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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528382/optimal-production-of-a-rhodococcus-erythropolis-atcc-4277-biocatalyst-for-biodesulfurization-and-biodenitrogenation-applications
#1
Diego Todescato, Danielle Maass, Diego Alex Mayer, J Vladimir Oliveira, Débora de Oliveira, Selene M A Guelli Ulson de Souza, Antônio Augusto Ulson de Souza
Rhodococcus sp. has a broad catabolic diversity and unique enzymatic capabilities, and it is able to adapt under extreme conditions. Thereby, the production of this remarkable bacterium has a great biotechnological and industrial importance. In this sense, we sought to improve the R. erythropolis ATCC 4277 growth through a central composite design, by varying the components of nutrient medium (glucose, malt extract, yeast extract, CaCO3), temperature, and agitation. It was found that the concentrations of glucose and malt extract are not statistically significant, being reduced of 4...
May 20, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527800/from-pre-to-postweaning-transformation-of-the-young-calf-s-gastrointestinal-tract
#2
Sarah J Meale, Frederique Chaucheyras-Durand, Harma Berends, Le Luo Guan, Michael A Steele
The ruminant gastrointestinal tract (GIT) faces the challenge of protecting the host from luminal contents and pathogens, while supporting the absorption and metabolism of nutrients for growth and maintenance. The GIT of the calf in early life undergoes some of the most rapid microbial and structural changes documented in nature, and these adaptations in GIT function make the young calf susceptible to GIT diseases and disorders. Despite these challenges, the calf's GIT has a certain degree of plasticity and can sense nutrient supply and respond to bioactive ingredients...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520786/a-systematic-genetic-screen-for-genes-involved-in-sensing-inorganic-phosphate-availability-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#3
Joonhyuk Choi, Abbhirami Rajagopal, Yi-Fan Xu, Joshua D Rabinowitz, Erin K O'Shea
Saccharomyces cerevisiae responds to changes in extracellular inorganic phosphate (Pi) availability by regulating the activity of the phosphate-responsive (PHO) signaling pathway, enabling cells to maintain intracellular levels of the essential nutrient Pi. Pi-limitation induces upregulation of inositol heptakisphosphate (IP7) synthesized by the inositol hexakisphosphate kinase Vip1, triggering inhibition of the Pho80/Pho85 cyclin-cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) complex by the CDK inhibitor Pho81, which upregulates the PHO regulon through the CDK target and transcription factor Pho4...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500335/nutrient-consumption-and-chain-tuning-in-diatoms-exposed-to-storm-like-turbulence
#4
Gianluca Dell'Aquila, Maria I Ferrante, Marco Gherardi, Marco Cosentino Lagomarsino, Maurizio Ribera d'Alcalà, Daniele Iudicone, Alberto Amato
Current information on the response of phytoplankton to turbulence is linked to cell size and nutrient availability. Diatoms are considered to be favored by mixing as dissolved nutrients are more easily accessible for non-motile cells. We investigated how diatoms exploit microscale turbulence under nutrient repletion and depletion conditions. Here, we show that the chain-forming diatom Chaetoceros decipiens, continues to take up phosphorus and carbon even when silicon is depleted during turbulence. Our findings indicate that upon silica depletion, during turbulence, chain spectra of C...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499988/melanocortin-neurons-multiple-routes-to-regulation-of-metabolism
#5
REVIEW
Wen-Jie Shen, Ting Yao, Xingxing Kong, Kevin W Williams, Tiemin Liu
The burden of disability, premature death, escalating health care costs and lost economic productivity due to obesity and its associated complications including hypertension, stroke, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes is staggering [1, 2]. A better understanding of metabolic homeostatic pathways will provide us with insights into the biological mechanisms of obesity and how to fundamentally address this epidemic [3-6]. In mammals, energy balance is maintained via a homeostatic system involving both peripheral and central melanocortin systems; changes in body weight reflect an unbalance of the energetic state [7-9]...
