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Nilson do Rosário Costa, Miguel Abud Marcelino, Cristina Maria Rabelais Duarte, Deborah Uhr
The article analyzes the social protection policy for people with disabilities in Brazil. It describes the patterns of demand and eligibility for Continued Benefit of Social Assistance (Benefício de Prestação Continuada - BPC) in the 1996-2014 period. The article argues that BPC is a direct result of the social pact achieved by the Brazilian Federal Constitution of 1988. BPC is a social assistance benefit consisting in an unconditional and monthly transference of the equivalent of a minimum wage, to poor people with deficiency and elders with more than 65 years...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
María V Cardo, Alejandra Rubio, Melania Junges, Darío Vezzani, Aníbal E Carbajo
Given their medical and veterinary relevance, the members of the Pipiens Assemblage are a worldwide target of ecological research. The distribution of Culex pipiens s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus converge in Buenos Aires, Argentina, where hybrids have been detected. Each member of the assemblage exhibits a distinct eco-physiological behaviour that can affect its efficiency in pathogen transmission. Our aim was to identify the environmental drivers for the spatio-temporal distribution of each member, focusing on latitudinal and urbanisation gradients...
October 24, 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Sulaf Alwassouf, Vasiliki Christodoulou, Laurence Bichaud, Pantelis Ntais, Apostolos Mazeris, Maria Antoniou, Remi N Charrel
Phleboviruses transmitted by sandflies are endemic in the Mediterranean area. The last decade has witnessed the description of an accumulating number of novel viruses. Although, the risk of exposure of vertebrates is globally assessed, detailed geographic knowledge is poor even in Greece and Cyprus where sandfly fever has been recognized for a long time and repeatedly. A total of 1,250 dogs from mainland Greece and Greek archipelago on one hand and 422 dogs from Cyprus on the other hand have been sampled and tested for neutralising antibodies against Toscana virus (TOSV), Sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV), Arbia virus, and Adana virus i...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Catherine Hankins, Mitchell Warren, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli
Over 11 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMC) have been performed of the projected 20.3 million needed to reach 80% adult male circumcision prevalence in priority sub-Saharan African countries. Striking numbers of adolescent males, outside the 15-49-year-old age target, have been accessing VMMC services. What are the implications of overall progress in scale-up to date? Can mathematical modeling provide further insights on how to efficiently reach the male circumcision coverage levels needed to create and sustain further reductions in HIV incidence to make AIDS no longer a public health threat by 2030? Considering ease of implementation and cultural acceptability, decision makers may also value the estimates that mathematical models can generate of immediacy of impact, cost-effectiveness, and magnitude of impact resulting from different policy choices...
2016: PloS One
Michel Tchuenche, Eurica Palmer, Vibhuti Haté, Ananthy Thambinayagam, Dayanund Loykissoonlal, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli, Steven Forsythe
Given compelling evidence associating voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) with men's reduced HIV acquisition through heterosexual intercourse, South Africa in 2010 began scaling up VMMC. To project the resources needed to complete 4.3 million circumcisions between 2010 and 2016, we (1) estimated the unit cost to provide VMMC; (2) assessed cost drivers and cost variances across eight provinces and VMMC service delivery modes; and (3) evaluated the costs associated with mobilize and motivate men and boys to access VMMC services...
2016: PloS One
Samuel Stolpe, Michel A Kroes, Neil Webb, Tami Wisniewski
BACKGROUND: Diabetes care is associated with a considerable burden to the health care system in the United States, and measuring the quality of health care is an important development goal of the Department of Health and Human Services and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Diabetes is a priority disease within the National Quality Strategy and should therefore remain a focus in the measurement of health care quality. Despite the importance of measuring quality in diabetes care management, no quality measure is currently associated with adherence to insulin treatment, and measuring adherence to insulin is known to be complicated...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Wendy S Bibeau, Haoda Fu, April D Taylor, Anita Y M Kwan
BACKGROUND: Medication adherence is pivotal for the successful treatment of diabetes. However, medication adherence remains a major concern, as nonadherence is associated with poor health outcomes. Studies have indicated that increasing patients' share of medication costs significantly reduces adherence. Little is known about a potential out-of-pocket (OOP) cost threshold where substantial reduction in adherence may occur. OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of diabetes OOP pharmacy costs on antihyperglycemic medication adherence and identify the potential threshold at which significant reduction in adherence may occur among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Linda M Herrick, William M Spalding, Yuri A Saito, James Moriarty, Cathy Schleck
OBJECTIVE: Patients with constipation account for 3.1 million United States physician visits a year, but care costs for patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) or chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) compared to the general public have received little study. The study aim was to describe healthcare utilization and compare medical costs for patients with IBS-C or CIC versus matched controls from a community-based sample. METHODS: A nested case-control sample (IBS-C and CIC cases) and matched controls (1:2) for each case group were selected from Olmsted County, MN individuals responding to a community-based survey of gastrointestinal symptoms (2008) who received healthcare from a participating Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) provider...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Medical Economics
Scott Monteith, Tasha Glenn
Automated decision-making by computer algorithms based on data from our behaviors is fundamental to the digital economy. Automated decisions impact everyone, occurring routinely in education, employment, health care, credit, and government services. Technologies that generate tracking data, including smartphones, credit cards, websites, social media, and sensors, offer unprecedented benefits. However, people are vulnerable to errors and biases in the underlying data and algorithms, especially those with mental illness...
