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David artis

Arti Hurria, Chie Akiba, Jerome Kim, Dale Mitani, Matthew Loscalzo, Vani Katheria, Marianna Koczywas, Sumanta Pal, Vincent Chung, Stephen Forman, Nitya Nathwani, Marwan Fakih, Chatchada Karanes, Dean Lim, Leslie Popplewell, Harvey Cohen, Beverly Canin, David Cella, Betty Ferrell, Leanne Goldstein
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, reliability, and validity of a computer-based geriatric assessment via two methods of electronic data capture (SupportScreen and REDCap) compared with paper-and-pencil data capture among older adults with cancer. METHODS: Eligible patients were ≥ 65 years old, had a cancer diagnosis, and were fluent in English. Patients were randomly assigned to one of four arms, in which they completed the geriatric assessment twice: (1) REDCap and paper and pencil in sessions 1 and 2; (2) REDCap in both sessions; (3) SupportScreen and paper and pencil in sessions 1 and 2; and (4) SupportScreen in both sessions...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Oncology Practice
Harvey Jay Cohen, David Smith, Can-Lan Sun, William Tew, Supriya G Mohile, Cynthia Owusu, Heidi D Klepin, Cary P Gross, Stuart M Lichtman, Ajeet Gajra, Julie Filo, Vani Katheria, Arti Hurria
BACKGROUND: Frailty has been suggested as a construct for oncologists to consider in treating older cancer patients. Therefore, the authors assessed the potential of creating a deficit-accumulation frailty index (DAFI) from a largely self-administered comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). METHODS: Five hundred patients aged ≥65 years underwent a CGA before receiving chemotherapy. A DAFI was constructed, resulting in a 51-item scale, and cutoff values were examined for patients in the robust/nonfrail (cutoff value, 0...
August 16, 2016: Cancer
Faye J Lim, Zoe V Wake, Avram Levy, Simone Tempone, Hannah C Moore, Peter C Richmond, Nicholas de Klerk, Nicholas T Conway, Anthony D Keil, Paul V Effler, David W Smith, Christopher C Blyth
KEY POINTS: Children frequently had multiple respiratory viruses detected. Although common, children with multiple viruses more frequently had cough and rhinorrhea. Children with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus were hospitalized most frequently. Routine screening and cohorting are recommended only for those with common respiratory pathogens. BACKGROUND: Children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) frequently exhibit virus-virus codetection, yet the clinical significance of ARTI remains contentious...
July 20, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Christoph S N Klose, David Artis
Research over the last 7 years has led to the formal identification of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), increased the understanding of their tissue distribution and has established essential functions of ILCs in diverse physiological processes. These include resistance to pathogens, the regulation of autoimmune inflammation, tissue remodeling, cancer and metabolic homeostasis. Notably, many ILC functions appear to be regulated by mechanisms distinct from those of other innate and adaptive immune cells. In this Review, we focus on how group 2 ILC (ILC2) and group 3 ILC (ILC3) responses are regulated and how these cells interact with other immune and non-immune cells to mediate their functions...
June 21, 2016: Nature Immunology
Timothy J Nice, Lisa C Osborne, Vesselin T Tomov, David Artis, E John Wherry, Herbert W Virgin
In order for a virus to persist, there must be a balance between viral replication and immune clearance. It is commonly believed that adaptive immunity drives clearance of viral infections and, thus, dysfunction or viral evasion of adaptive immunity is required for a virus to persist. Type I interferons (IFNs) play pleiotropic roles in the antiviral response, including through innate control of viral replication. Murine norovirus (MNoV) replicates in dendritic cells (DCs) and type I IFN signaling in DCs is important for early control of MNoV replication...
