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Brown adipose oxygen consumption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752759/metformin-targets-brown-adipose-tissue-in-vivo-and-reduces-oxygen-consumption-in-vitro
#1
Peter Breining, Jonas B Jensen, Elias I Sundelin, Lars C Gormsen, Steen Jakobsen, Morten Busk, Lars Rolighed, Peter Bross, Paula Fernandez-Guerra, Lasse K Markussen, Nanna E Rasmussen, Jacob B Hansen, Steen B Pedersen, Bjørn Richelsen, Niels Jessen
Metformin is the most widely prescribed oral antidiabetic drug worldwide. Despite well-documented beneficial effects on health outcomes in diabetic patients, the target organs that mediate the effects of metformin remain to be established. In adult humans, brown adipose tissue (BAT) can influence basic metabolic rate, making BAT an attractive target for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Under the hypothesis that BAT is a metformin target tissue, we investigated in vivo uptake of [11 C]-metformin tracer in mice and studied in vitro effects of metformin on cultured human brown adipocytes...
May 12, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715464/spermidine-spermine-n1-acetyltransferase-mediated-polyamine-catabolism-regulates-beige-adipocyte-biogenesis
#2
Fang Yuan, Lin Zhang, Yang Cao, Wei Gao, Can Zhao, Yuan Fang, Kamyar Zahedi, Manoocher Soleimani, Xiang Lu, Zhuyuan Fang, Qin Yang
OBJECTIVE: Cold and β3-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists activate beige adipocyte biogenesis in white adipose tissue (WAT). The two stimuli also induce expression of inflammatory cytokines in WAT. The low-grade inflammation may further promote WAT browning. However, the mechanisms to reconcile these two biological processes remain to be elucidated. In this study, we aim to investigate the roles of the rate-limiting polyamine catabolic enzyme spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT1) in regulating beige adipocyte biogenesis and inflammation...
April 28, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673115/the-nuclear-retinoid-related-orphan-receptor-ror%C3%AE-controls-circadian-thermogenic-programming-in-white-fat-depots
#3
Chloé Monnier, Martine Auclair, Gala Le Cam, Marie-Pauline Garcia, Bénédicte Antoine
The RORα-deficient staggerer (sg/sg) mouse is lean and resistant to diet-induced obesity. Its thermogenic activity was shown to be increased not only in brown adipose tissue (BAT), but also in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) where UCP1 content was enhanced, however, without Prdm16 coexpression. Our observation of partial multilocular lipid morphology of WAT in sg/sg mice both in the inguinal and perigonadal sites led us to focus on the phenotype of both fat depots. Because RORα is a nuclear factor acting in the clock machinery, we looked at the circadian expression profile of genes involved in thermogenesis and browning in WAT and BAT depots of sg/sg and WT mice, through real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618935/metabolic-profiling-of-follistatin-overexpression-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-for-metabolic-diseases
#4
Rajan Singh, Shehla Pervin, Se-Jin Lee, Alan Kuo, Victor Grijalva, John David, Laurent Vergnes, Srinivasa T Reddy
Background: Follistatin (Fst) promotes brown adipocyte characteristics in adipose tissues. Methods: Abdominal fat volume (CT scan), glucose clearance (GTT test), and metabolomics analysis (mass spectrometry) of adipose tissues from Fst transgenic (Fst-Tg) and wild type (WT) control mice were analyzed. Oxygen consumption (Seahorse Analyzer) and lipidomics (gas chromatography) was analyzed in 3T3-L1 cells. Results: Fst-Tg mice show significant decrease in abdominal fat content, increased glucose clearance, improved plasma lipid profiles and significant changes in several conventional metabolites compared to the WT mice...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570193/phytol-stimulates-the-browning-of-white-adipocytes-through-the-activation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-%C3%AE-in-mice-fed-high-fat-diet
#5
Fenglin Zhang, Wei Ai, Xiaoquan Hu, Yingying Meng, Cong Yuan, Han Su, Lina Wang, Xiaotong Zhu, Ping Gao, Gang Shu, Qingyan Jiang, Songbo Wang
Stimulating the browning of white adipocytes contributes to the restriction of obesity and related metabolic disorders. This study aimed to investigate the browning effects of phytol on mice inguinal subcutaneous white adipose tissue (iWAT) and explore the underlying mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that phytol administration decreased body weight gain and iWAT index, and stimulated the browning of mice iWAT, with the increased expression of brown adipocyte marker genes (UCP1, PRDM16, PGC1α, PDH, and Cyto C)...
