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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228504/dynamic-borrowing-through-empirical-power-priors-that-control-type-i-error
#1
Stavros Nikolakopoulos, Ingeborg van der Tweel, Kit C B Roes
In order for historical data to be considered for inclusion in the design and analysis of clinical trials, prospective rules are essential. Incorporation of historical data may be of particular interest in the case of small populations where available data is scarce and heterogeneity is not as well understood, and thus conventional methods for evidence synthesis might fall short. The concept of power priors can be particularly useful for borrowing evidence from a single historical study. Power priors employ a parameter γ∈[0,1] that quantifies the heterogeneity between the historical study and the new study...
December 11, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228454/new-semiparametric-method-for-predicting-high-cost-patients
#2
Adam Maidman, Lan Wang
Motivated by the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey containing data from individuals' medical providers and employers across the United States, we propose a new semiparametric procedure for predicting whether a patient will incur high medical expenditure. Problems of the same nature arise in many other important applications where one would like to predict if a future response occurs at the upper (or lower) tail of the response distribution. The common practice is to artificially dichotomize the response variable and then apply an existing classification method such as binomial regression or a classification tree...
December 11, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227506/comparison-of-methodologies-using-estimated-or-measured-values-of-total-corneal-astigmatism-for-toric-intraocular-lens-power-calculation
#3
Tiago B Ferreira, Paulo Ribeiro, Filomena J Ribeiro, João G O'Neill
PURPOSE: To compare the prediction error in the calculation of toric intraocular lenses (IOLs) associated with methods that estimate the power of the posterior corneal surface (ie, Barrett toric calculator and Abulafia-Koch formula) with that of methods that consider real measures obtained using Scheimpflug imaging: a software that uses vectorial calculation (Panacea toric calculator: http://www.panaceaiolandtoriccalculator.com) and a ray tracing software (PhacoOptics, Aarhus Nord, Denmark)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226163/diagnostic-accuracy-of-3-physical-examination-tests-in-the-assessment-of-hip-microinstability
#4
Daniel J Hoppe, Jeremy N Truntzer, Lauren M Shapiro, Geoffrey D Abrams, Marc R Safran
Background: Hip microinstability is a diagnosis gaining increasing interest. Physical examination tests to identify microinstability have not been objectively investigated using intraoperative confirmation of instability as a reference standard. Purpose: To determine the test characteristics and diagnostic accuracy of 3 physical examination maneuvers in the detection of hip microinstability. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2...
November 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225039/a-massively-parallel-reporter-assay-of-3-utr-sequences-identifies-in%C3%A2-vivo-rules-for-mrna-degradation
#5
Michal Rabani, Lindsey Pieper, Guo-Liang Chew, Alexander F Schier
The stability of mRNAs is regulated by signals within their sequences, but a systematic and predictive understanding of the underlying sequence rules remains elusive. Here we introduce UTR-seq, a combination of massively parallel reporter assays and regression models, to survey the dynamics of tens of thousands of 3' UTR sequences during early zebrafish embryogenesis. UTR-seq revealed two temporal degradation programs: a maternally encoded early-onset program and a late-onset program that accelerated degradation after zygotic genome activation...
November 30, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224995/evaluation-of-alkylating-pyrrole-imidazole-polyamide-conjugates-by-a-novel-method-for-high-throughput-sequencer
#6
Gengo Kashiwazaki, Rina Maeda, Takashi Kawase, Kaori Hashiya, Toshikazu Bando, Hiroshi Sugiyama
N-Methylpyrrole-N-methylimidazole (PI) polyamides are a class of DNA minor groove binders with DNA sequence-specificity. DNA-alkylating PI polyamide conjugates are attractive candidates as anticancer drugs acting through DNA damage and its subsequent inhibition of cell proliferation. One example is a chlorambucil-PI polyamide conjugate targeting the runt-related transcription factor (RUNX) family. RUNX1 has pro-oncogenic properties in acute myeloid leukemia, and recently the chlorambucil-PI polyamide conjugate was demonstrated to have anticancer effects...
November 29, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223137/sysmex-uf-1000i-flow-cytometer-to-screen-urinary-tract-infections-the-uriscam-multicentre-study
#7
O Herráez, M A Asencio, R Carranza, M M Jarabo, M Huertas, O Redondo, A Arias, S Jiménez-Álvarez, S Solís, P Zamarrón, M S Illescas, M A Galán
The new Sysmex UF-1000i analyzer - which incorporates bacteria morphology distinction - allows to automatically screen samples to be cultured at microbiology laboratories. We have evaluated the feasibility and accuracy of Sysmex UF-1000i to screen urine tract infections (UTIs). A total amount of 2,468 urine samples from six Spanish hospitals were analysed. Demographic and clinical data such as age, gender, source and sample type, preserving conditions, cytometer parameters (bacteria, leucocytes, and bacteria morphology) as well as urine culture results (gold standard) were recorded...