December 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Roberto Nuño Solinís, Patricia Arratibel Ugarte, Ander Rojo, Yuri Sanchez Gonzalez
INTRODUCTION: The goal of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treatment is to achieve a sustained virologic response (SVR). The new generation of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) offers 90-100% SVR rates. However, access to these treatments is generally limited to patients with advanced liver disease. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the clinical and economic benefits of achieving SVR and to better understand the full value of CHC treatment in all stages of liver disease. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was performed using the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases to identify articles examining the clinical, economic, and quality of life benefits associated with SVR...
October 25, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Salem A Beshyah, Ibrahim H Sherif, Farida Chentli, Amir Hamrahian, Aly B Khalil, Hussein Raef, Mohamed El-Fikki, Selim Jambart
BACKGROUND: Prolactinomas are the commonest functional tumors of the pituitary gland. There are still controversies regarding medical therapy in specific clinical situations. Patients may be managed by different specialists in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and no data exist on patterns of clinical management. OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to prolactinomas among relevant professionals from the MENA region. METHODS: An online survey of a large sample of physicians was conducted...
October 25, 2016: Pituitary
Kristin Rowe-Finkbeiner, Ruth Martin, Brett Abrams, Anna Zuccaro, Yasmina Dardari
Paid family and medical leave are vital public policies for promoting large-scale improvements in maternal and child health that can boost our national economy. That is why MomsRising-a national on-the-ground and online grassroots organization with over a million members across the United States-is thrilled by the growing momentum for paid family and medical leave. We are not the least bit surprised that support for this critical policy is growing. The United States is the only industrialized nation in the world without paid family and medical leave, and the fact that these basic workplace protections are missing hurts America's global competitiveness, businesses, economy, and, most importantly, infant and maternal mortality rates...
October 25, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Jeffrey E Janis, Jenny C Barker
BACKGROUND: The reproducible benefits of mentoring to mentees have been studied extensively. However, insights from the mentor perspective are less well described. This study evaluates mentorship of plastic surgery medical students from the attending surgeon's perspective. A comparison is made with a previous publication evaluating mentorship from the medical student's perspective. METHODS: An electronic survey was sent to 1025 active members of the American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeons (ACAPS) and the American Association of Plastic Surgeons (AAPS), with a combined response rate of 23 percent...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Shailesh Agarwal, Jordan Talia, Peter S Liu, Adeyiza O Momoh, Jeffrey H Kozlow
BACKGROUND: Computed tomographic angiography is increasingly used during surgical planning for abdominally based microvascular breast reconstruction. Cost-analysis studies have demonstrated a benefit to the use of computed tomographic angiography, although the secondary costs of incidental findings have not been previously reported. This study investigates the cost of computed tomographic angiography, taking into account the cost of incidental findings found during imaging. METHODS: Patients undergoing preoperative computed tomographic angiography in preparation for autologous abdominally based breast reconstruction from July of 2010 through May of 2014 were included in this study...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Hanping Li, Shuai Chang, Yang Han, Daomin Zhuang, Lin Li, Yongjian Liu, Siyang Liu, Zuoyi Bao, Wenfu Zhang, Hongbin Song, Taisheng Li, Jingyun Li
BACKGROUND: The widespread use of antiretroviral therapies has led to considerable concerns about the prevalence of drug-resistant, as transmission of drug-resistant (TDR) strains poses a challenge for the control of the HIV-1 epidemic. METHODS: We conducted an epidemiological study enrolling treatment-naïve HIV-1-positive subjects at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital since 1991. Drug resistance was determined by submitting the sequences to the Stanford University Network HIV-1 database...
October 26, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Mathieu Noury, José López
Globally supported by public policy and investment, nanomedicine is presented as an ongoing medical revolution that will radically change the practice of health care from diagnostic to therapeutic, and everything in between. One of nanomedicine's major promises is that of personalised medicine, enabling diagnostics and therapeutics tailored to individual needs and developing a truly 'patient-friendly' medical approach. Based on qualitative interviews with nanomedicine researchers in Canada, this article explores the emerging concept of personalised medicine as it becomes entangled with nanomedical research...
October 26, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
Rafael Dal-Ré
-The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) has published a draft proposal on de-identified individual clinical trial participant data (IPD) sharing, stating that sharing trial data requires planning to ensure appropriate research ethics committee approval and participants' informed consent. This is why its implementation will be deferred for one year after the publication of the final version of the policy. -When conducting research with anonymous data it is not feasible to obtain the informed consent from research participants...
October 26, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Kerry Y Fang, Anthony J Maeder, Heidi Bjering
Poor adherence to medication can lead to negative health outcomes and increased financial burdens. We present a literature review on electronic medication reminders used for medication adherence in self care settings, to identify current and possible future trends. A structured PubMed search based on extracted MeSH terms provided a total of 45 publications which were identified as most relevant. Three main categories of electronic solutions were identified: mobile phone reminders, in-home electronic reminder devices, and portable reminder devices...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Brian D Holt, Zoe M Wright, Anne M Arnold, Stefanie A Sydlik
Graphene oxide (GO), the oxidized form of graphene, holds great potential as a component of biomedical devices, deriving utility from its ability to support a broad range of chemical functionalities and its exceptional mechanical, electronic, and thermal properties. GO composites can be tuned chemically to be biomimetic, and mechanically to be stiff yet strong. These unique properties make GO-based materials promising candidates as a scaffold for bone regeneration. However, questions still exist as to the compatibility and long-term toxicity of nanocarbon materials...
October 26, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Amanda K Hutcheson, Andrew J Piazza, Adam P Knowlden
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to systematically review work site-based, environmental interventions to reduce sedentary behavior following preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. DATA SOURCE: Data were extracted from Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science between January 2005 and December 2015. STUDY INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria were work site interventions, published in peer-reviewed journals, employing environmental modalities, targeting sedentary behavior, and using any quantitative design...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
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