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nutrient sensing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344415/rhizoma-coptidis-and-berberine-as-a-natural-drug-to-combat-aging-and-aging-related-diseases-via-anti-oxidation-and-ampk-activation
#1
REVIEW
Zhifang Xu, Wei Feng, Qian Shen, Nannan Yu, Kun Yu, Shenjun Wang, Zhigang Chen, Seiji Shioda, Yi Guo
Aging is the greatest risk factor for human diseases, as it results in cellular growth arrest, impaired tissue function and metabolism, ultimately impacting life span. Two different mechanisms are thought to be primary causes of aging. One is cumulative DNA damage induced by a perpetuating cycle of oxidative stress; the other is nutrient-sensing adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and rapamycin (mTOR)/ ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) pathways. As the main bioactive component of natural Chinese medicine rhizoma coptidis (RC), berberine has recently been reported to expand life span in Drosophila melanogaster, and attenuate premature cellular senescence...
December 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337079/rising-pco2-in-freshwater-ecosystems-has-the-potential-to-negatively-affect-predator-induced-defenses-in-daphnia
#2
Linda C Weiss, Leonie Pötter, Annika Steiger, Sebastian Kruppert, Uwe Frost, Ralph Tollrian
Anthropogenically released CO2 accumulates in the global carbon cycle and is anticipated to imbalance global carbon fluxes [1]. For example, increased atmospheric CO2 induces a net air-to-sea flux where the oceans take up large amounts of atmospheric CO2 (i.e., ocean acidification [2-5]). Research on ocean acidification is ongoing, and studies have demonstrated the consequences for ecosystems and organismal biology with major impacts on marine food webs, nutrient cycles, overall productivity, and biodiversity [6-9]...
January 9, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334655/how-yeast-coordinates-metabolism-growth-and-division
#3
REVIEW
Jennifer C Ewald
All cells, especially single cell organisms, need to adapt their metabolism, growth and division coordinately to the available nutrients. This coordination is mediated by extensive cross-talk between nutrient signaling, metabolism, growth, and the cell division cycle, which is only gradually being uncovered: Nutrient signaling not only controls entry into the cell cycle at the G1/S transition, but all phases of the cell cycle. Metabolites are even sensed directly by cell cycle regulators to prevent cell cycle progression in absence of sufficient metabolic fluxes...
January 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329496/positive-feedback-regulation-of-subchondral-h-type-vessel-formation-by-chondrocyte-promotes-osteoarthritis-development-in-mice
#4
Jiansen Lu, Haiyan Zhang, Daozhang Cai, Chun Zeng, Pinglin Lai, Yan Shao, Hang Fang, Delong Li, Jiayao Ouyang, Chang Zhao, Denghui Xie, Bin Huang, Jian Yang, Yu Jiang, Xiaochun Bai
Vascular-invasion-mediated interactions between activated articular chondrocytes and subchondral bone are essential for osteoarthritis (OA) development. Here, we determined the role of nutrient sensing mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling in the crosstalk across the bone cartilage interface and its regulatory mechanisms. Then mice with chondrocyte-specific mTORC1 activation (Tsc1 CKO and Tsc1 CKOER ) or inhibition (Raptor CKOER ) and their littermate controls were subjected to OA induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) or not...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329306/lifespan-extension-without-fertility-reduction-following-dietary-addition-of-the-autophagy-activator-torin1-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Janet S Mason, Tom Wileman, Tracey Chapman
Autophagy is a highly conserved mechanism for cellular repair that becomes progressively down-regulated during normal ageing. Hence, manipulations that activate autophagy could increase lifespan. Previous reports show that manipulations to the autophagy pathway can result in longevity extension in yeast, flies, worms and mammals. Under standard nutrition, autophagy is inhibited by the nutrient sensing kinase Target of Rapamycin (TOR). Therefore, manipulations of TOR that increase autophagy may offer a mechanism for extending lifespan...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325042/biochemistry-of-complex-glycan-depolymerisation-by-the-human-gut-microbiota
#6
Didier Ndeh, Harry J Gilbert
The human gut microbiota (HGM) makes an important contribution to health and disease. It is a complex microbial community of trillions of microbes with a majority of its members represented within two phyla, the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, although it also contains species of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Reflecting its importance, the HGM is sometimes referred to as an 'organ' as it performs functions analogous to systemic tissues within the human host. The major nutrients available to the HGM are host and dietary complex carbohydrates...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321871/leaf-trait-variations-associated-with-habitat-affinity-of-tropical-karst-tree-species
#7
Nalaka Geekiyanage, Uromi Manage Goodale, Kunfang Cao, Kaoru Kitajima
Karst hills, that is, jagged topography created by dissolution of limestone and other soluble rocks, are distributed extensively in tropical forest regions, including southern parts of China. They are characterized by a sharp mosaic of water and nutrient availability, from exposed hilltops with poor soil development to valleys with occasional flooding, to which trees show species-specific distributions. Here we report the relationship of leaf functional traits to habitat preference of tropical karst trees. We described leaf traits of 19 tropical tree species in a seasonal karst rainforest in Guangxi Province, China, 12 species in situ and 13 ex situ in a non-karst arboretum, which served as a common garden, with six species sampled in both...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315230/maternal-high-fructose-intake-increases-the-vulnerability-to-post-weaning-high-fat-diet-induced-programmed-hypertension-in-male-offspring
#8
You-Lin Tain, Wei-Chia Lee, Kay L H Wu, Steve Leu, Julie Y H Chan
Widespread consumption of high-fructose and high-fat diets relates to the global epidemic of hypertension. Hypertension may originate from early life by a combination of prenatal and postnatal nutritional insults. We examined whether maternal high-fructose diet increases vulnerability to post-weaning high-fructose or high-fat diets induced hypertension in adult offspring and determined the underlying mechanisms. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received regular chow (ND) or chow supplemented with 60% fructose (HFR) during the entire pregnancy and lactation periods...
