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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677477/systems-immunology-learning-the-rules-of-the-immune-system
#1
Alexandra-Chloé Villani, Siranush Sarkizova, Nir Hacohen
Given the many cell types and molecular components of the human immune system, along with vast variations across individuals, how should we go about developing causal and predictive explanations of immunity? A central strategy in human studies is to leverage natural variation to find relationships among variables, including DNA variants, epigenetic states, immune phenotypes, clinical descriptors, and others. Here, we focus on how natural variation is used to find patterns, infer principles, and develop predictive models for two areas: (a) immune cell activation-how single-cell profiling boosts our ability to discover immune cell types and states-and (b) antigen presentation and recognition-how models can be generated to predict presentation of antigens on MHC molecules and their detection by T cell receptors...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675175/machine-learning-for-the-structure-energy-property-landscapes-of-molecular-crystals
#2
Félix Musil, Sandip De, Jack Yang, Joshua E Campbell, Graeme M Day, Michele Ceriotti
Molecular crystals play an important role in several fields of science and technology. They frequently crystallize in different polymorphs with substantially different physical properties. To help guide the synthesis of candidate materials, atomic-scale modelling can be used to enumerate the stable polymorphs and to predict their properties, as well as to propose heuristic rules to rationalize the correlations between crystal structure and materials properties. Here we show how a recently-developed machine-learning (ML) framework can be used to achieve inexpensive and accurate predictions of the stability and properties of polymorphs, and a data-driven classification that is less biased and more flexible than typical heuristic rules...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675032/fspp-a-tool-for-genome-wide-prediction-of-smorf-encoded-peptides-and-their-functions
#3
Hui Li, Li Xiao, Lili Zhang, Jiarui Wu, Bin Wei, Ninghui Sun, Yi Zhao
smORFs are small open reading frames of less than 100 codons. Recent low throughput experiments showed a lot of smORF-encoded peptides (SEPs) played crucial rule in processes such as regulation of transcription or translation, transportation through membranes and the antimicrobial activity. In order to gather more functional SEPs, it is necessary to have access to genome-wide prediction tools to give profound directions for low throughput experiments. In this study, we put forward a functional smORF-encoded peptides predictor (FSPP) which tended to predict authentic SEPs and their functions in a high throughput method...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674447/cognitive-underpinnings-of-nationalistic-ideology-in-the-context-of-brexit
#4
Leor Zmigrod, Peter J Rentfrow, Trevor W Robbins
Nationalistic identities often play an influential role in citizens' voting behavior and political engagement. Nationalistic ideologies tend to have firm categories and rules for what belongs to and represents the national culture. In a sample of 332 UK citizens, we tested whether strict categorization of stimuli and rules in objective cognitive tasks would be evident in strongly nationalistic individuals. Using voting behavior and attitudes from the United Kingdom's 2016 EU referendum, we found that a flexible representation of national identity and culture was linked to cognitive flexibility in the ideologically neutral Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Remote Associates Test, and to self-reported flexibility under uncertainty...
April 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673983/population-genetics-informed-meta-analysis-in-seven-genes-associated-with-risk-to-dengue-fever-disease
#5
Marisa Oliveira, Diana P Saraiva, Bruno Cavadas, Verónica Fernandes, Nicole Pedro, Isabelle Casademont, Fanny Koeth, Farida Alshamali, Nourdin Harich, Lotfi Cherni, Beatriz Sierra, Maria G Guzman, Anavaj Sakuntabhai, Luisa Pereira
Population genetics theory predicted that rare frequent markers would be the main contributors for heritability of complex diseases, but meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies are revealing otherwise common markers, present in all population groups, as the identified candidate genes. In this work, we applied a population-genetics informed meta-analysis to 10 markers located in seven genes said to be associated with dengue fever disease. Seven markers (in PLCE1, CD32, CD209, OAS1 and OAS3 genes) have high-frequency and the other three (in MICB and TNFA genes) have intermediate frequency...
April 16, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673675/the-association-between-in-vitro-fertilization-outcome-and-the-inflammatory-markers-of-complete-blood-count-among-nonobese-unexplained-infertile-couples
#6
Esra Nur Tola
OBJECTIVE(S): The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether the inflammatory parameters of complete blood count (CBC), including white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte-ratio (PLR), and mean platelet volume (MPV), had potential roles in the etiopathogenesis of unexplained infertility (UI) among nonobese women. We also aimed to investigate whether there could be an association between these markers and in vitro fertilization (IVF) success among nonobese women with UI...
April 2018: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673608/scadi-a-standard-dataset-for-self-care-problems-classification-of-children-with-physical-and-motor-disability
#7
M S Zarchi, S M M Fatemi Bushehri, M Dehghanizadeh
Self-care problems diagnosis and classification is an important challenge in exceptional children health care systems. Since, self-care problems classification is a time-consuming process and requires expert occupational therapists, using an expert system in classifying these problems can decrease cost and time, efficiently. Expert systems refer to the systems that are based on artificial intelligence methods, which have the ability to learn, infer, and predict. In order to configure and train an expert system, a standard dataset is critical for the learning phase...