June 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Aneesh Alex, Elia D Tait Wojno, David Artis, Chao Zhou
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by esophageal inflammation and related structural changes causing symptoms such as feeding difficulties and food impaction. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying EoE remain poorly understood. Preclinical studies using mouse models have been critical in comprehending human disease mechanisms and associated pathways. In this chapter, we describe an experimental method using a noninvasive label-free optical imaging technique, optical coherence tomography, to characterize the pathophysiological changes in the esophagus of mice with EoE-like disease ex vivo...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Arti Hurria, Supriya Mohile, Ajeet Gajra, Heidi Klepin, Hyman Muss, Andrew Chapman, Tao Feng, David Smith, Can-Lan Sun, Nienke De Glas, Harvey Jay Cohen, Vani Katheria, Caroline Doan, Laura Zavala, Abrahm Levi, Chie Akiba, William P Tew
PURPOSE: Older adults are at increased risk for chemotherapy toxicity, and standard oncology assessment measures cannot identify those at risk. A predictive model for chemotherapy toxicity was developed (N = 500) that consisted of geriatric assessment questions and other clinical variables. This study aims to externally validate this model in an independent cohort (N = 250). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients age ≥ 65 years with a solid tumor, fluent in English, and who were scheduled to receive a new chemotherapy regimen were recruited from eight institutions...
July 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Amy J Clippinger, Arti Ahluwalia, David Allen, James C Bonner, Warren Casey, Vincent Castranova, Raymond M David, Sabina Halappanavar, Jon A Hotchkiss, Annie M Jarabek, Monika Maier, William Polk, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Christie M Sayes, Phil Sayre, Monita Sharma, Vicki Stone
The increasing use of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in consumer products and their potential to induce adverse lung effects following inhalation has lead to much interest in better understanding the hazard associated with these nanomaterials (NMs). While the current regulatory requirement for substances of concern, such as MWCNTs, in many jurisdictions is a 90-day rodent inhalation test, the monetary, ethical, and scientific concerns associated with this test led an international expert group to convene in Washington, DC, USA, to discuss alternative approaches to evaluate the inhalation toxicity of MWCNTs...
July 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Laurel A Monticelli, Michael D Buck, Anne-Laure Flamar, Steven A Saenz, Elia D Tait Wojno, Naomi A Yudanin, Lisa C Osborne, Matthew R Hepworth, Sara V Tran, Hans-Reimer Rodewald, Hardik Shah, Justin R Cross, Joshua M Diamond, Edward Cantu, Jason D Christie, Erika L Pearce, David Artis
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) regulate tissue inflammation and repair after activation by cell-extrinsic factors such as host-derived cytokines. However, the cell-intrinsic metabolic pathways that control ILC2 function are undefined. Here we demonstrate that expression of the enzyme arginase-1 (Arg1) during acute or chronic lung inflammation is a conserved trait of mouse and human ILC2s. Deletion of mouse ILC-intrinsic Arg1 abrogated type 2 lung inflammation by restraining ILC2 proliferation and dampening cytokine production...
June 2016: Nature Immunology
Michael C Abt, Charlie G Buffie, Bože Sušac, Simone Becattini, Rebecca A Carter, Ingrid Leiner, James W Keith, David Artis, Lisa C Osborne, Eric G Pamer
Antibiotic administration can disrupt the intestinal microbiota and down-regulate innate immune defenses, compromising colonization resistance against orally acquired bacterial pathogens. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), a major cause of antibiotic-resistant infections in hospitalized patients, thrives in the intestine when colonization resistance is compromised, achieving extremely high densities that can lead to bloodstream invasion and sepsis. Viral infections, by mechanisms that remain incompletely defined, can stimulate resistance against invading bacterial pathogens...
February 24, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
John E Boland, Louis W Wang, Bernard J Love, Marino Christofi, David W M Muller
BACKGROUND: Technological advancements in newer-generation catheterisation laboratories may reduce patient and occupational radiation exposure. METHODS: We compared fluoroscopy time and dose-area product (DAP) between a Philips Allura X-PER FD20 and Siemens Artis Zeego Hybrid systems for 47 single-vessel percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) and 35 transcatheter aortic valve implantations (21 Corevalve, 14 Edwards Sapien TAVI) using the FD20, versus 30 PCI and 28 TAVI (15 Corevalve, 13 Sapien) with the Zeego over a 24-month period...
