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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738322/pediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnea-where-do-we-stand
#1
Yu-Shu Huang, Christian Guilleminault
Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was initially described in 1976. In 1981, Dr. Guilleminault emphasized that pediatric OSA was different from the clinical presentation reported in adults. It was characterized by more disturbed nocturnal sleep than excessive daytime sleepiness, and presented more behavioral problems, particularly school problems, hyperactivity, nocturnal enuresis, sleep terrors, depression, insomnia, and psychiatric problems. The underlying causes of pediatric OSA are complex. Such factors as adenotonsillar hypertrophy, obesity, anatomical and neuromuscular factors, and hypotonic neuromuscular disease are also involved...
2017: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737881/-bronchial-mucoepidermoid-carcinoma-in-childhood-case-report
#2
Giselle Cuestas, Verónica Rodríguez, Flavia Doormann, Patricio Bellia Munzón, Gastón Bellia Munzón
Bronchial tumors are rare in children. Most of them are malignant, being the carcinoid tumor the most common. Less frequently the mucoepidermoid carcinoma is found in the tracheobronchial tree. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma accounts for 0.1 to 0.2% of all malignant bronchopulmonary tumors. It manifests with symptoms of airway obstruction and/or recurrent pneumonias. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are of great importance in the prognosis. Bronchoscopy with biopsy of the endobronchial mass is the method of choice to confirm the diagnosis...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737600/an-interprofessional-quality-improvement-initiative-to-standardize-pediatric-extubation-readiness-assessment
#3
Samer Abu-Sultaneh, Acrista J Hole, Alvaro J Tori, Brain D Benneyworth, Riad Lutfi, Christopher W Mastropietro
OBJECTIVES: Establishing protocols to wean mechanical ventilation and assess readiness for extubation, with the goal of minimizing morbidity associated with extubation failure and prolonged mechanical ventilation, have become increasingly important in contemporary PICUs. The aim of this quality improvement initiative is to establish a respiratory therapist-led daily spontaneous breathing trial protocol to standardize extubation readiness assessment and documentation in our PICU. DESIGN: A quality improvement project...
July 21, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737067/confirmed-and-suspected-foreign-body-injuries-in-children-during-2008-2013-a-hospital-based-single-center-study-in-oulu-university-hospital
#4
J-J Sinikumpu, W Serlo
INTRODUCTION: Foreign body injuries are common in children. Most of them are not serious but they can be fatal. A suspected foreign body injury in a child results in a high rate of hospitalizations, exposure to radiation, and need for intervention. This study aimed to analyze the current epidemiology of in-hospital or out of hospital treated foreign object injuries and suspected foreign body injuries in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All children <16 years of age (N = 152) who suffered or were suspected to suffer (N = 63) from a foreign body injury and were treated in a pediatric trauma unit of Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland, over a 6-year study period (2008-2013) were included...
March 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Surgery: SJS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725641/mechanisms-mediating-pediatric-severe-asthma-and-potential-novel-therapies
#5
REVIEW
Aldara Martin Alonso, Sejal Saglani
Although a rare disease, severe therapy-resistant asthma in children is a cause of significant morbidity and results in utilization of approximately 50% of health-care resources for asthma. Improving control for children with severe asthma is, therefore, an urgent unmet clinical need. As a group, children with severe asthma have severe and multiple allergies, steroid resistant airway eosinophilia, and significant structural changes of the airway wall (airway remodeling). Omalizumab is currently the only add-on therapy that is licensed for use in children with severe asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719106/altered-pulmonary-gas-transfer-capacity-and-capillary-blood-volume-in-pediatric-crohn-s-disease
#6
Marie Verstraete, Marie-Luce Choukroun, Valerie Siao-Him Fa, Michael Fayon, Laurent Rebouissoux, Raphael Enaud, Thierry Lamireau
OBJECTIVES: To describe diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and its components, that is, membrane diffusing capacity (DmCO) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) in children with Crohn's disease (CD), and to investigate the correlation between these parameters and disease activity. WORKING HYPOTHESIS: The most common lung function abnormalities are a reduced pulmonary DLCO and small airways disorders which are in many instances, clinically silent. No valid explanations have been proposed regarding the modifications in gas transfer capacity in active CD...
August 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709163/current-management-of-congenital-pulmonary-airway-malformations-a-european-pediatric-surgeons-association-survey
#7
Francesco Morini, Augusto Zani, Andrea Conforti, Ernest van Heurn, Simon Eaton, Prem Puri, Risto Rintala, Marija Lukac, Joachim F Kuebler, Florian Friedmacher, Rene Wijnen, Juan Antonio Tovar, Agostino Pierro, Pietro Bagolan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2017: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701597/randomized-comparative-study-of-intravenous-infusion-of-three-different-fixed-doses-of-milrinone-in-pediatric-patients-with-pulmonary-hypertension-undergoing-open-heart-surgery
#8
Neeraj Kumar Barnwal, Sanjeeta Rajendra Umbarkar, Manjula Sudeep Sarkar, Raylene J Dias
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension secondary to congenital heart disease is a common problem in pediatric patients presenting for open heart surgery. Milrinone has been shown to reduce pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary artery pressure in pediatric patients and neonates postcardiac surgery. We aimed to evaluate the postoperative outcome in such patients with three different fixed maintenance doses of milrinone. METHODOLOGY: Patients were randomized into three groups...
