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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454214/observation-of-the-degradation-of-three-types-of-plastic-pellets-exposed-to-uv-irradiation-in-three-different-environments
#1
Liqi Cai, Jundong Wang, Jinping Peng, Ziqing Wu, Xiangling Tan
Plastic debris represents one of the most prevalent and persistent pollution problems in the marine environment. In particular, microplastics that are mainly degraded from larger plastic debris have become a growing environmental concern. However, studies on the degradation of plastics in the aquatic environment that hydrobios reside in have been limited, while several studies regarding the degradation of plastics have been conducted under outdoor or accelerated weathering conditions. Thus, observation of the degradation of three types of virgin plastic pellets exposed to UV irradiation in three different environments (i...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454195/chrna4-variant-causes-paroxysmal-kinesigenic-dyskinesia-and-genetic-epilepsy-with-febrile-seizures-plus
#2
Yong-Li Jiang, Fang Yuan, Ying Yang, Xiao-Long Sun, Lu Song, Wen Jiang
PURPOSE: Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) and epilepsy are thought to have a shared genetic etiology. PRRT2 has been identified as a causative gene of both disorders. In this study, we aim to explore the potential novel causative gene in a PRRT2-negative family with three individuals diagnosed with PKD or genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). METHODS: Clinical data were collected from all the affected and unaffected members of a PKD/GEFS+ family...
February 10, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454188/modified-two-step-emulsion-solvent-evaporation-technique-for-fabricating-biodegradable-rod-shaped-particles-in-the-submicron-size-range
#3
Hanieh Safari, Reheman Adili, Michael Holinstat, Omolola Eniola-Adefeso
HYPOTHESIS: Though the emulsion solvent evaporation (ESE) technique has been previously modified to produce rod-shaped particles, it cannot generate small-sized rods for drug delivery applications due to the inherent coupling and contradicting requirements for the formation versus stretching of droplets. The separation of the droplet formation from the stretching step should enable the creation of submicron droplets that are then stretched in the second stage by manipulation of the system viscosity along with the surface-active molecule and oil-phase solvent...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454181/brainstem-dysfunction-heralding-disseminated-cryptococcosis
#4
Prachaya Srivanitchapoom, Yuvadee Pitakpatapee, Panitta Sitthinamsuwan, Sith Sathornsumetee
Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is one of the most common central nervous system infections affecting immunocompromised patients. However, brainstem involvement is extremely rare and may represent a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. We report a non-HIV infected, chronically immunosuppressed, patient with fatal disseminated cryptococcosis presented with subcutaneous masses at both thighs and progressive brainstem dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multiple brainstem infarcts likely derived from small vessel vasculopathy...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454154/age-related-functional-changes-in-domain-specific-medial-temporal-lobe-pathways
#5
David Berron, Katja Neumann, Anne Maass, Hartmut Schütze, Klaus Fliessbach, Verena Kiven, Frank Jessen, Magdalena Sauvage, Dharshan Kumaran, Emrah Düzel
There is now converging evidence from studies in animals and humans that the medial temporal lobes (MTLs) harbor anatomically distinct processing pathways for object and scene information. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in humans suggest that this domain-specific organization may be associated with a functional preference of the anterior-lateral part of the entorhinal cortex (alErC) for objects and the posterior-medial entorhinal cortex (pmErC) for scenes. As MTL subregions are differentially affected by aging and neurodegenerative diseases, the question was raised whether aging may affect the 2 pathways differentially...
January 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454148/-68-ga-galmydar-biodistribution-and-radiation-dosimetry-studies-in-rodents
#6
Jothilingam Sivapackiam, Richard Laforest, Vijay Sharma
INTRODUCTION: 68 Ga-Galmydar is an avid transport substrate of ABCB1 (P-Glycoprotein; 170kDa plasma membrane protein), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; ABCG2; 72kDa), penetrates human epidermal carcinoma (KB3-1), breast cancer (MCF7), embryonic kidney (HEK 293) tumor cells and rat cardiomyoblasts, and localizes within the mitochondria of tumor and myocardium cells. 68 Ga-Galmydar excretes from blood pool quickly, and shows stable retention within rat myocardium in vivo for extended periods, therefore, the agent shows potential to enable myocardial perfusion imaging...
December 1, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454133/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-neural-axis-anomalies-in-idiopathic-scoliosis-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Johan L Heemskerk, Moyo C Kruyt, Dino Colo, René M Castelein, Diederik H R Kempen
BACKGROUND: There is ongoing controversy about the routine use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) preoperatively in patients with presumed idiopathic scoliosis (IS). Routine MRI can help identify possible causes for the deformity and detect anomalies which could complicate deformity surgery. However, routine MRI increases health care costs significantly and may reveal mild variations from normal without clinical relevance, that can still lead to anxiety and influence decision making...