June 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673601/decision-support-system-for-triage-management-a-hybrid-approach-using-rule-based-reasoning-and-fuzzy-logic
#8
Mahsa Dehghani Soufi, Taha Samad-Soltani, Samad Shams Vahdati, Peyman Rezaei-Hachesu
OBJECTIVES: Fast and accurate patient triage for the response process is a critical first step in emergency situations. This process is often performed using a paper-based mode, which intensifies workload and difficulty, wastes time, and is at risk of human errors. This study aims to design and evaluate a decision support system (DSS) to determine the triage level. METHODS: A combination of the Rule-Based Reasoning (RBR) and Fuzzy Logic Classifier (FLC) approaches were used to predict the triage level of patients according to the triage specialist's opinions and Emergency Severity Index (ESI) guidelines...
June 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673359/developing-a-risk-prediction-model-for-the-functional-outcome-after-hip-arthroscopy
#9
Patrick Stephan, Maarten A Röling, Nina M C Mathijssen, Gerjon Hannink, Rolf M Bloem
BACKGROUND: Hip arthroscopic treatment is not equally beneficial for every patient undergoing this procedure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a clinical prediction model for functional outcome after surgery based on preoperative factors. METHODS: Prospective data was collected on a cohort of 205 patients having undergone hip arthroscopy between 2011 and 2015. Demographic and clinical variables and patient reported outcome (PRO) scores were collected, and considered as potential predictors...
April 19, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670861/the-cynomolgus-macaque-natural-history-model-of-pneumonic-tularemia-for-predicting-clinical-efficacy-under-the-animal-rule
#10
Tina Guina, Lynda L Lanning, Kristian S Omland, Mark S Williams, Larry A Wolfraim, Stephen P Heyse, Christopher R Houchens, Patrick Sanz, Judith A Hewitt
Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious Gram-negative bacterium that is the etiologic agent of tularemia in animals and humans and a Tier 1 select agent. The natural incidence of pneumonic tularemia worldwide is very low; therefore, it is not feasible to conduct clinical efficacy testing of tularemia medical countermeasures (MCM) in human populations. Development and licensure of tularemia therapeutics and vaccines need to occur under the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Animal Rule under which efficacy studies are conducted in well-characterized animal models that reflect the pathophysiology of human disease...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667798/delusional-infestation-in-psychodermatology
#11
Monica Rosales Santillan, Dustin L Taylor, Jason S Reichenberg
Delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis, consists of a patient's strong belief that he or she is infested with a nonliving substance or living organism despite lack of medical evidence to support this belief. The most commonly reported sources of infestation include insects, fibrous strands, worms, and scabies. Delusional infestation is predominantly seen in women and older patients. This disorder has a variable course and prognosis in patients. Delusional infestation can be a primary psychiatric problem, or secondary to underlying medical conditions or other psychiatric disorders...
April 18, 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664993/scaling-relationships-and-vessel-packing-in-petioles
#12
Dustin M Ray, Cynthia S Jones
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: While tradeoffs among mechanical and conductive functions have been well investigated in woody stems, these tradeoffs are relatively unexplored in petioles, the structural link between stems and laminas. We investigated size-independent scaling relationships between cross-sectional areas of structural and vascular tissues, relationships between tissue areas of xylem and phloem, vessel packing within xylem, and scaling of vascular and structural tissues with lamina traits...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663896/molecular-interaction-and-computational-analytical-studies-of-pinocembrin-for-its-antiangiogenic-potential-targeting-vegfr-2-a-persuader-of-metastasis
#13
Neha Sharma, Mala Sharma, Eram Shakeel, Qazi M Sajid Jamal, Mohammad A Kamal, Usman Sayeed, Mohammad K A Khan, Mohammad H Siddiqui, Jamal M Arif, Salman Akhtar
BACKGROUND: Designing a novel antagonist against VEGFR-2 is being applied currently to inhibit cancer growth and metastasis. Because of the unexpected side effects incurred by the contemporary anticancer medications, the focus has been laid towards identifying natural compounds that might carry the potential to inhibit tumor progression. VEGR-2 remains an important target for anticancer drug development as it is the master regulator of vascular growth. OBJECTIVE: The study focuses on virtual screening of compounds from plants of Asteraceae family that bears antiangiogenic potential and thus, inhibiting VEGFR-2 using a computational approach...
