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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936433/carbon-starvation-induces-lipid-degradation-via-autophagy-in-the-model-alga-micrasterias
#1
Viola Schwarz, Ancuela Andosch, Anja Geretschläger, Matthias Affenzeller, Ursula Lütz-Meindl
Autophagy is regarded as crucial intracellular process in plant development but also in intracellular stress response. It is known to be controlled by the energy level of the cell and consequently can be triggered by energy deprivation. In this study carbon starvation evoked in different ways was investigated in the freshwater algae model system Micrasterias denticulata (Streptophyta) which is closely related to higher plants. Cells exposed to the photosynthesis inhibiting herbicide DCMU, to the glycolysis inhibitor 2-Deoxy-d-glucose and to complete darkness over up to 9 weeks for preventing metabolism downstream of glucose supply, were investigated by means of Nile red staining and analyses in CLSM, and TEM after cryo-preparation...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936347/the-infectious-intracellular-lifestyle-of-salmonella-enterica-relies-on-the-adaptation-to-nutritional-conditions-within-the-salmonella-containing-vacuole
#2
Lautaro Diacovich, Lucía Lorenzi, Mauro Tomassetti, Stéphane Méresse, Hugo Gramajo
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes various host-specific diseases. During their life cycle, Salmonellae survive frequent exposures to a variety of environmental stresses, e.g. carbon-source starvation. The virulence of this pathogen relies on its ability to establish a replicative niche, named Salmonella-containing vacuole, inside host cells. However, the microenvironment of the SCV and the bacterial metabolic pathways required during infection are largely undefined...
December 9, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934868/regulation-of-matg9-trafficking-by-src-and-ulk1-mediated-phosphorylation-in-basal-and-starvation-induced-autophagy
#3
Changqian Zhou, Kaili Ma, Ruize Gao, Chenglong Mu, Linbo Chen, Qiangqiang Liu, Qian Luo, Du Feng, Yushan Zhu, Quan Chen
Autophagy requires diverse membrane sources and involves membrane trafficking of mATG9, the only membrane protein in the ATG family. However, the molecular regulation of mATG9 trafficking for autophagy initiation remains unclear. Here we identified two conserved classic adaptor protein sorting signals within the cytosolic N-terminus of mATG9, which mediate trafficking of mATG9 from the plasma membrane and trans-Golgi network (TGN) via interaction with the AP1/2 complex. Src phosphorylates mATG9 at Tyr8 to maintain its endocytic and constitutive trafficking in unstressed conditions...
December 9, 2016: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932968/neurobiology-of-anorexia-nervosa-serotonin-dysfunctions-link-self-starvation-with-body-image-disturbances-through-an-impaired-body-memory
#4
REVIEW
Giuseppe Riva
The etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is still unclear, despite that it is a critical and potentially mortal illness. A recent neurobiological model considers AN as the outcome of dysfunctions in the neuronal processes related to appetite and emotionality (Kaye et al., 2009, 2013). However, this model still is not able to answer a critical question: What is behind body image disturbances (BIDs) in AN? The article starts its analysis from reviewing some of the studies exploring the effects of the serotonin systems in memory (episodic, working, and spatial) and its dysfunctions...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932574/ulk1-cycling-the-ups-and-downs-of-the-autophagy-response
#5
Yan G Zhao, Hong Zhang
The Ser/Thr kinase ULK1/Atg1 controls autophagy initiation under nutrient starvation conditions. In this issue, Nazio et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201605089) demonstrate that oscillatory modulation of NEDD4L-mediated proteasomal degradation and mTOR-dependent de novo protein synthesis of ULK1 ensures the proper amplitude and duration of the autophagy response during prolonged starvation, thus maintaining cellular homeostasis.
