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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445246/single-delivery-of-high-diversity-fecal-microbiota-preparation-by-colonoscopy-is-safe-and-effective-in-increasing-microbial-diversity-in-active-ulcerative-colitis
#1
Vinita Jacob, Carl Crawford, Shirley Cohen-Mekelburg, Monica Viladomiu, Gregory G Putzel, Yecheskel Schneider, Fatiha Chabouni, Sarah OʼNeil, Brian Bosworth, Viola Woo, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Ylaine Gerardin, Zain Kassam, Mark Smith, Iliyan D Iliev, Gregory F Sonnenberg, David Artis, Ellen Scherl, Randy S Longman
BACKGROUND: Recent trials suggest fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) with repeated enemas and high-diversity FMT donors is a promising treatment to induce remission in ulcerative colitis. METHODS: We designed a prospective, open-label pilot study to assess the safety, clinical efficacy, and microbial engraftment of single FMT delivery by colonoscopy for active ulcerative colitis using a 2-donor fecal microbiota preparation (FMP). Safety and clinical endpoints of response, remission, and mucosal healing at week 4 were assessed...
April 25, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405214/a-real-time-phenotyping-framework-using-machine-learning-for-plant-stress-severity-rating-in-soybean
#2
Hsiang Sing Naik, Jiaoping Zhang, Alec Lofquist, Teshale Assefa, Soumik Sarkar, David Ackerman, Arti Singh, Asheesh K Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian
BACKGROUND: Phenotyping is a critical component of plant research. Accurate and precise trait collection, when integrated with genetic tools, can greatly accelerate the rate of genetic gain in crop improvement. However, efficient and automatic phenotyping of traits across large populations is a challenge; which is further exacerbated by the necessity of sampling multiple environments and growing replicated trials. A promising approach is to leverage current advances in imaging technology, data analytics and machine learning to enable automated and fast phenotyping and subsequent decision support...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390860/basophil-derived-interleukin-4-promotes-epicutaneous-antigen-sensitization-concomitant-with-the-development-of-food-allergy
#3
Maryam Hussain, Loïc Borcard, Kevin P Walsh, Maria Pena Rodriguez, Christoph Mueller, Brian S Kim, Masato Kubo, David Artis, Mario Noti
BACKGROUND: Exaggerated TSLP production and infiltration of basophils are associated with the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD), a recognized risk factor for the development of food allergies. While TSLP and basophils have been implicated to promote food-induced allergic disorders in response to epicutaneous sensitization, the mechanisms by which TSLP-elicited basophils guide the progression of allergic inflammation in the skin to distant mucosal sites such as the gastrointestinal tract are poorly understood...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356425/efficacy-of-the-parp-inhibitor-veliparib-with-carboplatin-or-as-a-single-agent-in-patients-with-germline-brca1-or-brca2-associated-metastatic-breast-cancer
#4
George Somlo, Paul Frankel, Banu Arun, Cynthia X Ma, Agustin Garcia, Tessa Cigler, Leah Cream, Harold Harvey, Joseph A Sparano, Rita Nanda, Helen K Chew, Timothy Moynihan, Matthew P Goetz, Linda Vahdat, Jan H Beumer, Arti Hurria, Joanne Mortimer, Richard Piekarz, Sharon Sand, Josef Herzog, Lily R Van Tongeren, Katherine Ferry-Galow, Alice Chen, Christopher Ruel, Edward Newman, David R Gandara, Jeffrey N Weitzel
We aimed to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase inhibitor, veliparib, in combination with carboplatin in germline BRCA1- and BRCA2-(BRCA)-associated metastatic breast cancer (MBC), to assess the efficacy of single-agent veliparib, and of the combination treatment post-progression, and to correlate PAR levels with clinical outcome. <br /><br />Experimental Design:Phase I patients received carboplatin (AUC of 5-6, every 21 days), with escalating doses of oral twice-daily (BID) veliparib...
