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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092905/endocranial-morphology-of-the-extinct-north-american-lion-panthera-atrox
#1
Andrew R Cuff, Christopher Stockey, Anjali Goswami
The extinct North American lion (Panthera atrox) is one of the largest felids (Mammalia, Carnivora) to have ever lived, and it is known from a plethora of incredibly well-preserved remains. Despite this abundance of material, there has been little research into its endocranial anatomy. CT scans of a skull of P. atrox from the Pleistocene La Brea Tar pits were used to generate the first virtual endocranium for this species and to elucidate previously unknown details of its brain size and gross structure, cranial nerves, and inner-ear morphology...
January 17, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092118/incorporation-of-ct-based-measurements-of-trunk-anatomy-into-subject-specific-musculoskeletal-models-of-the-spine-influences-vertebral-loading-predictions
#2
Alexander G Bruno, Hossein Mokhtarzadeh, Brett T Allaire, Kelsey R Velie, M Clara De Paolis Kaluza, Dennis E Anderson, Mary L Bouxsein
We created subject-specific musculoskeletal models of the thoracolumbar spine by incorporating spine curvature and muscle morphology measurements from computed tomography (CT) scans to determine the degree to which vertebral compressive and shear loading estimates are sensitive to variations in trunk anatomy. We measured spine curvature and trunk muscle morphology using spine CT scans of 125 men, and then created four different thoracolumbar spine models for each person: 1) height and weight adjusted (Ht/Wt models); 2) height, weight and spine curvature adjusted (+C models); 3) height, weight and muscle morphology adjusted (+M models); and 4) height, weight, spine curvature, and muscle morphology adjusted (+CM models)...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087955/water-as-neutral-oral-contrast-agent-in-abdominopelvic-ct-comparing-effectiveness-with-gastrografin-in-the-same-patient
#3
C H Lee, H Z Gu, B A Vellayappan, C H Tan
INTRODUCTION: Positive oral contrast is no longer deemed necessary for abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scans. Studies have shown water to be an equally effective oral contrast agent. However, to our knowledge no study has compared effectiveness between gastrografin and water in the same patient, which will provide a more objective evaluation of the two oral contrast agents. We aim to make a head-to-head comparison of water as neutral oral contrast (OC) against gastrografin as positive OC for abdominopelvic CT scans in the same patient...
December 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079677/cadaveric-testing-of-robot-assisted-access-to-the-internal-auditory-canal-for-vestibular-schwannoma-removal
#4
Neal P Dillon, Ramya Balachandran, Michael A Siebold, Robert J Webster, George B Wanna, Robert F Labadie
HYPOTHESIS: An image-guided robotic system can safely perform the bulk removal of bone during the translabyrinthine approach to vestibular schwannoma (VS). BACKGROUND: The translabyrinthine approach to VS removal involves extensive manual milling in the temporal bone to gain access to the internal auditory canal (IAC) for tumor resection. This bone removal is time consuming and challenging due to the presence of vital anatomy (e.g., facial nerve) embedded within the temporal bone...
January 10, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073579/robustness-of-4d-optimized-scanned-carbon-ion-beam-therapy-against-interfractional-changes-in-lung-cancer
#5
Christian Graeff
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Moving targets could be conformally treated with actively scanned carbon ion beams using 4D-optimization. As this heavily exploits 4D-CTs, an important question is whether the conformity also upholds in the context of interfractional changes, i.e. variable positioning, anatomy and breathing patterns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 4 lung cancer patients, 6 weekly 4D-CTs were available. 4D-CTs and their phases were non-rigidly registered to propagate contours and 4D-doses...
January 7, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066676/image-guided-localization-of-small-lung-nodules-in-video-assisted-thoracic-surgery
#6
REVIEW
Ze-Rui Zhao, Rainbow W H Lau, Peter S Y Yu, Randolph H L Wong, Calvin S H Ng
The advancement of imaging technology has recently facilitated single port minimally-invasive thoracic surgery techniques. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) shows promising results in visualizing the target lesion and its surrounding critical anatomy, with an error of less than 2 mm. The integration of CBCT with the operating room (OR) to form the hybrid OR, provides unparalleled real-time imaging of the patient, which can be used with electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy to confirm successful navigation and increase procedural accuracy particularly for small peripheral pulmonary targets...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065641/mdct-of-hand-and-wrist-infections-emphasis-on-compartmental-anatomy
#7
REVIEW
S Ahlawat, F M Corl, D M LaPorte, E K Fishman, L M Fayad
Hand and wrist infections can present with a spectrum of manifestations ranging from cellulitis to deep-space collections. The various infectious processes can be categorised as superficial or deep infections based on their respective locations relative to the tendons. Superficial hand infections are located superficial to the tendons and are comprised of cellulitis, lymphangitis, paronychia, pulp-space infections, herpetic whitlow, and include volar as well as dorsal subcutaneous abscesses. Deep hand infections are located deep to the tendon sheaths and include synovial space infections, such as infectious tenosynovitis, deep fascial space infections, septic arthritis, necrotising fasciitis, and osteomyelitis...
