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nutrient sensing

Guohua Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Masahiro Morita, Julien Prudent, Kaustuv Basu, Vanessa Goyon, Sakie Katsumura, Laura Hulea, Dana Pearl, Nadeem Siddiqui, Stefan Strack, Shawn McGuirk, Julie St-Pierre, Ola Larsson, Ivan Topisirovic, Hojatollah Vali, Heidi M McBride, John J Bergeron, Nahum Sonenberg
The mechanisms that link environmental and intracellular stimuli to mitochondrial functions, including fission/fusion, ATP production, metabolite biogenesis, and apoptosis, are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that the nutrient-sensing mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) stimulates translation of mitochondrial fission process 1 (MTFP1) to control mitochondrial fission and apoptosis. Expression of MTFP1 is coupled to pro-fission phosphorylation and mitochondrial recruitment of the fission GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1)...
September 13, 2017: Molecular Cell
Steven M Sparks, Paul K Spearing, Caroline J Diaz, David J Cowan, Channa Jayawickreme, Grace Chen, Thomas J Rimele, Claudia Generaux, Lindsey T Harston, Shane G Roller
Modulation of gastrointestinal nutrient sensing pathways provides a promising a new approach for the treatment of metabolic diseases including diabetes and obesity. The calcium-sensing receptor has been identified as a key receptor involved in mineral and amino acid nutrient sensing and thus is an attractive target for modulation in the intestine. Herein we describe the optimization of gastrointestinally restricted calcium-sensing receptor agonists starting from a 3-aminopyrrolidine-containing template leading to the identification of GI-restricted agonist 19 (GSK3004774)...
September 7, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Matthew Kochem
Our sense of taste allows us to evaluate the nutritive value of foods prior to ingesting them. Sweet taste signals the presence of sugars, and savory taste signals the presence of amino acids. The ability to identify these macronutrients in foods was likely crucial for the survival of our species when nourishing food sources were sparse. In modern, industrialized settings, taste perception continues to play an important role in human health as we attempt to prevent and treat conditions stemming from overnutrition...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Shih-Heng Su, Nicole M Gibbs, Amy L Jancewicz, Patrick H Masson
Plant shoots typically grow against the gravity vector to access light, whereas roots grow downward into the soil to take up water and nutrients. These gravitropic responses can be altered by developmental and environmental cues. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that govern the gravitropism of angiosperm roots, where a physical separation between sites for gravity sensing and curvature response has facilitated discovery. Gravity sensing takes place in the columella cells of the root cap, where sedimentation of starch-filled plastids (amyloplasts) triggers a pathway that results in a relocalization to the lower side of the cell of PIN proteins, which facilitate efflux of the plant hormone auxin efflux...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Mette V Jensen, Jessica R Gooding, Mourad Ferdaoussi, Xiao-Qing Dai, Brett S Peterson, Patrick E MacDonald, Christopher B Newgard
After multiple decades of investigation, the precise mechanisms involved in fuel-stimulated insulin secretion are still being revealed. One avenue for gaining deeper knowledge is to apply emergent tools of "metabolomics," involving mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance-based profiling of islet cells in their fuel-stimulated compared with basal states. The current article summarizes recent insights gained from application of metabolomics tools to the specific process of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, revealing 2 new mechanisms that may provide targets for improving insulin secretion in diabetes...
September 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Ya-Kun Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Qu, Yan Lin, Xiao-Hui Wu, Hou-Zao Chen, Xu Wang, Kai-Qiang Zhou, Yun Wei, Fushen Guo, Cui-Fang Yao, Xia-Di He, Li-Xia Liu, Chen Yang, Zong-Yuan Guan, Shi-Dong Wang, Jianyuan Zhao, De-Pei Liu, Shi-Min Zhao, Wei Xu
The oncogenic mechanisms of overnutrition, a confirmed independent cancer risk factor, remain poorly understood. Herein, we report that enoyl-CoA hydratase-1 (ECHS1), the enzyme involved in the oxidation of fatty acids (FAs) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), senses nutrients and promotes mTOR activation and apoptotic resistance. Nutrients-promoted acetylation of lys(101) of ECHS1 impedes ECHS1 activity by impairing enoyl-CoA binding, promoting ECHS1 degradation and blocking its mitochondrial translocation through inducing ubiquitination...
