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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820887/identification-of-putative-qtls-for-seedling-stage-phosphorus-starvation-response-in-finger-millet-eleusine-coracana-l-gaertn-by-association-mapping-and-cross-species-synteny-analysis
#1
M Ramakrishnan, S Antony Ceasar, K K Vinod, V Duraipandiyan, T P Ajeesh Krishna, Hari D Upadhyaya, N A Al-Dhabi, S Ignacimuthu
A germplasm assembly of 128 finger millet genotypes from 18 countries was evaluated for seedling-stage phosphorus (P) responses by growing them in P sufficient (Psuf) and P deficient (Pdef) treatments. Majority of the genotypes showed adaptive responses to low P condition. Based on phenotype behaviour using the best linear unbiased predictors for each trait, genotypes were classified into, P responsive, low P tolerant and P non-responsive types. Based on the overall phenotype performance under Pdef, 10 genotypes were identified as low P tolerants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820317/ulk1-ubiquitylation-is-regulated-by-phosphorylation-on-its-carboxy-terminus
#2
Francesca Nazio, Marianna Carinci, Francesco Cecconi
Autophagy is a highly conserved process that acts sequestering cytoplasmic components for their degradation by the lysosomes. It consists of several sequential steps that have to be finely regulated to ensure both its progression and termination. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) play an important role in regulating ATG proteins function in different stages of autophagy. Recently, we demonstrated that, during prolonged starvation, ULK1 protein is specifically ubiquitylated by NEDD4L, and that this regulation is important to protect cells against excessive autophagy...
August 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819147/nitrogen-starvation-impacts-the-photosynthetic-performance-of-porphyridium-cruentum-as-revealed-by-chlorophyll-a-fluorescence
#3
Long-Sheng Zhao, Kang Li, Qian-Min Wang, Xiao-Yan Song, Hai-Nan Su, Bin-Bin Xie, Xi-Ying Zhang, Feng Huang, Xiu-Lan Chen, Bai-Cheng Zhou, Yu-Zhong Zhang
Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients needed for plants and algae to survive, and the photosynthetic ability of algae is related to nitrogen abundance. Red algae are unique photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms in the evolution of algae, as they contain phycobilisomes (PBSs) on their thylakoid membranes. In this report, the in vivo chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence kinetics of nitrogen-starved Porphyridium cruentum were analyzed to determine the effects of nitrogen deficiency on photosynthetic performance using a multi-color pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) chlorophyll fluorometer...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819106/identification-and-characterization-of-a-bacterial-homolog-of-chloride-intracellular-channel-clic-protein
#4
Shubha Gururaja Rao, Devasena Ponnalagu, Sowmya Sukur, Harkewal Singh, Shridhar Sanghvi, Yixiao Mei, Ding J Jin, Harpreet Singh
Chloride intracellular channels (CLIC) are non-classical ion channels lacking a signal sequence for membrane targeting. In eukaryotes, they are implicated in cell volume regulation, acidification, and cell cycle. CLICs resemble the omega class of Glutathione S-transferases (GST), yet differ from them in their ability to form ion channels. They are ubiquitously found in eukaryotes but no prokaryotic homolog has been characterized. We found that indanyloxyacetic acid-94 (IAA-94), a blocker of CLICs, delays the growth of Escherichia coli...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818378/nsr1-myr2-is-a-negative-regulator-of-asn1-expression-and-its-possible-involvement-in-regulation-of-nitrogen-reutilization-in-arabidopsis
#5
Yoshimi Nakano, Yuki Naito, Toshitsugu Nakano, Namie Ohtsuki, Kaoru Suzuki
Nitrogen (N) is a major macronutrient that is essential for plant growth. It is important for us to understand the key genes that are involved in the regulation of N utilization. In this study, we focused on a GARP-type transcription factor known as NSR1/MYR2, which has been reported to be induced under N-deficient conditions. Our results demonstrated that NSR1/MYR2 has a transcriptional repression activity and is specifically expressed in vascular tissues, especially in phloem throughout the plant under daily light-dark cycle regulation...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817702/global-gene-expression-analysis-of-the-response-of-physic-nut-jatropha-curcas-l-to-medium-and-long-term-nitrogen-deficiency
#6
Qi Kuang, Sheng Zhang, Pingzhi Wu, Yaping Chen, Meiru Li, Huawu Jiang, Guojiang Wu
Jatropha curcas L. is an important biofuel plant with excellent tolerance of barren environments. However, studies on the regulatory mechanisms that operate in this plant in response to nitrogen (N) shortage are scarce. In this study, genome-wide transcriptional profiles of the roots and leaves of 8-week old physic nut seedlings were analyzed after 2 and 16 days of N starvation. Enrichment results showed that genes associated with N metabolism, processing and regulation of RNA, and transport predominated among those showing alterations in expression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816616/transfer-rna-mediated-enhancement-of-ribosomal-proteins-s6-kinases-signalling-for-cell-proliferation