January 5, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063076/automatic-detection-of-vertebral-number-abnormalities-in-body-ct-images
#8
Shouhei Hanaoka, Yoshiyasu Nakano, Mitsutaka Nemoto, Yukihiro Nomura, Tomomi Takenaga, Soichiro Miki, Takeharu Yoshikawa, Naoto Hayashi, Yoshitaka Masutani, Akinobu Shimizu
PURPOSE: The anatomical anomaly of the number of vertebral bones is one of the major anomalies in the human body, which can cause confusion of the spinal level in, for example, surgery. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic detection system for this type of anomaly. METHODS: We utilized our previously reported anatomical landmark detection system for this anomaly detection problem. This system uses a landmark point distribution model (L-PDM) to find multiple landmark positions...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054384/computational-anatomy-of-the-dens-axis-evaluated-by-quantitative-computed-tomography-implications-for-anterior-screw-fixation
#9
Dominic Gehweiler, Dirk Wähnert, Norbert Meier, Maarten Spruit, Michael Johannes Raschke, Robert Geoff Richards, Hansrudi Noser, Lukas Kamer
The surgical fracture fixation of the odontoid process (dens) of the second cervical vertebra (C2/axis) is a challenging procedure, particularly in elderly patients affected by bone loss, and includes screw positioning close to vital structures. The aim of this study was to provide an extended anatomical knowledge of C2, the bone mass distribution and bone loss, and to understand the implications for anterior screw fixation. 120 standard clinical quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans of the intact cervical spine from 60 female and 60 male European patients, aged 18-90 years, were used to compute a three-dimensional statistical model and an averaged bone mass model of C2...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054287/cerebral-ventricular-dimensions-after-decompressive-craniectomy-a-comparison-between-bedside-sonographic-duplex-technique-and-cranial-computed-tomography
#10
Habib Bendella, Marc Maegele, Alexander Hartmann, Joachim Spreer, Nadine Rommel, Rolf Lefering, Makoto Nakamura, Alhadi Igressa
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess and compare ventricle diameters in patients after decompressive craniectomy by using cranial computed tomography (CCT) versus sonographic duplex technique (SDT). METHODS: A total of 102 consecutive patients after decompressive craniectomy following brain infarct, bleeding and trauma were examined by CCT and SDT. SDT was performed within 24 h after repeated postinterventional control CCT and the correlation between both methods was assessed via measurement of dimensions of all four ventricles...
January 4, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052582/magnetically-driven-nanoparticles-18-fdg-radiolabelling-and-positron-emission-tomography-biodistribution-study
#11
Mariarosaria De Simone, Daniele Panetta, Emilia Bramanti, Cristiana Giordano, Maria C Salvatici, Lisa Gherardini, Arianna Menciassi, Silvia Burchielli, Caterina Cinti, Piero A Salvadori
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have received increasing interest as contrast media in biomedical imaging and innovative therapeutic tools, in particular for loco-regional ablative treatments and drug delivery. The future of therapeutic applications would strongly benefit from improving the capability of the nanostructured constructs to reach the selected target, in particular beyond the intravascular space. Besides the decoration of SPIONs surface with ad hoc bioactive molecules, external magnetic fields are in principle able to remotely influence SPIONs' physiological biodistribution and concentrate them to a specific anatomical region or portion of a tissue...
January 4, 2017: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052054/a-symmoriiform-chondrichthyan-braincase-and-the-origin-of-chimaeroid-fishes
#12
Michael I Coates, Robert W Gess, John A Finarelli, Katharine E Criswell, Kristen Tietjen
Chimaeroid fishes (Holocephali) are one of the four principal divisions of modern gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates). Despite only 47 described living species, chimaeroids are the focus of resurgent interest as potential archives of genomic data and for the unique perspective they provide on chondrichthyan and gnathostome ancestral conditions. Chimaeroids are also noteworthy for their highly derived body plan. However, like other living groups with distinctive anatomies, fossils have been of limited use in unravelling their evolutionary origin, as the earliest recognized examples already exhibit many of the specializations present in modern forms...
January 4, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051829/apophyseal-and-epiphyseal-knee-injuries-in-the-adolescent-athlete
#13
P Persiani, F M Ranaldi, A Formica, M Mariani, O Mazza, M Crostelli, C Villani
OBJECTIVES: In the context of pediatric sports injuries, the epiphyseal and apophyseal knee fractures represent rather peculiar lesions. The most frequently involved anatomical area is the knee. The peculiar function of the physis and the need to preserve their integrity, makes choosing what treatment methods to employ very important. Objective of this study is to assess the kind and the effectiveness of the most suitable treatment in the apophyseal and epiphyseal knee lesions occurring in the adolescents...