December 8, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932387/the-long-non-coding-rna-transcriptome-of-dictyostelium-discoideum-development
#6
Rafael D Rosengarten, Balaji Santhanam, Janez Kokosar, Gad Shaulsky
Dictyostelium discoideum live in the soil as single cells, engulfing bacteria and growing vegetatively. Upon starvation, tens of thousands of amoebae enter a developmental program that includes aggregation, multicellular differentiation, and sporulation. Major shifts across the protein-coding transcriptome accompany these developmental changes. However, no study has presented a global survey of long non-coding RNAs in D. discoideum To characterize the antisense and long intergenic non-coding RNA transcriptome, we analyzed previously published developmental time course samples using an RNA-sequencing library preparation method that selectively depletes ribosomal RNAs...
December 7, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932295/the-interconnections-between-autophagy-and-integrin-mediated-cell-adhesion
#7
REVIEW
Ariadne Vlahakis, Jayanta Debnath
Autophagy is a cellular degradation process integral for promoting cellular adaptation during metabolic stress while also functioning as a cellular homeostatic mechanism. Mounting evidence also demonstrates that autophagy is induced upon loss of integrin-mediated cell attachments to the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). Analogous to its established cytoprotective role during nutrient starvation, autophagy protects cells from detachment-induced cell death, termed anoikis. Here, we review the significance of autophagy as an anoikis resistance pathway, focusing on the intracellular signals associated with integrins that modulate the autophagy response and dictate the balance between cell death and survival following loss of cell-matrix contact...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931747/genetic-diversity-and-population-structure-of-food-borne-staphylococcus-carnosus-strains
#8
Anne Bückle Née Müller, Markus Kranz, Herbert Schmidt, Agnes Weiss
The species Staphylococcus carnosus is a non-pathogenic representative of the coagulase negative staphylococci. Specific strains are applied as meat starter cultures. The species consists of two subspecies, S. carnosus ssp. carnosus and S. carnosus ssp. utilis. In order to place S. carnosus strains, characterized in former studies, in a genetic background that allows a typing of candidates for starter cultures, a Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) scheme was developed. Internal fragments of the genes tpiA, xprT, dat, gmk, glpK, narG, cstA, encoding triosephosphate isomerase, xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase, d-amino acid aminotransferase, guanylate kinase, glycerol kinase, the α-chain of the respiratory nitrate reductase, and a carbon starvation protein where chosen...
November 30, 2016: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931000/thorium-impact-on-tobacco-root-transcriptome
#9
Kateřina Mazari, Přemysl Landa, Sylva Přerostová, Karel Müller, Radomíra Vaňková, Petr Soudek, Tomáš Vaněk
Thorium is natural actinide metal with potential use in nuclear energetics. Contamination by thorium, originated from mining activities or spills, represents environmental risk due to its radioactivity and chemical toxicity. A promising approach for cleaning of contaminated areas is phytoremediation, which need to be based, however, on detail understanding of the thorium effects on plants. In this study we investigated transcriptomic response of tobacco roots exposed to 200μM thorium for one week. Thorium application resulted in up-regulation of 152 and down-regulation of 100 genes (p-value <0...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930814/septic-ketoacidosis-a-potentially-lethal-entity-with-renal-tubular-epithelial-vacuolization
#10
Chong Zhou, Roger W Byard
Fatal ketoacidosis due to diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, and starvation may produce characteristic basal vacuolization of renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC). Septic ketoacidosis has recently been recognized clinically as a distinct condition in which septicemia can lead to elevation of ketones and various anions unrelated to diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, or caloric deprivation. We report four lethal cases with significantly elevated vitreous ketones secondary to sepsis and/or severe localized infection in individuals with no history of diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, or starvation...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930733/phosphorylation-of-eukaryotic-initiation-factor-2%C3%AE-during-stress-and-encystation-in-entamoeba-species
#11
Holland M Hendrick, Brenda H Welter, Matthew A Hapstack, Steven E Sykes, William J Sullivan, Lesly A Temesvari
Entamoeba histolytica is an enteric pathogen responsible for amoebic dysentery and liver abscess. It alternates between the host-restricted trophozoite form and the infective environmentally-stable cyst stage. Throughout its lifecycle E. histolytica experiences stress, in part, from host immune pressure. Conversion to cysts is presumed to be a stress-response. In other systems, stress induces phosphorylation of a serine residue on eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α (eIF2α). This inhibits eIF2α activity resulting in a general decline in protein synthesis...
