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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166126/nutrient-sensing-biology-in-mammals-and-birds
#1
Eugeni Roura, Simon R Foster
Nutrient sensing mechanisms have emerged as the fringe articulating nutritional needs with dietary choices. Carbohydrate, amino acid, fatty acid, mineral, and water sensing receptors are highly conserved across mammals and birds, consisting of a repertoire of 22 genes known to date. In contrast, bitter receptors are highly divergent and have a high incidence of polymorphisms within and between mammals and birds and are involved in the adaptation of species to specific environments. In addition, the expression of nutrient sensing genes outside the oral cavity seems to mediate the required decision-making dialogue between the gut and the brain by translating exogenous chemical stimuli into neuronal inputs, and vice versa, to translate the endogenous signals relevant to the nutritional status into specific appetites and the control of feed intake...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161007/polymer-based-technologies-for-sensing-applications
#2
Wildemar Stefanio Pereira Carvalho, Menglian Wei, Nduka Ikpo, Yongfeng Gao, Michael J Serpe
Reports in the literature on the development of new chemical sensing technologies have been growing steadily in number for years. For example, a Web of Science topic search using the term "Chemical Sensing" revealed that over 8,000 papers were published in 2015-2017, with over 40,000 citations to those papers. In this review, we focus on highlighting recent examples of chemical sensing related to human health (e.g., disease diagnosis, health monitoring, and water/food safety), and for environmental monitoring...
November 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158492/structural-basis-for-the-assembly-of-the-ragulator-rag-gtpase-complex
#3
Ryo Yonehara, Shigeyuki Nada, Tomokazu Nakai, Masahiro Nakai, Ayaka Kitamura, Akira Ogawa, Hirokazu Nakatsumi, Keiichi I Nakayama, Songling Li, Daron M Standley, Eiki Yamashita, Atsushi Nakagawa, Masato Okada
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) plays a central role in regulating cell growth and metabolism by responding to cellular nutrient conditions. The activity of mTORC1 is controlled by Rag GTPases, which are anchored to lysosomes via Ragulator, a pentameric protein complex consisting of membrane-anchored p18/LAMTOR1 and two roadblock heterodimers. Here we report the crystal structure of Ragulator in complex with the roadblock domains of RagA-C, which helps to elucidate the molecular basis for the regulation of Rag GTPases...
November 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157236/monitoring-of-nutrient-limitation-in-growing-e-coli-a-mathematical-model-of-a-ppgpp-based-biosensor
#4
Alexandra Pokhilko
BACKGROUND: E. coli can be used as bacterial cell factories for production of biofuels and other useful compounds. The efficient production of the desired products requires careful monitoring of growth conditions and the optimization of metabolic fluxes. To avoid nutrient depletion and maximize product yields we suggest using a natural mechanism for sensing nutrient limitation, related to biosynthesis of an intracellular messenger - guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp). RESULTS: We propose a design for a biosensor, which monitors changes in the intracellular concentration of ppGpp by coupling it to a fluorescent output...
November 21, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155300/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-obesity
#5
REVIEW
Aline Haas de Mello, Ana Beatriz Costa, Jéssica Della Giustina Engel, Gislaine Tezza Rezin
Obesity leads to various changes in the body. Among them, the existing inflammatory process may lead to an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, in turn, can trigger mitochondrial changes, which is called mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, excess nutrients supply (as it commonly is the case with obesity) can overwhelm the Krebs cycle and the mitochondrial respiratory chain, causing a mitochondrial dysfunction, and lead to a higher ROS formation...
November 16, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155083/tbvps15-is-required-for-vesicular-transport-and-cytokinesis-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#6
Alejandra C Schoijet, Kildare Miranda, Tamara Sternlieb, Nadia M Barrera, Wendell Girard-Dias, Wanderley de Souza, Guillermo D Alonso
The class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) Vps34 is an important regulator of key cellular functions, including cell growth, survival, intracellular trafficking, autophagy and nutrient sensing. In yeast, Vps34 is associated with the putative serine/threonine protein kinase Vps15, however, its role in signaling has not been deeply evaluated. Here, we have identified the Vps15 orthologue in Trypanosoma brucei, named TbVps15. Knockdown of TbVps15 expression by interference RNA resulted in inhibition of cell growth and blockage of cytokinesis...
November 16, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153408/ampk-sensing-glucose-as-well-as-cellular-energy-status
#7
REVIEW
Sheng-Cai Lin, D Grahame Hardie
Mammalian AMPK is known to be activated by falling cellular energy status, signaled by rising AMP/ATP and ADP/ATP ratios. We review recent information about how this occurs but also discuss new studies suggesting that AMPK is able to sense glucose availability independently of changes in adenine nucleotides. The glycolytic intermediate fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) is sensed by aldolase, which binds to the v-ATPase on the lysosomal surface. In the absence of FBP, interactions between aldolase and the v-ATPase are altered, allowing formation of an AXIN-based AMPK-activation complex containing the v-ATPase, Ragulator, AXIN, LKB1, and AMPK, causing increased Thr172 phosphorylation and AMPK activation...
