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Tímea O Kóbori, Tatsuya Uzumaki, Mihály Kis, László Kovács, Ildikó Domonkos, Shigeru Itoh, Vendula Krynická, Saravanan G Kuppusamy, Tomas Zakar, Jason Dean, László Szilák, Josef Komenda, Zoltán Gombos, Bettina Ughy
Phosphatidylglycerol is an essential phospholipid for photosynthesis and other cellular processes. We investigated the role of phosphatidylglycerol in cell division and metabolism in a phophatidylglycerol-auxotrophic strain of Synechococcus PCC7942. Here we show that phosphatidylglycerol is essential for the photosynthetic electron transfer and for the oligomerisation of the photosynthetic complexes, notably, we revealed that this lipid is important for non-linear electron transport. Furthermore, we demonstrate that phosphatidylglycerol starvation elevated the expressions of proteins of nitrogen and carbon metabolism...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Ahmed Farghaly, Sophie Le Roux, Pascal Peu, Patrick Dabert, Ahmed Tawfik
The aim of this study is to highlight the robustness and potentials of the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) configuration on keeping the microbial richness and diversity after starvation period of 7 days. The module at steady state operating conditions provided an average volumetric hydrogen production (VHP) of 0.2±0.08 and 0.423±0.5 l/d in the 1st and last compartment (C4). The VHP was gradually decreased from 0.2 to 0.003 l/d and from 0.423 to 0.1 l/d in compartments (C1 and C4) respectively during feed less period...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Technology
Zheng Liu, Maro J Kariya, Christopher D Chute, Amy K Pribadi, Sarah G Leinwand, Ada Tong, Kevin P Curran, Neelanjan Bose, Frank C Schroeder, Jagan Srinivasan, Sreekanth H Chalasani
Animals respond to predators by altering their behavior and physiological states, but the underlying signaling mechanisms are poorly understood. Using the interactions between Caenorhabditis elegans and its predator, Pristionchus pacificus, we show that neuronal perception by C. elegans of a predator-specific molecular signature induces instantaneous escape behavior and a prolonged reduction in oviposition. Chemical analysis revealed this predator-specific signature to consist of a class of sulfolipids, produced by a biochemical pathway required for developing predacious behavior and specifically induced by starvation...
March 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Hiroki Murakami, Takashi Nobusawa, Koichi Hori, Mie Shimojima, Hiroyuki Ohta
Diacylglyceryl-N,N,N-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS) is a non-phosphorus, polar glycerolipid that is regarded as analogous to the phosphatidylcholine in bacteria, fungi, algae, and basal land plants. In some species of algae, including the stramenopile microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica, DGTS contains an abundance of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which is relatively scarce in phosphatidylcholine, implying that DGTS has a unique physiological role. In this study, we addressed the role of DGTS in N. oceanica. We identified two DGTS biosynthetic enzymes that have distinct domain configurations compared to previously identified DGTS synthases...
March 19, 2018: Plant Physiology
Wasim Khan, Brian T Layden, Partha Chakrabarti
Glutamine, a well-established oncometabolite, anaplerotically fuels mitochondrial energy metabolism and modulates activity of mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complexes (mTOR). Currently, mTOR inhibitors are in clinical use for certain types of cancer but with limited success. Since glutamine is essential for growth of many cancers, we reasoned that glutamine deprivation under conditions of mTOR inhibition should be more detrimental to cancer cell survival. However, our results show that when cells are deprived of glutamine concomitant with mTOR inhibition, hepatocarcinoma cells elicit an adaptive response which aids in their survival due to enhanced autophagic flux...