July 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Matthew D Keller, David J Leahy, Bryan J Norton, Threeric Johanson, Emma R Mullen, Maclen Marvit, Arty Makagon
Small, flying insects continue to pose great risks to both human health and agricultural production throughout the world, so there remains a compelling need to develop new vector and pest control approaches. Here, we examined the use of short (<25 ms) laser pulses to kill or disable anesthetized female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, which were chosen as a representative species. The mortality of mosquitoes exposed to laser pulses of various wavelength, power, pulse duration, and spot size combinations was assessed 24 hours after exposure...
2016: Scientific Reports
Judith Kelsen, Noor Dawany, Maire Conrad, Alejuandro Martinez, Petar Mamula, David Piccoli, David Artis, Gregory Sonnenberg, Robert Baldassano, Kathleen Sullivan, Marcella Devoto
BACKGROUND: Very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) is frequently considered a different disease process than older onset IBD. The severe phenotype and young age of onset suggest a more pronounced genetic susceptibility and dysregulated immune response. We hypothesized that rare or novel variants involving pathways in barrier defense, autoimmunity as well as both B and T cell development and activation, were enriched in patients with VEO-IBD. In turn, these variants result in altered gene expression, impaired immunological responses, and aberrant host-microbe interactions...
March 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Michael R Howitt, Sydney Lavoie, Monia Michaud, Arthur M Blum, Sara V Tran, Joel V Weinstock, Carey Ann Gallini, Kevin Redding, Robert F Margolskee, Lisa C Osborne, David Artis, Wendy S Garrett
The intestinal epithelium forms an essential barrier between a host and its microbiota. Protozoa and helminths are members of the gut microbiota of mammals, including humans, yet the many ways that gut epithelial cells orchestrate responses to these eukaryotes remain unclear. Here we show that tuft cells, which are taste-chemosensory epithelial cells, accumulate during parasite colonization and infection. Disruption of chemosensory signaling through the loss of TRMP5 abrogates the expansion of tuft cells, goblet cells, eosinophils, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells during parasite colonization...
March 18, 2016: Science
Ying Han, Kristin A Rand, Dennis J Hazelett, Sue A Ingles, Rick A Kittles, Sara S Strom, Benjamin A Rybicki, Barbara Nemesure, William B Isaacs, Janet L Stanford, Wei Zheng, Fredrick R Schumacher, Sonja I Berndt, Zhaoming Wang, Jianfeng Xu, Nadin Rohland, David Reich, Arti Tandon, Bogdan Pasaniuc, Alex Allen, Dominique Quinque, Swapan Mallick, Dimple Notani, Michael G Rosenfeld, Ranveer Singh Jayani, Suzanne Kolb, Susan M Gapstur, Victoria L Stevens, Curtis A Pettaway, Edward D Yeboah, Yao Tettey, Richard B Biritwum, Andrew A Adjei, Evelyn Tay, Ann Truelove, Shelley Niwa, Anand P Chokkalingam, Esther M John, Adam B Murphy, Lisa B Signorello, John Carpten, M Cristina Leske, Suh-Yuh Wu, Anslem J M Hennis, Christine Neslund-Dudas, Ann W Hsing, Lisa Chu, Phyllis J Goodman, Eric A Klein, S Lilly Zheng, John S Witte, Graham Casey, Alex Lubwama, Loreall C Pooler, Xin Sheng, Gerhard A Coetzee, Michael B Cook, Stephen J Chanock, Daniel O Stram, Stephen Watya, William J Blot, David V Conti, Brian E Henderson, Christopher A Haiman
The 8q24 region harbors multiple risk variants for distinct cancers, including >8 for prostate cancer. In this study, we conducted fine mapping of the 8q24 risk region (127.8-128.8Mb) in search of novel associations with common and rare variation in 4853 prostate cancer case patients and 4678 control subjects of African ancestry. All statistical tests were two-sided. We identified three independent associations at P values of less than 5.00×10(-8), all of which were replicated in studies from Ghana and Uganda (combined sample = 5869 case patients, 5615 control subjects; rs114798100: risk allele frequency [RAF] = 0...