May 9, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497120/analysis-of-light-and-carbon-specific-transcriptomes-implicates-a-class-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-cellulose-sensing
#6
Eva Stappler, Christoph Dattenböck, Doris Tisch, Monika Schmoll
In fungi, most metabolic processes are subject to regulation by light. Trichoderma reesei is adapted to degradation of plant cell walls and regulates production of the required enzymes in a manner dependent on the nutrient source and the light status. Here we investigated the interrelated relevance of two regulation levels of the transcriptome of T. reesei: light regulation and carbon source-dependent control. We show that the carbon source (cellulose, lactose, sophorose, glucose, or glycerol) is the major source of variation, with light having a modulating effect on transcript regulation...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492544/halofuginone-dually-regulates-autophagic-flux-through-nutrient-sensing-pathways-in-colorectal-cancer
#7
Guo-Qing Chen, Rui-Hong Gong, Da-Jian Yang, Ge Zhang, Ai-Ping Lu, Siu-Cheong Yan, Shu-Hai Lin, Zhao-Xiang Bian
Autophagy has a key role in metabolism and impacts on tumorigenesis. Our previous study found that halofuginone (HF) exerts anticancer activity in colorectal cancer (CRC) by downregulating Akt/mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1) signaling pathway. But whether and how HF regulates autophagy and metabolism to inhibit cancer growth remains an open question. Here, we unveil that HF activates ULK1 by downregulation of its phosphorylation site at Ser757 through Akt/mTORC1 signaling pathway, resulting in induction of autophagic flux under nutrient-rich condition...
May 11, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484042/a-proteomic-signature-of-dormancy-in-an-actinobacterium-micrococcus-luteus
#8
Sujina Mali, Morgan Mitchell, Spencer Havis, Abiodun Bodunrin, Jonathan Rangel, Gabriella Olson, William R Widger, Steven J Bark
Dormancy is a protective state where diverse bacteria including M. tuberculosis, S. aureus, T. pallidum (syphilis), and B. burgdorferi (Lyme Disease) curtail metabolic activity to survive external stresses including antibiotics. Evidence suggests dormancy consists of a continuum of interrelated states including viable but nonculturable (VBNC) and persistence states. VBNC and persistence contribute to antibiotic tolerance, reemergence from latent infections, and even quorum sensing and biofilm formation. Previous studies indicate that the protein mechanisms regulating persistence and VBNC states are not well understood...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483855/the-association-of-metal-homeostasis-and-p-ppgpp-regulation-in-the-pathophysiology-of-enterococcus-faecalis
#9
C Colomer-Winter, A O Gaca, J A Lemos
In Enterococcus faecalis, the regulatory nucleotides pppGpp and ppGpp, collectively (p)ppGpp, are required for growth in blood, survival within macrophages and virulence. However, a clear understanding of how (p)ppGpp promotes virulence in E. faecalis and other bacterial pathogens is still lacking. In the host, the essential transition metals iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) are not readily available to invading pathogens because of a host-driven process called nutritional immunity. Considering its central role in adaptation to nutritional stresses, we hypothesized that (p)ppGpp mediates E...