September 6, 2017: Nature Communications
Danyi Yang, Man J Livingston, Zhiwen Liu, Guie Dong, Ming Zhang, Jian-Kang Chen, Zheng Dong
Diabetic kidney disease, a leading cause of end-stage renal disease, has become a serious public health problem worldwide and lacks effective therapies. Autophagy is a highly conserved lysosomal degradation pathway that removes protein aggregates and damaged organelles to maintain cellular homeostasis. As important stress-responsive machinery, autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Emerging evidence has suggested that dysregulated autophagy may contribute to both glomerular and tubulointerstitial pathologies in kidneys under diabetic conditions...
September 4, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Yu-Sheng Li, Xin-Rong Pan, Jia-Shun Cao, Xiang-Ning Song, Fang Fang, Zhong-Hua Tong, Wen-Wei Li, Han-Qing Yu
Quorum sensing (QS), especially acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated QS, in activated sludge arouses great interests because of its vital role in the formation of biofilm and aerobic granules (AG). Although QS is reported to be largely related to the properties of activated sludge, it is not economically feasible to tune QS in an activated sludge reactor through dosing pure AHL or AHL hydrolase. A more reasonable way to tune QS is to augment reactors with AHL-producing or -quenching bacteria. In this work, the impacts of continuous dose of AHL-producing or -quenching strains on the activated sludge during its granulation process were explored...
August 29, 2017: Water Research
Tzyy-Jen Chiou, Wayne K Versaw, Toru Fujiwara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Yuling Zhou, Brett D Hambly, Craig S McLachlan
This review examines the biology of the Fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO), and the implications of genetic association of FTO SNPs with obesity and genetic aging. Notably, we focus on the role of FTO in the regulation of methylation status as possible regulators of weight gain and genetic aging. We present a theoretical review of the FTO gene with a particular emphasis on associations with UCP2, AMPK, RBL2, IRX3, CUX1, mTORC1 and hormones involved in hunger regulation. These associations are important for dietary behavior regulation and cellular nutrient sensing via amino acids...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
Cecile Hryhorczuk, Zhenyu Sheng, Léa Décarie-Spain, Nicolas Giguère, Charles Ducrot, Louis-Éric Trudeau, Vanessa Routh, Thierry Alquier, Stephanie Fulton
Long-chain fatty acids (FA) act centrally to decrease food intake and hepatic glucose production and alter hypothalamic neuronal activity in a manner that depends on FA type and cellular transport proteins. However, it is not known if FA are sensed by ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons to control food-motivated behavior and DA neurotransmission. We investigated the impact of the monounsaturated FA oleate in the VTA on feeding, locomotion, food reward and DA neuronal activity and DA neuron expression of FA handling proteins and FA uptake...
August 31, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Sergii Domanskyi, Justin W Nicholatos, Joshua E Schilling, Vladimir Privman, Sergiy Libert
Apoptosis is essential for numerous processes, such as development, resistance to infections, and suppression of tumorigenesis. Here, we investigate the influence of the nutrient sensing and longevity-assuring enzyme SIRT6 on the dynamics of apoptosis triggered by serum starvation. Specifically, we characterize the progression of apoptosis in wild type and SIRT6 deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts using time-lapse flow cytometry and computational modelling based on rate-equations and cell distribution analysis...
August 30, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Crystalyn B Legg-St Pierre, Martina Mackova, Ewa I Miskiewicz, Denise G Hemmings, Suraj Unniappan, Daniel J MacPhee
The placenta is the physiological bridge between mother and fetus and has life-sustaining functions during pregnancy, including metabolic regulation, fetal protection and hormone secretion. Nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2) is a calcium- and DNA-binding protein and precursor of nesfatin-1, a signalling peptide with multiple functions, including regulation of energy homeostasis and glucose transport. These are also key functions of the placenta, yet NUCB2/nesfatin-1 expression has never been comprehensively studied in this organ...
