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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812768/chemical-nutritive-composition-and-a-wide-range-of-bioactive-properties-of-honey-mushroom-armillaria-mellea-vahl-fr-kummer
#1
Marina Kostić, Marija Smiljković, Jovana Petrović, Jasmina Glamočlija, Lillian Barros, Isabel C F R Ferreira, Ana Ćirić, Marina Soković
A. mellea fruiting bodies collected from nature were chemically characterized and shown to be rich in carbohydrates (81.25 g per 100 g dw), ash, fat and proteins (8.84 g per 100 g dw, 1.97 g per 100 g dw and 1.81 g per 100 g dw, respectively). Mannitol was the main free sugar while malic acid was the most abundant organic acid. δ-Tocopherol was the dominant form of tocopherols with 42.41 μg per 100 g dw. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were predominant, followed by saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. A methanolic extract prepared from these samples was tested for antioxidant, quorum sensing and antimicrobial assays, as well as for its cytotoxicity effects...
August 16, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810163/decoding-the-architecture-and-origins-of-mechanisms-for-developmental-polyphenism
#2
REVIEW
Joana Projecto-Garcia, Joseph F Biddle, Erik J Ragsdale
Developmental polyphenism affords a single genotype multiple solutions to match an organism to its environment. Because polyphenism is the extreme example of how development deviates from a linear genetic blueprint, it demands a genetic explanation for how environmental cues shunt development to hypothetically alternative modules. We highlight several recent advances that have begun to illuminate genetic mechanisms for polyphenism and how this recurring developmental novelty may arise. An emerging genetic knowledge of polyphenism is providing precise targets for testing hypotheses of how switch mechanisms are built-out of olfactory, nutrient-sensing, hormone-reception, and developmental and genetic buffering systems-to accommodate plasticity...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808162/listeria-monocytogenes-and-shigella-flexneri-activate-the-nlrp1b-inflammasome
#3
Jana Neiman-Zenevich, Sarah Stuart, Mena Abdel-Nour, Stephen E Girardin, Jeremy Mogridge
Activation of the innate immune receptor NLRP1B leads to the formation of an inflammasome, which induces autoproteolytic processing of pro-caspase-1, and ultimately to the release of inflammatory cytokines and to the execution of pyroptosis. One of the signals to which NLRP1B responds is metabolic stress that occurs in cells deprived of glucose or treated with metabolic inhibitors. NLRP1B might, therefore, sense microbial infection as intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella flexneri cause metabolic stress as a result of nutrient scavenging and host cell damage...
August 14, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806271/luminal-chemosensing-in-the-gastroduodenal-mucosa
#4
Izumi Kaji, Jonathan D Kaunitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We report recently published knowledge regarding gut chemosensory mechanisms focusing on nutrient-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed on gut enteroendocrine cells (EECs), tuft cells, and in afferent nerves in the gastroduodenal mucosa and submucosa. RECENT FINDINGS: Gene profiling of EECs and tuft cells have revealed expression of a variety of nutrient-sensing GPCRs. The density of EEC and tuft cells is altered by luminal environmental changes that may occur following bypass surgery or in the presence of mucosal inflammation...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805640/nutritional-endocrine-and-social-influences-on-reproductive-physiology-at-the-origins-of-social-behavior
#5
REVIEW
Karen M Kapheim
Understanding the evolutionary origins of social behavior in insects requires understanding the physiological basis for reproductive plasticity. Solitary bees and wasps or those living in small, flexible societies will be key to understanding how conserved pathways have evolved to give rise to reproductive castes. Nutrient-sensing and endocrine pathways are decoupled from reproduction in some life stages of social insects. Heterochrony, particularly as it is related to diapause physiology, may be an important mechanism by which this decoupling occurs...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802874/targeting-gastrointestinal-nutrient-sensing-mechanisms-to-treat-obesity
#6
REVIEW
Mariana Norton, Kevin G Murphy
Gut hormones have important roles in the regulation of appetite and glucose homeostasis. Understanding how macronutrient sensing in the gastrointestinal tract modulates gut hormone release may reveal novel pharmacological or dietary approaches to metabolic disease. In this short review we discuss the mechanisms by which the gut senses macronutrients and the products of macronutrient digestion, and their putative utility in treating obesity and related conditions.
August 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802165/the-world-according-to-garp-transcription-factors
#7
REVIEW
Alaeddine Safi, Anna Medici, Wojciech Szponarski, Sandrine Ruffel, Benoît Lacombe, Gabriel Krouk
Plant specific GARP transcription factor family (made of ARR-B and G2-like) contains genes with very diverse in planta functions: nutrient sensing, root and shoot development, floral transition, chloroplast development, circadian clock oscillation maintenance, hormonal transport and signaling. In this work we review: first, their structural but distant relationships with MYB transcription factors, second, their role in planta, third, the diversity of their Cis-regulatory elements, fourth, their potential protein partners...