May 8, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482205/effects-of-quorum-quenching-by-ahl-lactonase-on-ahls-protease-motility-and-proteome-patterns-in-aeromonas-veronii-lp-11
#10
Meng Gui, Ruiyun Wu, Lei Liu, Shun Wang, Li Zhang, Pinglan Li
Food spoilage by some bacteria is reported to be regulated by quorum sensing (QS). In this study, a quorum quenching approach was used to investigate the QS regulated phenotypes (growth, protease and motility) and proteins expression in of Aeromonas veronii LP-11, which is a specific spoilage organism of sturgeon. AHL lactonase AiiAAI96 from Bacillus quenched the QS system, probably by enzymatically inactivating the AHLs produced by A. veronii LP-11. After AiiAAI96 treatment, the protease and motility activities of A...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477249/research-development-current-hotspots-and-future-directions-of-water-research-based-on-modis-images-a-critical-review-with-a-bibliometric-analysis
#11
Yibo Zhang, Yunlin Zhang, Kun Shi, Xiaolong Yao
Water is essential for life as it provides drinking water and food for humans and animals. Additionally, the water environment provides habitats for numerous species and plays an important role in hydrological, nutrient, and carbon cycles. Among the existing natural resources on Earth's surface, water is the most extensive as it covers more than 70% of the Earth. To gather a comprehensive understanding of the focus of past, present, and future directions of remote sensing water research, we provide an alternative perspective on water research using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery by conducting a comparative quantitative and qualitative analysis of research development, current hotspots, and future directions using a bibliometric analysis...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475869/glucose-sensing-by-skeletal-myocytes-couples-nutrient-signaling-to-systemic-homeostasis
#12
Zhuo-Xian Meng, Jianke Gong, Zhimin Chen, Jingxia Sun, Yuanyuan Xiao, Lin Wang, Yaqiang Li, Jianfeng Liu, X Z Shawn Xu, Jiandie D Lin
Skeletal muscle is a major site of postprandial glucose disposal. Inadequate insulin action in skeletal myocytes contributes to hyperglycemia in diabetes. Although glucose is known to stimulate insulin secretion by β cells, whether it directly engages nutrient signaling pathways in skeletal muscle to maintain systemic glucose homeostasis remains largely unexplored. Here we identified the Baf60c-Deptor-AKT pathway as a target of muscle glucose sensing that augments insulin action in skeletal myocytes. Genetic activation of this pathway improved postprandial glucose disposal in mice, whereas its muscle-specific ablation impaired insulin action and led to postprandial glucose intolerance...
May 4, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473258/representational-specializations-of-the-hippocampus-in-phylogenetic-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Elisabeth A Murray, Steven P Wise, Kim S Graham
In a major evolutionary transition that occurred more than 520 million years ago, the earliest vertebrates adapted to a life of mobile, predatory foraging guided by distance receptors concentrated on their heads. Vision and olfaction served as the principal sensory systems for guiding their search for nutrients and safe haven. Among their neural innovations, these animals had a telencephalon that included a homologue of the hippocampus. Experiments on goldfish, turtles, lizards, rodents, macaque monkeys and humans have provided insight into the initial adaptive advantages provided by the hippocampus homologue...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472467/hypothalamic-regulation-of-liver-and-muscle-nutrient-partitioning-by-brain-specific-carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-1c-cpt1c-in-male-mice
#14
Macarena Pozo, Rosalía Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Sara Ramírez, Patricia Seoane-Collazo, Miguel López, Dolors Serra, Laura Herrero, Núria Casals
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C (CPT1C), a brain-specific protein localized in the endoplasmic reticulum of neurons, is expressed in almost all brain regions. Based on global knockout (KO) models, CPT1C has demonstrated relevance in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning as well as in hypothalamic regulation of energy balance. Specifically, it has been shown that CPT1C is protective against high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO), and that CPT1C KO mice show reduced peripheral fatty acid oxidation (FAO) both during fasting and DIO...