December 8, 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929731/autophagic-homeostasis-is-required-for-the-pluripotency-of-cancer-stem-cells
#12
Tanveer Sharif, Emma Martell, Cathleen Dai, Barry E Kennedy, Patrick Murphy, Derek Clements, Youra Kim, Patrick W K Lee, Shashi Gujar
Pluripotency is an important feature of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that contributes to self-renewal and chemoresistance. The maintenance of pluripotency of CSCs under various pathophysiological conditions requires a complex interaction between various cellular pathways including those involved in homeostasis and energy metabolism. However, the exact mechanisms that maintain the CSC pluripotency remain poorly understood. In this report, using both human and murine models of CSCs, we demonstrate that basal levels of autophagy are required to maintain the pluripotency of CSCs, and that this process is differentially regulated by the rate limiting enzyme in the NAD(+) synthesis pathway NAMPT (nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase) and the transcription factor POU5F1/OCT4 (POU class 5 homeobox 1)...
December 8, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929538/downregulation-of-aspp2-improves-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-survival-via-promoting-becn1-dependent-autophagy-initiation
#13
Rui Chen, Hao Wang, Beibei Liang, Guoke Liu, Min Tang, Rongjie Jia, Xiaoyu Fan, Wei Jing, Xuyu Zhou, Huajing Wang, Yang Yang, Huafeng Wei, Bohua Li, Jian Zhao
Autophagy is an important catabolic process, which sustains intracellular homeostasis and lengthens cell survival under stress. Here we identify the ankyrin-repeat-containing, SH3-domain-containing, and proline-rich region-containing protein 2 (ASPP2), a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor, as a molecular regulator of starvation-induced autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). ASPP2 expression is associated with an autophagic response upon nutrient deprivation and downregulation of ASPP2 facilitates autophagic flux, whereas overexpression of ASPP2 blocks this starvation-induced autophagy in HCC cells...
December 8, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928645/braf-v600e-dependent-role-of-autophagy-in-uveal-melanoma
#14
Yinu Zhao, Weibin Wang, Irene Min, Brian Wyrwas, Maureen Moore, Rasa Zarnegar, Thomas J Fahey
BACKGROUND: Autophagy can function in a dual role in cancer development and progression: It can be cytoprotective or contribute to cell death. Therefore, determining the contextual role of autophagy between these two opposing effects is important. So far, little is known about the role of autophagy in uveal melanoma. In the present study, we looked to investigate the autophagic process, as well as its effect on cell survival in uveal melanoma cell lines under stressed conditions (starvation)...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928630/production-and-isolation-of-vanadium-nitrogenase-from-azotobacter-vinelandii-by-molybdenum-depletion
#15
Daniel Sippel, Julia Schlesier, Michael Rohde, Christian Trncik, Laure Decamps, Ivana Djurdjevic, Thomas Spatzal, Susana L A Andrade, Oliver Einsle
The alternative, vanadium-dependent nitrogenase is employed by Azotobacter vinelandii for the fixation of atmospheric N2 under conditions of molybdenum starvation. While overall similar in architecture and functionality to the common Mo-nitrogenase, the V-dependent enzyme exhibits a series of unique features that on one hand are of high interest for biotechnological applications. As its catalytic properties differ from Mo-nitrogenase, it may on the other hand also provide invaluable clues regarding the molecular mechanism of biological nitrogen fixation that remains scarcely understood to date...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924298/the-sequence-spectrum-of-frameshift-reversions-obtained-with-a-novel-adaptive-mutation-assay-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#16
Erich Heidenreich, Ferdinand Steinboeck
