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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914087/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-biofilm-formation-by-pathogenic-streptococci
#1
Yashuan Chao, Caroline Bergenfelz, Anders P Håkansson
This manuscript presents novel approaches to grow and evaluate Streptococcal biofilm formation using the human respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) as the main model organism on biological surfaces in vitro and in vivo. Most biofilm models are based on growth on abiotic surfaces, which is relevant for many pathogens whose growth on surfaces or medical devices is a major cause of disease transmission and infections, especially in hospital environments. However, most infections with commensal organisms require biofilm formation on biological surfaces in the host at the site of colonization or infection...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913795/prevalence-of-sti-symptoms-and-high-levels-of-stigma-in-sti-healthcare-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania-a-respondent-driven-sampling-study
#2
Michael W Ross, Markus Larsson, Joyce E Nyoni, Anette Agardh
Symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), whether they are presented for treatment or diagnosis, and how they are received by the clinician where they are presented, may be concomitants of stigma associated with homosexuality in homophobic climates. We analyzed respondent-driven sampling data from a study on 200 young men who have sex with men (MSM) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to examine sample prevalence, treatment and clinician response to 10 symptoms potentially associated with STIs. Survey measures included 10 self-reported STI symptoms, further specified according to location (genital, anal, oral), further specified according to place of diagnosis, place of, treatment whether there was pharmacy treatment or self-medication, healthcare worker (HCW) inquiries about source of infection and whether the HCW was polite...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913561/hospitals-and-patients-working-in-unity-how-r-u-protocol-for-a-prospective-feasibility-study-of-telephone-peer-support-to-improve-older-patients-quality-of-life-after-emergency-department-discharge
#3
Judy A Lowthian, Alyse Lennox, Andrea Curtis, Jeremy Dale, Colette Browning, De Villiers Smit, Gillian Wilson, Debra O'Brien, Cate Rosewarne, Lee Boyd, Cath Garner, Peter Cameron
INTRODUCTION: Older people presenting to an emergency department (ED) have a higher likelihood of social isolation, loneliness and depression; which are all associated with negative health outcomes and increased health service use, including higher rates of ED attendance. The HOW R U? study aims to ascertain the feasibility and acceptability of a postdischarge telephone support programme for older ED patients following discharge. The intervention, which aims to improve quality of life, will be delivered by hospital-based volunteers...
December 2, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913269/the-structure-organisation-and-perioperative-management-of-ambulatory-surgery-and-anaesthesia-in-france-methodology-of-the-sfar-opera-study
#4
Pierre Albaladejo, Frédéric Aubrun, Charles-Marc Samama, Laurent Jouffroy, Marc Beaussier, Dan Benhamou, Pauline Romegoux, Kristina Skaare, Jean Luc Bosson, Claude Ecoffey
The organization of health care establishments and perioperative care are essential for ensuring the quality of care and safety of patients undergoing outpatient surgery. In order to correctly inventory these organizations and practices, in 2013-2014, the French Society of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care organized an extensive practical survey in French ambulatory surgery units entitled the "OPERA" study (Organisation PERiopératoire de l'anesthésie en chirurgie Ambulatoire). From among all of the ambulatory surgery centres listed by the Agences Régionales de Santé [Regional Health Agencies, France], 206 public and private centres were randomly selected...
November 29, 2016: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913084/quality-of-communication-about-medicines-in-united-states-hospitals-a-national-retrospective-study
#5
Lauren Mullings, Jayashri Sankaranarayanan
BACKGROUND: Despite the benefits of improving transitions across care, literature is very limited on inpatient "Communication about Medicines" (ComMed) by staff across United States (U.S.) hospitals. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate ComMed quality variations by hospital characteristics. METHODS: In a cross-sectional, retrospective study of publicly available U.S. Medicare's Hospital Consumer Assessment of Health Care Plans Survey (HCAHPS) data (January 2013-September 2014), ComMed quality (high = above average/excellent vs...
October 26, 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913029/pharmacovigilance-and-biomedical-informatics-a-model-for-future-development
#6
Paul Beninger, Michael A Ibara
PURPOSE: The discipline of pharmacovigilance is rooted in the aftermath of the thalidomide tragedy of 1961. It has evolved as a result of collaborative efforts by many individuals and organizations, including physicians, patients, Health Authorities, universities, industry, the World Health Organization, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, and the International Conference on Harmonisation. Biomedical informatics is rooted in technologically based methodologies and has evolved at the speed of computer technology...