January 9, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314743/sensor-kinase-kinb-and-its-pathway-associated-key-factors-sense-the-signal-of-nutrition-starvation-in-sporulation-of-bacillus%C3%A2-subtilis
#9
Weipeng Liu, Zeying He, Feng Gao, Jinyuan Yan, Xiaowei Huang
Bacillus subtilis responds to environmental stress cues and develops endospores for survival. In the process of endospore formation, sporulation initiation is a vital stage and this stage is governed by autophosphorylation of the sensor histidine kinases. The second major sensor kinase KinB perceives the intracellular changes of GTP and ATP during sporulation. However, determination of the environmental signals as well as its related signaling pathway of KinB requires further elucidation. Our current study found that, contrary to the sporulation failure induced by ΔkinA in the nutrient-rich 2× SG medium, the sensor kinase KinB sensed the environmental cues in the nutrient-poor MM medium...
January 3, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311260/mtor-signaling-in-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#10
REVIEW
Delong Meng, Anderson R Frank, Jenna L Jewell
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) senses nutrients and growth factors to coordinate cell growth, metabolism and autophagy. Extensive research has mapped the signaling pathways regulated by mTOR that are involved in human diseases, such as cancer, and in diabetes and ageing. Recently, however, new studies have demonstrated important roles for mTOR in promoting the differentiation of adult stem cells, driving the growth and proliferation of stem and progenitor cells, and dictating the differentiation program of multipotent stem cell populations...
January 8, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309257/the-slc22-transporter-family-a-paradigm-for-the-impact-of-drug-transporters-on-metabolic-pathways-signaling-and-disease
#11
Sanjay K Nigam
The SLC22 transporter family consists of more than two dozen members, which are expressed in the kidney, the liver, and other tissues. Evolutionary analysis indicates that SLC22 transporters fall into at least six subfamilies: OAT (organic anion transporter), OAT-like, OAT-related, OCT (organic cation transporter), OCTN (organic cation/carnitine transporter), and OCT/OCTN-related. Some-including OAT1 [SLC22A6 or NKT (novel kidney transporter)] and OAT3 (SLC22A8), as well as OCT1 (SLC22A1) and OCT2 (SLC22A2)-are widely studied drug transporters...
January 6, 2018: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307889/microbial-modulation-of-cardiovascular-disease
#12
REVIEW
J Mark Brown, Stanley L Hazen
Although diet has long been known to contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD), research over the past decade has revealed an unexpected interplay between nutrient intake, gut microbial metabolism and the host to modify the risk of developing CVD. Microbial-associated molecular patterns are sensed by host pattern recognition receptors and have been suggested to drive CVD pathogenesis. In addition, the host microbiota produces various metabolites, such as trimethylamine-N-oxide, short-chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids, that affect CVD pathogenesis...
January 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306820/activity-based-sensing-fluorescent-probes-for-iron-in-biological-systems
#13
REVIEW
Allegra T Aron, Audrey G Reeves, Christopher J Chang
Iron is an essential nutrient for life, and its capacity to cycle between different oxidation states is required for processes spanning oxygen transport and respiration to nucleotide synthesis and epigenetic regulation. However, this same redox ability also makes iron, if not regulated properly, a potentially dangerous toxin that can trigger oxidative stress and damage. New methods that enable monitoring of iron in living biological systems, particularly in labile Fe2+ forms, can help identify its contributions to physiology, aging, and disease...
January 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304379/optical-properties-and-composition-changes-in-chromophoric-dissolved-organic-matter-along-trophic-gradients-implications-for-monitoring-and-assessing-lake-eutrophication
#14
Yunlin Zhang, Yongqiang Zhou, Kun Shi, Boqiang Qin, Xiaolong Yao, Yibo Zhang
Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is an important optically active substance in aquatic environments and plays a key role in light attenuation and in the carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus biogeochemical cycles. Although the optical properties, abundance, sources, cycles, compositions and remote sensing estimations of CDOM have been widely reported in different aquatic environments, little is known about the optical properties and composition changes in CDOM along trophic gradients. Therefore, we collected 821 samples from 22 lakes along a trophic gradient (oligotrophic to eutrophic) in China from 2004 to 2015 and determined the CDOM spectral absorption and nutrient concentrations...
