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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822252/removal-of-gadolinium-a-neutron-poison-from-the-moderator-system-of-nuclear-reactors
#1
A L Rufus, Padma S Kumar, K Jeena, S Velmurugan
Gadolinium as gadolinium nitrate is used as neutron poison in the moderator system for regulating and controlling the power generation of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) and proposed to be used in Advanced Heavy Water Reactors (AHWR) owing to its high neutron absorption cross section. Removal of the added gadolinium nitrate (Gd(3+) and NO3(-)) from the system after its intended use is done using ion exchange resins. In the present investigation, attempts have been made to optimize the ion exchange process for generation of low radioactive waste and maximize utilization of the ion exchange resins by employing different types of resins and different modes of operation...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822182/-acute-toxicity-of-euphorbiae-pekinensis-radix-and-vinegar-processing-euphorbiae-pekinensis-radix-on-zebrafish-embryo
#2
Kai-Cheng Zhang, Yu-Dan Cao, Fang Yao, Li Zhang, An-Wei Ding
The embryos of model organism zebrafish were used to evaluate the acute toxicity of the extracts of Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and vinegar-processing Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix, and the total terpene content of each extract was determined by using euphol as the reference standards. Twenty-four h normally developed zebrafish embryos were chosen, and 8 concentrations were adopted for each extract. Then the growth and death of zebrafish embryos were observed at 96 h after administration, and median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the different samples on zebrafish embryos were calculated...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820948/prevalence-and-expression-of-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-genes-in-i-staphylococcus-aureus-i-isolated-from-food-poisoning-outbreaks
#3
Caroline Peixoto Bastos, Milena Tomasi Bassani, Marcia Magalhães Mata, Graciela Volz Lopes, Wladimir Padilha Silva
<i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> is an important pathogen of foodborne origin. The pathogen produces a variety of toxins that includes the staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE). The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and expression of five SE genes (<i>sea</i>, <i>seb</i>, <i>sec</i>, <i>sed</i>, and <i>see</i>) in <i>S. aureus</i> isolated from outbreaks occurred in the Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. All isolates, with the exception of two, presented the same or higher transcriptional expression than the reference strains for at least one of these genes...
August 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820458/electrochemical-biosensors-for-rapid-detection-of-foodborne-salmonella-a-critical-overview
#4
REVIEW
Stefano Cinti, Giulia Volpe, Silvia Piermarini, Elisabetta Delibato, Giuseppe Palleschi
Abstract:Salmonella has represented the most common and primary cause of food poisoning in many countries for at least over 100 years. Its detection is still primarily based on traditional microbiological culture methods which are labor-intensive, extremely time consuming, and not suitable for testing a large number of samples. Accordingly, great efforts to develop rapid, sensitive and specific methods, easy to use, and suitable for multi-sample analysis, have been made and continue. Biosensor-based technology has all the potentialities to meet these requirements...
August 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820222/quasi-zero-dimensional-cobalt-doped-ceo2-dots-on-pd-catalysts-for-alcohol-electro-oxidation-with-enhanced-poisoning-tolerance
#5
Qiang Tan, Haiyan Zhu, Shengwu Guo, Yuanzhen Chen, Tao Jiang, Chengyong Shu, Shaokun Chong, Benjamin Hultman, Yongning Liu, Gang Wu
Deactivation of an anode catalyst resulting from the poisoning of COad-like intermediates is one of the major problems for methanol and ethanol electro-oxidation reactions (MOR & EOR), and remains a grand challenge towards achieving high performance for direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs). Herein, we report a new approach for the preparation of ultrafine cobalt-doped CeO2 dots (Co-CeO2, d = 3.6 nm), which can be an effective anti-poisoning promoter for Pd catalysts towards MOR and EOR in alkaline media. Compared to Pd/CeO2 and pure Pd, the hybrid Pd/Co-CeO2 nanocomposite catalyst exhibited a much enhanced activity and remarkable anti-poisoning ability for both MOR and EOR...
August 18, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820049/receptor-binding-assay-for-the-detection-of-paralytic-shellfish-poisoning-toxins-comparison-to-the-mouse-bioassay-and-applicability-under-regulatory-use
#6
Shiyamalie R Ruberu, Gregg W Langlois, Melisa Masuda, Clive Kittredge, S Kusum Perera, Raphael M Kudela
The receptor-binding assay (RBA) method for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins was evaluated for its overall performance in comparison with the mouse bioassay (MBA). An initial study to evaluate the effects of filtering shellfish extracts prior to running the RBA indicated no significant difference between filtered and unfiltered extracts on the determined saxitoxin concentrations. Next, we tested the RBA assay on 295 naturally contaminated mussel tissue samples, ranging in concentrations from 320 µg STX equiv...
