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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886793/innovative-approaches-to-hypertension-control-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#1
REVIEW
Rajesh Vedanthan, Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz, Omarys I Herasme, Rohina Joshi, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Amanda G Thrift, Jacqui Webster, Ruth Webster, Karen Yeates, Joyce Gyamfi, Merina Ieremia, Claire Johnson, Jemima H Kamano, Maria Lazo-Porras, Felix Limbani, Peter Liu, Tara McCready, J Jaime Miranda, Sailesh Mohan, Olugbenga Ogedegbe, Brian Oldenburg, Bruce Ovbiagele, Mayowa Owolabi, David Peiris, Vilarmina Ponce-Lucero, Devarsetty Praveen, Arti Pillay, Jon-David Schwalm, Sheldon W Tobe, Kathy Trieu, Khalid Yusoff, Valentin Fuster
Elevated blood pressure, a major risk factor for ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and stroke, is the leading global risk for mortality. Treatment and control rates are very low in low- and middle-income countries. There is an urgent need to address this problem. The Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases sponsored research projects focus on controlling hypertension, including community engagement, salt reduction, salt substitution, task redistribution, mHealth, and fixed-dose combination therapies. This paper reviews the rationale for each approach and summarizes the experience of some of the research teams...
February 2017: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856262/association-between-renal-function-and-chemotherapy-related-toxicity-in-older-adults-with-cancer
#2
Lindsay L Peterson, Arti Hurria, Tao Feng, Supriya G Mohile, Cynthia Owusu, Heidi D Klepin, Cary P Gross, Stuart M Lichtman, Ajeet Gajra, Ilya Glezerman, Vani Katheria, Laura Zavala, David D Smith, Can-Lan Sun, William P Tew
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between renal function (RF) and chemotherapy-related toxicity (CRT) in older adults with cancer and to compare the effect of different RF formulas and body weight measurements on this association. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of data from a prospective multicenter study of patients ≥ age 65 who were starting a new chemotherapy regimen. RF was estimated with 4 formulas (modified Jelliffe [Jelliffe], Cockcroft-Gault [CG], Wright, and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease [MDRD]), using actual, ideal and adjusted body weights for 492 patients...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811053/emerging-concepts-and-future-challenges-in-innate-lymphoid-cell-biology
#3
REVIEW
Elia D Tait Wojno, David Artis
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are innate immune cells that are ubiquitously distributed in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues and enriched at mucosal and barrier surfaces. Three major ILC subsets are recognized in mice and humans. Each of these subsets interacts with innate and adaptive immune cells and integrates cues from the epithelium, the microbiota, and pathogens to regulate inflammation, immunity, tissue repair, and metabolic homeostasis. Although intense study has elucidated many aspects of ILC development, phenotype, and function, numerous challenges remain in the field of ILC biology...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802043/synthesis-of-the-gpr40-partial-agonist-mk-8666-through-a-kinetically-controlled-dynamic-enzymatic-ketone-reduction
#4
Alan M Hyde, Zhijian Liu, Birgit Kosjek, Lushi Tan, Artis Klapars, Eric R Ashley, Yong-Li Zhong, Oscar Alvizo, Nicholas J Agard, Guiquan Liu, Xiuyan Gu, Nobuyoshi Yasuda, John Limanto, Mark A Huffman, David M Tschaen
A scalable and efficient synthesis of the GPR40 agonist MK-8666 was developed from a simple pyridine building block. The key step to set the stereochemistry at two centers relied on an enzymatic dynamic kinetic reduction of an unactivated ketone. Directed evolution was leveraged to generate an optimized ketoreductase that provided the desired trans alcohol in >30:1 dr and >99% ee. Further, it was demonstrated that all four diastereomers of this hydroxy-ester could be prepared in high yield and selectivity...
