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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548648/electronic-retinal-implants-and-artificial-vision-journey-and-present
#1
REVIEW
J O Mills, A Jalil, P E Stanga
Retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration are two significant causes of severe visual dysfunction. In both, the retinal photoreceptors degenerate, preventing successful conversion of light into electrical energy that is interpreted in the visual cortex as visual function. Artificial vision or visual function began over two centuries ago with the idea of creating artificial light pulses, or phosphenes, through cortical stimulation. The pursuit is now on to improve artificial visual function. Two retinal implants appear the most likely to succeed in the future having undergone multicentre human trials: the Argus II electronic epiretinal device (Second Sight Medical Products, CA, USA) and Alpha-IMS electronic subretinal device (Retina Implant AG, Germany)...
May 26, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548647/acute-endophthalmitis-after-cataract-surgery-164-consecutive-cases-treated-at-a-referral-center-in-south-korea
#2
S H Jeong, H J Cho, H S Kim, J I Han, D W Lee, C G Kim, J W Kim
PurposeTo identify prognostic factors in patients referred with endophthalmitis after cataract surgery, and to evaluate the efficacy of primary vitrectomy as an initial management.MethodsOver an eight-year study period, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 164 patients who were referred with endophthalmitis following cataract surgery. Treatment generally conformed to standard guidelines, although primary vitrectomy was performed in several eyes with a visual acuity of hand motion or better, depending on the patient's status...
May 26, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548196/-declaration-of-the-chilean-academy-of-medicine-of-law-20-850-%C3%A2-on-clinical-trials-of-pharmaceutical-products-and-medical-devices%C3%A2-and-of-the-bylaw-that-will-regulate-its-application
#3
Gloria López S, Gloria Valdés S, Emilio Roessler B, Vicente Valdivieso D
In Chile, high cost treatments required by selected medical conditions are financed by the State, according to Law 20.850. A bylaw under discussion by the Senate regulates clinical trials, posing complex issues that will endanger local interest in front-line research: 1. The exclusive and mandatory control bestowed to the Institute of Public Health during all stages of the trials and also the surveillance of institutions performing clinical trials, overriding their Clinical Research Review Boards; 2.The 10 year period during which any adverse event is assumed to have been caused by the medication or devise evaluated by the trial, unless the contrary is proven in a judicial process; 3...
March 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548107/current-controversies-in-brain-death-determination
#4
REVIEW
Ariane Lewis, David Greer
Although the concept of brain death is accepted by the majority of physicians, lawyers, ethicists and society at large, controversies about determination of death by neurological criteria persist, and often reach the public eye. In this article, we examine four prominent controversial brain death cases from 2013-2016. We review current controversies, including protocol variability, recognition of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) criteria for brain death as an accepted medical standard, and management of objections to discontinuation of organ support after determination of brain death...
May 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547578/academic-health-center-psychology-representation-to-the-council-of-faculty-and-academic-societies-cfas-of-the-association-of-american-medical-colleges-aamc
#5
Barbara A Cubic, Laura A Shaffer
This paper outlines the perspectives of the two currently appointed representatives of the Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers (APAHC) to the Council of Faculty and Academic Societies (CFAS) of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). The authors focus on why it is important for psychologists, especially those in academic health centers (AHCs), to be part of CFAS. The goal of the paper is to demonstrate how involvement in organizations like the AAMC helps AHC psychologists serve as ambassadors for psychology in AHCs and assists AHC psychologists in staying fluent regarding hot topics within academic medicine...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546785/on-religious-and-secular-exemptions-a-case-study-of-childhood-vaccination-waivers
#6
Roland Pierik
This paper analyses exemptions to general law through the prism of vaccine waivers in the United States. All US states legally require the vaccination of children prior to school or daycare entry; however, this obligation is accompanied with a system of medical, religious, and/or philosophical exemptions. Nonmedical exemptions became subject of discussion after the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak in California, which unequivocally brought to light what had been brewing below the surface for a while: a slow but steady decline in vaccination rates in Western societies, resulting in the reoccurrence of measles outbreaks...
April 2017: Ethnicities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546591/the-healthcare-system-and-the-provision-of-oral-healthcare-in-european-union-member-states-part-8-italy
#7
M Bindi, C Paganelli, K A Eaton, E Widström
In Italy healthcare is provided for all Italian citizens and residents and it is delivered mainly by public providers, with some private or private-public entities. Italy's public healthcare system - the Servizio Sanitario Nazionale (SSN) - is organised by the Ministry of Health and administered on a devolved regional basis. It is financed by general taxation that provides universal coverage, largely free of charge at the point of service. The central government establishes the basic national health benefits package, which must be uniformly provided throughout the country, through services guaranteed under the NHS provision called LEA - (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza [Essential Level of Assistance]) and allocates national funds to the regions...
