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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776341/different-adaptive-strategies-in-e-coli-populations-evolving-under-macronutrient-limitation-and-metal-ion-limitation
#1
Omar M Warsi, Dan I Andersson, Daniel E Dykhuizen
BACKGROUND: Adaptive responses to nutrient limitation involve mutations that increase the efficiency of usage or uptake of the limiting nutrient. However, starvation of different nutrients has contrasting effects on physiology, resulting in different evolutionary responses. Most studies performed to understand these evolutionary responses have focused only on macronutrient limitation. Hence our understanding of adaptation under limitation of other forms of nutrients is limited. In this study, we compared the evolutionary response in populations evolving under growth-limiting conditions for a macronutrient and a major cation...
May 18, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775480/titan-cells-formation-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-is-finely-tuned-by-environmental-conditions-and-modulated-by-positive-and-negative-genetic-regulators
#2
Benjamin Hommel, Liliane Mukaremera, Radames J B Cordero, Carolina Coelho, Christopher A Desjardins, Aude Sturny-Leclère, Guilhem Janbon, John R Perfect, James A Fraser, Arturo Casadevall, Christina A Cuomo, Françoise Dromer, Kirsten Nielsen, Alexandre Alanio
The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans exhibits morphological changes in cell size during lung infection, producing both typical size 5 to 7 μm cells and large titan cells (> 10 μm and up to 100 μm). We found and optimized in vitro conditions that produce titan cells in order to identify the ancestry of titan cells, the environmental determinants, and the key gene regulators of titan cell formation. Titan cells generated in vitro harbor the main characteristics of titan cells produced in vivo including their large cell size (>10 μm), polyploidy with a single nucleus, large vacuole, dense capsule, and thick cell wall...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774236/endocytosis-mediated-siderophore-uptake-as-a-strategy-for-fe-acquisition-in-diatoms
#3
Elena Kazamia, Robert Sutak, Javier Paz-Yepes, Richard G Dorrell, Fabio Rocha Jimenez Vieira, Jan Mach, Joe Morrissey, Sébastien Leon, France Lam, Eric Pelletier, Jean-Michel Camadro, Chris Bowler, Emmanuel Lesuisse
Phytoplankton growth is limited in vast oceanic regions by the low bioavailability of iron. Iron fertilization often results in diatom blooms, yet the physiological underpinnings for how diatoms survive in chronically iron-limited waters and outcompete other phytoplankton when iron becomes available are unresolved. We show that some diatoms can use siderophore-bound iron, and exhibit a species-specific recognition for siderophore types. In Phaeodactylum tricornutum , hydroxamate siderophores are taken up without previous reduction by a high-affinity mechanism that involves binding to the cell surface followed by endocytosis-mediated uptake and delivery to the chloroplast...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773977/journey-to-the-center-of-the-fetal-brain-environmental-exposures-and-autophagy
#4
REVIEW
Jun Lei, Pilar Calvo, Richard Vigh, Irina Burd
Fetal brain development is known to be affected by adverse environmental exposures during pregnancy, including infection, inflammation, hypoxia, alcohol, starvation, and toxins. These exposures are thought to alter autophagy activity in the fetal brain, leading to adverse perinatal outcomes, such as cognitive and sensorimotor deficits. This review introduces the physiologic autophagy pathways in the fetal brain. Next, methods to detect and monitor fetal brain autophagy activity are outlined. An additional discussion explores possible mechanisms by which environmental exposures during pregnancy alter fetal brain autophagy activity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773965/funds-allocation-in-npos-the-role-of-administrative-cost-ratios
#5
Christian Burkart, Tina Wakolbinger, Fuminori Toyasaki
Performance measurement of Non-Profit Organizations (NPOs) is of increasing importance for aid agencies, policy-makers and donors. A widely used benchmark for measuring the efficiency of NPOs is the overhead cost ratio, consisting of the total money spent on administration and fundraising relative to the budget. Donors generally favor a lower overhead cost ratio as it ensures that more money directly reaches beneficiaries. Unlike fundraising expenses, administrative costs do not contribute to advertising the actions of an NPO even though they account for a significant proportion of overhead cost...
