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Giovanna Ferraioli, Maria Franca Meloni
This review focuses on the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with SonoVue Epub ahead of print (Bracco Imaging) for the diagnosis of focal liver lesions (FLLs), guidance during ablative treatment, and follow-up of liver tumors. Multicenter trials have shown that the performance of CEUS for the characterization of FLLs is similar to that of contrast-enhanced computed tomography or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. CEUS with SonoVue has been effectively used for guiding the percutaneous treatment of malignant liver tumors that are invisible or poorly visualized in traditional gray-scale ultrasonography...
July 12, 2017: Ultrasonography
Hanping Mao, Zhongshou Liu
In this paper, a composite sensing platform for Hg(II) optical sensing and removal was designed and reported. A core-shell structure was adopted, using magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles as the core, silica molecular sieve MCM-41 as the shell, respectively. Two rhodamine derivatives were synthesized as chemosensor and covalently immobilized into MCM-41 tunnels. Corresponding composite samples were characterized with SEM/TEM images, XRD analysis, IR spectra, thermogravimetry and N2 adsorption/desorption analysis, which confirmed their core-shell structure...
August 15, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Leticia M B Costa E Silva Souza, Katherine J Leung, Anne O'Neill, Jagadeesan Jayender, Thomas C Lee
PURPOSE: Evaluate jugulodigastric node size in cancer-free patients. METHODS: Retrospective review of 234 neck CT angiograms was performed. Known neoplasm, inflammation or poor imaging were excluded. Maximal diameter of the largest jugulodigastric node in the axial plane bilaterally was measured. RESULTS: 172 patients (median age=62) were included. Jugulodigastric node size decreased with age and was statistically significant between those above and below 62years...
July 26, 2017: Clinical Imaging
Joseph L Demer, Robert A Clark, Soh Youn Suh, JoAnn A Giaconi, Kouros Nouri-Mahdavi, Simon K Law, Laura Bonelli, Anne L Coleman, Joseph Caprioli
Purpose: We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to ascertain effects of optic nerve (ON) traction in adduction, a phenomenon proposed as neuropathic in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods: Seventeen patients with POAG and maximal IOP ≤ 20 mm Hg, and 31 controls underwent MRI in central gaze and 20° to 30° abduction and adduction. Optic nerve and sheath area centroids permitted computation of midorbital lengths versus minimum paths. Results: Average mean deviation (±SEM) was -8...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Bo Gao, Xudong Shen, Mark S Shiroishi, Mingfan Pang, Zhiqian Li, Benxia Yu, Guiquan Shen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain tumors in the corticospinal tract (CST) region are more likely to cause motor dysfunction. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of gliomas located in the CST region on motor function with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) preoperatively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five patients with histopathologically confirmed gliomas were included in this pilot study, in all cases (low-grade n = 13, high-grade n = 32) CST but not the motor cortex were involved by the tumor...
2017: PloS One
Qi Li, Wen-Song Yang, Xing-Chen Wang, Du Cao, Dan Zhu, Fa-Jin Lv, Yang Liu, Liang Yuan, Gang Zhang, Xin Xiong, Rui Li, Yun-Xin Hu, Xin-Yue Qin, Peng Xie
INTRODUCTION: Blend sign has been recently described as a novel imaging marker that predicts hematoma expansion. The purpose of our study was to investigate the prognostic value of CT blend sign in patients with ICH. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage who underwent baseline CT scan within 6 hours were included. The presence of blend sign on admission nonenhanced CT was independently assessed by two readers. The functional outcome was assessed by using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 90 days...
2017: PloS One
Sibu P Kuruvilla, Gopinath Tiruchinapally, A Colleen Crouch, Mohamed E H ElSayed, Joan M Greve
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related deaths every year globally. The most common form of treatment, hepatic arterial infusion (HAI), involves the direct injection of doxorubicin (DOX) into the hepatic artery. It is plagued with limited therapeutic efficacy and the occurrence of severe toxicities (e.g. cardiotoxicity). We aim to improve the therapeutic index of DOX delivered via HAI by loading the drug onto generation 5 (G5) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers targeted to hepatic cancer cells via N-acetylgalactosamine (NAcGal) ligands...
