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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786968/p62-mediated-autophagy-affects-nutrition-dependent-insulin-receptor-substrate-1-dynamics-in-3t3-l1-preadipocytes
#1
Hirobumi Igawa, Akihiro Kikuchi, Hirofumi Misu, Kiyo-Aki Ishii, Shuichi Kaneko, Toshinari Takamura
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that the organism's nutritional status changes the protein levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) in a tissue-specific manner. Although the mechanisms underlying the regulation of IRS-1 in the nutrient-rich conditions associated with diabetes and insulin resistance have been well studied, those under nutrient-poor conditions remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate how IRS-1 protein levels change depending on the nutritional status of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784791/steroid-signaling-mediates-nutritional-regulation-of-juvenile-body-growth-via-igf-binding-protein-in-drosophila
#2
Gang Jun Lee, Gangsik Han, Hyun Myoung Yun, Jin Ju Lim, Sujin Noh, Jaegeun Lee, Seogang Hyun
Nutritional condition during the juvenile growth period considerably affects final adult size. The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS)/target of rapamycin (TOR) nutrient-sensing pathway is known to regulate growth and metabolism in response to nutritional conditions. However, there is limited information on how endocrine pathways communicate nutritional information to different metabolic organs to regulate organismal growth. Here, we show that Imaginal morphogenesis protein-Late 2 (Imp-L2), a Drosophila homolog of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), plays a key role in the nutritional control of organismal growth...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780359/the-mitotic-and-metabolic-effects-of-phosphatidic-acid-in-the-primary-muscle-cells-of-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus
#3
Tingting Wang, Xuan Wang, Huihui Zhou, Haowen Jiang, Kangsen Mai, Gen He
Searching for nutraceuticals and understanding the underlying mechanism that promote fish growth is at high demand for aquaculture industry. In this study, the modulatory effects of soy phosphatidic acids (PA) on cell proliferation, nutrient sensing, and metabolic pathways were systematically examined in primary muscle cells of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus ). PA was found to stimulate cell proliferation and promote G1/S phase transition through activation of target of rapamycin signaling pathway. The expression of myogenic regulatory factors, including myoD and follistatin , was upregulated, while that of myogenin and myostatin was downregulated by PA...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777919/brain-to-bone-what-is-the-contribution-of-the-brain-to-skeletal-homeostasis
#4
REVIEW
Anna Idelevich, Roland Baron
The brain, which governs most, if not all, physiological functions in the body, from the complexities of cognition, learning and memory, to the regulation of basal body temperature, heart rate and breathing, has long been known to affect skeletal health. In particular, the hypothalamus - located at the base of the brain in close proximity to the medial eminence, where the blood-brain-barrier is not as tight as in other regions of the brain but rather "leaky", due to fenestrated capillaries - is exposed to a variety of circulating body cues, such as nutrients (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids), and hormones (insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin) [1-3]...
May 16, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775480/titan-cells-formation-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-is-finely-tuned-by-environmental-conditions-and-modulated-by-positive-and-negative-genetic-regulators
#5
Benjamin Hommel, Liliane Mukaremera, Radames J B Cordero, Carolina Coelho, Christopher A Desjardins, Aude Sturny-Leclère, Guilhem Janbon, John R Perfect, James A Fraser, Arturo Casadevall, Christina A Cuomo, Françoise Dromer, Kirsten Nielsen, Alexandre Alanio
The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans exhibits morphological changes in cell size during lung infection, producing both typical size 5 to 7 μm cells and large titan cells (> 10 μm and up to 100 μm). We found and optimized in vitro conditions that produce titan cells in order to identify the ancestry of titan cells, the environmental determinants, and the key gene regulators of titan cell formation. Titan cells generated in vitro harbor the main characteristics of titan cells produced in vivo including their large cell size (>10 μm), polyploidy with a single nucleus, large vacuole, dense capsule, and thick cell wall...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775477/cryptococcus-neoformans-can-form-titan-like-cells-in-vitro-in-response-to-multiple-signals
#6
Nuria Trevijano-Contador, Haroldo Cesar de Oliveira, Rocío García-Rodas, Suélen Andreia Rossi, Irene Llorente, Ángel Zaballos, Guilhem Janbon, Joaquín Ariño, Óscar Zaragoza
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated pathogenic yeast that can change the size of the cells during infection. In particular, this process can occur by enlarging the size of the capsule without modifying the size of the cell body, or by increasing the diameter of the cell body, which is normally accompanied by an increase of the capsule too. This last process leads to the formation of cells of an abnormal enlarged size denominated titan cells. Previous works characterized titan cell formation during pulmonary infection but research on this topic has been hampered due to the difficulty to obtain them in vitro...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772542/regulation-of-feeding-behavior-in-drosophila-through-the-interplay-of-gustation-physiology-and-neuromodulation
#7
Bhumika S, Arvind Kumar Singh
One of the most fundamental behaviors in all the organisms, in order to achieve a satiated state and internal energy homeostasis is feeding. The action of feeding in any being whether be it any vertebrate or an invertebrate involves the perception of the external environment along with the gamut of decision making processes to eat or to not eat. The feeding decision along with chemosensation through gustation and olfaction leads to intake of food with proper nutrient balance along with avoidance of bitter and toxic substances...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771182/ciliogenesis-is-reciprocally-regulated-by-ppara-and-nr1h4-fxr-through-controlling-autophagy-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#8
Zhi-Qiang Liu, Joon No Lee, Myeongjoo Son, Jae-Young Lim, Raghbendra Kumar Dutta, Yunash Maharjan, SeongAe Kwak, Goo Taeg Oh, Kyunghee Byun, Seong-Kyu Choe, Raekil Park
The primary cilia are evolutionarily conserved microtubule-based cellular organelles that perceive metabolic status and thus link the sensory system to cellular signaling pathways. Therefore, ciliogenesis is thought to be tightly linked to autophagy, which is also regulated by nutrient-sensing transcription factors, such as PPARA (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha) and NR1H4/FXR (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4). However, the relationship between these factors and ciliogenesis has not been clearly demonstrated...