2018: Central European Journal of Operations Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773197/efficient-zinc-uptake-is-critical-for-the-ability-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-to-express-virulence-traits-and-colonize-the-human-lung
#6
Maria Chiara Mastropasqua, Iain Lamont, Lois W Martin, David W Reid, Melania D'Orazio, Andrea Battistoni
We have recently shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen that chronically infects the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and other forms of lung disease, is extremely efficient in recruiting zinc from the environment and that this capability is required for its ability to cause acute lung infections in mice. To verify that P. aeruginosa faces zinc shortage when colonizing the lungs of human patients, we analyzed the expression of three genes that are highly induced under conditions of zinc deficiency (zrmA, dksA2 and rpmE2), in bacteria in the sputum of patients with inflammatory lung disease...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772508/resuscitation-of-starved-anaerobic-ammonium-oxidation-sludge-system-impacts-of-repeated-short-term-starvation
#7
Lihong Ye, Dong Li, Jie Zhang, Huiping Zeng
Starvation of biomass is common during underloading of bioreactors or sludge storage in biological wastewater treatment industries. The aim of this work was to study the impact of starvation modes on the nitrogen removal capacity of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process in sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The repeated short-term starvation and reactivation experiments were performed to evaluate the response of anammox sludge system in the condition of 27 ± 1.5 °C and 320 min HRT. Moreover, the nitrogen removal ability of the anammox process was reactivated rapidly in the low substrate condition, then the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency reached 82...
May 4, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772507/novel-insight-of-carotenoid-and-lipid-biosynthesis-and-their-roles-in-storage-carbon-metabolism-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#8
Han Sun, Xuemei Mao, Tao Wu, Yuanyuan Ren, Feng Chen, Bin Liu
Revenues of carotenoid and lipid biosynthesis under excess light and nitrogen starvation were firstly analyzed for the increased biomass value through carbon metabolism analysis. The results suggested excess light and nitrogen starvation resulted in carbon partitioning among protein, starch, lipid and carotenoid. Nitrogen starvation promoted more cellular lipid content than excess light, while excess light promoted carotenoid and polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulation. In the molecular level, the stresses redirected carbon skeletons into the central metabolite of pyruvate and oriented into starch and lipid as the primary and secondary carbon storage, respectively...
May 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771182/ciliogenesis-is-reciprocally-regulated-by-ppara-and-nr1h4-fxr-through-controlling-autophagy-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Zhi-Qiang Liu, Joon No Lee, Myeongjoo Son, Jae-Young Lim, Raghbendra Kumar Dutta, Yunash Maharjan, SeongAe Kwak, Goo Taeg Oh, Kyunghee Byun, Seong-Kyu Choe, Raekil Park
The primary cilia are evolutionarily conserved microtubule-based cellular organelles that perceive metabolic status and thus link the sensory system to cellular signaling pathways. Therefore, ciliogenesis is thought to be tightly linked to autophagy, which is also regulated by nutrient-sensing transcription factors, such as PPARA (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha) and NR1H4/FXR (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4). However, the relationship between these factors and ciliogenesis has not been clearly demonstrated...
May 17, 2018: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769325/the-ancient-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-signaling-system-is-a-master-regulator-of-energy-and-carbon-metabolism-in-algae
#10
Rishiram Ramanan, Quynh-Giao Tran, Dae-Hyun Cho, Jae-Eun Jeong, Byung-Hyuk Kim, Sang-Yoon Shin, Sae-Hae Choi, Kwang-Hyeon Liu, Dae-Soo Kim, Seon-Jin Lee, Jose L Crespo, Hee-Gu Lee, Hee-Mock Oh, Hee-Sik Kim
Algae undergo a complete metabolic transformation under stress by arresting cell growth, inducing autophagy, and hyper-accumulating biofuel precursors such as triacylglycerols and starch. However, the regulatory mechanisms behind this stress-induced transformation are still unclear. Here, we use biochemical, mutational, and 'omics' approaches to demonstrate that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling mediates the homeostasis of energy molecules and influences carbon metabolism in algae. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the inhibition and knockdown (KD) of algal class III PI3K led to significantly decreased cell growth, altered cell morphology, and higher lipid and starch contents...