November 1, 2016: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624950/reliability-validity-and-feasibility-of-a-computer-based-geriatric-assessment-for-older-adults-with-cancer
#5
Arti Hurria, Chie Akiba, Jerome Kim, Dale Mitani, Matthew Loscalzo, Vani Katheria, Marianna Koczywas, Sumanta Pal, Vincent Chung, Stephen Forman, Nitya Nathwani, Marwan Fakih, Chatchada Karanes, Dean Lim, Leslie Popplewell, Harvey Cohen, Beverly Canin, David Cella, Betty Ferrell, Leanne Goldstein
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, reliability, and validity of a computer-based geriatric assessment via two methods of electronic data capture (SupportScreen and REDCap) compared with paper-and-pencil data capture among older adults with cancer. METHODS: Eligible patients were ≥ 65 years old, had a cancer diagnosis, and were fluent in English. Patients were randomly assigned to one of four arms, in which they completed the geriatric assessment twice: (1) REDCap and paper and pencil in sessions 1 and 2; (2) REDCap in both sessions; (3) SupportScreen and paper and pencil in sessions 1 and 2; and (4) SupportScreen in both sessions...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529755/frailty-as-determined-by-a-comprehensive-geriatric-assessment-derived-deficit-accumulation-index-in-older-patients-with-cancer-who-receive-chemotherapy
#6
Harvey Jay Cohen, David Smith, Can-Lan Sun, William Tew, Supriya G Mohile, Cynthia Owusu, Heidi D Klepin, Cary P Gross, Stuart M Lichtman, Ajeet Gajra, Julie Filo, Vani Katheria, Arti Hurria
BACKGROUND: Frailty has been suggested as a construct for oncologists to consider in treating older cancer patients. Therefore, the authors assessed the potential of creating a deficit-accumulation frailty index (DAFI) from a largely self-administered comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). METHODS: Five hundred patients aged ≥65 years underwent a CGA before receiving chemotherapy. A DAFI was constructed, resulting in a 51-item scale, and cutoff values were examined for patients in the robust/nonfrail (cutoff value, 0...
December 15, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440506/viral-etiology-and-the-impact-of-codetection-in-young-children-presenting-with-influenza-like-illness
#7
Faye J Lim, Zoe V Wake, Avram Levy, Simone Tempone, Hannah C Moore, Peter C Richmond, Nicholas de Klerk, Nicholas T Conway, Anthony D Keil, Paul V Effler, David W Smith, Christopher C Blyth
KEY POINTS: Children frequently had multiple respiratory viruses detected. Although common, children with multiple viruses more frequently had cough and rhinorrhea. Children with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus were hospitalized most frequently. Routine screening and cohorting are recommended only for those with common respiratory pathogens. BACKGROUND: Children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) frequently exhibit virus-virus codetection, yet the clinical significance of ARTI remains contentious...
July 20, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328006/innate-lymphoid-cells-as-regulators-of-immunity-inflammation-and-tissue-homeostasis
#8
REVIEW
Christoph S N Klose, David Artis
Research over the last 7 years has led to the formal identification of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), increased the understanding of their tissue distribution and has established essential functions of ILCs in diverse physiological processes. These include resistance to pathogens, the regulation of autoimmune inflammation, tissue remodeling, cancer and metabolic homeostasis. Notably, many ILC functions appear to be regulated by mechanisms distinct from those of other innate and adaptive immune cells. In this Review, we focus on how group 2 ILC (ILC2) and group 3 ILC (ILC3) responses are regulated and how these cells interact with other immune and non-immune cells to mediate their functions...
June 21, 2016: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27327515/type-i-interferon-receptor-deficiency-in-dendritic-cells-facilitates-systemic-murine-norovirus-persistence-despite-enhanced-adaptive-immunity
#9
Timothy J Nice, Lisa C Osborne, Vesselin T Tomov, David Artis, E John Wherry, Herbert W Virgin
In order for a virus to persist, there must be a balance between viral replication and immune clearance. It is commonly believed that adaptive immunity drives clearance of viral infections and, thus, dysfunction or viral evasion of adaptive immunity is required for a virus to persist. Type I interferons (IFNs) play pleiotropic roles in the antiviral response, including through innate control of viral replication. Murine norovirus (MNoV) replicates in dendritic cells (DCs) and type I IFN signaling in DCs is important for early control of MNoV replication...
June 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27246028/label-free-imaging-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-mouse-models-using-optical-coherence-tomography
#10
Aneesh Alex, Elia D Tait Wojno, David Artis, Chao Zhou
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by esophageal inflammation and related structural changes causing symptoms such as feeding difficulties and food impaction. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying EoE remain poorly understood. Preclinical studies using mouse models have been critical in comprehending human disease mechanisms and associated pathways. In this chapter, we describe an experimental method using a noninvasive label-free optical imaging technique, optical coherence tomography, to characterize the pathophysiological changes in the esophagus of mice with EoE-like disease ex vivo...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27185838/validation-of-a-prediction-tool-for-chemotherapy-toxicity-in-older-adults-with-cancer
#11
Arti Hurria, Supriya Mohile, Ajeet Gajra, Heidi Klepin, Hyman Muss, Andrew Chapman, Tao Feng, David Smith, Can-Lan Sun, Nienke De Glas, Harvey Jay Cohen, Vani Katheria, Caroline Doan, Laura Zavala, Abrahm Levi, Chie Akiba, William P Tew
PURPOSE: Older adults are at increased risk for chemotherapy toxicity, and standard oncology assessment measures cannot identify those at risk. A predictive model for chemotherapy toxicity was developed (N = 500) that consisted of geriatric assessment questions and other clinical variables. This study aims to externally validate this model in an independent cohort (N = 250). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients age ≥ 65 years with a solid tumor, fluent in English, and who were scheduled to receive a new chemotherapy regimen were recruited from eight institutions...