March 29, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346946/association-between-a-virtual-glucose-management-service-and-glycemic-control-in-hospitalized-adult-patients-an-observational-study
#5
Robert J Rushakoff, Mary M Sullivan, Heidemarie Windham MacMaster, Arti D Shah, Alvin Rajkomar, David V Glidden, Michael A Kohn
Background: Inpatient hyperglycemia is common and is linked to adverse patient outcomes. New methods to improve glycemic control are needed. Objective: To determine whether a virtual glucose management service (vGMS) is associated with improved inpatient glycemic control. Design: Cross-sectional analyses of three 12-month periods (pre-vGMS, transition, and vGMS) between 1 June 2012 and 31 May 2015. Setting: 3 University of California, San Francisco, hospitals...
May 2, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228596/antimicrobials-from-human-skin-commensal-bacteria-protect-against-staphylococcus-aureus-and-are-deficient-in-atopic-dermatitis
#6
Teruaki Nakatsuji, Tiffany H Chen, Saisindhu Narala, Kimberly A Chun, Aimee M Two, Tong Yun, Faiza Shafiq, Paul F Kotol, Amina Bouslimani, Alexey V Melnik, Haythem Latif, Ji-Nu Kim, Alexandre Lockhart, Keli Artis, Gloria David, Patricia Taylor, Joanne Streib, Pieter C Dorrestein, Alex Grier, Steven R Gill, Karsten Zengler, Tissa R Hata, Donald Y M Leung, Richard L Gallo
The microbiome can promote or disrupt human health by influencing both adaptive and innate immune functions. We tested whether bacteria that normally reside on human skin participate in host defense by killing Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogen commonly found in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and an important factor that exacerbates this disease. High-throughput screening for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus was performed on isolates of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) collected from the skin of healthy and AD subjects...
February 22, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212439/correction-type-i-interferon-receptor-deficiency-in-dendritic-cells-facilitates-systemic-murine-norovirus-persistence-despite-enhanced-adaptive-immunity
#7
Timothy J Nice, Lisa C Osborne, Vesselin T Tomov, David Artis, E John Wherry, Herbert W Virgin
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005684.].
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126203/skin-derived-tslp-systemically-expands-regulatory-t-cells
#8
Theresa M Leichner, Atsushi Satake, Victor Sanoe Harrison, Yukinori Tanaka, Angela S Archambault, Brian S Kim, Mark C Siracusa, Warren J Leonard, Ali Naji, Gregory F Wu, David Artis, Taku Kambayashi
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a subset of CD4(+) T cells with suppressive function and are critical for limiting inappropriate activation of T cells. Hence, the expansion of Tregs is an attractive strategy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Here, we demonstrate that the skin possesses the remarkable capacity to systemically expand Treg numbers by producing thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in response to vitamin D receptor stimulation. An ∼2-fold increase in the proportion and absolute number of Tregs was observed in mice treated topically but not systemically with the Vitamin D3 analog MC903...
May 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060519/development-of-a-chiral-dmap-catalyst-for-the-dynamic-kinetic-resolution-of-azole-hemiaminals
#9
Artis Kinens, Marcis Sejejs, Adam S Kamlet, David W Piotrowski, Edwin Vedejs, Edgars Suna
A new catalyst for the dynamic kinetic resolution of azole hemiaminals has been developed using late-stage structural modifications of the tert-leucinol-derived chiral subunit of DMAP species.
January 11, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002727/allergen-exposure-when-timing-is-everything
#10
Tanel Mahlakõiv, David Artis
It is known that young children exposed to allergens are prone to develop asthma later in life. In this issue of Immunity, de Kleer et al. (2016) identify IL-33 as a key player in the developing lung for sensitization to environmental allergens and airway hyperreactivity.
