colleagues now present the nematode C. elegans as a new, genetically tractable host model that should enhance our general understanding of oomycete infections.
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Adam J Weiss, Torben Vestergaard-Frandsen, Ernesto Ruiz-Tiben, Donald R Hopkins, Franklin Aseidu-Bekoe, David Agymang
Despite several periods of stagnating guinea worm disease (GWD) incidence in Ghana during its national eradication campaign in the 1990s and early 2000s, the last reported case of GWD was in May 2010. In July 2011, Ghana celebrated the interruption of guinea worm (GW) transmission. Although it has been established that GWD causes disability, pain, and socioeconomic hardship, there is a dearth of population-based evidence collected in post-GW-endemic countries to document the value attributed to GWD eradication by residents in formerly endemic communities...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Marina Ezcurra
High-throughput molecular studies are greatly advancing our knowledge of the human microbiome and its specific role in governing health and disease states. A myriad of ongoing studies aim at identifying links between microbial community disequilibria (dysbiosis) and human diseases. However, due to the inherent complexity and heterogeneity of the human microbiome we need robust experimental models that allow the systematic manipulation of variables to test the multitude of hypotheses arisen from large-scale 'meta-omic' projects...
March 19, 2018: Biogerontology
Xue Liu, Yanxiang Wang, Peng Yun, Xin Shen, Feng Su, Yangsheng Chen, Suming Li, Danqing Song
Polylactide-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) block copolymers were synthesized by ring opening polymerization of l-lactide using a monomethoxy PEG (mPEG) as macroinitiator and zinc lactate as catalyst. The resulting diblock copolymers were characterized by1 H NMR and GPC. Polymeric micelles were prepared by self-assembly of copolymers in distilled water using co-solvent evaporation or membrane hydration methods. The resulting micelles are worm-like in shape as shown by TEM measurements. A hydrophobic anticancer drug, cycloprotoberberine derivative A35, was successfully loaded in PLA-PEG filomicelles with high encapsulation efficiency (above 88%)...
March 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Anne E Clatworthy, Keith P Romano, Deborah T Hung
To date, antibiotics have been identified on the basis of their ability to kill bacteria or inhibit their growth rather than directly for their capacity to improve clinical outcomes of infected patients. Although historically successful, this approach has led to the development of an antibiotic armamentarium that suffers from a number of shortcomings, including the inevitable emergence of resistance and, in certain infections, suboptimal efficacy leading to long treatment durations, infection recurrence, or high mortality and morbidity rates despite apparent bacterial sterilization...
March 19, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
Zimei Dong, Gengbo Chu, Yingxu Sima, Guangwen Chen
Heat shock protein 90 family members (HSP90s), as molecular chaperones, have conserved roles in the physiological processes of eukaryotes regulating cytoprotection, increasing host resistance and so on. However, whether HSP90s affect regeneration in animals is unclear. Planarians are emerging models for studying regeneration in vivo. Here, the roles of three hsp90 genes from planarian Dugesia japonica are investigated by WISH and RNAi. The results show that: (1) Djhsp90s expressions are induced by heat and cold shock, tissue damage and ionic liquid; (2) Djhsp90s mRNA are mainly distributed each side of the body in intact worms as well as blastemas in regenerative worms; (3) the worms show head regression, lysis, the body curling and the regeneration arrest or even failure after Djhsp90s RNAi; (4) Djhsp90s are involved in autophagy and locomotion of the body...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Holger Fehlauer, Adam L Nekimken, Anna A Kim, Beth L Pruitt, Miriam B Goodman, Michael Krieg
One central goal of mechanobiology is to understand the reciprocal effect of mechanical stress on proteins and cells. Despite its importance, the influence of mechanical stress on cellular function is still poorly understood. In part, this knowledge gap exists because few tools enable simultaneous deformation of tissue and cells, imaging of cellular activity in live animals, and efficient restriction of motility in otherwise highly mobile model organisms, such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The small size of C...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Xinyi Ding, Yuxiang Sun, Yanming Chen, Wanchuan Ding, Steven Emory, Tianhao Li, Zixing Xu, Ning Han, Jun Wang, Gang Ruan
Micellar nanocrystals (micelles with encapsulated nanocrystals) have become an emerging major class of nanobiomaterials. We describe a method of fabricating micellar nanocrystals based on combining top-down electrospray, bottom-up self-assembly, and solvent-based structure control. This method involves first using electrospray to generate uniform ultrafine liquid droplets, each of which functions as a micro-reactor in which self-assembly reaction occurs forming micellar nanocrystals, with the structures (micelle shape and nanocrystal encapsulation) controlled by the organic solvent used...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Carla Lloret-Fernández, Miren Maicas, Carlos Mora-Martínez, Alejandro Artacho, Angela Jimeno-Martín, Laura Chirivella, Peter Weinberg, Nuria Flames
Cell differentiation is controlled by individual transcription factors (TFs) that together activate a selection of enhancers in specific cell types. How these combinations of TFs identify and activate their target sequences remains poorly understood. Here, we identify the cis -regulatory transcriptional code that controls the differentiation of serotonergic HSN neurons in C. elegans . Activation of the HSN transcriptome is directly orchestrated by a collective of six TFs. Binding site clusters for this TF collective form a regulatory signature that is sufficient for de novo identification of HSN neuron functional enhancers...
