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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442960/cricoid-ring-shape-size-and-variability-in-infants-and-children
#1
Tariq M Wani, Bruno Bissonnette, Mahmood Rafiq, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Mazen Al Sohaibani, Joseph D Tobias
BACKGROUND: Knowledge regarding the shape, size, and variability of the cricoid ring is important to properly choose the correct endotracheal tube (ETT) in the pediatric patient. Studies have measured the size of the cricoid ring using methodologies such as moulages, magnetic resonance imaging, and video-bronchoscopy. In the present study, computed tomography (CT) -based images were used to determine the shape, size, and configuration of the cricoid ring in the pediatric population taking into considerations growth and development...
April 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441982/25-hydroxyvitamin-d-biomarkers-of-eosinophilic-inflammation-and-airway-remodeling-in-children-with-newly-diagnosed-untreated-asthma
#2
Grazyna Sypniewska, Magdalena Krintus, Gabriele Fulgheri, Joanna Siodmiak, Magdalena Kuligowska-Prusinska, Beata Stepien-Jaszowska, Radosława Staszak-Kowalska, Anna Zawadzka-Krajewska, Szymon Kierat, Katarzyna Bergmann, Urszula Demkow
BACKGROUND: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and asthma development may be related to airway remodeling and eosinophilia. Periostin is proposed as a key molecule that links remodeling and eosinophilic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association of 25(OH)D concentration with periostin, peripheral blood eosinophil counts, and immunoglobulin E (IgE) in children with newly diagnosed asthma. METHODS: The study included 150 children: 110 with atopic asthma and 40 constituted a reference group...
May 1, 2017: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440108/microbiology-of-the-upper-and-lower-airways-in-pediatric-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#3
Lindsay Sobin, Kosuke Kawai, Alexandria L Irace, Ozgul Gergin, Michael Cunningham, Gregory S Sawicki, Eelam A Adil
Objective To evaluate the microbiology of the upper and lower airways in pediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients who underwent sinus surgery. Study Design Retrospective case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary care children's hospital. Subjects and Methods A total of 201 paired sinus and pulmonary cultures from 105 CF patients were identified between 1996 and 2014. Demographics and culture results were analyzed. Results The mean age of patients was 11.2 ± 5.4 years (range, 1-27 years), and approximately one-half were female...
April 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439690/association-of-endotracheal-tube-repositioning-and-acute-laryngeal-lesions-during-mechanical-ventilation-in-children
#4
Denise Manica, Catia de Souza Saleh Netto, Cláudia Schweiger, Leo Sekine, Larissa Valency Enéas, Denise Rotta Pereira, Gabriel Kuhl, Paulo Roberto Antonacci Carvalho, Paulo José Cauduro Marostica
The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of post-extubation acute laryngeal lesions in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and potential risk factors. Children, aged 28 days to 5 years, admitted to the PICU who required endotracheal intubation for at least 24 h were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were a previous intubation, history of laryngeal disease, current or past tracheostomy, the presence of craniofacial malformations and patients considered on palliative care. All patients underwent flexible fiber-optic laryngoscopy (FFL) not later than 8 h after extubation...
April 24, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439597/ambu-auraonce-versus-i-gel-laryngeal-mask-airway-in-infants-and-children-undergoing-surgical-procedures-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Abdulrahman M Alzahem, Mansoor Aqil, Tariq A Alzahrani, Ayman H Aljazaeri
To compare the efficacy and performance of the pediatric Ambu AuraOnce (Ambu AO) mask (Ambu, Copenhagen, Denmark) and i-gel mask (Intersurgical Ltd., Wokingham, United Kingdom). Methods: From May 2015 to September 2016, 112 patients, 0-14 years old, underwent elective surgery at a tertiary university hospital (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia). They were randomly assigned to the Ambu AO or i-gel group. Three groups underwent a subgroup analysis: ≤5 kg (group 1), 5.1-10.0 kg (group 2), and >10 kg (group 3). Results: The oropharyngeal leak pressure was significantly higher for the i-gel (25...
May 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438591/effect-of-anesthesia-on-intraocular-pressure-measurement-in-children
#6
REVIEW
Mikel Mikhail, Kourosh Sabri, Alex V Levin
Measurement of the intraocular pressure (IOP) is central to the diagnosis and management of pediatric glaucoma. An examination under anesthesia is often necessary in pediatric patients. Different agents used for sedation or general anesthesia have varied effects on IOP. Hemodynamic factors, methods of airway management, tonometry technique, and body positioning can all affect IOP measurements. The most accurate technique is one that reflects the awake IOP. We review factors affecting IOP measurements in the pediatric population and provide recommendations on the most accurate means to measure IOP under anesthesia based on the current literature...