July 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121469/expert-consensus-on-an-in-vitro-approach-to-assess-pulmonary-fibrogenic-potential-of-aerosolized-nanomaterials
#12
Amy J Clippinger, Arti Ahluwalia, David Allen, James C Bonner, Warren Casey, Vincent Castranova, Raymond M David, Sabina Halappanavar, Jon A Hotchkiss, Annie M Jarabek, Monika Maier, William Polk, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Christie M Sayes, Phil Sayre, Monita Sharma, Vicki Stone
The increasing use of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in consumer products and their potential to induce adverse lung effects following inhalation has lead to much interest in better understanding the hazard associated with these nanomaterials (NMs). While the current regulatory requirement for substances of concern, such as MWCNTs, in many jurisdictions is a 90-day rodent inhalation test, the monetary, ethical, and scientific concerns associated with this test led an international expert group to convene in Washington, DC, USA, to discuss alternative approaches to evaluate the inhalation toxicity of MWCNTs...
July 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043409/arginase-1-is-an-innate-lymphoid-cell-intrinsic-metabolic-checkpoint-controlling-type-2-inflammation
#13
Laurel A Monticelli, Michael D Buck, Anne-Laure Flamar, Steven A Saenz, Elia D Tait Wojno, Naomi A Yudanin, Lisa C Osborne, Matthew R Hepworth, Sara V Tran, Hans-Reimer Rodewald, Hardik Shah, Justin R Cross, Joshua M Diamond, Edward Cantu, Jason D Christie, Erika L Pearce, David Artis
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) regulate tissue inflammation and repair after activation by cell-extrinsic factors such as host-derived cytokines. However, the cell-intrinsic metabolic pathways that control ILC2 function are undefined. Here we demonstrate that expression of the enzyme arginase-1 (Arg1) during acute or chronic lung inflammation is a conserved trait of mouse and human ILC2s. Deletion of mouse ILC-intrinsic Arg1 abrogated type 2 lung inflammation by restraining ILC2 proliferation and dampening cytokine production...
June 2016: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26912904/tlr-7-activation-enhances-il-22-mediated-colonization-resistance-against-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus
#14
Michael C Abt, Charlie G Buffie, Bože Sušac, Simone Becattini, Rebecca A Carter, Ingrid Leiner, James W Keith, David Artis, Lisa C Osborne, Eric G Pamer
Antibiotic administration can disrupt the intestinal microbiota and down-regulate innate immune defenses, compromising colonization resistance against orally acquired bacterial pathogens. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), a major cause of antibiotic-resistant infections in hospitalized patients, thrives in the intestine when colonization resistance is compromised, achieving extremely high densities that can lead to bloodstream invasion and sepsis. Viral infections, by mechanisms that remain incompletely defined, can stimulate resistance against invading bacterial pathogens...
February 24, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26906283/impact-of-new-generation-hybrid-imaging-technology-on-radiation-dose-during-percutaneous-coronary-interventions-and-trans-femoral-aortic-valve-implantations-a-comparison-with-conventional-flat-plate-angiography
#15
John E Boland, Louis W Wang, Bernard J Love, Marino Christofi, David W M Muller
BACKGROUND: Technological advancements in newer-generation catheterisation laboratories may reduce patient and occupational radiation exposure. METHODS: We compared fluoroscopy time and dose-area product (DAP) between a Philips Allura X-PER FD20 and Siemens Artis Zeego Hybrid systems for 47 single-vessel percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) and 35 transcatheter aortic valve implantations (21 Corevalve, 14 Edwards Sapien TAVI) using the FD20, versus 30 PCI and 28 TAVI (15 Corevalve, 13 Sapien) with the Zeego over a 24-month period...