December 9, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222118/purine-and-pyrimidine-triple-helix-forming-oligonucleotides-recognize-qualitatively-different-target-sites-at-the-ribosomal-dna-locus
#8
Rodrigo Maldonado, Michael Filarsky, Ingrid Grummt, Gernot Längst
Triplexes are non-canonical DNA structures, which are functionally associated with regulation of gene expression through ncRNA targeting to chromatin. Based on the rules of Hoogsteen base pairing, poly-purine sequences of a duplex can potentially form triplex structures with single-stranded oligonucleotides. Prediction of triplex-forming sequences by bioinformatics analyses have revealed enrichment of potential triplex targeting sites (TTS) at regulatory elements, mainly in promoters and enhancers, suggesting a potential function of RNA-DNA triplexes in transcriptional regulation...
December 8, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220393/process-service-quality-evaluation-based-on-dempster-shafer-theory-and-support-vector-machine
#9
Feng-Que Pei, Dong-Bo Li, Yi-Fei Tong, Fei He
Human involvement influences traditional service quality evaluations, which triggers an evaluation's low accuracy, poor reliability and less impressive predictability. This paper proposes a method by employing a support vector machine (SVM) and Dempster-Shafer evidence theory to evaluate the service quality of a production process by handling a high number of input features with a low sampling data set, which is called SVMs-DS. Features that can affect production quality are extracted by a large number of sensors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219896/an-analysis-of-training-loads-in-elite-under-18-australian-rule-football-players
#10
Emily E Cust, Nathan Elsworthy, Sam Robertson
Differences in training loads (TL) between under 18 (U18) Australian Rules football (AF) State Academy selected and non-selected players were investigated. Players were categorised relating to their highest representative level; State Academy selected (n = 9) and TAC Cup level players (n = 38). Data were obtained from an online training-monitoring tool implemented to collect player training and match information across a 20 - week period during the regular season. Parameters modelled included AF skills, strength, and other sport training sessions...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219569/giant-kovacs-like-memory-effect-for-active-particles
#11
Rüdiger Kürsten, Vladimir Sushkov, Thomas Ihle
Dynamical properties of self-propelled particles obeying a bounded confidence rule are investigated by means of kinetic theory and agent-based simulations. While memory effects are observed in disordered systems, we show that they also occur in active matter systems. In particular, we find that the system exhibits a giant Kovacs-like memory effect that is much larger than predicted by a generic linear theory. Based on a separation of time scales we develop a nonlinear theory to explain this effect. We apply this theory to driven granular gases and propose further applications to spin glasses...
November 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219041/potential-causative-mutation-for-melanism-in-rats-identified-in-the-agouti-signaling-protein-gene-asip-of-the-rattus-rattus-species-complex-on-okinawa-island-japan
#12
Shoichi Sasamori, Andrew S Wiewel, Vicki A Thomson, Motoko Kobayashi, Katsushi Nakata, Hitoshi Suzuki
The occurrence of black fur, or melanism, in many mammalian species is known to be linked to DNA sequence variation in the agouti signaling protein (Asip) gene, which is a major determinant of eumelanin and pheomelanin pigments in coat color. We investigated 38 agouti (i.e., banded wildtype) and four melanistic Rattus rattus species complex (RrC) lineage II specimens from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, for genetic variation in three exons and associated flanking regions in the Asip gene. On Okinawa, a predicted loss-of-function mutation caused by a cysteine to serine amino acid change at p...
December 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215781/clinical-prediction-rules-for-mortality-in-patients-with-pulmonary-embolism-and-cancer-to-guide-outpatient-management-a-meta-analysis
#13
E Nguyen, J Caranfa, G H Lyman, N M Kuderer, C Stirbis, M Wysocki, C I Coleman, E R Weeda, C G Kohn
BACKGROUND: Cancer treatment is commonly complicated by pulmonary embolism (PE), which remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Some guidelines recommend the use of clinical prediction rules (CPRs) to help clinicians identify patients at low-risk for mortality to guide care. OBJECTIVE: To determine and compare the accuracy of available CPRs for identifying cancer patients with PE at low-risk for mortality. METHODS: A literature search of Medline and Scopus (01/01/2000-08/01/2017) was performed...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215711/triage-tools-for-detecting-cervical-spine-injury-in-pediatric-trauma-patients
#14
REVIEW
Annelie Slaar, M M Fockens, Junfeng Wang, Mario Maas, David J Wilson, J Carel Goslings, Niels Wl Schep, Rick R van Rijn
BACKGROUND: Pediatric cervical spine injury (CSI) after blunt trauma is rare. Nonetheless, missing these injuries can have severe consequences. To prevent the overuse of radiographic imaging, two clinical decision tools have been developed: The National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) criteria and the Canadian C-spine Rule (CCR). Both tools are proven to be accurate in deciding whether or not diagnostic imaging is needed in adults presenting for blunt trauma screening at the emergency department...