April 16, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663836/computational-modeling-of-human-oral-bioavailability-what-will-be-next
#14
Miguel Ángel Cabrera-Pérez, Hai Pham-The
The oral route is the most convenient way of administrating drugs. Therefore, accurate determination of oral bioavailability is paramount during drug discovery and development. Quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR), rule-of-thumb (RoT) and physiologically based-pharmacokinetic (PBPK) approaches are promising alternatives to the early oral bioavailability prediction. Areas covered: The authors give insight into the factors affecting bioavailability, the fundamental theoretical framework and the practical aspects of computational methods for predicting this property...
April 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662457/a-blind-spot-in-research-on-foreign-language-effects-in-judgment-and-decision-making
#15
Andrea Polonioli
One of the most fascinating topics of current investigation in the literature on judgment and decision-making concerns the exploration of foreign language effects (henceforth, FLE). Specifically, recent research suggests that presenting information in a foreign language helps reasoners make better choices. However, this piece aims at making scholars aware of a blind spot in this stream of research. In particular, research on FLE has imported only one view of judgment and decision-making, in which the heuristics that people use are seen as conducive to biases and, in turn, to costly mistakes...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660842/kinetic-models-of-hematopoietic-differentiation
#16
REVIEW
Victor Olariu, Carsten Peterson
As cell and molecular biology is becoming increasingly quantitative, there is an upsurge of interest in mechanistic modeling at different levels of resolution. Such models mostly concern kinetics and include gene and protein interactions as well as cell population dynamics. The final goal of these models is to provide experimental predictions, which is now taking on. However, even without matured predictions, kinetic models serve the purpose of compressing a plurality of experimental results into something that can empower the data interpretation, and importantly, suggesting new experiments by turning "knobs" in silico...
April 16, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660794/diagnostic-utility-of-cardiac-troponin-i-in-cats-with-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#17
Yasutomo Hori, Masayuki Iguchi, Yasuhiro Heishima, Yohei Yamashita, Kensuke Nakamura, Atsushi Hirakawa, Akihito Kitade, Toshiki Ibaragi, Michio Katagi, Tamotsu Sawada, Masashi Yuki, Nobuyuki Kanno, Haruki Inaba, Noriko Isayama, Hideyuki Onodera, Naoki Iwasa, Mikio Kino, Mikihiro Narukawa, Syuhei Uchida
BACKGROUND: Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is useful for assessing hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in cats. OBJECTIVE: To measure plasma cTnI concentrations in healthy cats and evaluate the clinical utility of cTnI in determining the severity of HCM. ANIMALS: Clinically healthy cats (n = 88) and cats with HCM (n = 93). METHODS: Multicenter prospective study. Cats with HCM, including hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy at various stages, were diagnosed using echocardiography...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659587/can-chimerism-explain-breast-ovarian-cancers-in-brca-non-carriers-from-brca-positive-families
#18
Rachel Mitchell, Lela Buckingham, Melody Cobleigh, Jacob Rotmensch, Kelly Burgess, Lydia Usha
Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) is most frequently caused by mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (in short, BRCA) genes. The incidence of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in relatives of BRCA mutation carriers who test negative for the familial mutation (non-carriers) may be increased. However, the data is controversial, and at this time, these individuals are recommended the same cancer surveillance as general population. One possible explanation for BRCA phenocopies (close relatives of BRCA carriers who have developed cancer consistent with HBOC but tested negative for a familial mutation) is natural chimerism where lack of detectable mutation in blood may not rule out the presence of the mutation in the other tissues...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659473/external-validation-of-a-5-variable-clinical-prediction-rule-for-identifying-children-at-very-low-risk-for-intra-abdominal-injury-following-blunt-abdominal-trauma
#19
Chase A Arbra, Adam M Vogel, Leah Plumblee, Jingwen Zhang, Patrick D Mauldin, Melvin S Dassinger, Robert T Russell, Martin L Blakely, Christian J Streck
BACKGROUND: A clinical prediction rule was previously developed by the Pediatric Surgery Research Collaborative (PedSRC) to identify patients at very low risk for intra-abdominal injury (IAI) and intra-abdominal injury receiving an acute intervention (IAI-I) who could safely avoid abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans following blunt abdominal trauma (BAT). Our objective was to externally validate the rule. METHODS: The public use dataset was obtained from the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) Intra-abdominal Injury Study...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658761/longitudinal-associations-of-maternal-depression-and-adolescents-depression-and-behaviors-moderation-by-maltreatment-and-sex
#20
Ferol E Mennen, Sonya Negriff, Janet U Schneiderman, Penelope K Trickett
This study explored the longitudinal relationships among maternal depressive symptoms, children's depressive symptoms, aggression, and rule breaking and tested the moderating effects of maltreatment and child sex. A sample of 175 biological mother-child dyads (86 maltreated and 89 comparison) were seen at three time points, beginning at an average child age of 10.87 years. Results from cross-lagged models showed maternal depressive symptoms were related to higher levels of children's depressive symptoms but not children's aggression or rule breaking...
March 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
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