May 26, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546138/mental-health-mobile-apps-for-preadolescents-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Rebecca Grist, Joanna Porter, Paul Stallard
BACKGROUND: There are an increasing number of mobile apps available for adolescents with mental health problems and an increasing interest in assimilating mobile health (mHealth) into mental health services. Despite the growing number of apps available, the evidence base for their efficacy is unclear. OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to systematically appraise the available research evidence on the efficacy and acceptability of mobile apps for mental health in children and adolescents younger than 18 years...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546075/antimicrobial-storage-and-antibiotic-knowledge-in-the-community-a-cross-sectional-pilot-study-in-north-western-angola
#9
Joana Cortez, Edite Rosário, João E Pires, João Taborda Lopes, Moisés Francisco, Erika Vlieghe, Miguel Brito
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobials are drugs that were once lifesavers and mainly curative. Nowadays their value is increasingly under pressure because of the fast and worldwide emergence of antimicrobial resistance, which, in low resources settings, frequently occurs in microorganisms that are likely to be transmitted in the community. METHODS: A cross-sectional pilot study including 102 households within the 10th HDSS round in Dande, Bengo Province, Angola. RESULTS: From the total 102 households piloted, 77...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546055/the-long-way-of-implementing-patient-centered-care-and-shared-decision-making-in-germany
#10
Martin Härter, Jörg Dirmaier, Isabelle Scholl, Norbert Donner-Banzhoff, Marie-Luise Dierks, Wolfgang Eich, Hardy Müller, David Klemperer, Klaus Koch, Christiane Bieber
The main focus of the paper is on the description of the development and current state of research and implementation of patient-centered care (PCC) and shared decision-making (SDM) after fifteen years of substantial advances in health policy and health services research. What is the current state of SDM in health policy? The "Law on Patients' Rights" from 2013 standardizes all rights and responsibilities within the framework of medical treatment for German citizens and legal residents. This comprises the right to informed decisions, comprehensive and comprehensible information for patients, and decisions based on a clinician-patient-partnership...
May 22, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545598/indonesian-dengue-burden-estimates-review-of-evidence-by-an-expert-panel
#11
T Y M Wahyono, J Nealon, S Beucher, A Prayitno, A Moureau, S Nawawi, H Thabrany, M Nadjib
Routine, passive surveillance systems tend to underestimate the burden of communicable diseases such as dengue. When empirical methods are unavailable, complimentary opinion-based or extrapolative methods have been employed. Here, an expert Delphi panel estimated the proportion of dengue captured by the Indonesian surveillance system, and associated health system parameters. Following presentation of medical and epidemiological data and subsequent discussions, the panel made iterative estimates from which expansion factors (EF), the ratio of total:reported cases, were calculated...
May 26, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545582/gender-differences-in-hypertension-awareness-antihypertensive-use-and-blood-pressure-control-in-bangladeshi-adults-findings-from-a-national-cross-sectional-survey
#12
Muntasirur Rahman, Gail Williams, Abdullah Al Mamun
BACKGROUND: Bangladesh is facing an epidemiological transition with a growing burden of non-communicable diseases. Traditionally, hypertension and associated complications in women receive less recognition, and there is a dearth of related publications. The study aims to explore gender differences in high blood pressure awareness and antihypertensive use in Bangladeshi adults at the community level. Another objective is to identify factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension among antihypertensive users...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545476/prenatal-diagnosis-and-prevention-of-toxoplasmosis-in-pregnant-women-in-northern-vietnam-study-protocol
#13
G Suzanne A Smit, Thi Lam Binh Vu, Trung Dung Do, Niko Speybroeck, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Elizaveta Padalko, Ellen Roets, Pierre Dorny
BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, no systematic prenatal toxoplasmosis screening is in place, and only few studies have assessed the prevalence and importance of this zoonotic parasite infection. In addition, no studies have been conducted to assess the risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis. This study protocol was developed to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Hanoi and Thai Binh, Northern Vietnam, and to evaluate the association with risk factors and congenital toxoplasmosis...