2017: PloS One
Faruq Pradhan, Joseph D Burns, Ahmed Agameya, Avignat Patel, Mohammad Alfaqih, Juan E Small, Winnie Ooi
Zika virus (ZIKV) has a wide clinical spectrum of associated neurologic disease including microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome but, despite its known neurotropism, ZIKV meningoencephalitis and myelitis have been rare complications. We describe a case of ZIKV meningoencephalitis and probable myelitis and its associated magnetic resonance imaging findings that rapidly resolved during recovery in a previously healthy adult.
August 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Jangsup Moon, Ki-Young Jung, Manho Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Kon Chu
Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is a major cause of devastating viral encephalitis, especially in Asia. Although a successful vaccination program led to its near-elimination over three decades in South Korea, the incidence of JE has increased since 2010. The present study investigated the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and factors affecting neurological outcomes of reemerging JE. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of laboratory-confirmed JE patients who presented with acute encephalitis syndrome at three tertiary hospitals between 2010 and 2015...
August 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jack D Dischler, Timothy G Baumer, Evan Finkelstein, Daniel S Siegal, Michael J Bey
BACKGROUND: Shoulder injuries are common among competitive swimmers, and the progression of shoulder pathology is not well understood. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which years of competitive swim training were associated with physical properties of the supraspinatus muscle and tendon, shoulder strength, and self-reported assessments of shoulder pain and function. HYPOTHESIS: Increasing years of competition will be associated with declining physical properties of the supraspinatus muscle/tendon and declining self-reported assessments of pain and function...
August 1, 2017: Sports Health
Wang Gang, Yu Lan, Zhou Xiao Ming, Li Zhi Ming, Zhao Rui Rui, Niu Lei, Sui Qing Lan, Li Hui Jian
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical significance of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging by evaluating cerebral hemodynamic changes quantitatively and qualitatively both before and after cranioplasty in patients with brain injury. METHODS: Sixteen patients with cerebral trauma underwent CTP imaging 2 days before and 10-15 days after cranioplasty. The cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time and time to peak were analysed in both the affected and corresponding contralateral regions, including the basal ganglia, thalamus, cortex and white matter...
August 22, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
Yuzo Yamada, Yukiyoshi Toritsuka, Norimasa Nakamura, Shuji Horibe, Kazuomi Sugamoto, Hideki Yoshikawa, Konsei Shino
BACKGROUND: The concepts of lateral deviation and lateral inclination of the patella, characterized as shift and tilt, have been applied in combination to evaluate patellar malalignment in patients with patellar dislocation. It is not reasonable, however, to describe the 3-dimensional (3D) positional relation between the patella and the femur according to measurements made on 2-dimensional (2D) images. PURPOSE: The current study sought to clarify the relation between lateral deviation and inclination of the patella in patients with recurrent dislocation of the patella (RDP) by redefining them via 3D computer models as 3D shift and 3D tilt...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Paul Rouster, Marko Pavlovic, Endre Horváth, László Forró, Sandwip K Dey, István Szilágyi
The colloidal stability of titanium oxide nanosheets (TNS) and nanowires (TiONW) was studied in the presence of protamine (natural polyelectrolyte) in aqueous dispersions, where the nanostructures possessed negative net charge and the protamine was positively charged. Regardless of their shape, similar charging and aggregation behaviors were observed for both TNS and TiONW. Electrophoretic experiments performed at different protamine loadings revealed that the adsorption of protamine led to charge neutralization and charge inversion depending on the polyelectrolyte dose applied...
August 22, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Chen Dai, Shengjian Zhang, Zhuang Liu, Rong Wu, Yu Chen
Ultrasound (US) can activate sonosensitizers for sonodynamic therapy (SDT), but the low activation efficiency and therapeutic outcome significantly hinder its further clinical translation. Inspired by the principles of semiconductor physics and photocatalysis chemistry, we herein report on augmenting the sonocatalytic efficiency of semiconductor TiO2-based nanosonosensitizers for highly efficient SDT by the integration of two-dimensional (2D) ultrathin graphene with TiO2 nanosonosensitizers. The high electroconductivity of graphene facilitates the separation of the electrons (e-) and holes (h+) pairs from the energy band of TiO2 and avoids their recombination upon external US irradiation, thus it significantly augments the therapeutic efficiency of TiO2 nanosonosensitizers for SDT against tumor...