August 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802136/the-role-of-sulfate-in-aerobic-granular-sludge-process-for-emerging-sulfate-laden-wastewater-treatment
#8
Weiqi Xue, Tianwei Hao, Hamish R Mackey, Xiling Li, Richard C Chan, Guanghao Chen
Sulfate-rich wastewaters pose a major threat to mainstream wastewater treatment due to the unpreventable production of sulfide and associated shift in functional bacteria. Aerobic granular sludge could mitigate these challenges in view of its high tolerance and resilience against changes in various environmental conditions. This study aims to confirm the feasibility of aerobic granular sludge in the treatment of sulfate containing wastewater, investigate the impact of sulfate on nutrient removal and granulation, and reveal metabolic relationships in the above processes...
August 4, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799554/adapting-to-obesity-with-adipose-tissue-inflammation
#9
REVIEW
Shannon M Reilly, Alan R Saltiel
Adipose tissue not only has an important role in the storage of excess nutrients but also senses nutrient status and regulates energy mobilization. An overall positive energy balance is associated with overnutrition and leads to excessive accumulation of fat in adipocytes. These cells respond by initiating an inflammatory response that, although maladaptive in the long run, might initially be a physiological response to the stresses obesity places on adipose tissue. In this Review, we characterize adipose tissue inflammation and review the current knowledge of what triggers obesity-associated inflammation in adipose tissue...
August 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798760/striking-the-right-chord-signaling-enigma-during-root-gravitropism
#10
REVIEW
Manjul Singh, Aditi Gupta, Ashverya Laxmi
Plants being sessile can often be judged as passive acceptors of their environment. However, plants are actually even more active in responding to the factors from their surroundings. Plants do not have eyes, ears or vestibular system like animals, still they "know" which way is up and which way is down? This is facilitated by receptor molecules within plant which perceive changes in internal and external conditions such as light, touch, obstacles; and initiate signaling pathways that enable the plant to react...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798731/mechanisms-and-regulation-of-extracellular-dna-release-and-its-biological-roles-in-microbial-communities
#11
REVIEW
Alejandra L Ibáñez de Aldecoa, Olga Zafra, José E González-Pastor
The capacity to release genetic material into the extracellular medium has been reported in cultures of numerous species of bacteria, archaea, and fungi, and also in the context of multicellular microbial communities such as biofilms. Moreover, extracellular DNA (eDNA) of microbial origin is widespread in natural aquatic and terrestrial environments. Different specific mechanisms are involved in eDNA release, such as autolysis and active secretion, as well as through its association with membrane vesicles. It is noteworthy that in microorganisms, in which DNA release has been studied in detail, the production of eDNA is coordinated by the population when it reaches a certain cell density, and is induced in a subpopulation in response to the accumulation of quorum sensing signals...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795262/growth-factor-energy-and-nutrient-sensing-signalling-pathways-in-metabolic-ageing
#12
Lucia Bettedi, Lazaros C Foukas
The field of the biology of ageing has received increasing attention from a biomedical point of view over the past decades. The main reason has been the realisation that increases in human population life expectancy are accompanied by late onset diseases. Indeed, ageing is the most important risk factor for a number of neoplastic, neurodegenerative and metabolic pathologies. Advances in the knowledge of the genetics of ageing, mainly through research in model organisms, have implicated various cellular processes and the respective signalling pathways that regulate them in cellular and organismal ageing...
August 9, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793794/excitable-signal-transduction-networks-in-directed-cell-migration
#13
Peter N Devreotes, Sayak Bhattacharya, Marc Edwards, Pablo A Iglesias, Thomas Lampert, Yuchuan Miao
Although directed migration of eukaryotic cells may have evolved to escape nutrient depletion, it has been adopted for an extensive range of physiological events during development and in the adult organism. The subversion of these movements results in disease, such as cancer. Mechanisms of propulsion and sensing are extremely diverse, but most eukaryotic cells move by extending actin-filled protrusions termed macropinosomes, pseudopodia, or lamellipodia or by extension of blebs. In addition to motility, directed migration involves polarity and directional sensing...