Research on the mechanisms of adaptive mutagenesis in resting, i.e. non-replicating cells relies on appropriate mutation assays. Here we provide a novel procedure for the detection of frameshift-reverting mutations in yeast. Proliferation of non-reverted cells in this assay is suppressed by the lack of a fermentable carbon source. The test allele was constructed in a way that the reversions mimic microsatellite instability, a condition often found in cancer cells. We show the cell numbers during these starvation conditions and provide a DNA sequence spectrum of a representative set of revertants...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923067/chronological-lifespan-in-yeast-is-dependent-on-the-accumulation-of-storage-carbohydrates-mediated-by-yak1-mck1-and-rim15-kinases
#17
Lu Cao, Yingzhi Tang, Zhenzhen Quan, Zhe Zhang, Stephen G Oliver, Nianshu Zhang
Upon starvation for glucose or any other macronutrient, yeast cells exit from the mitotic cell cycle and acquire a set of characteristics that are specific to quiescent cells to ensure longevity. Little is known about the molecular determinants that orchestrate quiescence entry and lifespan extension. Using starvation-specific gene reporters, we screened a subset of the yeast deletion library representing the genes encoding 'signaling' proteins. Apart from the previously characterised Rim15, Mck1 and Yak1 kinases, the SNF1/AMPK complex, the cell wall integrity pathway and a number of cell cycle regulators were shown to be necessary for proper quiescence establishment and for extension of chronological lifespan (CLS), suggesting that entry into quiescence requires the integration of starvation signals transmitted via multiple signaling pathways...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922601/the-effect-of-extrinsic-mortality-on-genome-size-evolution-in-prokaryotes
#18
Piotr Bentkowski, Cock van Oosterhout, Ben Ashby, Thomas Mock
Mortality has a significant role in prokaryotic ecology and evolution, yet the impact of variations in extrinsic mortality on prokaryotic genome evolution has received little attention. We used both mathematical and agent-based models to reveal how variations in extrinsic mortality affect prokaryotic genome evolution. Our results suggest that the genome size of bacteria increases with increased mortality. A high extrinsic mortality increases the pool of free resources and shortens life expectancy, which selects for faster reproduction, a phenotype we called 'scramblers'...
December 6, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916690/acyl-homoserine-lactone-changes-the-abundance-of-proteins-and-the-levels-of-organic-acids-associated-with-stationary-phase-in-salmonella-enteritidis
#19
Felipe Alves de Almeida, Natan de Jesus Pimentel Filho, Lanna Clícia Carrijo, Cláudia Braga Pereira Bento, Maria Cristina Baracat-Pereira, Uelinton Manoel Pinto, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira, Maria Cristina Dantas Vanetti
Quorum sensing (QS) is cell-cell communication mechanism mediated by signaling molecules known as autoinducers (AIs) that lead to differential gene expression. Salmonella is unable to synthesize the AI-1 acyl homoserine lactone (AHL), but is able to recognize AHLs produced by other microorganisms through SdiA protein. Our study aimed to evaluate the influence of AI-1 on the abundance of proteins and the levels of organic acids of Salmonella Enteritidis. The presence of N-dodecyl-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL) did not interfere on the growth or the total amount of extracted proteins of Salmonella...
December 1, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916428/highly-signal-responsive-gene-regulatory-network-governing-myxococcus-development
#20
REVIEW
Lee Kroos
The bacterium Myxococcus xanthus undergoes multicellular development when starved. Thousands of cells build mounds in which some differentiate into spores. This remarkable feat and the genetic tractability of Myxococcus provide a unique opportunity to understand the evolution of gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Recent work has revealed a GRN involving interconnected cascades of signal-responsive transcriptional activators. Initially, starvation-induced intracellular signals direct changes in gene expression...
December 1, 2016: Trends in Genetics: TIG
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