November 15, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152581/the-candida-albicans-tor-activating-gtpases-gtr1-and-rhb1-coregulate-starvation-responses-and-biofilm-formation
#8
Peter R Flanagan, Ning-Ning Liu, Darren J Fitzpatrick, Karsten Hokamp, Julia R Köhler, Gary P Moran
Target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is an essential regulator of metabolism in eukaryotic cells and in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans regulates morphogenesis and nitrogen acquisition. Gtr1 encodes a highly conserved GTPase that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulates nitrogen sensing and TORC1 activation. Here, we characterize the role of C. albicans GTR1 in TORC1 activation and compare it with the previously characterized GTPase Rhb1. A homozygous gtr1/gtr1 mutant exhibited impaired TORC1-mediated phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 and increased susceptibility to rapamycin...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149604/nrf1-is-an-er-membrane-sensor-that-is-central-to-cholesterol-homeostasis
#9
Scott B Widenmaier, Nicole A Snyder, Truc B Nguyen, Alessandro Arduini, Grace Y Lee, Ana Paula Arruda, Jani Saksi, Alexander Bartelt, Gökhan S Hotamisligil
Cholesterol is a critical nutrient requiring tight constraint in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) due to its uniquely challenging biophysical properties. While the mechanisms by which the ER defends against cholesterol insufficiency are well described, it remains unclear how the ER senses and effectively defends against cholesterol excess. Here, we identify the ER-bound transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor-1, Nrf1/Nfe2L1, as a critical mediator of this process. We show that Nrf1 directly binds to and specifically senses cholesterol in the ER through a defined domain and that cholesterol regulates Nrf1 turnover, processing, localization, and activity...
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131514/quantitative-trait-loci-associated-with-soybean-seed-weight-and-composition-under-different-phosphorus-levels
#10
Gokhan Hacisalihoglu, Amy L Burton, Jeffery L Gustin, Selim Eker, Safiye Asikli, Elif Hakli Heybet, Levent Ozturk, Ismail Cakmak, Atilla Yazici, Kent O Burkey, James Orf, A Mark Settles
Seed size and composition are important traits in food crops and can be affected by nutrient availability in the soil. Phosphorus (P) is a non-renewable, essential macronutrient, and P deficiency limits soybean (Glycine max) yield and quality. To investigate the associations of seed traits in low- and high-P environments, soybean recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the cross of cultivars Fiskeby III and Mandarin (Ottawa) were grown under contrasting P availability environments. Traits including individual seed weight, seed number, and intact mature pod weight were significantly affected by soil P levels and showed transgressive segregation among the RILs...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129785/advances-in-hypoxia-inducible-factor-biology
#11
REVIEW
Hani Choudhry, Adrian L Harris
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a central regulator for detecting and adapting to cellular oxygen levels, transcriptionally activates genes modulating oxygen homeostasis and metabolic activation. Beyond this, HIF influences many other processes. Hypoxia, in part through HIF-dependent mechanisms, influences epigenetic factors, including DNA methylation and histone acetylation, which modulate hypoxia-responsive gene expression in cells. Hypoxia profoundly affects expression of many noncoding RNAs classes that have clinicopathological implications in cancer...
November 8, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127434/brd7-regulates-the-insulin-signaling-pathway-by-increasing-phosphorylation-of-gsk3%C3%AE
#12
Lena Golick, Youngah Han, Yoo Kim, Sang Won Park
Reduced hepatic expression levels of bromodomain-containing protein 7 (BRD7) have been suggested to play a role in the development of glucose intolerance in obesity. However, the molecular mechanism by which BRD7 regulates glucose metabolism has remained unclear. Here, we show that BRD7 increases phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) in response to activation of the insulin receptor-signaling pathway shortly after insulin stimulation and the nutrient-sensing pathway after feeding. BRD7 mediates phosphorylation of GSK3β at the Serine 9 residue and this effect on GSK3β occurs even in the absence of AKT activity...
November 10, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113048/the-application-of-em38-determination-of-soil-parameters-selection-of-soil-sampling-points-and-use-in-agriculture-and-archaeology
#13
REVIEW
Kurt Heil, Urs Schmidhalter
Fast and accurate assessment of within-field variation is essential for detecting field-wide heterogeneity and contributing to improvements in the management of agricultural lands. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of field scale characterization by electromagnetic induction, firstly with a focus on the applications of EM38 to salinity, soil texture, water content and soil water turnover, soil types and boundaries, nutrients and N-turnover and soil sampling designs. Furthermore, results concerning special applications in agriculture, horticulture and archaeology are included...