July 2017: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700565/nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-influences-bottle-feeding-in-preterm-lambs
#9
Nathalie Samson, Audrey Michaud, Rahmeh Othman, Charlène Nadeau, Stéphanie Nault, Danny Cantin, Michaël Sage, Céline Catelin, Jean-Paul Praud
BACKGROUND: In preterm infants, the time from initiation to full oral feeding can take weeks, which represents a very worrisome problem in neonatal medicine. Although current knowledge suggests that oral feeding should be introduced early, this is often delayed due to the need for prolonged nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). Indeed, most caregivers fear that nCPAP could disrupt sucking-swallowing-breathing coordination and induce tracheal aspiration. The goal of the present study was to assess the impact of nCPAP delivered by the Infant Flow System on the physiology of sucking-swallowing-breathing coordination during bottle-feeding in preterm lambs over 24 h...
July 12, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697196/fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-findings-in-a-pediatric-mucoepidermoid-carcinoma-and-differential-diagnosis
#10
Jianhao Xie, Chao Ma, Jun Tang
An 11 years old boy was referred to our hospital. He complained for the last three months for intermittent cough and shortness of breath after exercise which worsened recently. Airways computed tomography (CT) showed an abnormal endobronchial tumor, obstructing the right main bronchus and also atelectasis in the upper lobe of the right lung. Bronchoscopy showed a wet on its surface mass obstructing the right main bronchus. Biopsy showed a mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC). The fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) scan showed in the same area a mass with slightly increased (18)F-FDG uptake (maximum standardized uptake value, SUVmax: 3...
July 12, 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688557/the-outcomes-of-endoscopic-management-in-young-children-with-subglottic-stenosis
#11
Chao Chen, Wei-Hua Ni, Tan-le Tian, Zheng-Min Xu
Subglottic stenosis (SGS) is a common cause of obstructed airway in children, and the treatment of pediatric SGS, especially congenital SGS, remains a challenge for the otolaryngologist. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the outcomes of endoscopic management in young children with SGS. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of treatment with endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) or EBD combined with endoscopic anterior cricoid split (EACS) for young SGS children, from December 2008 to December 2015...
August 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688554/acute-pediatric-neck-infections-outcomes-in-a-seven-year-series
#12
Filipa Camacho Côrte, João Firmino-Machado, Carla Pinto Moura, Jorge Spratley, Margarida Santos
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyse the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic clues, as biochemical parameters and imaging studies, of children with acute neck infections (ANI) to identify possible independent prognostic factors leading to complications and prolonged hospitalization. METHODS: Records of children admitted to a tertiary university hospital from January 2008 to December 2014 with a diagnosis of ANIs were reviewed retrospectively...
August 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678071/reporting-of-perioperative-adverse-events-by-pediatric-anesthesiologists-at-a-tertiary-children-s-hospital-targeted-interventions-to-increase-the-rate-of-reporting
#13
Glyn D Williams, Matthew K Muffly, Julianne M Mendoza, Nina Wixson, Kit Leong, Rebecca E Claure
BACKGROUND: Incident reporting systems (IRSs) are important patient safety tools for identifying risks and opportunities for improvement. A major IRS limitation is underreporting of incidents. Perioperative anesthesia IRSs have been established at multiple pediatric institutions and a national pediatric anesthesia IRS for perioperative serious adverse events (SAEs) is maintained by Wake Up Safe (WUS), a patient safety organization dedicated to pediatric anesthesia quality improvement...
July 1, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669462/advanced-pediatric-airway-simulation
#14
REVIEW
Charles M Myer, Noel Jabbour
Simulation is an emerging and viable means to increase pediatric airway surgical training. A variety of simulators currently exist that may be used or modified for laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, and endoscopic intervention, although anatomic realism and utility for complex procedures are limited. There is a need for further development of improved endoscopic and anatomic models. Innovative techniques are enabling small-scale manufacturing of generalizable and patient-specific simulators. The high acuity of the pediatric airway patient makes the use of simulation an attractive modality for training, competency maintenance, and patient safety quality-improvement studies...
