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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456670/effect-of-activated-charcoal-hemoperfusion-on-renal-function-in-patients-with-paraquat-poisoning
#1
Liang Sun, Peng-Bo Yan, Yin Zhang, Lu-Qing Wei, Guo-Qiang Li
The present study retrospectively analyzed 19 patients diagnosed with paraquat (PQ) poisoning with the aim to investigate the effect of activated charcoal hemoperfusion on renal function and PQ elimination. The results indicated that 7 patients died and 12 survived. Non-oliguric renal failure occurred in all of the 7 patients who died. Among the 12 surviving patients, 10 had normal renal function and 2 developed non-oliguric renal failure. There was a linear correlation between plasma and urine paraquat concentration prior to and during activated charcoal hemoperfusion...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456603/successful-management-of-70-acetic-acid-ingestion-on-the-intensive-care-unit-a-case-report
#2
Andrew Ratcliffe, Andrew Baker, Daniel Smith
Acetic acid is an organic acid available in concentrations from 2 to 80%. Whilst lower concentrations of 2-6% are more commonly used as the table top condiment, vinegar, much stronger solutions are regularly used in Eastern Europe as food preservatives and cleaning solutions. Oral ingestion of greater than 12% has been reported to cause haemolysis, renal failure, shock and death. Most reported cases of deliberate or accidental poisoning are from Russia and Eastern Europe in the 1980s, with very little currently in western publications...
February 2018: Journal of the Intensive Care Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454886/development-of-neuropathology-following-soman-poisoning-and-medical-countermeasures
#3
REVIEW
Trond Myhrer, Espen Mariussen, Pål Aas
Nerve agent-induced seizures can cause varying degrees of neuropathology depending on level of poisoning and duration of seizing. The intention of this review was to validate a novel approach for establishing effective treatment regimens against soman poisoning. Identification of seizure controlling sites in the forebrain of rats poisoned by soman was made by means of lesions, and the anticonvulsive properties of a number of relevant drugs were tested by microinfusions into the identified areas. By using these procedures, procyclidine emerged as the most potent drug...
February 15, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454866/behavioral-toxicity-of-sodium-cyanide-following-oral-ingestion-in-rats-dose-dependent-onset-severity-survival-and-recovery
#4
Nathaniel C Rice, Noah A Rauscher, Jeffrey L Langston, Todd M Myers
Sodium cyanide (NaCN) is a commonly and widely used industrial and laboratory chemical reagent that is highly toxic. Its availability and rapid harmful/lethal effects combine to make cyanide a potential foodborne/waterborne intentional-poisoning hazard. Thus, laboratory studies are needed to understand the dose-dependent progression of toxicity/lethality following ingestion of cyanide-poisoned foods/liquids. We developed an oral-dosing method in which a standard pipette was used to dispense a sodium cyanide solution into the cheek, and the rat then swallowed the solution...
February 15, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452919/high-dose-insulin-for-beta-blocker-and-calcium-channel-blocker-poisoning-17years-of-experience-from-a-single-poison-center
#5
Jon B Cole, Ann M Arens, JoAn R Laes, Lauren R Klein, Stacey A Bangh, Travis D Olives
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: High dose insulin (HDI) is a standard therapy for beta-blocker (BB) and calcium channel-blocker (CCB) poisoning, however human case experience is rare. Our poison center routinely recommends HDI for shock from BBs or CCBs started at 1U/kg/h and titrated to 10U/kg/h. The study objective was to describe clinical characteristics and adverse events associated with HDI. METHODS: This was a structured chart review of patients receiving HDI for BB or CCB poisoning with HDI defined as insulin infusion of ≥0...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451045/modified-release-paracetamol-overdose-a-prospective-observational-study-atom-3
#6
Angela L Chiew, Geoffrey K Isbister, Colin B Page, Katharine A Kirby, Betty S H Chan, Nicholas A Buckley
BACKGROUND: Modified-release (MR) paracetamol is available in many countries as 665 mg tablets of which 69% is MR and 31% is immediate release. There are concerns that MR paracetamol overdose has higher rates of liver injury despite standard treatment algorithms. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of acute MR paracetamol overdose. METHODS: Prospective observational study, recruiting patients from January 2013 to June 2017, from five clinical toxicology units and calls to two Poisons Information Centres in Australia...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449664/incidence-and-clinical-characteristics-of-ciguatera-fish-poisoning-in-guadeloupe-french-west-indies-between-2013-and-2016-a-retrospective-cases-series
#7
Denis Boucaud-Maitre, Jean-Paul Vernoux, Stéphane Pelczar, Elise Daudens-Vaysse, Lyderic Aubert, Sylvie Boa, Serge Ferracci, Robert Garnier
This retrospective case study analysed the incidence and symptoms of ciguatera fish poisoning (ciguatera) in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) between 2013 and 2016. Cases attending the emergency departments of the two public hospitals and the reports received by the regional health authority in charge of monitoring (ARS) were compiled. Two hundred and thirty-four cases of poisoning were observed, with a mean annual incidence of 1.47/10,000 (95% CI): 1.29-1.66), i.e 5 times higher than the previously reported incidence (1996-2006)...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449118/shot-by-a-gun-%C3%A2-missed-by-a-provider
#8
Eddie Garcia, Abdul H Zaid, Diane P Calello, Lisa McHugh, Grant Arzumanov, Najaf Asrar, Ari Sapin, Kristin G Fless
BACKGROUND: Botulism is a paralytic disease caused by the neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. The majority of cases are due to ingestion or injection drug use. Wound botulism from traumatic injury is exceedingly rare, with only one to two cases reported each year in the United States. CASE REPORT: A 27-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with diplopia, dysphagia, and progressive weakness 10 days after sustaining a gunshot wound to his right lower leg...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449069/repercussions-of-the-great-east-japan-earthquake-tsunami-on-ellipsoidal-alexandrium-cysts-dinophyceae-in-ofunato-bay-japan
#9
Kazumi Matsuoka, Yuri Ikeda, Shinnosuke Kaga, Yoshimasa Kaga, Takehiko Ogata
Shellfish aquaculture in Ofunato Bay, Northeast Japan, was seriously damaged by a tsunami generated by the Great East Japan Earthquake, March 11th, 2011, accompanied by paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) outbreaks caused by Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae). To understand longer future trends of PSP, an investigation was made of the historical occurrence and causes of Alexandrium outbreaks after the tsunami. Vertical distributions of Alexandrium cysts in two sediment-cores from Ofunato Bay revealed that the sediments above ca...