December 20, 2016: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981233/temporal-and-racial-differences-associated-with-atopic-dermatitis-staphylococcusaureus-and-encoded-virulence-factors
#11
Joseph A Merriman, Elizabeth A Mueller, Michael P Cahill, Lisa A Beck, Amy S Paller, Jon M Hanifin, Peck Y Ong, Lynda Schneider, Denise C Babineau, Gloria David, Alexandre Lockhart, Keli Artis, Donald Y M Leung, Patrick M Schlievert
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin condition strongly associated with Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection. S. aureus strains shift in populations in ~10-year intervals depending on virulence factors. Shifts in S. aureus virulence factors may in part explain the racial differences observed in the levels of prevalence and severity of AD. AD S. aureus isolates collected from 2011 to 2014 (103 isolates) and in 2008 (100 isolates) were examined for the prevalence of genes encoding superantigens (SAgs)...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886793/innovative-approaches-to-hypertension-control-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#12
REVIEW
Rajesh Vedanthan, Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz, Omarys I Herasme, Rohina Joshi, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Amanda G Thrift, Jacqui Webster, Ruth Webster, Karen Yeates, Joyce Gyamfi, Merina Ieremia, Claire Johnson, Jemima H Kamano, Maria Lazo-Porras, Felix Limbani, Peter Liu, Tara McCready, J Jaime Miranda, Sailesh Mohan, Olugbenga Ogedegbe, Brian Oldenburg, Bruce Ovbiagele, Mayowa Owolabi, David Peiris, Vilarmina Ponce-Lucero, Devarsetty Praveen, Arti Pillay, Jon-David Schwalm, Sheldon W Tobe, Kathy Trieu, Khalid Yusoff, Valentin Fuster
Elevated blood pressure, a major risk factor for ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and stroke, is the leading global risk for mortality. Treatment and control rates are very low in low- and middle-income countries. There is an urgent need to address this problem. The Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases sponsored research projects focus on controlling hypertension, including community engagement, salt reduction, salt substitution, task redistribution, mHealth, and fixed-dose combination therapies. This paper reviews the rationale for each approach and summarizes the experience of some of the research teams...
February 2017: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856262/association-between-renal-function-and-chemotherapy-related-toxicity-in-older-adults-with-cancer
#13
Lindsay L Peterson, Arti Hurria, Tao Feng, Supriya G Mohile, Cynthia Owusu, Heidi D Klepin, Cary P Gross, Stuart M Lichtman, Ajeet Gajra, Ilya Glezerman, Vani Katheria, Laura Zavala, David D Smith, Can-Lan Sun, William P Tew
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between renal function (RF) and chemotherapy-related toxicity (CRT) in older adults with cancer and to compare the effect of different RF formulas and body weight measurements on this association. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of data from a prospective multicenter study of patients ≥ age 65 who were starting a new chemotherapy regimen. RF was estimated with 4 formulas (modified Jelliffe [Jelliffe], Cockcroft-Gault [CG], Wright, and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease [MDRD]), using actual, ideal and adjusted body weights for 492 patients...
March 2017: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811053/emerging-concepts-and-future-challenges-in-innate-lymphoid-cell-biology
#14
REVIEW
Elia D Tait Wojno, David Artis
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are innate immune cells that are ubiquitously distributed in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues and enriched at mucosal and barrier surfaces. Three major ILC subsets are recognized in mice and humans. Each of these subsets interacts with innate and adaptive immune cells and integrates cues from the epithelium, the microbiota, and pathogens to regulate inflammation, immunity, tissue repair, and metabolic homeostasis. Although intense study has elucidated many aspects of ILC development, phenotype, and function, numerous challenges remain in the field of ILC biology...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802043/synthesis-of-the-gpr40-partial-agonist-mk-8666-through-a-kinetically-controlled-dynamic-enzymatic-ketone-reduction
#15
Alan M Hyde, Zhijian Liu, Birgit Kosjek, Lushi Tan, Artis Klapars, Eric R Ashley, Yong-Li Zhong, Oscar Alvizo, Nicholas J Agard, Guiquan Liu, Xiuyan Gu, Nobuyoshi Yasuda, John Limanto, Mark A Huffman, David M Tschaen
A scalable and efficient synthesis of the GPR40 agonist MK-8666 was developed from a simple pyridine building block. The key step to set the stereochemistry at two centers relied on an enzymatic dynamic kinetic reduction of an unactivated ketone. Directed evolution was leveraged to generate an optimized ketoreductase that provided the desired trans alcohol in >30:1 dr and >99% ee. Further, it was demonstrated that all four diastereomers of this hydroxy-ester could be prepared in high yield and selectivity...