#7
Nam Hoon Kwon, Mi Ran Lee, Jiwon Kong, Seung Kyun Park, Byung Joon Hwang, Byung Gyu Kim, Eun-Shin Lee, Hyeong-Gon Moon, Sunghoon Kim
While transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are known to transport amino acids to ribosome, new functions are being unveiled from tRNAs and their fragments beyond protein synthesis. Here we show that phosphorylation of 90-kDa RPS6K (ribosomal proteins S6 kinase) was enhanced by tRNA(Leu) overexpression under amino acids starvation condition. The phosphorylation of 90-kDa RPS6K was decreased by siRNA specific to tRNA(Leu) and was independent to mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signalling. Among the 90-kDa RPS6K family, RSK1 (ribosomal S6 kinase 1) and MSK2 (mitogen-and stress-activated protein kinase 2) were the major kinases phosphorylated by tRNA(Leu) overexpression...
August 17, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815520/regulation-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-autophagy-by-the-mitochondria-associated-membrane
#8
Mitsuo Tagaya, Kohei Arasaki
Mitochondria are powerhouses and central to metabolism in cells. They are highly dynamic organelles that continuously fuse, divide, and move along the cytoskeleton to form the mitochondrial network. The fusion and fission are catalyzed by four dynamin-related GTPases in mammals that are controlled by a variety of protein-protein interactions and posttranslational modifications. Mitochondrial dynamics and metabolism are linked and regulate each other. Starvation induces mitochondrial elongation, which enables the mitochondria to produce energy more efficiently and to escape from autophagic degradation...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815215/structural-characterization-of-acidic-m17-leucine-aminopeptidases-from-the-tritryps-and-evaluation-of-their-role-in-nutrient-starvation-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#9
Jennifer Timm, Maria Valente, Daniel García-Caballero, Keith S Wilson, Dolores González-Pacanowska
Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is found in all kingdoms of life and catalyzes the metal-dependent hydrolysis of the N-terminal amino acid residue of peptide or amino acyl substrates. LAPs have been shown to participate in the N-terminal processing of certain proteins in mammalian cells and in homologous recombination and transcription regulation in bacteria, while in parasites, they are involved in host cell invasion and provision of essential amino acids for growth. The enzyme is essential for survival in Plasmodium falciparum, where its drug target potential has been suggested...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814974/time-resolved-transcriptome-analysis-and-lipid-pathway-reconstruction-of-the-oleaginous-green-microalga-monoraphidium-neglectum-reveal-a-model-for-triacylglycerol-and-lipid-hyperaccumulation
#10
Daniel Jaeger, Anika Winkler, Jan H Mussgnug, Jörn Kalinowski, Alexander Goesmann, Olaf Kruse
BACKGROUND: Oleaginous microalgae are promising production hosts for the sustainable generation of lipid-based bioproducts and as bioenergy carriers such as biodiesel. Transcriptomics of the lipid accumulation phase, triggered efficiently by nitrogen starvation, is a valuable approach for the identification of gene targets for metabolic engineering. RESULTS: An explorative analysis of the detailed transcriptional response to different stages of nitrogen availability was performed in the oleaginous green alga Monoraphidium neglectum...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814891/diabetes-and-dyslipidemia-characterizing-lipoprotein-metabolism
#11
REVIEW
G H Tomkin, D Owens
Premature atherosclerosis in diabetes accounts for much of the decreased life span. New treatments have reduced this risk considerably. This review explores the relationship among the disturbances in glucose, lipid, and bile salt metabolic pathways that occur in diabetes. In particular, excess nutrient intake and starvation have major metabolic effects, which have allowed us new insights into the disturbance that occurs in diabetes. Metabolic regulators such as the forkhead transcription factors, the farnesyl X transcription factors, and the fibroblast growth factors have become important players in our understanding of the dysregulation of metabolism in diabetes and overnutrition...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814277/phenotypes-antioxidant-responses-and-gene-expression-changes-accompanying-a-sugar-only-diet-in-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel-diptera-tephritidae
#12
Er-Hu Chen, Qiu-Li Hou, Dan-Dan Wei, Hong-Bo Jiang, Jin-Jun Wang
BACKGROUND: Diet composition (yeast:carbohydrate ratio) is an important determinant of growth, development, and reproduction. Recent studies have shown that decreased yeast intake elicits numerous transcriptomic changes and enhances somatic maintenance and lifespan, which in turn reduces reproduction in various insects. However, our understanding of the responses leading to a decrease in yeast ratio to 0% is limited. RESULTS: In the present study, we investigated the effects of a sugar-only diet (SD) on the gene expression patterns of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), one of the most economically important pests in the family Tephritidae...