April 21, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437378/risk-factors-for-pediatric-extubation-failure-the-importance-of-respiratory-muscle-strength
#7
Robinder G Khemani, Tro Sekayan, Justin Hotz, Rutger C Flink, Gerrard F Rafferty, Narayan Iyer, Christopher J L Newth
OBJECTIVE: Respiratory muscle weakness frequently develops during mechanical ventilation, although in children there are limited data about its prevalence and whether it is associated with extubation outcomes. We sought to identify risk factors for pediatric extubation failure, with specific attention to respiratory muscle strength. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTING: Tertiary care PICU. PATIENTS: Four hundred nine mechanically ventilated children...
April 21, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429117/a-comparison-of-mcgrath-mac%C3%A2-and-standard-direct-laryngoscopy-in-simulated-immobilized-cervical-spine-pediatric-intubation-a-manikin-study
#8
Marcin Madziala, Jacek Smereka, Marek Dabrowski, Steve Leung, Kurt Ruetzler, Lukasz Szarpak
Emergency airway management in children is generally considered to be challenging, and endotracheal intubation requires a high level of personal skills and experience. Immobilization of the cervical spine is indicated in all patients with the risk of any cervical spine injury but significantly aggravates endotracheal intubation. The best airway device in this setting has not been established yet, although the use of videolaryngoscopes is generally promising. Seventy-five moderately experienced paramedics of the Emergency Medical Service of Poland performed endotracheal intubations in a pediatric manikin in three airway scenarios: (A) normal airway, (B) manual in-line cervical immobilization, and (C) cervical immobilization using a Patriot cervical extrication collar and using two airway techniques: (1) McGrath videolaryngoscope and (2) Macintosh blade in a randomized sequence...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421631/subclinical-lower-airways-correlates-of-chronic-allergic-and-non-allergic-rhinitis
#9
Ricardo J Saranz, Alejandro Lozano, Natalia A Lozano, Marina F Ponzio, Álvaro A Cruz
The upper and lower airways behave as a physiological and pathophysiological unit. Subclinical lower airways abnormalities have been described in patients with rhinitis without asthma. These are expressed as bronchial hyperreactivity, abnormalities in lung function and bronchial inflammation, likely as a result of the same phenomenon with systemic inflammatory impact that reaches both the nose and the lungs, which for unknown reasons does not always have a full clinical expression. Patients with rhinitis are at increased risk of developing asthma; therefore most authors suggest a careful clinical evaluation and monitoring of these patients, especially if symptoms related to inflammation in the lower airways are observed...
April 19, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418347/difficult-cases-of-odontogenic-deep-neck-infections-a-report-of-three-patients
#10
Onur İsmi, Mesut Yeşilova, Cengiz Özcan, Yusuf Vayisoğlu, Kemal Görür
BACKGROUND: Deep neck infections are important otolaryngologic emergencies due to serious complications and the risk of airway compromise, which can lead to mortality. Although the most common causes among pediatric patients are tonsillitis and pharyngeal infections, odontogenic infections are an important cause in adults. CASE REPORT: We present three patients with multiple deep neck space abscess formation due to odontogenic infection. Two of them required tracheotomy due to airway compromise, and one had mediastinitis...
April 5, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418271/use-of-a-novel-airway-kit-and-simulation-in-resident-training-on-emergent-pediatric-airways
#11
Jonathan M Melzer, Erin R S Hamersley, Thomas Q Gallagher
Objective Development of a novel pediatric airway kit and implementation with simulation to improve resident response to emergencies with the goal of improving patient safety. Methods Prospective study with 9 otolaryngology residents (postgraduate years 1-5) from our tertiary care institution. Nine simulated pediatric emergency airway drills were carried out with the existing system and a novel portable airway kit. Response times and time to successful airway control were noted with both the extant airway system and the new handheld kit...
April 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417683/tracheostomy-for-severe-pediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnea-indications-and-outcomes
#12
Christopher J Rizzi, Julian D Amin, Amal Isaiah, Tulio A Valdez, Anita Jeyakumar, Suzanne E Smart, Kevin D Pereira
Objectives (1) To describe characteristics of pediatric patients undergoing tracheostomy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). (2) To highlight perioperative events and outcomes of the procedure. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Four tertiary care academic children's hospitals. Subjects and Methods Twenty-nine children aged <18 years from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2015, who underwent tracheostomy for severe OSA, defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) >10, were included in the study...
April 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410589/lung-involvement-in-childhood-onset-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis
#13
REVIEW
Giovanni Filocamo, Sofia Torreggiani, Carlo Agostoni, Susanna Esposito
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is an ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis with a low incidence in the pediatric population. Lung involvement is a common manifestation in children affected by granulomatosis with polyangiitis, both at disease's onset and during flares. Its severity is variable, ranging from asymptomatic pulmonary lesions to dramatic life-threatening clinical presentations such as diffuse alveolar haemorrhage. Several radiologic findings have been described, but the most frequent abnormalities detected are nodular lesions and fixed infiltrates...
