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GI Endoscopy

Guido Woeste
Most procedures in gastrointestinal (GI) surgery require reconstruction with an anastomosis. Depending on the location within the GI tract, the perfusion and comorbidities of the patients there is a risk for anastomotic leakage. In case of peritonitis with sepsis usually a surgical treatment is required. A stable patient can be treated nonoperatively. In the following overview different treatment options of anastomotic leakage after surgery of the GI tract are described. In case of a leakage of an esophagojejunal or esophagogastric anastomosis after resection of the esophagus or stomach endoscopic treatment can be successful using either clip or stent or negative pressure therapy (NPT)...
March 2018: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Yu Meng, FangGen Lu, Lin Shi, MeiChu Cheng, Jie Zhang
RATIONALE: The use of anticoagulants is a contributor to gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Most bleeding patients on anticoagulant therapy such as warfarin commonly have basic lesions existing in their GI mucosa. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of major GI bleeding following the use of anticoagulants in a patient with hookworm infection. DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome with pulmonary embolism. INTERVENTIONS: He was treated with anticoagulants and suffered from acute major GI bleeding during the treatment...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
L Gatta, C Scarpignato, G Fiorini, J Belsey, I M Saracino, C Ricci, D Vaira
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of strains resistant to antimicrobial agents is a critical issue in the management of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. AIMS: (1) To evaluate the prevalence of primary resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole and levofloxacin (2) to assess the effectiveness of sequential therapy on resistant strains (3) to identify the minimum number of subjects to enrol for evaluating the effectiveness of an eradication regimen in patients harbouring resistant strains...
March 14, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Agne Krilaviciute, Christian Stock, Marcis Leja, Hermann Brenner
Regular screening for gastric cancer (GC) is based on invasive upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and is limited to few high incidence countries. As GC is a major cause of cancer death worldwide, a non-invasive, simple screening test is of value. We assessed the prevalence of preclinical GC and the corresponding numbers needed to screen (NNS) to detect GC cases both without and with preselection using breath tests from the literature in various populations. 
 Methods: Using age- and sex-specific GC incidence data and transition rates from preclinical to clinical GC, we estimated prevalences of preclinical GC worldwide in the populations aged 50-74 years, and we evaluated the accuracy of breath testing for GC detection based on published studies...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
G Mulkerrin, N M Hogan, M Sheehan, M R Joyce
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs) are a rare slow growing malignancy, accounting for less than 1% of all gastrointestinal (GI) tract tumors. These tumors are usually discovered incidentally by endoscopy, surgery or radiology. However on occasions they may present with significant symptoms including GI blood loss. This case report discusses an atypical presentation of a GIST in a 57-year-old female. CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old woman presented to the emergency department following one episode of melena...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Dong Il Gwon, Gi-Young Ko, Young Baek Kwon, Hyun-Ki Yoon, Kyu-Bo Sung
Objective: To investigate the technical and clinical outcomes of plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO) for the treatment of gastric varices (GV) and to evaluate the role of intra-procedural cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) performed during PARTO to confirm its technical success. Materials and Methods: From January 2016 to December 2016, 17 patients with GV who had undergone PARTO were retrospectively evaluated. When the proximal part of the afferent vein was identified on a fluoroscopy, non-contrast CBCT images were obtained...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
Romano Schneider, Ioannis Lazaridis, Marko Kraljević, Christoph Beglinger, Bettina Wölnerhanssen, Ralph Peterli
BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing use of bariatric surgery as the most effective treatment of morbid obesity, there is still no consensus on its preoperative diagnostic workup. The aim of this study was to identify the pathologies of the endoscopic and radiologic investigations before performing bariatric surgery and to evaluate their impact on the patient management. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of 1225 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 834) or sleeve gastrectomy (n = 391) at our institution...
January 12, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Waseem M Seleem, Amr Shaaban Hanafy, Samir I Mohamed
OBJECTIVE: Despite the therapeutic and surgical interventions for the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), yet the high cost and the post-operative complications had led to a significant socioeconomic burden. The aim was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic band ligation (EBL) in the management of refractory GERD. METHODS: A total of 150 patients with refractory GERD were assigned to an EBL group (banding was done at four quadrants just at the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) (n = 75) or to a control group (optimized dose of PPI, n = 75)...
February 28, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Dhruvkumar Patel, Mukundkumar V Patel, Sanjay L Rajput, Kamal Sharma
INTRODUCTION: 36 out of 100 cases of retrosternal chest pains are due to oesophageal pathologies and pill-induced oesophagitis(PIO) is one of them. PIO can present as retrosternal chest pain associated with various gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and require a high index of suspicion. PIO is a clinical diagnosis; and oesophagogastroscopy is required for confirmation of the diagnosis, to find out complications of PIO and to rule out other oesophageal disorders. Our aims of the present study were to study clinical profile, risk factors and endoscopic features of PIO...
February 26, 2018: Current Drug Safety
Victor L Fox
Vascular anomalies are a morphologically and biologically diverse group of vascular channel abnormalities that are often congenital but may evolve or change over time in the developing child. Classification is based on a combination of physical and biological properties and clinical behavior that differentiate primarily between tumors and malformations and includes a few provisionally unclassified lesions. Anomalies of the GI tract may present clinically with GI bleeding, abdominal pain, high-output cardiac failure, and malabsorption...