November 4, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109714/characteristics-of-a-regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-rgs-rgsc-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#14
Young Kim, In-Beom Heo, Jae-Hyuk Yu, Kwang-Soo Shin
The regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins have a conserved RGS domain that facilitates the intrinsic GTPase activity of an activated Gα subunit of heterotrimeric G protein, thereby attenuating signal transduction. Among six predicted RGS proteins in the opportunistic human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, only three (FlbA, GprK, and Rax1) have been studied. The unexplored RgsC composed of the Phox-associated (PXA), RGS, Phox homology (PX), and Nexin_C superfamily domains is highly conserved in many ascomycete fungi, suggesting a crucial role of RgsC in fungal biology...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109188/zinc-acquisition-mechanisms-differ-between-environmental-and-virulent-francisella-species
#15
G Brett Moreau, Aiping Qin, Barbara J Mann
Zinc is an essential nutrient for bacterial growth. Because host cells can restrict pathogen access to zinc as an antimicrobial defense mechanism, intracellular pathogens such as Francisella must sense their environment and acquire zinc in response. In many bacteria, the conserved transcription factor Zur is a key regulator of zinc acquisition. To identify mechanisms of zinc uptake in Francisella novicida U112, RNA sequencing was performed on wild-type and putative zur mutant bacteria. Only three genes were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR as directly regulated by Zur and zinc limitation...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107538/hybrid-structure-of-the-raga-c-ragulator-mtorc1-activation-complex
#16
Ming-Yuan Su, Kyle L Morris, Do Jin Kim, Yangxue Fu, Rosalie Lawrence, Goran Stjepanovic, Roberto Zoncu, James H Hurley
The lysosomal membrane is the locus for sensing cellular nutrient levels, which are transduced to mTORC1 via the Rag GTPases and the Ragulator complex. The crystal structure of the five-subunit human Ragulator at 1.4 Å resolution was determined. Lamtor1 wraps around the other four subunits to stabilize the assembly. The Lamtor2:Lamtor3 dimer stacks upon Lamtor4:Lamtor5 to create a platform for Rag binding. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange was used to map the Rag binding site to the outer face of the Lamtor2:Lamtor3 dimer and to the N-terminal intrinsically disordered region of Lamtor1...
October 25, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107294/amino-acid-sensing-in-hypothalamic-tanycytes-via-umami-taste-receptors
#17
Greta Lazutkaite, Alice Soldà, Kristina Lossow, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Nicholas Dale
OBJECTIVE: Hypothalamic tanycytes are glial cells that line the wall of the third ventricle and contact the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). While they are known to detect glucose in the CSF we now show that tanycytes also detect amino acids, important nutrients that signal satiety. METHODS: Ca(2+) imaging and ATP biosensing were used to detect tanycyte responses to l-amino acids. The downstream pathway of the responses was determined using ATP receptor antagonists and channel blockers...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101040/rv2477c-is-an-antibiotic-sensitive-manganese-dependent-abc-f-atpase-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#18
Jaiyanth Daniel, Liz Abraham, Amanda Martin, Xyryl Pablo, Shelby Reyes
The Rv2477c protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily F that contains proteins with tandem nucleotide-binding domains but lacking transmembrane domains. ABC-F subfamily proteins have been implicated in diverse cellular processes such as translation, antibiotic resistance, cell growth and nutrient sensing. In order to investigate the biochemical characteristics of Rv2477c, we expressed it in Escherichia coli, purified it and characterized its enzymatic functions...
October 31, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098111/bile-acid-receptors-link-nutrient-sensing-to-metabolic-regulation
#19
Jibiao Li, Tiangang Li
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease in Western populations. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a more debilitating form of NAFLD characterized by hepatocellular injury and inflammation, which significantly increase the risk of end-stage liver and cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, there are no available drug therapies for NASH. Bile acids are physiological detergent molecules that are synthesized from cholesterol exclusively in the hepatocytes. Bile acids circulate between the liver and intestine, where they are required for cholesterol solubilization in the bile and dietary fat emulsification in the gut...
June 2017: Liver Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093026/differential-ability-of-pro-inflammatory-and-anti-inflammatory-macrophages-to-perform-macropinocytosis
#20
Dar'ya S Redka, Michael Gütschow, Sergio Grinstein, Johnathan Canton
Macropinocytosis mediates the uptake of antigens and of nutrients that dictate the regulation of cell growth by mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Because these functions differ in pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory macrophages, we compared the macropinocytic ability of two extreme polarization states. We found that anti-inflammatory macrophages perform vigorous macropinocytosis constitutively, while pro-inflammatory cells are virtually inactive. The total cellular content of Rho-family GTPases was higher in anti-inflammatory cells, but this disparity failed to account for the differential macropinocytic activity...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
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