June 29, 2017: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667160/early-postnatal-secondhand-smoke-exposure-disrupts-bacterial-clearance-and-abolishes-immune-responses-in-muco-obstructive-lung-disease
#15
Brandon W Lewis, Razia Sultana, Rahul Sharma, Alexandra Noël, Ingeborg Langohr, Sonika Patial, Arthur L Penn, Yogesh Saini
Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure has been linked to the worsening of ongoing lung diseases. However, whether SHS exposure affects the manifestation and natural history of imminent pediatric muco-obstructive airway diseases such as cystic fibrosis remains unclear. To address these questions, we exposed Scnn1b transgenic (Scnn1b-Tg(+)) mice to SHS from postnatal day (PND) 3-21 and lung phenotypes were examined at PND22. Although a majority of filtered air (FA)-exposed Scnn1b-Tg(+) (FA-Tg(+)) mice successfully cleared spontaneous bacterial infections by PND22, the SHS-exposed Scnn1b-Tg(+) (SHS-Tg(+)) mice failed to resolve these infections...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667069/role-of-human-metapneumovirus-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-asthma-exacerbations-where-are-we-now
#16
REVIEW
Penny A Rudd, Belinda J Thomas, Ali Zaid, Martin MacDonald, Keiko Kan-O, Michael S Rolph, Anand R Soorneedi, Philip G Bardin, Suresh Mahalingam
Since its discovery in 2001, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been identified as an important cause of respiratory tract infection in young children, second only to the closely related respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Clinical evidence suggests that hMPV is associated with acute exacerbations of asthma in both children and adults, and may play a role in initiating asthma development in children. Animal models have demonstrated that airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation are triggered following hMPV infection, and hMPV is able to persist in vivo by inhibiting innate immune responses and causing aberrant adaptive responses...
July 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665929/effect-of-frequency-on-pressure-cost-of-ventilation-and-gas-exchange-in-newborns-receiving-high-frequency-oscillatory-hfov
#17
Emanuela Zannin, Raffaele L Dellaca', Giulia Dognini, Lara Marconi, Martina Perego, Jane J Pillow, Paolo E Tagliabue, Maria Luisa Ventura
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that ventilating at the resonant frequency of the respiratory system optimizes gas exchange while limiting the mechanical stress to the lung in newborns receiving HFOV. We characterized the frequency dependence of oscillatory mechanics, gas exchange and pressure transmission during HFOV. METHODS: We studied 13 newborn infants with a median (IQR) gestational age of 29.3(26.4-30.4) weeks and body weight of 1.00(0.84-1.43) kg. Different frequencies (5, 8, 10, 12, 15 Hz) were tested, keeping carbon dioxide diffusion coefficient (DCO2) constant...
June 30, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665067/the-different-clinical-aspects-of-pediatric-primary-airway-tumors-in-the-larynx-trachea-and-bronchi
#18
Hyun Ju Cho, Jisun Yoon, Eun Lee, Yoon Se Lee, Sang Yoon Kim, Jong Lyel Roh, Dong Kwan Kim, Se Hoon Choi, Seung Il Park, Yong Hee Kim, Kyung Nam Koh, Ho Joon Im, Jong Jin Seo, Soo Jong Hong, Jinho Yu
Primary airway tumors are rare in children and no literature reviewed their characteristics each location. We evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of Korean children with primary airway tumors, from the larynx to bronchi. A retrospective chart review of children with primary tumors of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi at Asan Medical Center from January 2000 to July 2016 was conducted. Nineteen children were diagnosed with primary airway tumors of the larynx (47.4%), trachea (10.5%), and bronchi (42...
August 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658109/exchange-of-supraglottic-airways-for-endotracheal-tube-using-the-eschmann-introducer-during-simulated-child-resuscitation-a-randomized-study-comparing-4-devices
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Lukasz Szarpak, Zenon Truszewski, Joseph Vitale, Logan Glosser, Kurt Ruetzler, Antonio Rodríguez-Núñez
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the application of the Eschmann tracheal tube introducer (ETTI) with 4 types of supraglottic airway devices (SADs) using a child-manikin. METHODS: A total of 79 paramedics were asked to exchange the 4 SADs for an endotracheal tube with the ETTI in 3 different scenarios using a randomized crossover study format: normal airway without chest compression; normal airway with uninterrupted chest compression; and difficult airway with uninterrupted chest compression...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657592/sino-nasal-5-questionnaire-is-associated-with-poor-asthma-control-in-children-with-asthma
#20
Sasikumar Kilaikode, Prateek J Shukla, Gurpreet Phull, James H Jackson, Dominique C Prue, Claudia Martinez, Krista Scheffey, Dinesh K Pillai
Up to 80% of asthmatic children may experience upper airway symptoms which are often perceived as coming from the lower airways. Currently, there are no validated questionnaires to assess upper airway contribution to pediatric asthma symptoms. The Sino-Nasal 5 (SN-5) questionnaire was previously validated for identifying radiographic confirmed sinus disease in children. In this study, we hypothesize that significant SN-5 scores (≥3.5) are associated with abnormal National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) based asthma impairment and control in asthmatic children...
June 28, 2017: Children
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