May 17, 2018: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768065/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-adiposity-and-macronutrient-balance-in-a-healthy-pregnant-population-with-overweight-and-obesity
#9
Elizabeth F Sutton, Christopher D Morrison, Jacqueline M Stephens, Leanne M Redman
AIM OF THE STUDY: The regulation and actions of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) are responsive to energy status and macronutrient balance, and investigations of FGF21 in normal pregnancy, which could be informative for FGF21 biology, are seldom. The goal of our study was to examine FGF21 levels in a contemporary healthy, pregnant population. METHODS: We phenotyped 43 women with overweight and obesity during pregnancy for weight, body composition, and fasting blood...
May 16, 2018: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756380/metabolic-inhibitors-of-o-glcnac-transferase-ogt-that-act-in-vivo-implicate-decreased-o-glcnac-levels-in-leptin-mediated-nutrient-sensing
#10
Ta-Wei Liu, Wesley F Zandberg, Tracey M Gloster, Lehua Deng, Kelsey D Murray, Xiaoyang Shan, David Jaro Vocadlo
O-linked glycosylation of serine and threonine residues of nucleocytoplasmic proteins with N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) residues is catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). O-GlcNAc is conserved within mammals and is implicated in a wide range of physiological processes. Here we describe metabolic precursor inhibitors of OGT suitable for use both in cells and in vivo in mice. These 5-thiosugar analogues of N-acetylglucosamine are assimilated through a convergent metabolic pathway, most likely involving N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate de-N-acetylase (NAGA) to generate a common OGT inhibitor within cells...
May 14, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756135/microbial-small-molecules-weapons-of-plant-subversion
#11
REVIEW
Ioannis A Stringlis, Hao Zhang, Corné M J Pieterse, Melvin D Bolton, Ronnie de Jonge
Covering: up to 2018Plants live in close association with a myriad of microbes that are generally harmless. However, the minority of microbes that are pathogens can severely impact crop quality and yield, thereby endangering food security. By contrast, beneficial microbes provide plants with important services, such as enhanced nutrient uptake and protection against pests and diseases. Like pathogens, beneficial microbes can modulate host immunity to efficiently colonize the nutrient-rich niches within and around the roots and aerial tissues of a plant, a phenomenon mirroring the establishment of commensal microbes in the human gut...
May 14, 2018: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752762/feeding-and-glp-1-receptor-activation-stabilize-%C3%AE-catenin-in-specific-hypothalamic-nuclei-in-male-rats
#12
Hayden J L McEwen, Emmanuelle Cognard, Sharon R Ladyman, Zin Khant-Aung, Alexander Tups, Peter R Shepherd, David R Grattan
β-catenin is a multifunctional protein that can act in the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway to regulate gene expression but can also bind to cadherin proteins in adherens junctions where it plays a key role in regulating cytoskeleton linked with these junctions. Recently, evidence has been presented indicating an essential role for β-catenin in regulating trafficking of insulin vesicles in β-cells and showing that changes in nutrient levels rapidly alter levels of β-catenin in these cells. Given the importance of neuroendocrine hormone secretion in the regulation of whole body glucose homeostasis, the objective of this study was to investigate whether β-catenin signalling is regulated in the hypothalamus during the normal physiological response to food intake...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751631/hydrogen-sulfide-in-hypertension-and-kidney-disease-of-developmental-origins
#13
REVIEW
Chien-Ning Hsu, You-Lin Tain
Adverse environments occurring during kidney development may produce long-term programming effects, namely renal programming, to create increased vulnerability to the development of later-life hypertension and kidney disease. Conversely, reprogramming is a strategy aimed at reversing the programming processes in early life, even before the onset of clinical symptoms, which may counter the rising epidemic of hypertension and kidney disease. Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S), the third gasotransmitter, plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and renal physiology...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748034/ampk-induced-memory-improvements-in-the-diabetic-population-a-case-study
#14
Alicia Halikas, Kelly J Gibas
Diabetics in mid-life carry a 1.5 times higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease than those diagnosed with diabetes (T2D) later in life [1]. Recent research points to accelerated cognitive decline within a range of 20%-50% for middle-aged diabetics as compared to non-diabetic populations [2,3]. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a type 2 diabetes (T2D) precursor, is also linked to MCI and AD pathologies via hypo-metabolic brain circuitry that inhibits glucose metabolism and attenuates cognitive function [4]. Dysregulation of intracellular and extracellular signaling as mediated by the mTOR and AMPK pathways is the result...