November 29, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911959/barriers-to-timely-and-safe-blood-transfusion-for-pph-patients-evidence-from-a-qualitative-study-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#7
Sadika Akhter, Iqbal Anwar, Rashida Akter, Feroza Akhter Kumkum, Monjura Khatun Nisha, Fatema Ashraf, Ferdousi Islam, Nazneen Begum, Mahbub Elahi Chowdhury, Anne Austin, Syed Shariful Islam, Aminur Rahman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In Bangladesh, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality accounting for 31% of all blood transfusions in the country. Although safe blood transfusion is one of the 8 signal functions of Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric Care (CEmOC) strategy, most of the designated public sector CEmOC facilities do not have on-site blood storage system. Emergent blood is mainly available from external blood banks. As a result, emergent patients are to rely on an unregulated network of brokers for blood which may raise question about blood safety...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911908/uptake-of-community-based-peer-administered-hiv-point-of-care-testing-findings-from-the-proud-study
#8
Lisa Lazarus, Sheetal Patel, Ashley Shaw, Sean Leblanc, Christine Lalonde, Manisha Hladio, Kira Mandryk, Cynthia Horvath, William Petrcich, Claire Kendall, Mark W Tyndall
OBJECTIVES: HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ottawa is estimated at about 10%. The successful integration of peers into outreach efforts and wider access to HIV point-of-care testing (POCT) create opportunities to explore the role of peers in providing HIV testing. The PROUD study, in partnership with Ottawa Public Health (OPH), sought to develop a model for community-based peer-administered HIV POCT. METHODS: PROUD draws on community-based participatory research methods to better understand the HIV risk environment of people who use drugs in Ottawa...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911450/uveal-melanoma-relatively-rare-but-deadly-cancer
#9
REVIEW
S Kaliki, C L Shields
Although it is a relatively rare disease, primarily found in the Caucasian population, uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults with a mean age-adjusted incidence of 5.1 cases per million per year. Tumors are located either in iris (4%), ciliary body (6%), or choroid (90%). The host susceptibility factors for uveal melanoma include fair skin, light eye color, inability to tan, ocular or oculodermal melanocytosis, cutaneous or iris or choroidal nevus, and BRCA1-associated protein 1 mutation...
December 2, 2016: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911446/treatment-patterns-of-ranibizumab-intravitreal-injection-and-dexamethasone-intravitreal-implant-for-retinal-vein-occlusion-in-the-usa
#10
S Nghiem-Buffet, S Baillif, S Regnier, A Skelly, N Yu, A Sodi
PurposeRanibizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, and dexamethasone, a corticosteroid, have been shown to be effective in treating macular oedema secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO) (central RVO (CRVO) and branch RVO (BRVO)). Their real-world usage, however, has yet to be compared. We therefore evaluated ophthalmology visits for both drugs using US patient-level data.MethodsThe IMS Health Real-World Data Medical Claims database was used to identify treatment-naive patients receiving ranibizumab intravitreal injections or dexamethasone intravitreal implants between June 2010 and February 2014 who had 12 months of follow-up data...
December 2, 2016: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911335/european-cross-sectional-survey-of%C3%A2-current-care-practices-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-reveals-regional-and%C3%A2-age-dependent-differences
#11
Julia Vry, Kathrin Gramsch, Sunil Rodger, Rachel Thompson, Birgit F Steffensen, Jes Rahbek, Sam Doerken, Adrian Tassoni, María de Los Angeles Beytía, Velina Guergueltcheva, Teodora Chamova, Ivailo Tournev, Anna Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna Kaminska, Anna Lusakowska, Lenka Mrazova, Lenka Pavlovska, Jana Strenkova, Petr Vondráček, Marta Garami, Veronika Karcagi, Ágnes Herczegfalvi, Katherine Bushby, Hanns Lochmüller, Janbernd Kirschner
BACKGROUND: Publication of comprehensive clinical care guidelines for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in 2010 was a milestone for DMD patient management. Our CARE-NMD survey investigates the neuromuscular, medical, and psychosocial care of DMD patients in Europe, and compares it to the guidelines. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 1677 patients contacted via the TREAT-NMD patient registries was conducted using self-report questionnaires in seven European countries...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911071/severe-brain-injury-in-massachusetts-assessing-the-continuum-of-care
#12
Laura Lorenz, Gabrielle Katz
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is a major public health problem in Massachusetts (Hackman et al, 2014) and includes traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, ABI-related infectious diseases, metabolic disorders affecting the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), and brain tumor. Advances in emergency medical care and neurosurgery mean that more people are surviving severe traumatic brain injury (Trexler et al, 2014). Yet many patients with severe TBI in particular, are not receiving inpatient services after initial treatment (Hackman et al, 2014; CDC, 2014) or later that are known to be effective (Malec & Kean, 2015; Lewis & Horn, 2015; BI Commission, 2011; Kolakowsky-Hayner et al, 2000; Interviews)...