August 9, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790983/nitrate-sensing-and-metabolism-inhibit-biofilm-formation-in-the-opportunistic-pathogen-burkholderia-pseudomallei-by-reducing-the-intracellular-concentration-of-c-di-gmp
#14
Mihnea R Mangalea, Brooke A Plumley, Bradley R Borlee
The opportunistic pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophytic bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis, an emerging infectious disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although melioidosis is most prevalent during the rainy season in endemic areas, domestic gardens and farms can also serve as a reservoir for B. pseudomallei during the dry season, in part due to irrigation and fertilizer use. In the environment, B. pseudomallei forms biofilms and persists in soil near plant root zones...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790301/an-early-mechanical-coupling-of-planktonic-bacteria-in-dilute-suspensions
#15
Simon Sretenovic, Biljana Stojković, Iztok Dogsa, Rok Kostanjšek, Igor Poberaj, David Stopar
It is generally accepted that planktonic bacteria in dilute suspensions are not mechanically coupled and do not show correlated motion. The mechanical coupling of cells is a trait that develops upon transition into a biofilm, a microbial community of self-aggregated bacterial cells. Here we employ optical tweezers to show that bacteria in dilute suspensions are mechanically coupled and show long-range correlated motion. The strength of the coupling increases with the growth of liquid bacterial culture. The matrix responsible for the mechanical coupling is composed of cell debris and extracellular polymer material...
August 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783755/snrk1-activates-autophagy-via-the-tor-signaling-pathway-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#16
Junmarie Soto-Burgos, Diane C Bassham
Autophagy is a degradation process in which cells break down and recycle their cytoplasmic contents when subjected to environmental stress or during cellular remodeling. The Arabidopsis thaliana SnRK1 complex is a protein kinase that senses changes in energy levels and triggers downstream responses to enable survival. Its mammalian ortholog, AMPK, and yeast ortholog, Snf-1, activate autophagy in response to low energy conditions. We therefore hypothesized that SnRK1 may play a role in the regulation of autophagy in response to nutrient or energy deficiency in Arabidopsis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768723/lamtor1-is-critically-required-for-cd4-t-cell-proliferation-and-regulatory-t-cell-suppressive-function
#17
Takashi Hosokawa, Tetsuya Kimura, Shigeyuki Nada, Tatsusada Okuno, Daisuke Ito, Sujin Kang, Satoshi Nojima, Kazuya Yamashita, Takeshi Nakatani, Yoshitomo Hayama, Yasuhiro Kato, Yuhei Kinehara, Masayuki Nishide, Norihisa Mikami, Syohei Koyama, Hyota Takamatsu, Daisuke Okuzaki, Naganari Ohkura, Shimon Sakaguchi, Masato Okada, Atsushi Kumanogoh
Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex (mTORC)1 integrates intracellular sufficiency of nutrients and regulates various cellular functions. Previous studies using mice with conditional knockout of mTORC1 component proteins (i.e., mTOR, Raptor, and Rheb) gave conflicting results on the roles of mTORC1 in CD4(+) T cells. Lamtor1 is the protein that is required for amino acid sensing and activation of mTORC1; however, the roles of Lamtor1 in T cells have not been investigated. In this article, we show that Lamtor1-deficient CD4(+) T cells exhibited marked reductions in proliferation, IL-2 production, mTORC1 activity, and expression of purine- and lipid-synthesis genes...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765839/recent-developments-in-sensing-methods-for-eutrophying-nutrients-with-a-focus-on-automation-for-environmental-applications
#18
REVIEW
G Duffy, F Regan
The demand for autonomous sensors for unattended, continuous nutrient monitoring in water is rapidly growing with the increasing need for more frequent and widespread environmental pollution monitoring. Legislative bodies, local authorities and industries all require frequent water quality monitoring, however, this is time and labour intensive, and an expensive undertaking. Autonomous sensors allow for frequent, unattended data collection. While this solves the time and labour intensive aspects of water monitoring, sensors can be very expensive...
August 2, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765532/physarum-machines-imitating-a-roman-road-network-the-3d-approach
#19
Vasilis Evangelidis, Jeff Jones, Nikolaos Dourvas, Michail-Antisthenis Tsompanas, Georgios Ch Sirakoulis, Andrew Adamatzky
Physarum Polycephalum is a single cell visible by unaided eye. This is a plasmodial, vegetative stage of acellular slime mould. This single cell has myriad of nuclei which contribute to a network of bio-chemical oscillators responsible for the slime mould's distributed sensing, concurrent information processing and decision making, and parallel actuation. When presented with a spatial configuration of sources of nutrients, the slime mould spans the sources with networks of its protoplasmic tube. These networks belong to a family of planar proximity graphs...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765282/the-drug-transporter-oat3-slc22a8-regulates-endogenous-metabolite-flow-through-the-gut-liver-kidney-axis
#20
Kevin T Bush, Wei Wu, Christina Lun, Sanjay K Nigam
The organic anion transporters OAT1 (SLC22A6) and OAT3 (SLC22A8) have similar substrate specificity for drugs, but it is far from clear whether this holds for endogenous substrates. By analysis of more than 600 metabolites in the Oat3KO by LCMS, we demonstrate OAT3 involvement in the movement of gut microbiome-derived products, key metabolites and signaling molecules, including those flowing through the gut-liver-kidney axis. Major pathways affected included those involved in metabolism of bile acids, flavonoids, nutrients, amino acids (including tryptophan-derivatives that are uremic solutes) and lipids...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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