April 27, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746501/dietary-challenges-differentially-affect-activity-and-sleep-wake-behavior-in-mus-musculus-isolating-independent-associations-with-diet-energy-balance-and-body-weight
#15
Isaac J Perron, Brendan T Keenan, Karthikeyani Chellappa, Nicholas F Lahens, Nicole L Yohn, Keith R Shockley, Allan I Pack, Sigrid C Veasey
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Associated with numerous metabolic and behavioral abnormalities, obesity is classified by metrics reliant on body weight (such as body mass index). However, overnutrition is the common cause of obesity, and may independently contribute to these obesity-related abnormalities. Here, we use dietary challenges to parse apart the relative influence of diet and/or energy balance from body weight on various metabolic and behavioral outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy male mice (mus musculus) were subjected to the diet switch feeding paradigm, generating groups with various body weights and energetic imbalances...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746171/increased-task-channel-mediated-currents-underlie-high-fat-diet-induced-vagal-afferent-dysfunction
#16
Sung Jin Park, Yang Yu, Brittany Wagner, William C Valinsky, Alan E Lomax, Michael J Beyak
We have previously demonstrated that satiety sensing vagal afferent neurons are less responsive to meal-related stimuli in obesity, due to reduced electrical excitability. As leak K+ currents are key determinants of membrane excitability, we hypothesized that leak K+ currents are increased in vagal afferents during obesity. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) was induced by feeding C57Bl/6J mice a high fat fed diet (60% energy from fat - HFF) for 8-10 weeks. In vitro extracellular recordings were performed on jejunal afferent nerves...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729259/insulin-signaling-acts-in-adult-adipocytes-via-gsk-3%C3%AE-and-independently-of-foxo-to-control-drosophila-female-germline-stem-cell-numbers
#17
Alissa R Armstrong, Daniela Drummond-Barbosa
Tissue-specific stem cells are tied to the nutritional and physiological environment of adult organisms. Adipocytes have key endocrine and nutrient-sensing roles and have emerged as major players in relaying dietary information to regulate other organs. For example, previous studies in Drosophila melanogaster revealed that amino acid sensing as well as diet-dependent metabolic pathways function in adipocytes to influence the maintenance of female germline stem cells (GSCs). How nutrient-sensing pathways acting within adipocytes influence adult stem cell lineages, however, is just beginning to be elucidated...
May 2, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729230/role-of-hypothalamus-in-aging-and-its-underlying-cellular-mechanisms
#18
REVIEW
Keetae Kim, Han Kyoung Choe
Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of several physiological functions that can cause various age-related disorders. Several factors have been identified as causes of aging to elucidate the decline in functions. Various aspects of physiological deterioration are controlled by the hypothalamus, a critical brain region that connects the neuroendocrine system to physiological functions. In addition, functional alterations in a set of agouti-related peptide/neuropeptide Y (AgRP/NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, a set of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SST) neurons, a set of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) neurons, and a set of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons contribute to age-related physiological decline in energy metabolism, hormone regulation, circadian rhythm, and reproduction, respectively...
May 2, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727620/sod1-phosphorylation-by-mtorc1-couples-nutrient-sensing-and-redox-regulation
#19
Chi Kwan Tsang, Miao Chen, Xin Cheng, Yanmei Qi, Yin Chen, Ishani Das, Xiaoxing Li, Brinda Vallat, Li-Wu Fu, Chao-Nan Qian, Hui-Yun Wang, Eileen White, Stephen K Burley, X F Steven Zheng
Nutrients are not only organic compounds fueling bioenergetics and biosynthesis, but also key chemical signals controlling growth and metabolism. Nutrients enormously impact the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which play essential roles in normal physiology and diseases. How nutrient signaling is integrated with redox regulation is an interesting, but not fully understood, question. Herein, we report that superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is a conserved component of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) nutrient signaling...
May 3, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727594/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-a-versatile-regulator-of-metabolic-homeostasis
#20
Lucas D BonDurant, Matthew J Potthoff
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an endocrine hormone derived from the liver that exerts pleiotropic effects on the body to maintain overall metabolic homeostasis. During the past decade, there has been an enormous effort made to understand the physiological roles of FGF21 in regulating metabolism and to identify the mechanism for its potent pharmacological effects to reverse diabetes and obesity. Through both human and rodent studies, it is now evident that FGF21 levels are dynamically regulated by nutrient sensing, and consequently FGF21 functions as a critical regulator of nutrient homeostasis...
May 4, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
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