November 18, 2016: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624950/reliability-validity-and-feasibility-of-a-computer-based-geriatric-assessment-for-older-adults-with-cancer
#16
Arti Hurria, Chie Akiba, Jerome Kim, Dale Mitani, Matthew Loscalzo, Vani Katheria, Marianna Koczywas, Sumanta Pal, Vincent Chung, Stephen Forman, Nitya Nathwani, Marwan Fakih, Chatchada Karanes, Dean Lim, Leslie Popplewell, Harvey Cohen, Beverly Canin, David Cella, Betty Ferrell, Leanne Goldstein
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, reliability, and validity of a computer-based geriatric assessment via two methods of electronic data capture ( SupportScreen and REDCap) compared with paper-and-pencil data capture among older adults with cancer. METHODS: Eligible patients were ≥ 65 years old, had a cancer diagnosis, and were fluent in English. Patients were randomly assigned to one of four arms, in which they completed the geriatric assessment twice: (1) REDCap and paper and pencil in sessions 1 and 2; (2) REDCap in both sessions; (3) SupportScreen and paper and pencil in sessions 1 and 2; and (4) SupportScreen in both sessions...
December 2016: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529755/frailty-as-determined-by-a-comprehensive-geriatric-assessment-derived-deficit-accumulation-index-in-older-patients-with-cancer-who-receive-chemotherapy
#17
Harvey Jay Cohen, David Smith, Can-Lan Sun, William Tew, Supriya G Mohile, Cynthia Owusu, Heidi D Klepin, Cary P Gross, Stuart M Lichtman, Ajeet Gajra, Julie Filo, Vani Katheria, Arti Hurria
BACKGROUND: Frailty has been suggested as a construct for oncologists to consider in treating older cancer patients. Therefore, the authors assessed the potential of creating a deficit-accumulation frailty index (DAFI) from a largely self-administered comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). METHODS: Five hundred patients aged ≥65 years underwent a CGA before receiving chemotherapy. A DAFI was constructed, resulting in a 51-item scale, and cutoff values were examined for patients in the robust/nonfrail (cutoff value, 0...
December 15, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440506/viral-etiology-and-the-impact-of-codetection-in-young-children-presenting-with-influenza-like-illness
#18
Faye J Lim, Zoe V Wake, Avram Levy, Simone Tempone, Hannah C Moore, Peter C Richmond, Nicholas de Klerk, Nicholas T Conway, Anthony D Keil, Paul V Effler, David W Smith, Christopher C Blyth
KEY POINTS: Children frequently had multiple respiratory viruses detected. Although common, children with multiple viruses more frequently had cough and rhinorrhea. Children with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus were hospitalized most frequently. Routine screening and cohorting are recommended only for those with common respiratory pathogens. BACKGROUND: Children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) frequently exhibit virus-virus codetection, yet the clinical significance of ARTI remains contentious...
July 20, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328006/innate-lymphoid-cells-as-regulators-of-immunity-inflammation-and-tissue-homeostasis
#19
REVIEW
Christoph S N Klose, David Artis
Research over the last 7 years has led to the formal identification of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), increased the understanding of their tissue distribution and has established essential functions of ILCs in diverse physiological processes. These include resistance to pathogens, the regulation of autoimmune inflammation, tissue remodeling, cancer and metabolic homeostasis. Notably, many ILC functions appear to be regulated by mechanisms distinct from those of other innate and adaptive immune cells. In this Review, we focus on how group 2 ILC (ILC2) and group 3 ILC (ILC3) responses are regulated and how these cells interact with other immune and non-immune cells to mediate their functions...
June 21, 2016: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27327515/type-i-interferon-receptor-deficiency-in-dendritic-cells-facilitates-systemic-murine-norovirus-persistence-despite-enhanced-adaptive-immunity
#20
Timothy J Nice, Lisa C Osborne, Vesselin T Tomov, David Artis, E John Wherry, Herbert W Virgin
In order for a virus to persist, there must be a balance between viral replication and immune clearance. It is commonly believed that adaptive immunity drives clearance of viral infections and, thus, dysfunction or viral evasion of adaptive immunity is required for a virus to persist. Type I interferons (IFNs) play pleiotropic roles in the antiviral response, including through innate control of viral replication. Murine norovirus (MNoV) replicates in dendritic cells (DCs) and type I IFN signaling in DCs is important for early control of MNoV replication...
June 2016: PLoS Pathogens
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