July 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26887786/laser-induced-mortality-of-anopheles-stephensi-mosquitoes
#16
Matthew D Keller, David J Leahy, Bryan J Norton, Threeric Johanson, Emma R Mullen, Maclen Marvit, Arty Makagon
Small, flying insects continue to pose great risks to both human health and agricultural production throughout the world, so there remains a compelling need to develop new vector and pest control approaches. Here, we examined the use of short (<25 ms) laser pulses to kill or disable anesthetized female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, which were chosen as a representative species. The mortality of mosquitoes exposed to laser pulses of various wavelength, power, pulse duration, and spot size combinations was assessed 24 hours after exposure...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26849720/o-003%C3%A2-understanding-the-relevance-of-whole-exome-sequencing-identified-variants-in-patients-with-very-early-onset-ibd
#17
Judith Kelsen, Noor Dawany, Maire Conrad, Alejuandro Martinez, Petar Mamula, David Piccoli, David Artis, Gregory Sonnenberg, Robert Baldassano, Kathleen Sullivan, Marcella Devoto
BACKGROUND: Very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) is frequently considered a different disease process than older onset IBD. The severe phenotype and young age of onset suggest a more pronounced genetic susceptibility and dysregulated immune response. We hypothesized that rare or novel variants involving pathways in barrier defense, autoimmunity as well as both B and T cell development and activation, were enriched in patients with VEO-IBD. In turn, these variants result in altered gene expression, impaired immunological responses, and aberrant host-microbe interactions...
March 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26847546/tuft-cells-taste-chemosensory-cells-orchestrate-parasite-type-2-immunity-in-the-gut
#18
Michael R Howitt, Sydney Lavoie, Monia Michaud, Arthur M Blum, Sara V Tran, Joel V Weinstock, Carey Ann Gallini, Kevin Redding, Robert F Margolskee, Lisa C Osborne, David Artis, Wendy S Garrett
The intestinal epithelium forms an essential barrier between a host and its microbiota. Protozoa and helminths are members of the gut microbiota of mammals, including humans, yet the many ways that gut epithelial cells orchestrate responses to these eukaryotes remain unclear. Here we show that tuft cells, which are taste-chemosensory epithelial cells, accumulate during parasite colonization and infection. Disruption of chemosensory signaling through the loss of TRMP5 abrogates the expansion of tuft cells, goblet cells, eosinophils, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells during parasite colonization...
March 18, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26823525/prostate-cancer-susceptibility-in-men-of-african-ancestry-at-8q24
#19
Ying Han, Kristin A Rand, Dennis J Hazelett, Sue A Ingles, Rick A Kittles, Sara S Strom, Benjamin A Rybicki, Barbara Nemesure, William B Isaacs, Janet L Stanford, Wei Zheng, Fredrick R Schumacher, Sonja I Berndt, Zhaoming Wang, Jianfeng Xu, Nadin Rohland, David Reich, Arti Tandon, Bogdan Pasaniuc, Alex Allen, Dominique Quinque, Swapan Mallick, Dimple Notani, Michael G Rosenfeld, Ranveer Singh Jayani, Suzanne Kolb, Susan M Gapstur, Victoria L Stevens, Curtis A Pettaway, Edward D Yeboah, Yao Tettey, Richard B Biritwum, Andrew A Adjei, Evelyn Tay, Ann Truelove, Shelley Niwa, Anand P Chokkalingam, Esther M John, Adam B Murphy, Lisa B Signorello, John Carpten, M Cristina Leske, Suh-Yuh Wu, Anslem J M Hennis, Christine Neslund-Dudas, Ann W Hsing, Lisa Chu, Phyllis J Goodman, Eric A Klein, S Lilly Zheng, John S Witte, Graham Casey, Alex Lubwama, Loreall C Pooler, Xin Sheng, Gerhard A Coetzee, Michael B Cook, Stephen J Chanock, Daniel O Stram, Stephen Watya, William J Blot, David V Conti, Brian E Henderson, Christopher A Haiman
The 8q24 region harbors multiple risk variants for distinct cancers, including >8 for prostate cancer. In this study, we conducted fine mapping of the 8q24 risk region (127.8-128.8Mb) in search of novel associations with common and rare variation in 4853 prostate cancer case patients and 4678 control subjects of African ancestry. All statistical tests were two-sided. We identified three independent associations at P values of less than 5.00×10(-8), all of which were replicated in studies from Ghana and Uganda (combined sample = 5869 case patients, 5615 control subjects; rs114798100: risk allele frequency [RAF] = 0...
July 2016: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26802241/il-33-dependent-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-promote-cutaneous-wound-healing
#20
Gregory D Rak, Lisa C Osborne, Mark C Siracusa, Brian S Kim, Kelvin Wang, Ardeshir Bayat, David Artis, Susan W Volk
Breaches in the skin barrier initiate an inflammatory immune response that is critical for successful wound healing. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently identified population of immune cells that reside at epithelial barrier surfaces such as the skin, lung, and gut, and promote proinflammatory or epithelial repair functions after exposure to allergens, pathogens, or chemical irritants. However, the potential role of ILCs in regulating cutaneous wound healing remains undefined. Here, we demonstrate that cutaneous injury promotes an IL-33-dependent group 2 ILC (ILC2) response and that abrogation of this response impairs re-epithelialization and efficient wound closure...
February 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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