February 23, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
G Böhm
BACKGROUND: The radiological evaluation of the upper gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) is a diagnostic challenge. Although endoscopy has pushed radiographic methods into the background, these methods continue to play a key role in the diagnosis of dysphagia. In addition, cross-sectional imaging (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) is increasingly used in complex clinical cases to evaluate surrounding tissue changes. METHODS: By combining conventional double-contrast techniques with a video recording, the entire upper GI tract can be assessed both anatomically and functionally in one examination procedure...
February 23, 2018: Der Radiologe
Tonmoy Ghosh, Shaikh Anowarul Fattah, Khan A Wahid
Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is the most advanced technology to visualize whole gastrointestinal (GI) tract in a non-invasive way. But the major disadvantage here, it takes long reviewing time, which is very laborious as continuous manual intervention is necessary. In order to reduce the burden of the clinician, in this paper, an automatic bleeding detection method for WCE video is proposed based on the color histogram of block statistics, namely CHOBS. A single pixel in WCE image may be distorted due to the capsule motion in the GI tract...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Hiroshi Kawakami, Tesshin Ban, Yoshimasa Kubota
Hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) is caused by gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal damage alone or in combination with bowel distension, sepsis, and invasion by gas-producing bacteria. The most common cause is mesenteric ischemia associated with bowel necrosis. Iatrogenic HPVG is a rare condition that occurs following various endoscopic procedures 1 . Herein, we present an unusual case of HPVG following balloon endoscopy (BE). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 17, 2018: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
Uri Kopylov, Michael Starr, Craig Watts, Serge Dionne, Marc Girardin, Ernest G Seidman
OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is generally reported to be associated with spondylarthropathies (SpA) in 5%-15% of cases. Systematic colonoscopic assessment by protocol demonstrated mucosal inflammation characteristic of Crohn disease (CD) in up to one-third of patients with SpA. Video capsule endoscopy (CE) is a superior diagnostic tool to detect small bowel mucosal disease. Our study compared the accuracy of CE to standard colonoscopy for detection of inflammatory bowel lesions in patients with SpA, and to describe predictors of small bowel inflammation (SBI) in this cohort...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
Robert Venning Bryant, Antony Friedman, Emily Kate Wright, Kirstin Taylor, Jakob Begun, Giovanni Maconi, Christian Maaser, Kerri L Novak, Torsten Kucharzik, Nathan S S Atkinson, Anil Asthana, Peter R Gibson
Evolution of treatment targets in IBD has increased the need for objective monitoring of disease activity to guide therapeutic strategy. Although mucosal healing is the current target of therapy in IBD, endoscopy is invasive, expensive and unappealing to patients. GI ultrasound (GIUS) represents a non-invasive modality to assess disease activity in IBD. It is accurate, cost-effective and reproducible. GIUS can be performed at the point of care without specific patient preparation so as to facilitate clinical decision-making...
February 3, 2018: Gut
Divyesh Reddy Nemakayala, Manoj P Rai, Julie L Yam, Heather Laird-Fick
A Dieulafoy's lesion is defined as a dilated, aberrant, submucosal artery that erodes overlying mucosa in the absence of an underlying ulcer, aneurysm or intrinsic mural abnormality. It is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleed with a very high mortality rate if it goes unidentified. It is most commonly located in the lesser curvature of the stomach but is extremely rare in the oesophagus. We are reporting a 55-year-old man who had massive haematemesis. Emergent endoscopy showed Dieulafoy's lesion in the distal oesophagus...
February 7, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Dennis Yang, Peter V Draganov
OPINION STATEMENT: "Third space" endoscopy, also commonly referred as submucosal endoscopy, is founded on the principle that the deeper layers of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can be accessed by tunneling in the submucosal space without compromising the integrity of the overlying mucosa. Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), and submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection (STER) are innovative techniques within the field of third space endoscopy in the management of esophageal disorders...
March 2018: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Fangfang Yuan, Xiaowei Tang, Wei Gong, Lei Su, Yali Zhang
Foreign body ingestion is a relatively common occurrence, which may lead to morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to report the experience of management of upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies by endoscopy in a large center. All patients who presented at the Department of Gastroenterology at Nanfang Hospital (Guangzhou, China) with complaints regarding upper gastrointestinal (GI) foreign body ingestion from December 1987 to December 2013. Hospital medical charts and endoscopic records were examined to evaluate etiology, treatment, and outcomes for these patients...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Marc Nguyen-Tat, Constantin Cornelius, Arthur Hoffman, Achim Tresch, Joerg Krey, Ralf Kiesslich, Peter Robert Galle, Johannes Wilhelm Rey
BACKGROUND:  Suspected gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common initial diagnosis in emergency departments. Despite existing endoscopic scores to estimate the risk of GI bleeding, the primary clinical assessment of urgency can remain challenging. The 5-step Manchester Triage System (MTS) is a validated score that is often applied for the initial assessment of patients presenting in emergency departments. METHODS:  All computer-based records of patients who were admitted between January 2014 and December 2014 to our emergency department in a tertiary referral hospital were analyzed retrospectively...
February 9, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Per Eriksson, Mårten Segelmark, Olof Hallböök
OBJECTIVE: Involvement of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a rare complication of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). The aim was to describe frequency, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of GI disease in a large series of patients in a single center. METHODS: A database that includes all patients with GPA and MPA diagnosed since 1997 in a defined area of southeastern Sweden as well as prevalent older cases and tertiary referral patients was screened for patients with GI disease...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
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