March 23, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555462/effects-of-tunable-3d-bioprinted-hydrogels-on-human-brown-adipocyte-behavior-and-metabolic-function
#6
Mitchell Kuss, Jiyoung Kim, Dianjun Qi, Shaohua Wu, Yuguo Lei, Soonkyu Chung, Bin Duan
Obesity and its related health complications cause billions of dollars in healthcare costs annually in the United States, and there are yet to be safe and long-lasting anti-obesity approaches. Using brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a promising approach, as it uses fats for energy expenditure. However, the effect of the microenvironment on human thermogenic brown adipogenesis and how to generate clinically relevant sized and functioning BAT are still unknown. In our current study, we evaluated the effects of endothelial growth medium exposure on brown adipogenesis of human brown adipose progenitors (BAP)...
April 15, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525607/raspberry-promotes-brown-and-beige-adipocyte-development-in-mice-fed-high-fat-diet-through-activation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-%C3%AE-1
#7
Tiande Zou, Bo Wang, Qiyuan Yang, Jeanene M de Avila, Mei-Jun Zhu, Jinming You, Daiwen Chen, Min Du
Development of brown and beige/brite adipocytes increases thermogenesis and helps to reduce obesity and metabolic syndrome. Our previous study suggests that dietary raspberry can ameliorate metabolic syndromes in diet-induced obese mice. Here, we further evaluated the effects of raspberry on energy expenditure and adaptive thermogenesis and determined whether these effects were mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Mice deficient in the catalytic subunit of AMPKα1 and wild-type (WT) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD supplemented with 5% raspberry (RAS) for 10 weeks...
May 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519582/vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy-corrects-metabolic-perturbations-in-a-low-exercise-capacity-rat-model
#8
Landon Wood, Karen Roelofs, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Darleen A Sandoval
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery is currently our most effective strategy at weight loss, yet the mechanisms for its success remain unknown. Low exercise capacity, in humans and rodents, predicts poor metabolic outcome. The objective of this manuscript was to determine if bariatric surgery could restore metabolic perturbations in rats with low intrinsic exercise capacity. METHODS: We performed vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) or sham surgery in high fat-fed rats selectively bred for low running capacity...
May 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515462/amp-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-regulates-energy-metabolism-through-modulating-thermogenesis-in-adipose-tissue
#9
Lingyan Wu, Lina Zhang, Bohan Li, Haowen Jiang, Yanan Duan, Zhifu Xie, Lin Shuai, Jia Li, Jingya Li
Obesity occurs when excess energy accumulates in white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is specialized in dissipating energy through thermogenesis, potently counteracts obesity. White adipocytes can be converted to thermogenic "brown-like" cells (beige cells; WAT browning) under various stimuli, such as cold exposure. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial energy sensor that regulates energy metabolism in multiple tissues. However, the role of AMPK in adipose tissue function, especially in the WAT browning process, is not fully understood...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514074/non-invasive-measurement-of-brown-fat-metabolism-based-on-optoacoustic-imaging-of-hemoglobin-gradients
#10
Josefine Reber, Monja Willershäuser, Angelos Karlas, Korbinian Paul-Yuan, Gael Diot, Daniela Franz, Tobias Fromme, Saak V Ovsepian, Nicolas Bézière, Elena Dubikovskaya, Dimitrios C Karampinos, Christina Holzapfel, Hans Hauner, Martin Klingenspor, Vasilis Ntziachristos
Metabolism is a fundamental process of life. However, non-invasive measurement of local tissue metabolism is limited today by a deficiency in adequate tools for in vivo observations. We designed a multi-modular platform that explored the relation between local tissue oxygen consumption, determined by label-free optoacoustic measurements of hemoglobin, and concurrent indirect calorimetry obtained during metabolic activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT). By studying mice and humans, we show how video-rate handheld multi-spectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) in the 700-970 nm spectral range enables non-invasive imaging of BAT activation, consistent with positron emission tomography findings...