May 16, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767334/are-phloem-derived-amino-acids-the-origin-of-the-elevated-malate-concentration-in-the-xylem-sap-following-mineral-n-starvation-in-soybean
#11
Simone C Vitor, Luciano do Amarante, Ladaslav Sodek
A substantial increase in malate in the xylem sap of soybean subjected to mineral N starvation originates mainly from aspartate, a prominent amino acid of the phloem. A substantial increase in xylem malate was found when non-nodulated soybean plants were transferred to a N-free medium. Nodulated plants growing in the absence of mineral N and, therefore, dependent on symbiotic N2 fixation also contained elevated concentrations of malate in the xylem sap. When either nitrate or ammonium was supplied, malate concentrations in the xylem sap were low, both for nodulated and non-nodulated plants...
May 16, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767079/gluconeogenesis-during-starvation-and-refeeding-phase-is-affected-by-previous-dietary-carbohydrates-levels-and-a-glucose-stimuli-during-early-life-in-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baerii
#12
Xiaofang Liang, Jia Wang, Guan Gong, Min Xue, Yingchao Dong, Xiufeng Wu, Xin Wang, Chunshan Chen, Xufang Liang, Yuchang Qin
Gluconeogenesis responses was assessed during a short starvation period and subsequent refeeding in Siberian sturgeon ( Acipenser baerii ) previously fed different dietary carbohydrates levels and experienced to a glucose stimuli during early life. The sturgeon larvae were previously fed either a high glucose diet (G) or a low glucose diet (F) from the first feeding to yolk absorption (8 to 12 d post-hatching [dph]). Each group of fish was sub-divided into 2 treatments at 13 dph and was fed either a high-carbohydrate diet (H) or a low carbohydrate diet (L) until 20 wk...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762784/identification-and-characterization-of-probiotic-yeast-isolated-from-digestive-tract-of-ducks
#13
X Q Hu, Q Liu, J P Hu, J J Zhou, X Zhang, S Y Peng, L J Peng, X D Wang
The objective of this study was to isolate and identify yeast strains from the digestive tract of ducks, and evaluate in vitro their potential as probiotics in poultry. The yeast strains were isolated using malt extract agar medium, and identified through morphological, physiological, and biochemical tests as well as sequence homology analyses of 26S rDNA D1/D2 region. A total of 35 yeast strains were isolated from the guts of Cherry Valley meat ducks, including seven strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S...
May 14, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761917/cationic-europium-complexes-for-visualizing-fluctuations-in-mitochondrial-atp-levels-in-living-cells
#14
Romain Mailhot, Thomas Traviss-Pollard, Robert Pal, Stephen Jonathan Butler
The ability to study cellular metabolism and enzymatic processes involving adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is impeded by the lack of imaging probes capable of signaling the concentration of intracellular ATP rapidly, with high sensitivity. We report the first example of a luminescent lanthanide complex capable of visualizing changes in the concentration of ATP in the mitochondria of living cells. Four cationic europium(III) complexes [Eu.1-4]+ have been synthesized and their binding affinities towards nucleoside polyphosphate anions examined at physiological pH...
May 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761415/effects-of-genetic-distance-on-heterosis-in-a-drosophila-melanogaster-model-system
#15
Charlotte Jensen, Michael Ørsted, Torsten Nygaard Kristensen
Habitat fragmentation and small population sizes can lead to inbreeding and loss of genetic variation, which can potentially cause inbreeding depression and decrease the ability of populations to adapt to altered environmental conditions. One solution to these genetic problems is the implementation of genetic rescue, which re-establishes gene flow between separated populations. Similar techniques are being used in animal and plant breeding to produce superior production animals and plants. To optimize fitness benefits in genetic rescue programs and to secure high yielding domestic varieties in animal and plant breeding, knowledge on the genetic relatedness of populations being crossed is imperative...
