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Maria Papageorgiou, Daniel Martin, Hannah Colgan, Simon Cooper, Julie P Greeves, Jonathan C Y Tang, William D Fraser, Kirsty J Elliott-Sale, Craig Sale
PURPOSE: We aimed to explore the effects of low energy availability (EA)[15 kcal·kg lean body mass (LBM)-1 ·d-1 ] achieved by diet or exercise on bone turnover markers in active, eumenorrheic women. METHODS: By using a crossover design, ten eumenorrheic women (VO2 peak : 48.1 ± 3.3 ml·kg-1 ·min-1 ) completed all three, 3-day conditions in a randomised order: controlled EA (CON; 45 kcal·kgLBM-1 ·d-1 ), low EA through dietary energy restriction (D-RES; 15 kcal·kgLBM-1 ·d-1 ) and low EA through increasing exercise energy expenditure (E-RES; 15 kcal·kgLBM-1 ·d-1 ), during the follicular phase of three menstrual cycles...
June 19, 2018: Bone
Wauman Joris, Tavernier Jan
Hypothalamic leptin receptor (LR) signaling regulates body weight by balancing food intake and energy expenditure. It is well established that the human LR undergoes ectodomain shedding, but little is known about the fate of the remaining cytosolic domain. This study demonstrates that regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) releases the LR intracellular domain (LR ICD), which translocates to the mitochondria where it binds to SOCS6. This LR ICD-SOCS6 interaction stabilizes both proteins on the mitochondrial outer membrane and requires a functional BC box in SOCS6 for mitochondrial association and a central motif in the LR ICD for SOCS6 binding...
June 19, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Beatrice von Jeinsen, Meghan I Short, Vanessa Xanthakis, Herman Carneiro, Susan Cheng, Gary F Mitchell, Ramachandran S Vasan
BACKGROUND: Adipokines mediate cardiometabolic risk associated with obesity but their role in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated heart failure remains uncertain. We investigated the associations between circulating adipokine concentrations and echocardiographic measures in a community-based sample. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated 3514 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age 40 years, 53.8% women) who underwent routine echocardiography and had select circulating adipokines measured, ie, leptin, soluble leptin receptor, fatty acid-binding protein 4, retinol-binding protein 4, fetuin-A, and adiponectin...
June 21, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Melody Allensworth-James, Angela Odle, Anessa Haney, Melanie MacNicol, Angus MacNicol, Gwen V Childs
The developing pituitary is a rapidly changing environment that is constantly meeting the physiological demands of the growing organism. During early postnatal development, the anterior pituitary is refining patterns of anterior hormone secretion in response to numerous genetic factors. Our lab previously developed a somatotrope leptin receptor (LEPR) deletion mouse model that had decreased lean body mass, disrupted metabolism, decreased GH stores and was GH deficient as an adult. To understand how deletion of LEPR in somatotropes altered GH, we turned our attention to postnatal development...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Karolien Van De Maele, Roland Devlieger, Inge Gies
The offspring of women with obesity during their pregnancy are exposed to an altered intra-uterine environment. A subsequent influence on the cardiovascular development during fetal life is assumed. In the present thematic review, we report on the current knowledge about this early development of cardiovascular disease from fetal life until adolescence. Based on animal studies, different contributing mechanisms have been hypothesized that still need confirmation in human subjects. Insulin resistance, increased levels of leptin, chronic inflammatory state, perturbation of sympathetic tone and epigenetic modifications contribute to a suboptimal nutrient environment and changed hemodynamics...
June 9, 2018: Atherosclerosis
A Janet Tomiyama
Many pathways connect stress and obesity, two highly prevalent problems facing society today. First, stress interferes with cognitive processes such as executive function and self-regulation. Second, stress can affect behavior by inducing overeating and consumption of foods that are high in calories, fat, or sugar; by decreasing physical activity; and by shortening sleep. Third, stress triggers physiological changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, reward processing in the brain, and possibly the gut microbiome...
June 21, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
G Montalbano, M Mania, F Abbate, M Navarra, M C Guerrera, R Laura, J A Vega, M Levanti, A Germanà
PURPOSE: Overweight and obesity are important risk factors for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and premature death in modern society. Recently, numerous natural and synthetic compounds have been tested in diet-induced obese animal models, to counteract obesity. Melatonin is a circadian hormone, produced by pineal gland and extra-pineal sources, involved in processes which have in common a rhythmic expression. In teleost, it can control energy balance by activating or inhibiting appetite-related peptides...