February 14, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454130/abscess-within-a-glioblastoma-mimicking-a-matryoshka-doll
#8
Kislay Kishore, Manish Beniwal, Shilpa Rao, K V L N Rao, Vikas Vazhayil, Dwarkanath Srinivas, Sampath Somanna
BACKGROUND: Abscess co-existing within a brain tumor is a rare entity. Case reports in literature primarily consist of sellar pathology and parenchymal lesions including meningioma, glioma, and metastases. We report a case of glioblastoma with an intra-tumoral abscess in a middle-aged lady with no prior invasive procedure or systemic focus of infection. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 45-year old lady presented with new onset generalized seizures and rapidly progressive left hemiparesis...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454128/preoperative-3-dimensional-angiography-data-and-intraoperative-real-time-vascular-data-integrated-in-microscope-based-navigation-by-automatic-patient-registration-applying-intraoperative-computed-tomography
#9
Barbara Carl, Miriam Bopp, Somar Chehab, Siegfried Bien, Christopher Nimsky
OBJECTIVE: To establish a workflow integrating preoperative 3-D angiography data, as well as intraoperative real-time vascular information in microscope-based navigation for aneurysm and arteriovenous malformation surgery. PATIENTS & METHODS: In 7 patients (3 arteriovenous malformations, 4 aneurysms) preoperative 3-D rotational angiography or computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance angiography data were navigated applying a 32-slice movable CT scanner for low-dose registration scanning...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454126/iatrogenic-spondylolisthesis-following-open-lumbar-laminectomy-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Seba Ramhmdani, Yuanxuan Xia, Risheng Xu, Thomas Kosztowski, Daniel Sciubba, Timothy Witham, Ali Bydon
OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis and surgical management of post-laminectomy spondylolisthesis in patients without pre-operative instability is presented with a review of relevant literature. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records and radiographic studies of 105 patients who underwent first-time bilateral 1-4 level open laminectomies for degenerative lumbar disease at a single academic institution. Patients who initially presented with listhesis and had additional discectomy or fusion procedures were excluded...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454122/rope-jumping-induced-traumatic-compression-fractures-the-underestimated-danger-of-repetitive-axial-load-forces
#11
Tobias A Mattei
The author describes a case of a non-osteoporotic adult presenting with multilevel compression fractures at the apex of the thoracic kyphosis after strenuous rope jumping. MRI demonstrated diffuse bone marrow changes in the vertebral bodies with only a very small unilateral endplate fracture. Besides highlighting the oftentimes neglected role of repetitive sub-pathological axial load forces in traumatic spinal injuries, the observed imaging pattern substantiates previous experimental studies which demonstrated that under cyclic axial loading the initial damage occurs in the cancellous regions of the bone (with observation of microscopic/50-100 μM long cracks), ultimately leading to a reduction in its elastic modulus...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454120/optic-nerve-atrophy-due-to-long-standing-compression-by-planum-sphenoidale-meningioma
#12
Alberto Di Somma, Ariel Matias Kaen, Eugenio Cárdenas Ruiz-Valdepeñas, Luigi Maria Cavallo
In this study we report an uncommon endoscopic endonasal image of an atrophic optic nerve as seen after surgical removal of a suprasellar meningioma. The peculiarity of this case is the long-lasting underestimated ocular symptomatology of the patient who reported a 15-year history of impairment of vision on her left eye. After making serendipitously the diagnosis of a suprasellar mass, an endoscopic endonasal surgery was performed and, at the end of tumor removal, the impressive left optic nerve atrophy due to enduring local compression was visualized...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454104/functional-brain-connectivity-is-predictable-from-anatomic-network-s-laplacian-eigen-structure
#13
Farras Abdelnour, Michael Dayan, Orrin Devinsky, Thomas Thesen, Ashish Raj
How structural connectivity (SC) gives rise to functional connectivity (FC) is not fully understood. Here we mathematically derive a simple relationship between SC measured from diffusion tensor imaging, and FC from resting state fMRI. We establish that SC and FC are related via (structural) Laplacian spectra, whereby FC and SC share eigenvectors and their eigenvalues are exponentially related. This gives, for the first time, a simple and analytical relationship between the graph spectra of structural and functional networks...
February 14, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454098/quantitative-imaging-features-and-postoperative-hepatic-insufficiency-a-multi-institutional-expanded-cohort
#14
Linda M Pak, Jayasree Chakraborty, Mithat Gonen, William C Chapman, Richard Kg Do, Bas Groot Koerkamp, Kees Verhoef, Ser Yee Lee, Marco Massani, Eric P van der Stok, Amber L Simpson
BACKGROUND: Post-hepatectomy liver insufficiency (PHLI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after liver resection. Quantitative imaging analysis using CT scans measures variations in pixel intensity related to perfusion. A preliminary study demonstrated a correlation between quantitative imaging features of the future liver remnant (FLR) parenchyma from preoperative CT scans and PHLI. The objective of the present study was to explore the potential application of quantitative imaging analysis in PHLI in an expanded, multi-institutional cohort...