December 26, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298418/neuronal-pas-domain-protein-4-suppression-of-oxygen-sensing-optimizes-metabolism-during-excitation-of-neuroendocrine-cells
#15
Paul V Sabatini, Thilo Speckmann, Cuilan Nian, Maria M Glavas, Chi Kin Wong, Ji Soo Yoon, Tatsuya Kin, A M James Shapiro, William T Gibson, C Bruce Verchere, Francis C Lynn
Depolarization of neuroendocrine cells results in calcium influx, which induces vesicle exocytosis and alters gene expression. These processes, along with the restoration of resting membrane potential, are energy intensive. We hypothesized that cellular mechanisms exist to maximize energy production during excitation. Here, we demonstrate that NPAS4, an immediate early basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS transcription factor, acts to maximize energy production by suppressing hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α)...
January 2, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282283/relief-from-nitrogen-starvation-triggers-a-transient-destabilization-of-glycolytic-mrnas-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-cells
#16
Catherine Tesnière, Martine Pradal, Chloé Bessière, Isabelle Sanchez, Bruno Blondin, Frédéric Bigey
Nitrogen replenishment of nitrogen-starved yeast cells resulted in substantial transcriptome changes. There was an unexplained rapid, transient down-regulation of glycolytic genes. This unexpected result prompted us to search for the factors controlling these changes, among which the possible involvement of different nutrient-sensing pathways such as the TORC1 and cAMP/PKA pathways. To that end, the effects of various gene deletions or chemical blocking agents were tested by investigating the expression of PGK1, one of the glycolytic genes most affected after nitrogen replenishment...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282252/iron-modulation-of-erythropoiesis-is-associated-with-scribble-mediated-control-of-the-erythropoietin-receptor
#17
Shadi Khalil, Lorrie Delehanty, Stephen Grado, Maja Holy, Zollie White, Katie Freeman, Ryo Kurita, Yukio Nakamura, Grant Bullock, Adam Goldfarb
Iron-restricted human anemias are associated with the acquisition of marrow resistance to the hematopoietic cytokine erythropoietin (Epo). Regulation of Epo responsiveness by iron availability serves as the basis for intravenous iron therapy in anemias of chronic disease. Epo engagement of its receptor normally promotes survival, proliferation, and differentiation of erythroid progenitors. However, Epo resistance caused by iron restriction selectively impairs proliferation and differentiation while preserving viability...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281179/a-high-parasite-density-environment-induces-transcriptional-changes-and-cell-death-in-plasmodium-falciparum-blood-stages
#18
Evelyn S Chou, Sabia Z Abidi, Marian Teye, Aleksandra Leliwa-Sytek, Thomas S Rask, Simon A Cobbold, Gerry Q Tonkin-Hill, Krishanthi S Subramaniam, Anna E Sexton, Darren J Creek, Johanna P Daily, Michael F Duffy, Karen P Day
Transient regulation of Plasmodium numbers below the density that induces fever has been observed in chronic malaria infections in humans. This species transcending control cannot be explained by immunity alone. Using an in vitro system we have observed density dependent regulation of malaria population size as a mechanism to possibly explain these in vivo observations. Specifically, P. falciparum blood stages from a high but not low-density environment exhibited unique phenotypic changes during the late trophozoite and schizont stages of the intraerythrocytic cycle...
December 27, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278834/sugar-sensing-by-chrebp-mondo-mlx-new-insight-into-downstream-regulatory-networks-and-integration-of-nutrient-derived-signals
#19
REVIEW
Essi Havula, Ville Hietakangas
Animals regulate their physiology with respect to nutrient status, which requires nutrient sensing pathways. Simple carbohydrates, sugars, are sensed by the basic-helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors ChREBP/Mondo, together with their heterodimerization partner Mlx, which are well-established activators of sugar-induced lipogenesis. Loss of ChREBP/Mondo-Mlx in mouse and Drosophila leads to sugar intolerance, that is, inability to survive on sugar containing diet. Recent evidence has revealed that ChREBP/Mondo-Mlx responds to sugar and fatty acid-derived metabolites through several mechanisms and cross-connects with other nutrient sensing pathways...
December 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274999/sensing-and-signaling-mechanisms-linking-dietary-methionine-restriction-to-the-behavioral-and-physiological-components-of-the-response
#20
REVIEW
Laura A Forney, Kirsten P Stone, Desiree Wanders, Thomas W Gettys
Dietary methionine restriction (MR) is implemented using a semi-purified diet that reduces methionine by ∼80% and eliminates dietary cysteine. Within hours of its introduction, dietary MR initiates coordinated series of transcriptional programs and physiological responses that include increased energy intake and expenditure, decreased adiposity, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and reduction in circulating and tissue lipids. Significant progress has been made in cataloguing the physiological responses to MR in males but not females, but identities of the sensing and communication networks that orchestrate these responses remain poorly understood...
December 21, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
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