August 18, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817333/the-epidemic-of-despair-among-white-americans-trends-in-the-leading-causes-of-premature-death-1999-2015
#7
Elizabeth M Stein, Keith P Gennuso, Donna C Ugboaja, Patrick L Remington
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate trends in premature death rates by cause of death, age, race, and urbanization level in the United States. METHODS: We calculated cause-specific death rates using the Compressed Mortality File, National Center for Health Statistics data for adults aged 25 to 64 years in 2 time periods: 1999 to 2001 and 2013 to 2015. We defined 48 subpopulations by 10-year age groups, race/ethnicity, and county urbanization level (large urban, suburban, small or medium metropolitan, and rural)...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817328/lead-content-of-sindoor-a-hindu-religious-powder-and-cosmetic-new-jersey-and-india-2014-2015
#8
Manthan P Shah, Derek G Shendell, Pamela Ohman Strickland, John D Bogden, Francis W Kemp, William Halperin
OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent of lead content of sindoor, a powder used by Hindus for religious and cultural purposes, which has been linked to childhood lead poisoning when inadvertently ingested. METHODS: We purchased 95 samples of sindoor from 66 South Asian stores in New Jersey and 23 samples from India and analyzed samples with atomic absorption spectrophotometry methods for lead. RESULTS: Analysis determined that 79 (83.2%) sindoor samples purchased in the United States and 18 (78...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817261/the-effect-of-particulate-matter-mineral-composition-on-environmentally-persistent-free-radical-epfr-formation
#9
Elisabeth Feld-Cook, Gudrun Lisa Bovenkamp-Langlois, Slawomir M Lomnicki
Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFRs) are newly discovered, long-lived surface bound radicals that form on combustion borne particulates, such as fly ash. They are the result of a series of reactions between organic aromatics and metal oxides. Fly ashes contain varying concentrations of metal oxides, calcium and sulfur, which leads to differences in EPFR concentrations. To further investigate the relationship of fly ash composition and EPFR formation in a less complex matrix, surrogate fly ashes were synthesized to mimic the presence of their major mineral components, including metal oxides, calcium and sulfur...
August 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816642/proteomic-analysis-of-the-human-olfactory-bulb
#10
Manjunath Dammalli, Gourav Dey, Anil K Madugundu, Manish Kumar, Benvil Rodrigues, Harsha Gowda, Bychapur Gowrishankar Siddaiah, Anita Mahadevan, Susarla Krishna Shankar, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava Prasad
The importance of olfaction to human health and disease is often underappreciated. Olfactory dysfunction has been reported in association with a host of common complex diseases, including neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. For health, olfaction or the sense of smell is also important for most mammals, for optimal engagement with their environment. Indeed, animals have developed sophisticated olfactory systems to detect and interpret the rich information presented to them to assist in day-to-day activities such as locating food sources, differentiating food from poisons, identifying mates, promoting reproduction, avoiding predators, and averting death...
August 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815994/imrt-qa-using-machine-learning-a-multi-institutional-validation
#11
Gilmer Valdes, Maria F Chan, Seng Boh Lim, Ryan Scheuermann, Joseph O Deasy, Timothy D Solberg
PURPOSE: To validate a machine learning approach to Virtual intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA) for accurately predicting gamma passing rates using different measurement approaches at different institutions. METHODS: A Virtual IMRT QA framework was previously developed using a machine learning algorithm based on 498 IMRT plans, in which QA measurements were performed using diode-array detectors and a 3%local/3 mm with 10% threshold at Institution 1...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815284/analysis-of-lipophilic-marine-biotoxins-by-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-in-seawater-from-the-catalan-coast
#12
Cristina Bosch-Orea, Josep Sanchís, Marinella Farré, Damià Barceló
Marine biotoxins regularly occur along the coast, with several consequences for the environment as well as the food industry. Monitoring of these compounds in seawater is required to assure the safety of marine resources for human consumption, providing a means for forecasting shellfish contamination events. In this study, an analytical method was developed for the detection of ten lipophilic marine biotoxins in seawater: azaspiracids 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, classified as azaspiracid shellfish poisoning toxins, and pectenotoxin 2, okadaic acid and the related dinophysistoxin 1, yessotoxin and homoyessotoxin, classified as diarrheic shellfish poisoning toxins...
August 16, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815198/lead-poisoning
#13
Barbara E C Knollmann-Ritschel, Morri Markowitz
The following fictional case is intended as a learning tool within the Pathology Competencies for Medical Education (PCME), a set of national standards for teaching pathology. These are divided into three basic competencies: Disease Mechanisms and Processes, Organ System Pathology, and Diagnostic Medicine and Therapeutic Pathology. For additional information, and a full list of learning objectives for all three competencies, see http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2374289517715040.