June 20, 2018: Endocrine
Li-Jun Yin, Xiao-Hui Wang
Recently, there has been a growing interest in the roles of androgen in the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis (AS), hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, as well as in the disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism. Androgen exerts its biological role mainly through binding to the androgen receptor (AR), one of the nuclear receptors widely expressed in multiple tissues such as the skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue and brain. Low testosterone and AR deficiency result in obesity, obesity-related diseases and metabolic disorders...
June 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Raffael Ott, Jens H Stupin, Andrea Loui, Elisabeth Eilers, Kerstin Melchior, Rebecca C Rancourt, Karen Schellong, Thomas Ziska, Joachim W Dudenhausen, Wolfgang Henrich, Andreas Plagemann
BACKGROUND: Both gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as well as overweight/obesity during pregnancy are risk factors for detrimental anthropometric and hormonal neonatal outcomes, identified to 'program' adverse health predispositions later on. While overweight/obesity are major determinants of GDM, independent effects on critical birth outcomes remain unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate, in women with GDM, the relative/independent impact of overweight/obesity vs...
June 20, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Po-Hsun Hou, Geng-Ruei Chang, Chin-Pin Chen, Yen-Ling Lin, I-Shuan Chao, Ting-Ting Shen, Frank Chiahung Mao
Objectives: Weight gain and metabolic disturbances such as dyslipidemia, are frequent side effects of second-generation antipsychotics, including olanzapine. This study examined the metabolic effects of chronic olanzapine exposure. In addition, we investigated the hepatic fatty acid effects of olanzapine in female C57BL/6J mice fed a normal diet. Materials and Methods: Female C57BL/6J mice orally received olanzapine or normal saline for 7 weeks. The effects of long-term olanzapine exposure on body weight changes, food efficiency, blood glucose, triglyceride (TG), insulin, and leptin levels were observed...
May 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Hua He, Anne Monique Nuyt, Zhong-Cheng Luo, Francois Audibert, Lise Dubois, Shu-Qin Wei, Haim A Abenhaim, Emmanuel Bujold, Isabelle Marc, Pierre Julien, William D Fraser
Small for gestational age (SGA) infants are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. It is unknown whether any prenatal biomarkers are helpful for identifying SGA infants with altered metabolic health profile at birth or later life. In a nested study of 162 SGA (birth weight < 10th percentile) and 161 optimal birth weight (25th-75th percentiles) control infants in the 3D (design, develop and discover) birth cohort in Canada, we assessed whether maternal circulating placental growth factor (PlGF), a biomarker of placental function, is associated with metabolic health biomarkers in SGA infants...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Vivien Ghielmetti, Brigitta Wichert, Simon Rüegg, Diana Frey, Annette Liesegang
Overweight and obesity are multifactorial diseases caused by an imbalance in energy metabolism. An underlying genetic predisposition is often a factor in these conditions. In the cat breeding family of the Institute of Animal Nutrition at the Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, a segregating overweight phenotype with a genetic contribution was observed. From this breeding family, 26 kittens were followed from birth up to 8 months of age. During this time, food intake was measured using an automatic feeding station, and energy expenditure was investigated using indirect calorimetry at the ages of 4 and 6 months...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Graziele Freitas de Bem, Cristiane Aguiar Costa, Izabelle Barcellos Santos, Viviane da Silva Cristino Cordeiro, Lenize Costa Reis Marins de Carvalho, Marcelo Augusto Vieira de Souza, Ricardo de Andrade Soares, Pergentino José da Cunha Sousa, Dayane Teixeira Ognibene, Angela Castro Resende, Roberto Soares de Moura
A growing body of evidence suggests a protective role of polyphenols and exercise training on the disorders of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to assess the effect of the açaí seed extract (ASE) associated with exercise training on diabetic complications induced by high-fat (HF) diet plus streptozotocin (STZ) in rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced by feeding rats with HF diet (55% fat) for 5 weeks and a single dose of STZ (35 mg/kg i.p.). Control (C) and Diabetic (D) animals were subdivided into four groups each: Sedentary, Training, ASE Sedentary, and ASE Training...