August 31, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Kristyn Gumpper, Matthew Sermersheim, Michael X Zhu, Pei-Hui Lin
Muscle wasting or cachexia is commonly associated with aging and many diseases such as cancer, infection, autoimmune disorders, and trauma. Decrease in muscle mass, or muscle atrophy, is often caused by dysfunction of protein proteolytic systems, such as lysosomes, which regulate protein turnover and homeostasis. Lysosomes contain many hydrolases and proteases and, thus, represent the major organelle that control protein turnover. Recently, lysosomes have emerged as a signaling hub to integrate cellular functions of nutrient sensing and metabolism, autophagy, phagocytosis, and endocytosis, which are all related to tissue homeostasis...
August 27, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Marie S Prevost, Nikos Pinotsis, Maud Dumoux, Richard D Hayward, Gabriel Waksman
Legionella pneumophila infects human alveolar macrophages and is responsible for Legionnaire's disease, a severe form of pneumonia. L. pneumophila encodes more than 300 putative effectors, which are translocated into the host cell via the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system. These effectors highjack the host's cellular processes to allow bacterial intracellular growth and replication. Here we adopted a multidisciplinary approach to investigate WipB, a Dot/Icm effector of unknown function. The crystal structure of the N-terminal domain at 1...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jae-Young Kim, Joo-Yong Lee
The rapid and uncontrolled proliferation of tumors limits the availability of oxygen and nutrients supplied from the tumor vasculature, thus exposing them to low oxygen environments. Thus, diminished oxygen availability, or hypoxia, is the most common microenvironment feature of nearly all solid tumors. All living cells have the ability to sense changes in oxygen tension and adapt to this stress to preserve survival. Likewise, cancer cells adapt to chronic hypoxic stress via several mechanisms, including promotion of angiogenic factor production, metabolic shift to consume less oxygen, and reduction of apoptotic potential...
August 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Gisele Farias, Bárbara Dal Molin Netto, Solange Cravo Bettini, Ana Raimunda Dâmaso, Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de Freitas
INTRODUCTION: Obesity, a serious public health problem, occurs mainly when food consumption exceeds energy expenditure. Therefore, energy balance depends on the regulation of the hunger-satiety mechanism, which involves interconnection of the central nervous system and peripheral signals from the adipose tissue, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract, generating responses in short-term food intake and long-term energy balance. Increased body fat alters the gut- and adipose-tissue-derived hormone signaling, which promotes modifications in appetite-regulating hormones, decreasing satiety and increasing hunger senses...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition and Health
Ofer Stempler, Amit K Baidya, Saurabh Bhattacharya, Ganesh Babu Malli Mohan, Elhanan Tzipilevich, Lior Sinai, Gideon Mamou, Sigal Ben-Yehuda
Bacteria have developed various mechanisms by which they sense, interact, and kill other bacteria, in an attempt to outcompete one another and survive. Here we show that Bacillus subtilis can kill and prey on Bacillus megaterium. We find that Bacillus subtilis rapidly inhibits Bacillus megaterium growth by delivering the tRNase toxin WapA. Furthermore, utilizing the methionine analogue L-azidohomoalanine as a nutrient reporter, we provide evidence of nutrient extraction from Bacillus megaterium by Bacillus subtilis...
August 22, 2017: Nature Communications
Wei Xu, Nai-Yong Liu, Yalin Liao, Alisha Anderson
Insects utilize sugars as their essential energy and nutrient sources; therefore, the sense of sugar detection plays a critical role in insect behaviours. Previously using genomic and transcriptomic approaches, we identified eight putative sugar gustatory receptor (GR) genes from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Here we further validated these annotated sugar receptor genes (HarmGr4-8 and 10-12) and found HarmGr10 may be a pseudogene carrying a stop codon in the open reading frame (ORF)...
August 21, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
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