August 17, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813501/durum-wheat-mirnas-in-response-to-nitrogen-starvation-at-the-grain-filling-stage
#13
Diana L Zuluaga, Domenico De Paola, Michela Janni, Pasquale Luca Curci, Gabriella Sonnante
Durum wheat highly depends on nitrogen for seed development and yield, and the obtainment of varieties with a better nitrogen use efficiency is crucial to reduce production costs and environmental pollution. In this study, sequencing of two small RNA libraries obtained from tissues of Ciccio and Svevo cultivars grown under nitrogen starvation conditions produced 84 novel, and 161 conserved miRNAs. Of these, 7 novel and 13 known miRNAs were newly identified in this work. Quantitative PCR analysis of selected miRNAs highlighted that the expression levels of some of them depends on the tissue and on the cultivar, Svevo being the most responsive to nitrogen starvation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813167/lipophagy-maintains-energy-homeostasis-in-the-kidney-proximal-tubule-during-prolonged-starvation
#14
Satoshi Minami, Takeshi Yamamoto, Yoshitsugu Takabatake, Atsushi Takahashi, Tomoko Namba, Jun Matsuda, Tomonori Kimura, Jun-Ya Kaimori, Isao Matsui, Takayuki Hamano, Hiroaki Takeda, Masatomo Takahashi, Yoshihiro Izumi, Takeshi Bamba, Taiji Matsusaka, Fumio Niimura, Yoshitaka Isaka
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a self-degradation process that combats starvation. Lipids are the main energy source in kidney proximal tubular cells (PTCs). During starvation, PTCs increase fatty acid (FA) uptake, form intracellular lipid droplets (LDs), and hydrolyze them for use. The involvement of autophagy in lipid metabolism in the kidney remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the autophagy-mediated regulation of renal lipid metabolism during prolonged starvation using PTC-specific Atg5-deficient (atg5-TSKO) mice and an in vitro serum starvation model...