December 10, 2015: Issue Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910133/physical-restraints-and-associations-with-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-and-personal-characteristics-in-residential-care-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Marja Kuronen, Hannu Kautiainen, Pertti Karppi, Sirpa Hartikainen, Hannu Koponen
BACKGROUND: Physical restraints are widely used in residential care. The objective was to investigate restraint use and its associations with neuropsychiatric symptoms and personal characteristics in residential care. METHODS: Data were collected in the South Savo Hospital District from 66 of 68 public or private institutions providing long-term residential care. Nurses assessed the use of physical restraints and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) included in the symptom list of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI)...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910120/at-the-margins-of-biomedicine-the-ambiguous-position-of-registered-medical-practitioners-in-rural-indian-healthcare
#14
Papreen Nahar, Nanda Kishore Kannuri, Sitamma Mikkilineni, G V S Murthy, Peter Phillimore
This analysis challenges a tendency in public health and the social sciences to associate India's medical pluralism with a distinction between biomedicine, as a homogeneous entity, and its non-biomedical 'others'. We argue that this overdrawn dichotomy obscures the important part played by 'informal' biomedical practice, an issue with salience well beyond India. Based on a qualitative study in rural Andhra Pradesh, South India, we focus on a figure little discussed in the academic literature - the Registered Medical Practitioner (RMP) - who occupies a niche in the medical market-place as an informal exponent of biomedical treatment...
December 2, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909857/privacy-autonomy-and-public-policy-french-and-north-american-perspectives
#15
Jennifer Merchant
This article raises the question of whether in both the United States and in France, an individual's autonomy and private decision-making right(s) in matters of health care and access to reproductive technologies can be conciliated with the general interest, and more specifically, the role of the State. Can a full-fledged right to privacy, the ability to exercise one's autonomy, exist alongside the general interest, and depend neither on financial resources like in the United States nor on centralised government decisions or the medical hierarchy like in France? The contrast between these two modern democracies justify the importance of comparing them...
December 2, 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909775/gender-effect-on-public-stigma-changes-towards-psychosis-in-the-hong-kong-chinese-population-a-comparison-between-population-surveys-of-2009-and-2014
#16
S K W Chan, K W Lee, C L M Hui, W C Chang, E H M Lee, E Y H Chen
PURPOSE: Public stigma is an important barrier to the recovery of patients with psychosis. The current study aimed to investigate the change in stigma towards psychosis and knowledge about psychosis between 2009 and 2014 among the Chinese population in Hong Kong, with a specific focus on gender role. METHODS: Random telephone survey of general population in Hong Kong was conducted in 2009 and 2014. Stigma was measured with the revised Link's Perceived Discrimination-Devaluation Scale (LPDDS)...
December 1, 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909739/quantification-of-anticholinergic-and-sedative-drug-load-with-the-drug-burden-index-a-review-of-outcomes-and-methodological-quality-of-studies
#17
REVIEW
Hans Wouters, Helene van der Meer, Katja Taxis
PURPOSE: The Drug Burden Index (DBI) is a non-invasive method to quantify patients' anticholinergic and sedative drug burden from their prescriptions. This systematic review aimed to summarise the evidence on the associations between the DBI and clinical outcomes and methodological quality of studies. METHODS: A search in PubMed and Embase (search terms: 'drug', 'burden', and 'index') was performed and experts were contacted. We excluded publications that did not report empirical results or clinical outcomes...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909632/a-framework-for-navigating-institutional-review-board-irb-oversight-in-the-complicated-zone-of-research
#18
Gretchen E Parker
The treatment therapies and technologies currently emerging from the rapidly evolving health care industry must undergo full examination in a clinical setting if they are to be marketed to the public. All elements of clinical studies involving human subjects must undergo thorough IRB review before study activities can commence. Regulations regarding IRB oversight apply to all clinical studies-including retrospective examinations of private medical data and identifiable biological samples. It is not uncommon for researchers to be unsure whether, or on what level, IRB review and oversight are required for a particular project...
October 25, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909269/chaperones-and-intimate-physical-examinations-what-do-male-and-female-patients-want
#19
V C Fan, H T Choy, G Yj Kwok, H G Lam, Q Y Lim, Y Y Man, C K Tang, C C Wong, Y F Yu, G Kk Leung
INTRODUCTION: Many studies of patients' perception of a medical chaperone have focused on female patients; that of male patients are less well studied. Moreover, previous studies were largely based on patient populations in English-speaking countries. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the perception and attitude of male and female Chinese patients to the presence of a chaperone during an intimate physical examination. METHODS: A cross-sectional guided questionnaire survey was conducted on a convenient sample of 150 patients at a public teaching hospital in Hong Kong...
December 2, 2016: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909034/advance-care-planning-in-patients-with-incurable-cancer-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Stephanie Johnson, Josephine Clayton, Phyllis N Butow, William Silvester, Karen Detering, Jane Hall, Belinda E Kiely, Jonathon Cebon, Stephen Clarke, Melanie L Bell, Martin Stockler, Phillip Beale, Martin H N Tattersall
INTRODUCTION: There is limited evidence documenting the effectiveness of Advance Care Planning (ACP) in cancer care. The present randomised trial is designed to evaluate whether the administration of formal ACP improves compliance with patients' end-of-life (EOL) wishes and patient and family satisfaction with care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A randomised control trial in eight oncology centres across New South Wales and Victoria, Australia, is designed to assess the efficacy of a formal ACP intervention for patients with cancer...
December 1, 2016: BMJ Open
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