January 4, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448519/peroxidase-like-activity-of-gold-nanoparticles-and-their-gold-staining-enhanced-elisa-application
#10
Doudou Lou, Yanyan Tian, Yu Zhang, Junjie Yin, Ting Yang, Chuan He, Ming Ma, Wei Yu, Ning Gu
We found that the peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) followed the Michaelis-Menten kinetic model and was dependent on environmental pH and temperature, which was very similar to natural Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP). However, unlike HRP, which needs a lower H2O2 concentration with a very narrow range to reach a maximum reaction rate and avoid enzyme poisoning, GNPs have very high activity, even at an H2O2 concentration two orders of magnitude higher than HRP. It was demonstrated that H2O2 treatment could enhance the peroxidase-like activity of GNPs, resulting thus in the activity increase in a circular catalytic reaction by the reduplicative use of GNPs...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446772/production-of-ready-to-use-few-layer-graphene-in-aqueous-suspensions
#11
Jose M González-Domínguez, Verónica León, María Isabel Lucío, Maurizio Prato, Ester Vázquez
Graphene has promising physical and chemical properties such as high strength and flexibility, coupled with high electrical and thermal conductivities. It is therefore being incorporated into polymer-based composites for use in electronics and photonics applications. A main constraint related to the graphene development is that, being of a strongly hydrophobic nature, almost all dispersions (usually required for its handling and processing toward the desired application) are prepared in poisonous organic solvents such as N-methyl pyrrolidone or N,N-dimethyl formamide...
March 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446742/development-of-an-in-vitro-drug-delivery-efficiency-test-for-a-pulmonary-toxicokinetic-pig-study
#12
Nadine Schaefer, Ann-Katrin Kroll, Matthias W Laschke, Michael D Menger, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer, Peter H Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Since their appearance on the drugs of abuse market, synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are gaining increasing toxicological relevance. They are consumed without knowledge of their toxicokinetic (TK) and toxicodynamic properties and human studies are not allowed due to ethical reasons. A controlled animal TK study following nebulization of 4-ethylnaphthalene-1-yl-(1-pentylindole-3-yl)methanone (JWH-210), 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(1-pentyl-indole-3-yl)methanone (RCS-4) as well as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to pigs should be helpful for better interpretation of analytical results in cases of misuse or poisoning...
February 14, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446719/dna-double-strand-breaks-repair-inhibitors-relevance-as-potential-new-anticancer-therapeutics
#13
Paulina Kopa, Anna Macieja, Grzegorz Galita, Zbigniew J Witczak, Tomasz Poplawski
DNA Double-strand breaks are considered one of the most lethal form of DNA damage. Many effective anticancer therapeutic approaches used chemical and physical methods to generate DNA double-strand breaks in the cancer cells. They include: IR and drugs which mimetic its action, topoisomerase poisons, some alkylating agents or drugs which affected DNA replication process. On the other hand, cancer cells are mostly characterized by highly effective systems of DNA damage repair. There are two main DNA repair pathways used to fix double-strand breaks: NHEJ and HRR...