March 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Kathryn M Wright, Nicola J Holden
Microgreens are edible plants used in food preparation for their appealing flavours and colours. They are grown beyond the point of harvest of sprouted seeds, and normally include the cotyledons and first true leaves. Their method of production is similar to sprouted seeds, which is known to be favourable for growth of microbial pathogens, although there is little data on the potential of food-borne pathogens such as Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) to colonise these plants. We found colonisation of nine different species of microgreen plants by STEC (isolate Sakai, stx-), with high levels of growth over five days, of approximately 5 orders of magnitude, for plants propagated at 21 °C...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Weilan Zhang, Irene M C Lo, Liming Hu, Chia Pao Voon, Boon L Lim, Wayne K Versaw
The use of nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) for arsenate (As(V)) remediation has proven effective, but full-scale injection of nZVI into the subsurface has aroused serious concerns for associated environmental risks. This study evaluated the efficacy of nZVI treatment for arsenate remediation and its potential hazards to plants using Arabidopsis thaliana grown in a hydroponic system. Biosensors for inorganic phosphate (Pi) and MgATP2- were used to monitor in vivo Pi and MgATP2- levels in plant cells. The results showed that nZVI could remove As(V) from growth media, decrease As uptake by plants, and mitigate As(V) toxicity to plants...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Chao Shi, Bei-Qing Pan, Feng Shi, Zhi-Hui Xie, Yan-Yi Jiang, Li Shang, Yu Zhang, Xin Xu, Yan Cai, Jia-Jie Hao, Ming-Rong Wang
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the malignancies in digestive system, with a low 5-year survival rate. We previously revealed that Sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1/p62) protein levels were upregulated in ESCC tissues. However, it is unclear about the function of p62 and the underlying mechanism. Here, we used immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry to investigate the expression of p62 in ESCC. Western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR, colony formation assay, flow cytometry, immunoprecipitation and xenograft tumor assay were used to analyze the role of p62 in vitro and vivo...
March 19, 2018: Oncogene
Yi Guan, Yiping Li, Gang Zhao, Yunqian Li
Impaired autophagic clearance of aggregated α-synuclein is considered as one of key mechanisms underlining Parkinson disease (PD). High-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) has recently been demonstrated to mediate persistent neuroinflammation and consequent progressive neurodegeneration by promoting multiple inflammatory and neurotoxic factors. In this study, we examined the influence of the overexpression of wild-type (WT) and mutant-type (MT, A53T and A30P) α-synuclein on the autophagy in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells under starvation, and then investigated the regulation of endogenous HMGB1 on the α-synuclein degradation and on the starvation-induced autophagy in the α-synuclein-overexpressed SH-SY5Y cells...
March 15, 2018: Life Sciences
J Durgan, O Florey
Entosis is a form of epithelial cell engulfment and cannibalism prevalent in human cancer. Until recently, the only known trigger for entosis was loss of attachment to the extracellular matrix, as often occurs in the tumour microenvironment. However, two new studies now reveal that entosis can also occur among adherent epithelial cells, induced by mitosis or glucose starvation. Together, these findings point to the intriguing notion that certain hallmark properties of cancer cells, including anchorage independence, aberrant proliferation and metabolic stress, can converge on the induction of cell cannibalism, a phenomenon so frequently observed in tumours...
March 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
O Bénichou, U Bhat, P L Krapivsky, S Redner
We introduce the frugal foraging model in which a forager performs a discrete-time random walk on a lattice in which each site initially contains S food units. The forager metabolizes one unit of food at each step and starves to death when it last ate S steps in the past. Whenever the forager eats, it consumes all food at its current site and this site remains empty forever (no food replenishment). The crucial property of the forager is that it is frugal and eats only when encountering food within at most k steps of starvation...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Shiqi Luo, Feng He, Junjie Luo, Shengqian Dou, Yirong Wang, Annan Guo, Jian Lu
Transfer RNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) are an emerging class of small RNAs, yet their regulatory roles have not been well understood. Here we studied the molecular mechanisms and consequences of tsRNA-mediated regulation in Drosophila. By analyzing 495 public small RNA libraries, we demonstrate that most tsRNAs are conserved, prevalent and abundant in Drosophila. By carrying out mRNA sequencing and ribosome profiling of S2 cells transfected with single-stranded tsRNA mimics and mocks, we show that tsRNAs recognize target mRNAs through conserved complementary sequence matching and suppress target genes by translational inhibition...