February 14, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454006/predicting-cognitive-decline-with-deep-learning-of-brain-metabolism-and-amyloid-imaging
#15
Hongyoon Choi, Kyong Hwan Jin
For effective treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is important to identify subjects who are most likely to exhibit rapid cognitive decline. We aimed to develop an automatic image interpretation system based on a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) which can accurately predict future cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients using flurodeoxyglucose and florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET). PET images of 139 patients with AD, 171 patients with MCI and 182 normal subjects obtained from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database were used...
February 14, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454000/anticipatory-stress-associated-with-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-implications-for-psychosocial-stress-research
#16
Ethan W Gossett, Muriah D Wheelock, Adam M Goodman, Tyler R Orem, Nathaniel G Harnett, Kimberly H Wood, Sylvie Mrug, Douglas A Granger, David C Knight
Stress tasks performed during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) elicit a relatively small cortisol response compared to stress tasks completed in a traditional behavioral laboratory, which may be due to apprehension of fMRI that elicits an anticipatory stress response. The present study investigated whether anticipatory stress is greater prior to research completed in an MRI environment than in a traditional behavioral laboratory. Anticipatory stress (indexed by cortisol) was greater prior to testing in the MRI environment than traditional behavioral laboratory...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453990/atp-activated-p2x7-receptor-in-the-pathophysiology-of-mood-disorders-and-as-an-emerging-target-for-the-development-of-novel-antidepressant-therapeutics
#17
REVIEW
Linyu Wei, Sharifah A Syed Mortadza, Jing Yan, Libin Zhang, Lu Wang, Yaling Yin, Chaokun Li, Sylvie Chalon, Patrick Emond, Catherine Belzung, Dongliang Li, Chengbiao Lu, Sebastien Roger, Lin-Hua Jiang
Mood disorders are a group of psychiatric conditions that represent leading global disease burdens. Increasing evidence from clinical and preclinical studies supports that innate immune system dysfunction plays an important part in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. P2X7 receptor, belonging to the ligand-gated ion channel P2X subfamily of purinergic P2 receptors for extracellular ATP, is highly expressed in immune cells including microglia in the central nervous system (CNS) and has a vital role in mediating innate immune response...
February 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453959/indices-of-repetitive-behaviour-are-correlated-with-patterns-of-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-in-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
J M Traynor, K A R Doyle-Thomas, L C Hanford, N E Foster, A Tryfon, K L Hyde, E Anagnostou, A C Evans, L Zwaigenbaum, G B C Hall, NeuroDevNet Asd Imaging Group
The purpose of the current study was to examine how repetitive behaviour in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is related to intrinsic functional connectivity patterns in a number of large-scale, neural networks. Resting-state fMRI scans from thirty subjects with ASD and thirty-two age-matched, typically developing control subjects were analysed. Seed-to-voxel and ROI-to-ROI functional connectivity analyses were used to examine resting-state connectivity in a number of cortical and subcortical neural networks. Bivariate correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationship between repetitive behaviour scores from the Repetitive Behaviour Scale - Revised and intrinsic functional connectivity in ASD subjects...
February 14, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453944/clinical-features-of-extrapulmonary-sarcoidosis-without-lung-involvement
#19
W Ennis James, Efstratios Koutroumpakis, Biplab Saha, Alireza Nathani, Leahruth Saavedra, Recai M Yucel, Marc A Judson
BACKGROUND: Compared to pulmonary sarcoidosis, sarcoidosis without lung involvement may involve other immunopathologic mechanisms and be associated with other demographic and clinical features. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of clinical data collected in real time on 1,686 patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis from two large university sarcoidosis outpatient clinics in the United States. We compared differences in demographics characteristics and clinical presentation between pulmonary and non-pulmonary sarcoidosis (NPS)...
February 14, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453936/a-new-method-for-the-rapid-characterization-of-root-growth-and-distribution-using-digital-image-correlation
#20
Tan Bao, Garrett W Melenka, Megan K Ljubotina, Jason P Carey, James F Cahill
Rapidly determining root growth patterns is biologically important and technically challenging. Current methods focus on direct observation of roots and require destructive excavations or time-consuming root tracing. We developed a novel methodology based on analyzing soil particle displacement, rather than direct observation of roots. This inferred root growth method uses digital image correlation (DIC) analysis, an established and high-throughput method used in many engineering and science disciplines. By applying DIC analyses to repeated images of plants grown in clear window boxes, we produced visually intuitive and quantifiable strain maps, indicating the magnitude and direction of soil movement...
February 17, 2018: New Phytologist
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