February 13, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445807/base-free-n-alkylation-of-anilines-with-arch-2-oh-and-transfer-hydrogenation-of-aldehydes-ketones-catalyzed-by-the-complexes-of-%C3%AE-5-cp-ir-iii-with-chalcogenated-schiff-bases-of-anthracene-9-carbaldehyde
#14
Pooja Dubey, Sonu Gupta, Ajai K Singh
The condensation of anthracene-9-carbaldehyde with 2-(phenylthio/seleno)ethylamine results in Schiff bases [PhS(CH 2 ) 2 C[double bond, length as m-dash]N-9-C 14 H 9 ](L1) and [PhSe(CH 2 ) 2 C[double bond, length as m-dash]N-9-C 14 H 9 ] (L2). On their reaction with [(η 5 -Cp*)IrCl(μ-Cl)] 2 and CH 3 COONa at 50 °C followed by treatment with NH 4 PF 6 , iridacycles, [(η 5 -Cp*)Ir(L-H)][PF 6 ] (1: L = L1; 2: L = L2), result. The same reaction in the absence of CH 3 COONa gives complexes [(η 5 -Cp*)Ir(L)Cl][PF 6 ] (3-4) in which L = L1(3)/L2(4) ligates in a bidentate mode...
February 15, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442611/relative-toxicity-of-benzodiazepines-and-hypnotics-commonly-used-for-self-poisoning-an-epidemiological-study-of-fatal-toxicity-and-case-fatality
#15
Galit Geulayov, Anne Ferrey, Deborah Casey, Claudia Wells, Alice Fuller, Clare Bankhead, David Gunnell, Caroline Clements, Navneet Kapur, Jennifer Ness, Keith Waters, Keith Hawton
The relative toxicity of anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs commonly used for self-poisoning was assessed using data on suicides, prescriptions and non-fatal self-poisonings in England, 2005-2012. Data on suicide by self-poisoning were obtained from the Office for National Statistics, information on intentional non-fatal self-poisoning was derived from the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England and data on prescriptions in general practice from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We used two indices of relative toxicity: fatal toxicity (the number of fatal self-poisonings relative to the number of individuals prescribed each drug) and case fatality (the number of fatal relative to non-fatal self-poisonings)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435715/clinical-chameleons-an-emergency-medicine-focused-review-of-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#16
REVIEW
Patrick Chow Yuen Ng, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless gas that is found in the environment, in the home, and in the human body as a normal part of mammalian metabolism. Poisoning from CO, a common exposure, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality if not recognized and treated in a timely manner. This review evaluates the signs and symptoms of CO poisoning, conditions that present similar to CO poisoning, and an approach to the recognition and management for CO poisoning. CO poisoning accounts for thousands of emergency department visits annually...
February 12, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435275/safe-use-of-chemicals-by-professional-users-and-health-care-specialists
#17
Margarita Apatsidou, Ioanna Konstantopoulou, Eleni Foufa, Konstantinos Tsarouhas, Petros Papalexis, Ramin Rezaee, Demetrios A Spandidos, Demetrios Kouretas, Christina Tsitsimpikou
The awareness of Greek professional users and health care specialists regarding the safe use of chemicals was investigated, to be the best of our knowledge, for the first time after the introduction of Regulations (EC) 1907/2006 (REACH) and 1272/2008 (CLP) on chemicals. A total of 200 professional users and 150 health care specialists from various regions of Greece contributed to the use of a closed-ended, anonymous and validated questionnaire. The findings showed that over 85% of the responders were not aware of classification, labelling and packaging (CLP) and 67...
February 2018: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434782/effects-of-il-10-on-ox62-mhc-ii-and-cd86-in-bone-marrow-dcs-in-rats-with-organophosphate-poisoning
#18
Ning Wang, Jinfeng Wang, Ronggang Jiang
This study investigated the effect of interleukin (IL)-10 on the expression of OX62, MHC-II and CD86 in bone marrow dendritic cells (DCs) in rats with organophosphorus poisoning. Sixty adult SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group (group A) (20 rats), 20 rats with organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (group B), 20 rats with organophosphorus poisoning, and IL-10 treated (group C). Group A was not treated with special treatment. Group B was treated with 4% omethoate by gavage to establish the model of organophosphate poisoning...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433468/suicide-and-deliberate-self-harm-in-pakistan-a-scoping-review
#19
Sualeha S Shekhani, Shagufta Perveen, Dur-E-Sameen Hashmi, Khawaja Akbar, Sara Bachani, Murad M Khan
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a major global public health problem with more than 800,000 incidents worldwide annually. Seventy-five percent of the global suicides occur in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Pakistan is a LMIC where information on suicidal behavior is limited. The aim of the review is to map available literature on determinants, risk factors and other variables of suicidal behavior in Pakistan. METHOD: This study was based on Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework of scoping review, combining peer reviewed publications with grey literature...
February 12, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433390/ethnomedicine-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-smilax-glabra-an-important-traditional-chinese-medicine
#20
Shiyao Hua, Yiwei Zhang, Jiayue Liu, Lin Dong, Jun Huang, Dingbo Lin, Xueyan Fu
Smilax glabra (SG) Roxb., a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, has been extensively used worldwide for its marked pharmacological activities for treating syphilitic poisoned sores, limb hypertonicity, morbid leucorrhea, eczema pruritus, strangury due to heat, carbuncle toxin, and many other human ailments. Approximately 200 chemical compounds have been isolated from SG Roxb., and the major components have been determined to be flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides, phenolic acids, and steroids. Among these active compounds, the effects of astilbin, which is used as a quality control marker to determine the quality of SG Roxb...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
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