March 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Corinne Gibble, Rebecca Duerr, Barbara Bodenstein, Kirsten Lindquist, Jackie Lindsey, Jessie Beck, Laird Henkel, Jan Roletto, Jim Harvey, Raphael Kudela
From August through December 2015, beachcast bird survey programs reported increased deposition of common murres ( Uria aalge) on central and northern California beaches, but not on southern California beaches. Coastal wildlife rehabilitation centers received more than 1,000 live, stranded, and debilitated murres from Sonoma County to San Luis Obispo County during August-October. Approximately two-thirds of admitted birds were after-hatch-year birds in emaciated body condition and in various stages of molt, with extremely worn plumage...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Chang-Hui Tsao, Chien-Chun Chen, Chen-Han Lin, Hao-Yu Yang, Suewei Lin
The fruit fly can evaluate its energy state and decide whether to pursue food-related cues. Here, we reveal that the mushroom body (MB) integrates hunger and satiety signals to control food-seeking behavior. We have discovered five pathways in the MB essential for hungry flies to locate and approach food. Blocking the MB-intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) and the MB output neurons (MBONs) in these pathways impairs food-seeking behavior. Starvation bi-directionally modulates MBON responses to a food odor, suggesting that hunger and satiety controls occur at the KC-to-MBON synapses...
March 16, 2018: ELife
Olivier Turc, François Tardieu
Abortion of reproductive organs is a major limiting factor of yield under water deficit, but is also a trait selected for by evolutionary processes. Youngest reproductive organs must be prone to abortion so older organs can finish their development in case of limited resources. Water deficit increases natural abortion via two developmentally-driven processes, namely a signal from the first fertilized ovaries and a simultaneous arrest of the expansive growth of all ovaries at a precise stage. In maize (Zea mays) subjected to water deficits typically encountered in dryland agriculture, these developmental mechanisms account for 90 % of drought-associated abortion and are irreversible three days after silk emergence...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Ariel Talavera, Jelle Hendrix, Wim Versées, Dukas Jurėnas, Katleen Van Nerom, Niels Vandenberk, Ranjan Kumar Singh, Albert Konijnenberg, Steven De Gieter, Daniel Castro-Roa, Anders Barth, Henri De Greve, Frank Sobott, Johan Hofkens, Nikolay Zenkin, Remy Loris, Abel Garcia-Pino
Bacterial protein synthesis is intricately connected to metabolic rate. One of the ways in which bacteria respond to environmental stress is through posttranslational modifications of translation factors. Translation elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) is methylated and phosphorylated in response to nutrient starvation upon entering stationary phase, and its phosphorylation is a crucial step in the pathway toward sporulation. We analyze how phosphorylation leads to inactivation of Escherichia coli EF-Tu. We provide structural and biophysical evidence that phosphorylation of EF-Tu at T382 acts as an efficient switch that turns off protein synthesis by decoupling nucleotide binding from the EF-Tu conformational cycle...
March 2018: Science Advances
Ron Stauder, Ralf Welsch, Maurizio Camagna, Wouter Kohlen, Gerd U Balcke, Alain Tissier, Michael H Walter
Strigolactones (SLs) are apocarotenoid phytohormones synthesized from carotenoid precursors. They are produced most abundantly in roots for exudation into the rhizosphere to cope with mineral nutrient starvation through support of root symbionts. Abscisic acid (ABA) is another apocarotenoid phytohormone synthesized in roots, which is involved in responses to abiotic stress. Typically low carotenoid levels in roots raise the issue of precursor supply for the biosynthesis of these two apocarotenoids in this organ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Samantha W Alvarez, Richard Possemato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Nanako Kanno, Katsumi Matsuura, Shin Haruta
Purple photosynthetic bacteria utilize light energy for growth. We previously demonstrated that light energy contributed to prolonging the survival of multiple purple bacteria under carbon-starved conditions. In order to clarify the effects of illumination on metabolic states under carbon-starved, non-growing conditions, we herein compared the metabolic profiles of starved cells in the light and dark using the purple bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The metabolic profiles of starved cells in the light were markedly different from those in the dark...
March 13, 2018: Microbes and Environments
Maria Moiron, Kimberley J Mathot, Niels J Dingemanse
Adaptive theory predicts that the fundamental trade-off between starvation and predation risk shapes diurnal patterns in foraging activity and mass gain in wintering passerine birds. Foragers mitigating both types of risk should exhibit a bimodal distribution (increased foraging and mass gain early and late in the day), whereas both foraging and mass gains early (versus late) during the day are expected when the risk of starvation (versus predation) is greatest. Finally, relatively constant rates of foraging and mass gain should occur when the starvation-predation risk trade-off is independent of body mass...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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