March 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472592/gsk3-is-a-negative-regulator-of-the-thermogenic-program-in-brown-adipocytes
#11
Lasse K Markussen, Sally Winther, Barton Wicksteed, Jacob B Hansen
Brown adipose tissue is a promising therapeutic target in metabolic disorders due to its ability to dissipate energy and improve systemic insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. β-Adrenergic stimulation of brown adipocytes leads to an increase in oxygen consumption and induction of a thermogenic gene program that includes uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) and fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21). In kinase inhibitor screens, we have identified glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) as a negative regulator of basal and β-adrenergically stimulated Fgf21 expression in cultured brown adipocytes...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378832/membrane-trafficking-protein-cdp138-regulates-fat-browning-and-insulin-sensitivity-through-controlling-catecholamine-release
#12
Qiong L Zhou, Ye Song, Chun-Hong Huang, Jun-Yuan Huang, Zhenwei Gong, Zhangping Liao, Andria G Sharma, Lily Greene, Justin Z Deng, Michael C Rigor, Xiangyang Xie, Songtao Qi, Julio E Ayala, Zhen Y Jiang
CDP138 is a calcium- and lipid-binding protein that is involved in membrane trafficking. Here we report mice without CDP138 develop obesity under normal chow diet (NCD) or high-fat diet (HFD) conditions. CDP138-/- mice have lower energy expenditure, oxygen consumption and body temperature in comparison with wild-type (WT) mice. <u>CDP138 is exclusively expressed in adrenal medulla and is co-localized with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a marker of sympathetic nervous terminals, in the inguinal fat. In comparison with WT controls, CDP138-/- mice had altered catecholamine levels in the circulation, adrenal grand, and inguinal fat...
January 29, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329013/antiobesity-effect-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-263-associated-with-energy-metabolism-remodeling-of-white-adipose-tissue-in-high-energy-diet-fed-rats
#13
Li-Han Chen, Yi-Hsing Chen, Kuan-Chen Cheng, Ting-Yi Chien, Ching-Hung Chan, Shu-Ping Tsao, Hui-Yu Huang
Obesity is a serious and costly issue to the medical welfare worldwide. Probiotics have been suggested as one of the candidates to resolve the obesity-associated problems, but how they combat obesity is not fully understood. Herein, we investigated the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri 263 (L. reuteri 263) on antiobesity using four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10/group), namely, C (normal diet with vehicle treatment), HE [high-energy diet (HED) with vehicle treatment], 1X (HED with 2.1×109 CFU/kg/day of L...
April 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310935/degradation-of-brown-adipocyte-purine-nucleotides-regulates-uncoupling-protein-1-activity
#14
Tobias Fromme, Karin Kleigrewe, Andreas Dunkel, Angelika Retzler, Yongguo Li, Stefanie Maurer, Natascha Fischer, Rolf Diezko, Timo Kanzleiter, Verena Hirschberg, Thomas Hofmann, Martin Klingenspor
OBJECTIVE: Non-shivering thermogenesis in mammalian brown adipose tissue depends on thermogenic uncoupling protein 1. Its activity is triggered by free fatty acids while purine nucleotides mediate inhibition. During activation, it is thought that free fatty acids overcome purine-mediated inhibition. We measured the cellular concentration and the release of purine nucleotide metabolites to uncover a possible role of purine nucleotide degradation in uncoupling protein 1 activation. METHODS: With mass spectrometry, purine nucleotide metabolites were quantified in cellular homogenates and supernatants of cultured primary brown adipocytes...