May 14, 2018: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760875/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-promotes-multicellular-development-over-unicellular-encystation-in-encysting-dictyostelia
#16
Yoshinori Kawabe, Takahiro Morio, Yoshimasa Tanaka, Pauline Schaap
Background: Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) regulates many cell fate decisions in animal development. In multicellular structures of the group 4 dictyostelid Dictyostelium discoideum , GSK3 promotes spore over stalk-like differentiation. We investigated whether, similar to other sporulation-inducing genes such as cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), this role of GSK3 is derived from an ancestral role in encystation of unicellular amoebas. Results: We deleted GSK3 in Polysphondylium pallidum , a group 2 dictyostelid which has retained encystation as an alternative survival strategy...
2018: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760775/a-downstream-box-fusion-allows-stable-accumulation-of-a-bacterial-cellulase-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-chloroplasts
#17
Lubna V Richter, Huijun Yang, Mohammad Yazdani, Maureen R Hanson, Beth A Ahner
Background: We investigated strategies to improve foreign protein accumulation in the chloroplasts of the model algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and tested the outcome in both standard culture conditions as well as one pertinent to algal biofuel production. The downstream box (DB) of the TetC or NPTII genes, the first 15 codons following the start codon, was N -terminally fused to the coding region of cel6A , an endoglucanase from Thermobifida fusca . We also employed a chimeric regulatory element, consisting of the 16S rRNA promoter and the atpA 5'UTR, previously reported to enhance protein expression, to regulate the expression of the TetC- cel6A gene...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760759/how-does-temperature-affect-functional-kleptoplasty-comparing-populations-of-the-solar-powered-sister-species-elysia-timida-risso-1818-and-elysia-cornigera-nuttall-1989-gastropoda-sacoglossa
#18
Elise Marie Jerschabek Laetz, Heike Wägele
Background: Despite widespread interest in solar-powered sea slugs (Sacoglossa: Gastropoda), relatively little is know about how they actually perform functional kleptoplasty. Sister-taxa Elysia timida and E. cornigera provide an ideal model system for investigating this phenomenon, since they feed on the same algal genus and only E. timida is capable of long-term kleptoplasty. Recent research has explored factors regarding functional kleptoplasty in E. timida , including their starvation longevity, digestive activity, autophagal response and photosynthetic efficiency under two different temperature conditions (18 °C and 21 °C)...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760462/distinct-mechanisms-coordinate-transcription-and-translation-under-carbon-and-nitrogen-starvation-in-escherichia-coli
#19
Sukanya Iyer, Dai Le, Bo Ryoung Park, Minsu Kim
Bacteria adapt to environmental stress by producing proteins that provide stress protection. However, stress can severely perturb the kinetics of gene expression, disrupting protein production. Here, we characterized how Escherichia coli mitigates such perturbations under nutrient stress through the kinetic coordination of transcription and translation. We observed that, when translation became limiting under nitrogen starvation, transcription elongation slowed accordingly. This slowdown was mediated by (p)ppGpp, the alarmone whose primary role is thought to be promoter regulation...
May 14, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760379/autophagic-degradation-of-caveolin-1-promotes-liver-sinusoidal-endothelial-cells-defenestration
#20
Xiaoying Luo, Dan Wang, Xintao Zhu, Guozhen Wang, Yuehua You, Zuowei Ning, Yang Li, Siyi Jin, Yun Huang, Ye Hu, Tingting Chen, Ying Meng, Xu Li
Autophagy, interacting with actin cytoskeleton and the NO-dependent pathway, may affect the phenotype and function of endothelial cells. Moreover, caveolin-1 (Cav-1), as a structure protein in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), is closely related to autophagy. Hence, we aim to explore the role of autophagic degradation of Cav-1 in LSECs defenestration. In vivo, we found the increase of autophagy in liver sinusoidal endothelium in human fibrotic liver. Furthermore, autophagy, degradation of Cav-1, and actin filament (F-actin) remodeling were triggered during the process of CCl4-induced LSECs defenestration; in contrast, autophagy inhibitor 3MA diminished the degradation of Cav-1 to maintain fenestrae and relieve CCl4-induced fibrosis...
May 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
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