August 22, 2017: ACS Nano
Ye Fan, Alex W Robertson, Yingqiu Zhou, Qu Chen, Xiaowei Zhang, Nigel D Browning, Haimei Zheng, Mark H Rummeli, Jamie H Warner
The high-bias and breakdown behavior of suspended mono- and few-layer WS2 was explored by in situ aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy (AC-TEM). The suspended WS2 devices were found to undergo irreversible breakdown at sufficiently high biases due to vaporization of the WS2. Simultaneous to the removal of WS2 was the accompanying formation of few-layer graphene decorated with W and WS2 nanoparticles, with the carbon source attributed to organic residues present on the WS2 surface. The breakdown of few-layer WS2 resulted in the formation of facetted S-depleted WS2 tendrils along the vaporization boundary, which were found to exhibit lattice contraction indicative of S depletion, alongside pure W phases incorporated into the structure, with the interfaces imaged at atomic resolution...
August 22, 2017: ACS Nano
Arif Gulzar, Jiating Xu, Piaoping Yang, Fei He, Liangge Xu
Lanthanide-doped photon upconverting nanomaterials are evolving as a new class of imaging contrast agents, offering highly promising prospects in the area of biomedical applications. Owing to their ability to convert long-wavelength near-infrared excitation radiation into shorter-wavelength emissions, these nanomaterials are well suited to yield properties of low imaging background, large anti-Stokes shift, along with high optical penetration depth of NIR light for deep tissue optical imaging or light-activated drug release and therapy...
August 22, 2017: Nanoscale
Maryam Malekigorji, Mohanad Alfahad, Paul Kong Thoo Lin, Stefanie Jones, Anthony Curtis, Clare Hoskins
Hybrid iron oxide-gold nanoparticles (HNPs) show the ability to bind drugs onto their surface with a triggered release at elevated temperatures. The iron oxide core allows for diagnostic imaging whilst heating of the gold shell upon laser irradiation reverses drug binding. This study exploits the reversible binding of novel polyamine based drugs in order to provide a specific and effective method for pancreatic cancer treatment. Here we used a novel bisnaphthalamido (BNIP) based drug series. Our hybrid nanoparticles (50 nm) showed the ability to load drugs onto their surface (3 : 1 : 0...
August 22, 2017: Nanoscale
Yiwei Zhou, Yong Hu, Wenjie Sun, Benqing Zhou, Jianzhi Zhu, Chen Peng, Mingwu Shen, Xiangyang Shi
We report the facile synthesis of polyaniline (PANI)-loaded γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA) nanogels (NGs) for photoacoustic (PA) imaging-guided photothermal therapy (PTT) of tumors. In this work, γ-PGA NGs were first formed via a double emulsion approach, followed by crosslinking with cystamine dihydrochloride (Cys) via 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride coupling chemistry. The formed γ-PGA/Cys NGs were employed as a nanoreactor to load aniline monomers via an electrostatic interaction for subsequent in situ polymerization in the presence of ammonium persulfate...
August 22, 2017: Nanoscale
Jayde A Aufrecht, Jennifer M Ryan, Sahar Hasim, David P Allison, Andreas Nebenführ, Mitchel J Doktycz, Scott T Retterer
Root hairs increase root surface area for better water uptake and nutrient absorption by the plant. Because they are small in size and often obscured by their natural environment, root hair morphology and function are difficult to study and often excluded from plant research. In recent years, microfluidic platforms have offered a way to visualize root systems at high resolution without disturbing the roots during transfer to an imaging system. The microfluidic platform presented here builds on previous plant-on-a-chip research by incorporating a two-layer device to confine the Arabidopsis thaliana main root to the same optical plane as the root hairs...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Adam J Rossano, Michael F Romero
Epithelial ion transport is vital to systemic ion homeostasis as well as maintenance of essential cellular electrochemical gradients. Intracellular pH (pHi) is influenced by many ion transporters and thus monitoring pHi is a useful tool for assessing transporter activity. Modern Genetically Encoded pH-Indicators (GEpHIs) provide optical quantification of pHi in intact cells on a cellular and subcellular scale. This protocol describes real-time quantification of cellular pHi regulation in Malpighian Tubules (MTs) of Drosophila melanogaster through ex vivo live-imaging of pHerry, a pseudo-ratiometric GEpHI with a pKa well-suited to track pH changes in the cytosol...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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