March 19, 2018: ELife
Kelle Velasques, Tamara Ramos Maciel, Ana Helena de Castro Dal Forno, Flávia Elizabete Guerra Teixeira, Amanda Luisa da Fonseca, Fernando de Pilla Varotti, André Ricardo Fajardo, Daiana Silva de Ávila, Sandra Elisa Haas
Drugs used for the treatment and prevention of malaria have resistance-related problems, making them ineffective for monotherapy. If properly associated, many of these antimalarial drugs may find their way back to the treatment regimen. Among the therapeutic arsenal, quinine (QN) is a second-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria but has side effects that limit its use. Curcumin (CR) is a natural compound with anti-plasmodial activities and low bioavailability. In this context, the aim of this work was to develop and characterize co-encapsulated QN + CR-loaded polysorbate-coated polymeric nanocapsules (NC-QC) to evaluate their activity on Plasmodium falciparum and the safety of the nanoformulations for Caenorhabditis elegans...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Joseph D Turner, Nicolas Pionnier, Julio Furlong-Silva, Hanna Sjoberg, Stephen Cross, Alice Halliday, Ana F Guimaraes, Darren A N Cook, Andrew Steven, Nico Van Rooijen, Judith E Allen, Stephen J Jenkins, Mark J Taylor
Eosinophils are effectors in immunity to tissue helminths but also induce allergic immunopathology. Mechanisms of eosinophilia in non-mucosal tissues during infection remain unresolved. Here we identify a pivotal function of tissue macrophages (Mϕ) in eosinophil anti-helminth immunity using a BALB/c mouse intra-peritoneal Brugia malayi filarial infection model. Eosinophilia, via C-C motif chemokine receptor (CCR)3, was necessary for immunity as CCR3 and eosinophil impairments rendered mice susceptible to chronic filarial infection...
March 16, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Aidan Maartens
Susan Strome is Distinguished Professor of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology at the University of California, Santa Cruz, USA. Recently appointed an editor at Development, her lab studies the regulation of germ cell development in C. elegans , with a particular focus on the epigenetic transmission of chromatin states. We caught up with Susan to discuss her early career switch from prokaryotes to worms, her experiences of small and big science, and why teaching is so important to her.
March 15, 2018: Development
Nan Shwe Nwe Htun, Peter Odermatt, Ivan Müller, Peiling Yap, Peter Steinmann, Christian Schindler, Markus Gerber, Rosa Du Randt, Cheryl Walter, Uwe Pühse, Jürg Utzinger, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: Low- and middle-income countries are facing a dual disease burden with infectious diseases (e.g., gastrointestinal tract infections) and non-communicable diseases (e.g., diabetes) being common. For instance, chronic parasite infections lead to altered immune regulatory networks, anemia, malnutrition, and diarrhea with an associated shift in the gut microbiome. These can all be pathways of potential relevance for insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between common gastrointestinal tract infections and glycemia in children from non-fee paying schools in South Africa...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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