April 14, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405541/it-s-rare-so-be-aware-pleuropulmonary-blastoma-mimicking-congenital-pulmonary-airway-malformation
#14
Fayza Haider, Khulood Al Saad, Fatima Al-Hashimi, Hakima Al-Hashimi
Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) is a rare aggressive malignant tumor of infancy and early childhood. The tumor arises in the lung and pleura and is regarded as a pulmonary dysontogenetic or embryonic neoplasm. Four types are defined in literature. Type I PPB is a rare, cystic lung neoplasm in infants characterized by subtle malignant changes and a good prognosis. Recurrences after type I PPB are usually advanced with a poor prognosis. We report this case to increase awareness about this entity so that the pediatricians, pediatric surgeons, radiologist, and pathologist recognize it early...
January 2017: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402986/no-small-matter-pediatric-resuscitation
#15
Taylor McCormick, Kevin McVaney, Paul E Pepe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present advancements in pediatric cardiac arrest research, highlighting articles most relevant to clinical practice published since the latest international guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical trials examining targeted temperature management in children support avoidance of hyperthermia for both pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest (PIHCA) and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (POHCA), but no statistically significant outcome differences were confirmed comparing 33 and 36 °C in the limited populations studied...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399908/using-cone-beam-ct-to-assess-the-upper-airway-after-surgery-in-children-with-sleep-disordered-breathing-symptoms-and-maxillary-mandibular-disproportions-a-clinical-pilot
#16
Noura A Alsufyani, Michelle L Noga, Manisha Witmans, Irene Cheng, Hamdy El-Hakim, Paul W Major
BACKGROUND: The surgical excision of anatomic obstructions such as adenoids, palatine or lingual tonsils are commonly performed in children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Imaging studies measuring airway changes post-surgery in the SDB pediatric population are scarce, rarely addresses the nasal cavity, and are based on global measures (e.g. volume) that do not represent the complexity of the upper airway anatomy. The purpose of this pilot is to test the feasibility in using cone beam CT (CBCT) to analyze the nasal and pharyngeal airway space post-surgery using meaningful methods of analyses, and correlating imaging findings with clinical outcomes in children with SDB symptoms and maxillary-mandibular disproportion...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393792/mechanical-cause-for-acute-left-lung-atelectasis-after-neonatal-aortic-arch-repair-with-arterial-switch-operation-conservative-management
#17
Madan Mohan Maddali, Pranav Subbaraya Kandachar, Said Al-Hanshi, Mohammed Al Ghafri, John Valliattu
Respiratory complications due to mechanical obstruction of the airways can occur following pediatric cardiac surgery. Clinically significant intrathoracic vascular compression of the airway can occur when extensive dissection and mobilization of arch and neck vessels is involved as in repair of interrupted aortic arch. This case report describes a neonate who underwent interrupted aortic arch repair along with an arterial switch operation and developed a left lung collapse immediately after tracheal extubation...
April 2017: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393433/nasal-high-flow-oxygen-delivery-in-children-with-abnormal-airways
#18
Susan Humphreys, Derek Rosen, Tessa Housden, Julia Taylor, Andreas Schibler
BACKGROUND: Transnasal Humidified Rapid-Insufflation Ventilatory Exchange has been shown to safely prolong the safe apnea time in well children post induction of anesthesia and is rapidly becoming a new standard for apneic oxygenation in adults. The same oxygenation technique is described as nasal high flow and can be used in infants and children at risk of apnea during anesthesia. AIM: We investigated the use of nasal high flow oxygen delivery during anesthesia in children with abnormal airways requiring tubeless airway assessment or surgery...
April 10, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390617/the-public-health-resource-utilization-impact-of-airway-foreign-bodies-in-children
#19
Jeffrey Cheng, Beiyu Liu, Alfredo E Farjat, Jonathan Routh
OBJECTIVE: Quantify the resource utilization associated with airway foreign bodies in children in the United States using a national database and report observed trends over time. STUDY TYPE: Cross-sectional analysis of national inpatient database with weighted estimates. DATA SOURCE: The KID database (2000-2009). METHODS: ICD-9-DM codes for foreign body aspiration were used to identify patients to be included for investigation...
May 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386646/the-role-of-upper-airway-obstruction-and-snoring-in-the-etiology-of-monosymptomatic-nocturnal-enuresis-in-children
#20
Huseyin Bugra Karakas, Muhammet Recai Mazlumoglu, Eda Simsek
This study evaluated the necessity of examining the upper airway in children with nocturnal enuresis. 225 children (aged 5-16 years), who were referred from the urology outpatient clinic between May 2015 and May 2016 and who had completed toilet training, were included in this study. Participants were separated into monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) (group 1) and without MNE (group 2) groups. Tonsil hypertrophy, adenoid vegetation, septal deviation, turbinate hypertrophy, allergic rhinitis, upper airway obstruction, and snoring etiology were assessed...
April 6, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
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