July 2016: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Gregory D Rak, Lisa C Osborne, Mark C Siracusa, Brian S Kim, Kelvin Wang, Ardeshir Bayat, David Artis, Susan W Volk
Breaches in the skin barrier initiate an inflammatory immune response that is critical for successful wound healing. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently identified population of immune cells that reside at epithelial barrier surfaces such as the skin, lung, and gut, and promote proinflammatory or epithelial repair functions after exposure to allergens, pathogens, or chemical irritants. However, the potential role of ILCs in regulating cutaneous wound healing remains undefined. Here, we demonstrate that cutaneous injury promotes an IL-33-dependent group 2 ILC (ILC2) response and that abrogation of this response impairs re-epithelialization and efficient wound closure...
February 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Kristin A Rand, Nadin Rohland, Arti Tandon, Alex Stram, Xin Sheng, Ron Do, Bogdan Pasaniuc, Alex Allen, Dominique Quinque, Swapan Mallick, Loic Le Marchand, Sam Kaggwa, Alex Lubwama, Daniel O Stram, Stephen Watya, Brian E Henderson, David V Conti, David Reich, Christopher A Haiman
Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer in males, with a ∼1.5-2-fold higher incidence in African American men when compared with whites. Epidemiologic evidence supports a large heritable contribution to prostate cancer, with over 100 susceptibility loci identified to date that can explain ∼33% of the familial risk. To explore the contribution of both rare and common variation in coding regions to prostate cancer risk, we sequenced the exomes of 2165 prostate cancer cases and 2034 controls of African ancestry at a mean coverage of 10...
January 15, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Nicholas Mancuso, Nadin Rohland, Kristin A Rand, Arti Tandon, Alexander Allen, Dominique Quinque, Swapan Mallick, Heng Li, Alex Stram, Xin Sheng, Zsofia Kote-Jarai, Douglas F Easton, Rosalind A Eeles, Loic Le Marchand, Alex Lubwama, Daniel Stram, Stephen Watya, David V Conti, Brian Henderson, Christopher A Haiman, Bogdan Pasaniuc, David Reich
We report targeted sequencing of 63 known prostate cancer risk regions in a multi-ancestry study of 9,237 men and use the data to explore the contribution of low-frequency variation to disease risk. We show that SNPs with minor allele frequencies (MAFs) of 0.1-1% explain a substantial fraction of prostate cancer risk in men of African ancestry. We estimate that these SNPs account for 0.12 (standard error (s.e.) = 0.05) of variance in risk (∼42% of the variance contributed by SNPs with MAF of 0.1-50%). This contribution is much larger than the fraction of neutral variation due to SNPs in this class, implying that natural selection has driven down the frequency of many prostate cancer risk alleles; we estimate the coupling between selection and allelic effects at 0...
January 2016: Nature Genetics
Ifedayo M O Adetifa, Abdul Khalie Muhammad, David Jeffries, Simon Donkor, Martien W Borgdorff, Tumani Corrah, Umberto D'Alessandro
BACKGROUND: A Tuberculin skin test (TST) survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of latent TB Infection (LTBI) and to estimate the annual risk of M. tuberculosis infection (ARTI) in Gambian school children. The results are expected to contribute to understanding of Tuberculosis epidemiology in The Gambia. METHODS: This was a nationwide, multi-cluster survey in children aged 6-11 years. Districts, 20 of 37, were selected by probability proportional to size and schools by simple random sampling...
2015: PloS One
Gregory D Rak, Lisa C Osborne, Mark C Siracusa, Brian S Kim, Kelvin Wang, Ardeshir Bayat, David Artis, Susan W Volk
Breaches in the skin barrier initiate an inflammatory immune response that is critical for successful wound healing. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently identified population of immune cells that reside at epithelial barrier surfaces such as the skin, lung and gut and promote pro-inflammatory or epithelial repair functions following exposure to allergens, pathogens or chemical irritants. However, the potential role of ILCs in regulating cutaneous wound healing remains undefined. Here, we demonstrate that cutaneous injury promotes an IL-33-dependent group 2 ILC (ILC2) response and that abrogation of this response impairs re-epithelialization and efficient wound closure...
October 13, 2015: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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