January 2017: Acad Pathol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812385/increased-acetaminophen-related-calls-to-finnish-pic-better-reflect-acetaminophen-sales-than-serious-poisonings
#14
Mikko J Parry, Helena Isoniemi, Anna-Maria Koivusalo, Kalle Hoppu
OBJECTIVE: Acetaminophen (APAP) or paracetamol is a commonly encountered medicine in poisonings. We studied the changes in APAP related calls to the Finnish poison information centre (FPIC), and serious intoxications, involving hepatotoxicity or death in 2001-2014. These data were compared with paracetamol sales in Finland. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of the FPIC database calls, national cause of death registry, registries of liver transplantations and molecular adsorbent recycling system (MARS)-treated patients from Helsinki University Hospital together with the National Institute of Health and Welfare registry of patients hospitalized...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812383/evaluation-of-relationship-between-coronary-artery-status-evaluated-by-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-and-development-of-cardiomyopathy-in-carbon-monoxide-poisoned-patients-with-myocardial-injury-a-prospective-observational-study
#15
Yong Sung Cha, Hyun Kim, Yoonsuk Lee, Woocheol Kwon, Jung-Woo Son, Hyun Youk, Hyung Il Kim, Oh Hyun Kim, Kyung Hye Park, Kyoung-Chul Cha, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang
OBJECTIVES: Whether coronary artery changes are a main mechanism in the development of carbon monoxide (CO)-induced cardiomyopathy remains unknown. We investigated the effects of coronary artery stenosis on the presence or patterns of cardiomyopathy in CO-poisoned patients with myocardial injury defined as elevation of troponin I. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study collected data from consecutive patients who were diagnosed with CO poisoning and myocardial injury during the 24-month study period...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812381/retrospective-review-of-sglt2-inhibitor-exposures-reported-to-13-poison-centers
#16
Scott E Schaeffer, Carol DesLauriers, Henry A Spiller, Alfred Aleguas, Salvador Baeza, Mark L Ryan
BACKGROUND: SGLT2 inhibitors are a new class of oral antidiabetics prescribed in the United States since 2013. They act by inhibiting reabsorption of glucose in the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney, allowing excess glucose to be excreted. Little has been reported regarding effects of non-therapeutic exposure to this class of medication. METHODS: Retrospective records from 13 poison centers were examined for human exposures to SGLT2 inhibitors between 1st January 2013 and 31st December 2016...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812367/the-usefulness-of-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-performed-in-the-acute-phase-as-an-early-predictor-of-delayed-neuropsychiatric-sequelae-in-acute-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#17
Y S Kim, Y S Cha, M S Kim, H J Kim, Y S Lee, H Youk, H I Kim, O H Kim, K-C Cha, H Kim, K H Lee, S O Hwang
Delayed onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms after apparent recovery from acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning has been described as delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae (DNS). No previous study has determined whether early use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) can predict which patients will develop DNS in the acute CO poisoning. This retrospective observational study was performed on adult patients with acute CO poisoning consecutively treated over a 17-month period. All included patients with acute CO poisoning underwent DWI to evaluate brain injury within 72 h after CO exposure...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811944/successful-resuscitation-of-a-patient-with-life-threatening-metabolic-acidosis-by-hemodialysis-a-case-of-ethylene-glycol-intoxication
#18
Ikuyo Narita, Michiko Shimada, Norio Nakamura, Reiichi Murakami, Takeshi Fujita, Wakako Fukuda, Hirofumi Tomita
BACKGROUND: Ethylene glycol intoxication causes severe metabolic acidosis and acute kidney injury. Fomepizole has become available as its antidote. Nevertheless, a prompt diagnosis is not easy because patients are often unconscious. Here we present a case of ethylene glycol intoxication who successfully recovered with prompt hemodialysis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old Japanese male was admitted to a local hospital due to suspected food poisoning. The patient presented with nausea and vomiting, but his condition rapidly deteriorated, with worsening conscious level, respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation, hypotension, and severe acute kidney injury...
2017: Case Reports in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811766/prognostic-factors-determining-morbidity-and-mortality-in-organophosphate-poisoning
#19
Ayca Acikalin, Nezihat Rana Dişel, Selcuk Matyar, Ahmet Sebe, Zeynep Kekec, Yuksel Gokel, Emre Karakoc
OBJECTIVE: Our aim in this retrospective study was to determine the factors affecting poor prognosis and mortality of organophosphate (OP) poisoning by reviewing patient data. We also reviewed present knowledge to make conclusions on certain longstanding debates in light of the literature. METHODS: In this retrospective descriptive study, patients who were admitted to and hospitalized in the emergency department (ED) or intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital with the diagnosis of OP poisoning between December 2010 and December 2015 were evaluated...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811602/identification-of-ciguatoxins-in-a-shark-involved-in-a-fatal-food-poisoning-in-the-indian-ocean
#20
Jorge Diogène, Laia Reverté, Maria Rambla-Alegre, Vanessa Del Río, Pablo de la Iglesia, Mònica Campàs, Oscar Palacios, Cintia Flores, Josep Caixach, Christian Ralijaona, Iony Razanajatovo, Agathe Pirog, Hélène Magalon, Nathalie Arnich, Jean Turquet
Severe food poisoning events after the consumption of sharks have been reported since the 1940s; however, there has been no clear understanding of their cause. Herein, we report for the first time the presence of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in sharks. The identification by mass spectrometry of CTXs, including two new analogues, in a bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas) that was consumed by humans, causing the poisoning and death of 11 people in Madagascar in 2013 is described. Typical neurotoxic ciguatera symptoms were recorded in patients, and toxicological assays on extracts of the shark demonstrated CTX-like activity...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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