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n-acetylcysteine trichotillomania

Livia Ariane Lopes Barroso, Flavia Sternberg, Maria Natalia Inacio de Fraia E Souza, Gisele Jacobino de Barros Nunes
Trichotillomania is considered a behavioral disorder and is characterized by the recurring habit of pulling one's hair, resulting in secondary alopecia. It affects 1% of the adult population, and 2 to 4.4% of psychiatric patients meet the diagnostic criteria. It can occur at any age and is more prevalent in adolescents and females. Its occurrence in childhood is not uncommon and tends to have a more favorable clinical course. The scalp, eyebrows and eyelashes are the most commonly affected sites. Glutamate modulating agents, such as N-acetylcysteine, have been shown to be a promising treatment...
July 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Giovana de L T Vieira, Amy C Lossie, Donald C Lay, John S Radcliffe, Joseph P Garner
Barbering, where a "barber" mouse plucks hair from its cagemates or itself, is both a spontaneously occurring abnormal behavior in mice and a well validated model of Trichotillomania (TTM). N-Acetylcysteine, (NAC) a cysteine derived food additive, is remarkably effective in treating TTM patients, but its mechanism of action is unknown. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), also known as free radicals, form as a natural byproduct of the normal metabolism of oxygen. Under normal circumstances, cells are able to defend themselves against ROS damage with antioxidant pathways...
2017: PloS One
Ana Cecília Versiani Duarte Pinto, Tatiana Cristina Pedro Cordeiro de Andrade, Fernanda Freitas de Brito, Gardênia Viana da Silva, Maria Lopes Lamenha Lins Cavalcante, Antonio Carlos Ceribelli Martelli
Trichotillomania is a psychodermatologic disorder characterized by uncontrollable urge to pull one's own hair. Differential diagnoses include the most common forms of alopecia such as alopecia areata. It is usually associated with depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Trichotillomania treatment standardization is a gap in the medical literature. Recent studies demonstrated the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (a glutamate modulator) for the treatment of the disease. We report the clinical case of a 12-year-old female patient who received the initial diagnosis of alopecia areata, but presented with clinical and dermoscopic features of trichotillomania...
January 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Julio Torales, Iván Barrios, Jorge Villalba
Context • Excoriation (skin picking) disorder is characterized by the need or urge to pick, scratch, pinch, touch, rub, scrub, squeeze, bite, or dig the skin, and it can be a perplexing condition for the inexperienced physician. Treatments include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and alternative therapies. Alternative therapies for excoriation disorder and other body-focused repetitive behaviors include yoga, aerobic exercise, acupuncture, biofeedback, hypnosis, and inositol and N-acetylcysteine, among others...
January 2017: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
D Özcan, D Seçkin
BACKGROUND: The management of trichotillomania is challenging. The limited efficacy and side-effects of pharmacological medications and difficulty in long-term maintenance of behavioural therapies necessitates alternative treatment options. A dysregulated glutamatergic system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of trichotillomania. A limited number of reports indicate that N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutamate modulator, may be a promising treatment for this disorder. OBJECTIVES: We report two patients with trichotillomania for whom treatment with NAC was successful...
September 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Brisa S Fernandes, Olivia M Dean, Seetal Dodd, Gin S Malhi, Michael Berk
OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of N-acetylcysteine administration for depressive symptoms in subjects with psychiatric conditions using a systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: A computerized literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, SciELO, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge. No year or country restrictions were used. The Boolean terms used for the electronic database search were (NAC OR N-acetylcysteine OR acetylcysteine) AND (depression OR depressive OR depressed) AND (trial)...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Benjamin C Kalivas, Peter W Kalivas
Intrusive thinking triggers clinical symptoms in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Using drug addiction as an exemplar disorder sustained in part by intrusive thinking, we explore studies demonstrating that impairments in corticostriatal circuitry strongly contribute to intrusive thinking. Neuroimaging studies have long implicated this projection in cue-induced craving to use drugs, and preclinical models show that marked changes are produced at corticostriatal synapses in the nucleus accumbens during a relapse episode...
March 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Michael H Bloch, Kaitlyn E Panza, Alisa Yaffa, Pedro G Alvarenga, Ewgeni Jakubovski, Jilian M Mulqueen, Angeli Landeros-Weisenberger, James F Leckman
BACKGROUND: Current pharmacological treatments for Tourette Syndrome (TS), such as antipsychotic agents and α-2 agonists, are moderately effective in the treatment of tics, but have substantial side effects that limit their use. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) modulates glutamatergic systems, and has been used safely as an antioxidant agent with minimal side effects for decades. NAC has been increasingly studied for the treatment of other obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. We aim to examine the efficacy of NAC for the treatment of pediatric TS in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, add-on study...
May 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Nneka M George, Julia Whitaker, Giovana Vieira, Jerome T Geronimo, Dwight A Bellinger, Craig A Fletcher, Joseph P Garner
Skin Picking Disorder affects 4% of the general population, with serious quality of life impacts, and potentially life threatening complications. Standard psychoactive medications do not help most patients. Similarly, Mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis (skin lesions caused by excessive abnormal grooming behavior) is very common in widely used inbred strains of mice, and represents a serious animal welfare issue and cause of mortality. Treatment options for Ulcerative Dermatitis are largely palliative and ineffective...
2015: PloS One
Maya C Schumer, Kaitlyn E Panza, Jilian M Mulqueen, Ewgeni Jakubovski, Michael H Bloch
OBJECTIVE: To examine long-term outcome in children with trichotillomania. METHOD: We conducted follow-up clinical assessments an average of 2.8 ± 0.8 years after baseline evaluation in 30 of 39 children who previously participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for pediatric trichotillomania. Our primary outcome was change in hairpulling severity on the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Hospital Hairpulling Scale (MGH-HPS) between the end of the acute phase and follow-up evaluation...