May 25, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544602/drug-residues-in-syringes-and-other-injecting-paraphernalia-in-hungary
#14
Anna Péterfi, József Csorba, Tamás Figeczki, József Kiss, Katalin Medgyesi-Frank, János Posta, V Anna Gyarmathy
The appearance and spread of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is a phenomenon detected throughout Europe since 2008. Synthetic cathinones, a group of NPS, have been self-reported as the drug injected by the vast majority of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Hungary. This study aims at updating our knowledge on what exactly the compounds injected by PWID. This multi-site study analysed residues from used injecting drug paraphernalia collected from PWID via low threshold services and from public places in Budapest, Debrecen, Miskolc, Szeged, Békéscsaba and Pécs between March 2015 and February 2016...
May 23, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544476/usefulness-of-a-decision-tree-model-for-the-analysis-of-adverse-drug-reactions-evaluation-of-a-risk-prediction-model-of-vancomycin-associated-nephrotoxicity-constructed-using-a-data-mining-procedure
#15
Shungo Imai, Takehiro Yamada, Kumiko Kasashi, Masaki Kobayashi, Ken Iseki
OBJECTIVES: Several publications concerning decision tree (DT) analysis in medical fields have recently demonstrated its usefulness for defining prognostic factors in various diseases. However, there are minimal reports on the predictors of adverse drug reactions. We attempted to use DT analysis to discover combinations of multiple risk factors that would increase the risk of nephrotoxicity associated with vancomycin (VCM). To demonstrate the usefulness of DT analysis, we compared its predictive performance with that of multiple logistic regression analysis...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544197/body-mass-index-and-healthcare-costs-a-systematic-literature-review-of-individual-participant-data-studies
#16
REVIEW
Seamus Kent, Francesco Fusco, Alastair Gray, Susan A Jebb, Benjamin J Cairns, Borislava Mihaylova
Excess weight is associated with increased total healthcare costs, but it is less well known how the associations between excess weight and costs vary across different types of healthcare service. We reviewed studies using individual participant data to estimate associations between body mass index and healthcare costs, and summarized how annual healthcare costs for overweight (body mass index 25 to <30 kg/m(2) ) and obese (≥30 kg/m(2) ) individuals compared with those for healthy weight individuals (18...
May 22, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544066/type-2-diabetes-and-glucose-intolerance-in-a-population-with-intellectual-disabilities-the-stop-diabetes-cross-sectional-screening-study
#17
A J Dunkley, F Tyrer, L J Gray, S Bhaumik, R Spong, Y Chudasama, S-A Cooper, S Ganghadaran, M Davies, K Khunti
BACKGROUND: Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) may be at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, due to lifestyle factors, medications and other diagnosed conditions. Currently, there is lack of evidence on prevalence and prevention in this population. The aim of this study was to conduct a diabetes screening programme to determine prevalence of previously undiagnosed type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose regulation in people with ID. METHODS: Screening was conducted in a variety of community settings in Leicestershire, UK...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543658/the-virtues-of-national-ethics-committees
#18
Jonathan Montgomery
The United Kingdom has many bodies that play their part in carrying out the work of national ethics committees, but its nearest equivalent of a U.S. presidential bioethics commission is the Nuffield Council on Bioethics, established in 1991. The Council is charged with examining ethical questions raised by developments in biological and medical research, publishing reports, and making representations to appropriate bodies in order to respond to or anticipate public concern. It is a nongovernment organization with no defined or guaranteed channels of influence...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543418/reconciling-patient-safety-and-epistemic-humility-an-ethical-use-of-opioid-treatment-plans
#19
Anita Ho
In this issue of the Hastings Center Report, Joshua Rager and Peter Schwartz suggest using opioid treatment agreements as public health monitoring tools to inform patients about "the requirements entailed by undergoing opioid therapy," rather than as contractual agreements to alter patients' individual behavior or to benefit them directly. Because Rager and Schwartz's argument presents suspected OTA violations as a justification to stop providing opioids yet does not highlight the broader epistemic and systemic context within which clinicians prescribe these medications, their proposal may perpetuate a climate of distrust and stigmatization without correcting systemic factors that may have placed patients and others at risk in the first place...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543411/crowdsourcing-the-moral-limits-of-human-gene-editing
#20
Eric T Juengst
In 2015, a flourish of "alarums and excursions" by the scientific community propelled CRISPR/Cas9 and other new gene-editing techniques into public attention. At issue were two kinds of potential gene-editing experiments in humans: those making inheritable germ-line modifications and those designed to enhance human traits beyond what is necessary for health and healing. The scientific consensus seemed to be that while research to develop safe and effective human gene editing should continue, society's moral uncertainties about these two kinds of experiments needed to be better resolved before clinical trials of either type should be attempted...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
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