December 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215282/thermal-decomposition-of-phosgene-and-diphosgene
#15
Juan-Carlos Lizardo-Huerta, Baptiste Sirjean, Laurent Verdier, René Fournet, Pierre-Alexandre Glaude
Phosgene (COCl2) is a toxic compound used or formed in a wide range of applications. The understanding of its thermal decomposition for destruction processes or in the event of accidental fire of stored reserves is a major safety issue. In this study, a detailed chemical kinetic model for the thermal decomposition and combustion of phosgene and diphosgene is proposed for the first time. A large number of thermo-kinetic parameters were calculated using quantum chemistry and reaction rate theory. The model was validated against experimental pyrolysis data from the literature...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214752/evaluation-of-sflt-1-plgf-ratio-for-predicting-and-improving-clinical-management-of-pre-eclampsia-experience-in-a-specialized-perinatal-care-center
#16
Hélène Caillon, Cécile Tardif, Erwan Dumontet, Norbert Winer, Damien Masson
BACKGROUND: Management of pregnant women at high risk of pre-eclampsia (PE) requires frequent monitoring, with referral to specialized perinatal care centers. Reliable tests are necessary to improve prediction of PE and related complications and to assess disease severity and progression. An imbalance in two biomarkers, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) and placental growth factor (PlGF), is involved in PE pathogenesis. The sFlt-1 to PlGF ratio is increased in pregnant women before the onset of PE...
March 2018: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205536/energy-structure-function-maps-cartography-for-materials-discovery
#17
REVIEW
Graeme M Day, Andrew I Cooper
Some of the most successful approaches to structural design in materials chemistry have exploited strong directional bonds, whose geometric reliability lends predictability to solid-state assembly. For example, metal-organic frameworks are an important design platform in materials chemistry. By contrast, the structure of molecular crystals is defined by a balance of weaker intermolecular forces, and small changes to the molecular building blocks can lead to large changes in crystal packing. Hence, empirical rules are inherently less reliable for engineering the structures of molecular solids...
December 4, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204821/development-of-a-clinical-prediction-score-for-detection-of-suspected-cases-of-equine-grass-sickness-dysautonomia-in-france
#18
P K Randleff-Rasmussen, A Leblond, J Cappelle, J Bontemps, S Belluco, M R Popoff, C Marcillaud-Pitel, J Tapprest, P Tritz, I Desjardins
Equine grass sickness (EGS) (equine dysautonomia) is a neurodegenerative condition of grazing equines. Pre-mortem diagnosis of EGS is a challenge for practitioners as definitive diagnosis requires ileal/myenteric lymph node biopsies. This study aimed to develop a clinical score that could be used by practitioners to improve the detection of acute or subacute EGS cases in the field. Suspected EGS cases were declared by veterinary practitioners. A case was classified as confirmed positive if ileal or rectal biopsy samples showed neuronal degeneration typical of EGS...
December 4, 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203485/the-trypanocidal-effect-of-novel-quinolines-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#19
A S G Nefertiti, M M Batista, P B Da Silva, D G J Batista, C F Da Silva, R B Peres, E C Torres-Santos, E F Cunha-Junior, E Holt, D W Boykin, R Brun, T Wenzler, M N C Soeiro
The therapy for Human African Trypanosomiasis and Chagas Disease, caused by Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi respectively, are limited providing minimal therapeutic options for the millions of individuals living in very poor communities. The effect of ten novel quinolines are evaluated herein through in silico and by phenotypic studies using in vitro and in vivo models. ADMET properties revealed that most molecules did not infringe Lipinski's rules, which is a prediction of good oral absorption. They showed good probability of CaCo2 permeability and for human intestinal absorption, low probability of mutagenicity and of hERG1 inhibition...
December 4, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202870/clinical-predictors-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis-do-the-canadian-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-acute-and-chronic-rhinosinusitis-predict-ct-confirmation-of-disease
#20
Paige Moore, Brian Blakley, Eric Meen
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) based on clinical presentation alone remains challenging. To improve the accuracy of clinical diagnosis, the Canadian Rhinosinusitis Guidelines recommend the use of specific symptom and endoscopic criteria. Our study objective was to determine whether symptom and endoscopic criteria, as defined by the Canadian Rhinosinusitis Guidelines, accurately predict CT-confirmed CRS diagnosis. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 126 patients who underwent CT sinuses based on clinical suspicion of possible CRS...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
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