May 3, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469239/identification-of-a-high-affinity-pyruvate-receptor-in-escherichia-coli
#15
Stefan Behr, Ivica Kristoficova, Michael Witting, Erin J Breland, Allison R Eberly, Corinna Sachs, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Maria Hadjifrangiskou, Kirsten Jung
Two-component systems are crucial for signal perception and modulation of bacterial behavior. Nevertheless, to date, very few ligands have been identified that directly interact with histidine kinases. The histidine kinase/response regulator system YehU/YehT of Escherichia coli is part of a nutrient-sensing network. Here we demonstrate that this system senses the onset of nutrient limitation in amino acid rich media and responds to extracellular pyruvate. Binding of radiolabeled pyruvate was found for full-length YehU in right-side-out membrane vesicles as well as for a truncated, membrane-integrated variant, confirming that YehU is a high-affinity receptor for extracellular pyruvate...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468829/fluorescence-and-nmr-spectroscopy-together-with-molecular-simulations-reveal-amphiphilic-characteristics-of-a-burkholderia-biofilm-exopolysaccharide
#16
Michelle M Kuttel, Paola Cescutti, Marco Distefano, Roberto Rizzo
Biofilms are a collective mode of bacterial life in which a self-produced matrix confines cells in close proximity to each other. Biofilms confer many advantages including: protection form chemicals including antibiotics, entrapment of useful extracellular enzymes and nutrients, as well as opportunities for efficient recycling of molecules from dead cells. Biofilm matrices are aqueous gel-like structures composed of polysaccharides, proteins and DNA stabilized by intermolecular interactions which may include non-polar connections...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466940/microfluidic-platform-with-spatiotemporally-controlled-micro-environment-for-studying-long-term-c-elegans-developmental-arrests
#17
Weipeng Zhuo, Hang Lu, Patrick T McGrath
Animals' long-term survival is dependent on their ability to sense, filter and respond to their environment at multiple timescales. For example, during development, animals integrate environmental information, which can then modulate adult behavior and developmental trajectory. The neural and molecular mechanisms that underlie these changes are poorly understood. C. elegans is a powerful model organism to study such mechanisms; however, conventional plate-based culturing techniques are limited in their ability to consistently control and modulate an animal's environmental conditions...
May 3, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465424/the-fitness-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-quorum-sensing-signal-cheats-is-influenced-by-the-diffusivity-of-the-environment
#18
Anne Mund, Stephen P Diggle, Freya Harrison
Experiments examining the social dynamics of bacterial quorum sensing (QS) have focused on mutants which do not respond to signals and the role of QS-regulated exoproducts as public goods. The potential for QS signal molecules to themselves be social public goods has received much less attention. Here, we analyze how signal-deficient (lasI) mutants of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa interact with wild-type cells in an environment where QS is required for growth. We show that when growth requires a "private" intracellular metabolic mechanism activated by the presence of QS signal, lasI mutants act as social cheats and outcompete signal-producing wild-type bacteria in mixed cultures, because they can exploit the signals produced by wild-type cells...
May 2, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462372/hypoxia-inducible-factor-hif-hydroxylases-as-regulators-of-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-function
#19
REVIEW
Mario C Manresa, Cormac T Taylor
Human health is dependent on the ability of the body to extract nutrients, fluids, and oxygen from the external environment while at the same time maintaining a state of internal sterility. Therefore, the cell layers that cover the surface areas of the body such as the lung, skin, and gastrointestinal mucosa provide vital semipermeable barriers that allow the transport of essential nutrients, fluid, and waste products, while at the same time keeping the internal compartments free of microbial organisms. These epithelial surfaces are highly specialized and differ in their anatomic structure depending on their location to provide appropriate and effective site-specific barrier function...
May 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462074/hypothalamic-growth-hormone-receptor-ghr-%C3%A2-controls-hepatic-glucose-production-in-nutrient-sensing-leptin-receptor-leprb-expressing-neurons
#20
Gillian Cady, Taylor Landeryou, Michael Garratt, John J Kopchick, Nathan Qi, David Garcia-Galiano, Carol F Elias, Martin G Myers, Richard A Miller, Darleen A Sandoval, Marianna Sadagurski
OBJECTIVE: The GH/IGF-1 axis has important roles in growth and metabolism. GH and GH receptor (GHR) are active in the central nervous system (CNS) and are crucial in regulating several aspects of metabolism. In the hypothalamus, there is a high abundance of GH-responsive cells, but the role of GH signaling in hypothalamic neurons is unknown. Previous work has demonstrated that the Ghr gene is highly expressed in LepRb neurons. Given that leptin is a key regulator of energy balance by acting on leptin receptor (LepRb)-expressing neurons, we tested the hypothesis that LepRb neurons represent an important site for GHR signaling to control body homeostasis...
May 2017: Molecular Metabolism
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