November 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050978/prevalence-location-and-size-of-maxillary-sinus-septa-computed-tomography-scan-analysis
#14
Ferial Taleghani, Maryam Tehranchi, Shahryar Shahab, Zahra Zohri
INTRODUCTION: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anatomy of the maxillary sinus in relation to its position and the height of its septa, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this descriptive retrospective study, 300 CBCT images of maxillary sinuses of patients with posterior maxillary edentulism were evaluated. The maxillary sinus septa were evaluated in relation to their prevalence, height, and position; t-test and Mann-Whitney tests were used for the analysis of data...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050473/evaluation-of-sinonasal-diseases-by-computed-tomography
#15
Rashmi Kandukuri, Suresh Phatak
INTRODUCTION: Computed Tomography (CT) plays an important diagnostic role in patients with sinonasal diseases and determines the treatment. The CT images clearly show fine structural architecture of bony anatomy thereby determining various anatomical variation, extent of disease and characterization of various inflammatory, benign and malignant sinonasal diseases. AIM: To evaluate sensitivity and specificity of CT in diagnosis of sinonasal diseases and to characterise the benign and malignant lesions with the help of various CT parameters...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048917/su-f-j-201-validation-study-of-proton-radiography-against-ct-data-for-quantitative-imaging-of-anatomical-changes-in-head-and-neck-patients
#16
A Hammi, D Weber, A Lomax
PURPOSE: In clinical pencil-beam-scanned (PBS) proton therapy, the advantage of the characteristic sharp dose fall-off after the Bragg Peak (BP) becomes a disadvantage if the BP positions of a plan's constituent pencil beams are shifted, eg.due to anatomical changes. Thus, for fractionated PBS proton therapy, accurate knowledge of the water equivalent path length (WEPL) of the traversed anatomy is critical. In this work we investigate the feasibility of using 2D proton range maps (proton radiography, PR) with the active-scanning gantry at PSI...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048897/su-f-j-156-the-feasibility-of-mr-only-imrt-planning-for-prostate-anatomy
#17
R Vaitheeswaran, K R Sivaramakrishnan, Prashant Kumar, Raja Gattamaneni, Girish Kumar
PURPOSE: For prostate anatomy, previous investigations have shown that simulated CT (sCT) generated from MR images can be used for accurate dose computation. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of MR-only IMRT planning for prostate case. METHODS: Regular CT (rCT) and MR images of the same patient were acquired for prostate anatomy. Regions-of-interest (ROIs) i.e. target and risk structures are delineated on the rCT. A simulated CT (sCT) is generated from the MR image using the method described by Schadewaldt N et al...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048870/su-f-j-81-evaluation-of-automated-deformable-registration-between-planning-computed-tomography-ct-and-daily-cone-beam-ct-images-over-the-course-of-prostate-cancer-radiotherapy
#18
J Matney, J Hammers, O Kaidar-Person, A Wang, R Chen, S Das, L Marks, P Mavroidis
PURPOSE: To compute daily dose delivered during radiotherapy, deformable registration needs to be relatively fast, automated, and accurate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of commercial deformable registration software for deforming between two modalities: planning computed tomography (pCT) images acquired for treatment planning and cone beam (CB) CT images acquired prior to each fraction of prostate cancer radiotherapy. METHODS: A workflow was designed using MIM Software™ that aligned and deformed pCT into daily CBCT images in two steps: (1) rigid shifts applied after daily CBCT imaging to align patient anatomy to the pCT and (2) normalized intensity-based deformable registration to account for interfractional anatomical variations...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048867/mo-ab-bra-10-super-high-temporal-resolution-cardiac-ct-imaging-using-smart-recon
#19
Y Li, X Cao, Z Xing, X Sun, J Hsieh, G Chen
PURPOSE: Coronary CT angiography is a challenging task currently limited by the achievable temporal resolution of modern MDCT scanners. In this work, a highly innovative method has been developed and validated to improve temporal resolution of the MDCT by a factor of four with the newly developed SMART-RECON method to enable high quality coronary CTA exams. The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between: (1) SMART-RECON and the motion pattern; (2) SMART-RECON and the average speed of moving vessels; (3) SMART-RECON and the position and direction of moving vessels...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048849/su-f-j-174-a-series-of-computational-human-phantoms-in-dicom-rt-format-for-normal-tissue-dose-reconstruction-in-epidemiological-studies
#20
A Pyakuryal, B Moroz, C Lee, C Pelletier, J Jung, C Lee
PURPOSE: Epidemiological studies of second cancer risk in radiotherapy patients often require individualized dose estimates of normal tissues. Prior to 3D conformal radiation therapy planning, patient anatomy information was mostly limited to 2D radiological images or not even available. Generic patient CT images are often used in commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system (TPS) to reconstruct normal tissue doses. The objective of the current work was to develop a series of reference size computational human phantoms in DICOM-RT format for direct use in dose reconstruction in TPS...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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