February 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237750/mechanism-by-which-arylamine-n-acetyltransferase-1-ablation-causes-insulin-resistance-in-mice
#15
João Paulo Camporez, Yongliang Wang, Kasper Faarkrog, Natsasi Chukijrungroat, Kitt Falk Petersen, Gerald I Shulman
A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the human arylamine N -acetyltransferase 2 (Nat2) gene has recently been identified as associated with insulin resistance in humans. To understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which alterations in Nat2 activity might cause insulin resistance, we examined murine ortholog Nat1 knockout (KO) mice. Nat1 KO mice manifested whole-body insulin resistance, which could be attributed to reduced muscle, liver, and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. Hepatic and muscle insulin resistance were associated with marked increases in both liver and muscle triglyceride (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) content, which was associated with increased PKCε activation in liver and increased PKCθ activation in skeletal muscle...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235464/syk-kinase-mediates-brown-fat-differentiation-and-activation
#16
Marko Knoll, Sally Winther, Anirudh Natarajan, Huan Yang, Mengxi Jiang, Prathapan Thiru, Aliakbar Shahsafaei, Tony E Chavarria, Dudley W Lamming, Lei Sun, Jacob B Hansen, Harvey F Lodish
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism influences glucose homeostasis and metabolic health in mice and humans. Sympathetic stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors in response to cold induces proliferation, differentiation, and UCP1 expression in pre-adipocytes and mature brown adipocytes. Here we show that spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is upregulated during brown adipocyte differentiation and activated by β-adrenergic stimulation. Deletion or inhibition of SYK, a kinase known for its essential roles in the immune system, blocks brown and white pre-adipocyte proliferation and differentiation in vitro, and results in diminished expression of Ucp1 and other genes regulating brown adipocyte function in response to β-adrenergic stimulation...
December 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172481/fucoxanthin-and-its-metabolite-fucoxanthinol-do-not-induce-browning-in-human-adipocytes
#17
Candida J Rebello, Frank L Greenway, William D Johnson, David Ribnicky, Alexander Poulev, Krisztian Stadler, Ann A Coulter
Rodent studies suggest that the antiobesity effects of fucoxanthin relate to activation of brown fat and conversion of white adipocytes to the brown phenotype. To evaluate the browning effect in human adipocytes, we investigated the genes involved in browning and measured the oxygen consumption rate (OCR). Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Relative to control, fucoxanthinol (1 μM, 0.1 μM, 0.01 μM, 1 nM, 0.1 nM), the metabolite present in human plasma, stimulated lipolysis acutely (mean ± SEM: 4.2 ± 0...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167565/increased-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-respiration-in-brown-adipose-tissue-from-obese-mice
#18
Martín Alcalá, María Calderon-Dominguez, Eduviges Bustos, Pilar Ramos, Núria Casals, Dolors Serra, Marta Viana, Laura Herrero
Obesity is associated with severe metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer. The pathophysiology of obesity-induced metabolic diseases has been strongly related to white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction through several mechanisms such as fibrosis, apoptosis, inflammation, ER and oxidative stress. However, little is known of whether these processes are also present in brown adipose tissue (BAT) during obesity, and the potential consequences on mitochondrial activity...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106496/transplantation-of-brown-adipose-tissue-inhibits-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-mice-contribution-of-the-activated-fgf-21-adiponectin-axis
#19
Masakazu Kikai, Hiroyuki Yamada, Noriyuki Wakana, Kensuke Terada, Keita Yamamoto, Naotoshi Wada, Shinichiro Motoyama, Makoto Saburi, Takeshi Sugimoto, Daisuke Irie, Taku Kato, Hiroyuki Kawahito, Takehiro Ogata, Satoaki Matoba
Aims: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been identified as an endocrine organ that maintains metabolic homeostasis; however, the effects on atherosclerosis remain undefined. Here, we investigated the effect of experimental BAT transplantation on atherosclerosis. Methods and Results: Interscapular BAT was dissected from 12-week-old wild-type mice and transplanted into the visceral cavity of 12-week-old apoE-/- mice. Oil-red O staining of whole aortas after 3 months of a high-cholesterol diet showed a significant decrease in atherosclerotic lesion area in BAT-transplanted mice by 20% compared with the sham control mice...
November 2, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077919/glucocorticoids-suppress-the-browning-of-adipose-tissue-via-mir-19b-in-male-mice
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Yi-Fan Lv, Jing Yu, Yun-Lu Sheng, Min Huang, Xiao-Cen Kong, Wenj-Juan Di, Juan Liu, Hong Zhou, Hui Liang, Guo-Xian Ding
Physiological levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) are required for proper metabolic control, and excessive GC action has been linked to a variety of pandemic metabolic diseases. MicroRNA (miRNA)-19b plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of GC-induced metabolic diseases. This study explored the potential of miRNA-based therapeutics targeting adipose tissue. Our results showed that overexpressed miR-19b in stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells derived from subcutaneous adipose tissue had the same effects as dexamethasone (DEX) treatment on the inhibition of adipose browning and oxygen consumption rate...
January 1, 2018: Endocrinology
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