2018: PloS One
Michael Rosenbaum, Rochelle L Goldsmith, Fadia Haddad, Kenneth M Baldwin, Richard Smiley, Dympna Gallagher, Rudolph L Leibel
Subjects maintaining a 10% or greater dietary weight loss exhibit decreased circulating concentrations of bioactive thyroid hormones and increased skeletal muscle work efficiency largely due to increased expression of more efficient myosin heavy chain isoforms (MHCI) and significantly mediated by the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of triiodothyronine (T3) repletion on energy homeostasis and skeletal muscle physiology in weight-reduced subjects and to compare these results with the effects of leptin repletion...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Josef Richter, Martina Závorková, Vaclav Vetvicka, Ivana Liehneová, Vlastimil Kral, Lucie Rajnohova Dobiasova
The objective of this article is to evaluate the potential effects of beta-glucan and vitamin D supplementation in patients with diabetic retinopathy. We evaluated the levels of several parameters of inflammatory reactions (C-reactive protein [CRP], serum amyloid A [SAA], and interleukin- [IL-] 6), leptin, and vitamin D. Using a 3-month interval, we divided the patients into three groups: (1) supplemented with beta-glucan and vitamin D, (2) supplemented with vitamin D and placebo, and (3) supplemented with vitamin D alone...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Carmen Campino, Rene Baudrand, Carolina Valdivia, Cristian Carvajal, Andrea Vecchiola, Alejandra Tapia-Castillo, Alejandro Martínez-Aguayo, Hernán Garcia, Lorena García, Fidel Allende, Sandra Solari, Cristóbal Fuentes, Calos F Lagos, Maria Paulina Rojas, Doris Muñoz, Carlos Fardella
Background: Mounting evidence has associated high sodium intake with hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. We investigated whether high sodium intake modulates the parameters of endothelial damage, inflammation and oxidative stress. Methods: We used a cross-sectional study design including 223 Chilean subjects (6.9-65.0 years old). We measured aldosterone, renin activity, cortisol, cortisone, adiponectin, leptin, hs-CRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha, PAI-1, metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 activity and malondialdehyde (MDA)...
June 16, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Jinpeng Du, Chaojie Hu, Jie Bai, Miaomiao Peng, Qingbo Wang, Ning Zhao, Yu Wang, Guobin Wang, Kaixiong Tao, Geng Wang, Zefeng Xia
BACKGROUND: The unique effects of gastric resection after vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) on type 2 diabetes mellitus remain unclear. This work aimed to investigate the effects of VSG on gastric leptin expression and intestinal glucose absorption in high-fat diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. HFD mice were randomized into VSG and sham-operation groups, and the relevant parameters were measured at 8 weeks postoperation...
June 18, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Jun Deng, Chaofan Fan, Xin Gao, Qunxiong Zeng, Ruru Guo, Yunbo Wei, Zhian Chen, Yanan Chen, Dongcheng Gong, Jia Feng, Yan Xia, Shifei Xiang, Shushi Gong, Lin Yuan, Wei Shen, Wenyan Shen, Lin Lin, Ting Jiang, Dongyi He, Liangjing Lu, Xiaoxiang Chen, Di Yu
Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are the specialized CD4+ T cell subset that supports B cells to produce high-affinity antibodies and generate humoral memory. Not only is the function of Tfh cells instrumental to mount protect antibodies but also to support autoantibody production and promote systemic inflammation in autoimmune diseases. However, it remains unclear how the activation of Tfh cells is driven in autoimmune diseases. Here, we report that in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), excessive generation of CXCR5+ PD-1+ memory Tfh cells was observed and the frequency of memory Tfh cells correlated with disease activity score calculator for RA (DAS28)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yi Zhang, Gang Ji, Guanya Li, Yang Hu, Li Liu, Qingchao Jin, Qianqian Meng, Jizheng Zhao, Kai Yuan, Jixn Liu, Karen M von Deneen, Antao Chen, Guangbin Cui, Huaning Wang, Qingchuan Zhao, Kaichun Wu, Jie Tian, Peter Manza, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow, Yongzhan Nie, Gene-Jack Wang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective bariatric surgery to treat obesity, and involves removal of the gastric fundus where ghrelin is mainly produced. Ghrelin stimulates appetite and regulates food intake through its effect on the hypothalamus and hippocampus (HIPP). While ghrelin's role on the hypothalamus has been explored, little is known about its role on HIPP. We tested the hypothesis that LSG-induced reductions in ghrelin levels would be associated with changes in HIPP activity...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Sunmi Park, Mark Willingham, Jun Qi, Sheue-Yann Cheng
Compelling epidemiological evidence shows a strong positive correlation of obesity with thyroid cancer. In vivo studies have provided molecular evidence that high-fat-diet-induced obesity promotes thyroid cancer progression by aberrantly activating leptin-JAK2-STAT3 signaling in a mouse model of thyroid cancer (ThrbPV/PVPten+/- mice). The ThrbPV/PVPten+/- mouse expresses a dominantly negative thyroid hormone receptor β (denoted as PV) and a deletion of one single allele of the Pten gene. The ThrbPV/PVPten+/- mouse spontaneously develops follicular thyroid cancer, which allows its use as a preclinical mouse model to test potential therapeutics...
June 18, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
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