August 16, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812578/throw-caution-to-the-wind-is-refeeding-syndrome-really-a-cause-of-death-in-acute-care
#15
K L Matthews, S M Capra, M A Palmer
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Refeeding syndrome (RFS), a life-threatening medical condition, is commonly associated with acute or chronic starvation. While the prevalence of patients at risk of RFS in hospital reportedly ranges from 0 to 80%, the prevalence and types of patients who die as a result of RFS is unknown. We aimed to measure the prevalence rate and examine the case histories of patients who passed away with RFS listed as a cause of death. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Patients were eligible for inclusion provided their death occurred within a Queensland hospital...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811350/defining-the-dna-binding-site-recognized-by-the-fission-yeast-zn2cys6-transcription-factor-pho7-and-its-role-in-phosphate-homeostasis
#16
Beate Schwer, Ana M Sanchez, Angad Garg, Debashree Chatterjee, Stewart Shuman
Fission yeast phosphate homeostasis entails transcriptional induction of genes encoding phosphate-mobilizing proteins under conditions of phosphate starvation. Transcription factor Pho7, a member of the Zn2Cys6 family of fungal transcription regulators, is the central player in the starvation response. The DNA binding sites in the promoters of phosphate-responsive genes have not been defined, nor have any structure-function relationships been established for the Pho7 protein. Here we narrow this knowledge gap by (i) delineating an autonomous DNA-binding domain (DBD) within Pho7 that includes the Zn2Cys6 module, (ii) deploying recombinant Pho7 DBD in DNase I footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) to map the Pho7 recognition sites in the promoters of the phosphate-regulated pho1 and tgp1 genes to a 12-nucleotide sequence motif [5'-TCG(G/C)(A/T)xxTTxAA], (iii) independently identifying the same motif as a Pho7 recognition element via in silico analysis of available genome-wide ChIP-seq data, (iv) affirming that mutations in the two Pho7 recognition sites in the pho1 promoter efface pho1 expression in vivo, and (v) establishing that the zinc-binding cysteines and a pair of conserved arginines in the DBD are essential for Pho7 activity in vivoIMPORTANCE Fungi respond to phosphate starvation by inducing the transcription of a set of phosphate acquisition genes that comprise a phosphate regulon...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811344/the-capacity-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-to-survive-iron-starvation-might-enable-it-to-persist-in-iron-deprived-microenvironments-of-human-granulomas
#17
Krishna Kurthkoti, Hamel Amin, Mohlopheni J Marakalala, Saleena Ghanny, Selvakumar Subbian, Alexandra Sakatos, Jonathan Livny, Sarah M Fortune, Michael Berney, G Marcela Rodriguez
This study was conducted to investigate the role of iron deprivation in the persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis We present evidence of iron restriction in human necrotic granulomas and demonstrate that under iron starvation M. tuberculosis persists, refractive to antibiotics and capable of restarting replication when iron is made available. Transcriptomics and metabolomic analyses indicated that the persistence of M. tuberculosis under iron starvation is dependent on strict control of endogenous Fe utilization and is associated with upregulation of pathogenicity and intrinsic antibiotic resistance determinants...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810702/the-nutrient-transceptor-pka-pathway-functions-independently-of-tor-and-responds-to-leucine-and-gcn2-in-a-tor-independent-manner
#18
Michaela Conrad, Harish Nag Kankipati, Marlies Kimpe, Griet Van Zeebroeck, Zhiqiang Zhang, Johan M Thevelein
Two nutrient-controlled signalling pathways, the PKA and TOR pathway, play a major role in nutrient regulation of growth as well as growth-correlated properties in yeast. The relationship between the two pathways is not well understood. We have used Gap1 and Pho84 transceptor-mediated activation of trehalase and phosphorylation of fragmented Sch9 as a read-out for rapid nutrient activation of PKA or TORC1, respectively. We have identified conditions in which L-citrulline-induced activation of Sch9 phosphorylation is compromised, but not activation of trehalase: addition of the TORC1 inhibitor, rapamycin and low levels of L-citrulline...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808127/the-components-of-the-unique-zur-regulon-of-cupriavidus-metallidurans-mediate-cytoplasmic-zinc-handling
#19
Lucy Bütof, Christopher Schmidt-Vogler, Martin Herzberg, Cornelia Große, Dietrich H Nies
Zinc is an essential trace element and at the same time it is toxic at high concentrations. In the beta-proteobacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans the highly efficient removal of surplus zinc from the periplasm is responsible for its outstanding metal resistance. Rather than having a typical Zur-dependent, high-affinity ATP-binding cassette transporter of the ABC protein superfamily for zinc uptake at low concentrations, C. metallidurans instead has the secondary zinc importer ZupT of the ZRT/IRT (ZIP) family...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807780/mgl-1-on-aiy-neurons-translates-starvation-to-reproductive-plasticity-via-neuropeptide-signaling-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#20
Haelim Jeong, Young-Ki Paik
Reproductive plasticity is the ability of an animal to modulate its reproductive functions in response to environmental changes. For example, Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living nematode, can adjust the onsets of oogenesis and embryogenesis under harsh environmental conditions, including starvation. However, the molecular mechanisms used to perceive and translate environmental signals into reproductive functional adjustments remain largely uncharacterized. We discovered that in C. elegans, the glutamate receptor homolog MGL-1 initiated reproductive plasticity in response to starvation...
August 11, 2017: Developmental Biology
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