October 2015: Depression and Anxiety
Deepmala, John Slattery, Nihit Kumar, Leanna Delhey, Michael Berk, Olivia Dean, Charles Spielholz, Richard Frye
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is recognized for its role in acetaminophen overdose and as a mucolytic. Over the past decade, there has been growing evidence for the use of NAC in treating psychiatric and neurological disorders, considering its role in attenuating pathophysiological processes associated with these disorders, including oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and glutamate and dopamine dysregulation. In this systematic review we find favorable evidence for the use of NAC in several psychiatric and neurological disorders, particularly autism, Alzheimer's disease, cocaine and cannabis addiction, bipolar disorder, depression, trichotillomania, nail biting, skin picking, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, drug-induced neuropathy and progressive myoclonic epilepsy...
August 2015: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Rachel Rothbart, Dan J Stein
INTRODUCTION: Individuals affected by trichotillomania (TTM) (hair-pulling disorder) consciously or non-consciously pull out their own body hair. The disorder has recently been incorporated into a chapter entitled, 'Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders' in the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition. AREAS COVERED: The review describes the literature currently available on the pharmacotherapy for TTM, including both randomized controlled trials and open-label trials of pharmacotherapy for TTM in adults or children...
December 2014: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Rachel Rothbart, Dan J Stein
Introduction: Individuals affected by trichotillomania (TTM) (hair-pulling disorder) consciously or non-consciously pull out their own body hair. The disorder has recently been incorporated into a chapter entitled, 'Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders' in the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition. Areas covered: The review describes the literature currently available on the pharmacotherapy for TTM, including both randomized controlled trials and open-label trials of pharmacotherapy for TTM in adults or children...
November 7, 2014: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Rachel Rothbart, Taryn Amos, Nandi Siegfried, Jonathan C Ipser, Naomi Fineberg, Samuel R Chamberlain, Dan J Stein
BACKGROUND: Trichotillomania (TTM) (hair-pulling disorder) is a prevalent and disabling disorder characterised by recurrent hair-pulling. The effect of medication on trichotillomania has not been systematically evaluated. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of medication for trichotillomania in adults compared with placebo or other active agents. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group Register (to 31 July 2013), which includes relevant randomised controlled trials from the following bibliographic databases: The Cochrane Library (all years); EMBASE (1974 to date); MEDLINE (1950 to date) and PsycINFO (1967 to date)...
November 8, 2013: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Michael H Bloch, Kaitlyn E Panza, Jon E Grant, Christopher Pittenger, James F Leckman
OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the treatment of pediatric trichotillomania (TTM) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, add-on study. METHOD: A total of 39 children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years with pediatric trichotillomania were randomly assigned to receive NAC or matching placebo for 12 weeks. Our primary outcome was change in severity of hairpulling as measured by the Massachusetts General Hospital-Hairpulling Scale (MGH-HPS)...
March 2013: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Ana Rita Rodrigues-Barata, Antonella Tosti, Antonio Rodríguez-Pichardo, Francisco Camacho-Martínez
Trichotillomania is as medical condition caused by the patient himself by pulling out of is own hair, resulting in a perceptible hair loss pattern that frequently is associated with other psychiatric processes. Generally has a chronic course in most patients, and a challenging therapeutical management. There are several available options for is treatment, but the clinical response is not satisfactory in many patients. Recently, N-acetylcisteine, a glutamate modulator, has shown efficacy in the treatment of trichotillomania and other compulsive behaviors, and is considered a new alternative in the management of this condition...
July 2012: International Journal of Trichology
Ivar Snorrason, Throstur Bjorgvinsson
Hair pulling disorder (HPD; trichotillomania) is characterized by recurrent pulling of hair from the scalp, eyebrows or other parts of the body. Skin picking disorder (SPD) is closely related to HPD and involves re-current picking of the skin. Even though both HPD and SPD are relatively common and potentially severe disorders, health professionals typically know little about them. In the present article, we describe the clinical characteristics of these problems and provide diagnostic guidelines. We also discuss main treatment approaches (drug treatments and behavior therapy) and review research on their efficacy...
March 2012: Læknablađiđ
Jerome Sarris, David Camfield, Michael Berk
BACKGROUND: In Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) current standard pharmacotherapies may be of limited efficacy. Non-conventional interventions such as Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), self-help techniques, and lifestyle interventions are commonly used by sufferers of OCD, however to date no systematic review of this specific area exists. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies using CAM, self-help, and lifestyle interventions for treatment of OCD and trichotillomania (TTM)...
May 2012: Journal of Affective Disorders
Randy A Sansone, Lori A Sansone
N-acetyl-cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, N-acetyl cysteine, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine are all designations for the same compound, which is abbreviated as NAC. NAC is a precursor to the amino acid cysteine, which ultimately plays two key metabolic roles. Through its metabolic contribution to glutathione production, cysteine participates in the general antioxidant activities of the body. Through its role as a modulator of the glutamatergic system, cysteine influences the reward-reinforcement pathway. Because of these functions, NAC may exert a therapeutic effect on psychiatric disorders allegedly related to oxidative stress (e...
January 2011: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
Jon E Grant, Brian L Odlaug, Suck Won Kim
CONTEXT: Trichotillomania is characterized by repetitive hair pulling that causes noticeable hair loss. Data on the pharmacologic treatment of trichotillomania are limited to conflicting studies of serotonergic medications. N-acetylcysteine, an amino acid, seems to restore the extracellular glutamate concentration in the nucleus accumbens and, therefore, offers promise in the reduction of compulsive behavior. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and tolerability of N-acetylcysteine in adults with trichotillomania...
July 2009: Archives of General Psychiatry
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