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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913798/generalizability-of-the-maximum-proportional-recovery-rule-to-visuospatial-neglect-early-poststroke
#1
Caroline Winters, Erwin E H van Wegen, Andreas Daffertshofer, Gert Kwakkel
Background and objective Proportional recovery of upper-extremity motor function and aphasia after stroke may suggest common mechanisms for spontaneous neurobiological recovery. This study aimed to investigate if the proportional recovery rule also applies to visuospatial neglect (VSN) in right-hemispheric first-ever ischemic stroke patients and explored the possible common underlying mechanisms. Methods Patients with upper-limb paresis and VSN were included. Recovery defined as the change in Letter Cancellation Test (LCT) score at ~8 days and 6 months poststroke...
December 2, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913507/diagnosis-of-suspected-venous-thromboembolism
#2
Clive Kearon
The primary goal of diagnostic testing for venous thromboembolism (VTE) is to identify all patients who could benefit from anticoagulant therapy. Test results that identify patients as having a ≤2% risk of VTE in the next 3 months are judged to exclude deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE). Clinical evaluation, with assessment of: (1) clinical pretest probability (CPTP) for VTE; (2) likelihood of important alternative diagnoses; and (3) the probable yield of D-dimer and various imaging tests, guide which tests should be performed...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913367/a-new-method-for-self-estimation-of-the-severity-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-using-easily-available-measurements-and-neural-fuzzy-evaluation-system
#3
Ming-Feng Wu, Wei-Chang Huang, Chia-Feng Juang, Kai-Ming Chang, Chih-Yu Wen, Yu-Hsuan Chen, Ching-Yi Lin, Yi-Chan Chen, Ching-Cheng Lin
This paper proposes a neural fuzzy evaluation system (NFES) with significant variables selected from stepwise regression to predict apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) for evaluating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The variables considered are the change statuses of blood pressure (BP) before going to sleep and early in the morning as well as other five easily available measurements (age, body mass index (BMI) etc.) so that users can use the system for self-evaluation of OSA. A total of 150 subjects are reviewed retrospectively and categorized as training (120 subjects) and validation (30 subjects) sets by a five-fold cross validation scheme with stratified sampling based on the OSA severity...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911790/psychopathic-individuals-exhibit-but-do-not-avoid-regret-during-counterfactual-decision-making
#4
Arielle Baskin-Sommers, Allison M Stuppy-Sullivan, Joshua W Buckholtz
Psychopathy is associated with persistent antisocial behavior and a striking lack of regret for the consequences of that behavior. Although explanatory models for psychopathy have largely focused on deficits in affective responsiveness, recent work indicates that aberrant value-based decision making may also play a role. On that basis, some have suggested that psychopathic individuals may be unable to effectively use prospective simulations to update action value estimates during cost-benefit decision making...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911775/how-constraints-affect-the-hunter-s-decision-to-shoot-a-deer
#5
Florian K Diekert, Andries Richter, Inger Maren Rivrud, Atle Mysterud
Hunting is the predominant way of controlling many wildlife populations devoid of large carnivores. It subjects animals to mortality rates that far exceed natural rates and that differ markedly in which age, sex, or size classes are removed relative to those of natural predators. To explain the emerging selection pattern we develop behavioral microfoundations for a hunting model, emphasizing in particular the constraints given by the formal and informal norms, rules, and regulations that govern the hunter's choice...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910848/a-grand-unified-model-for-liganded-gold-clusters
#6
Wen Wu Xu, Beien Zhu, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Yi Gao
A grand unified model (GUM) is developed to achieve fundamental understanding of rich structures of all 71 liganded gold clusters reported to date. Inspired by the quark model by which composite particles (for example, protons and neutrons) are formed by combining three quarks (or flavours), here gold atoms are assigned three 'flavours' (namely, bottom, middle and top) to represent three possible valence states. The 'composite particles' in GUM are categorized into two groups: variants of triangular elementary block Au3(2e) and tetrahedral elementary block Au4(2e), all satisfying the duet rule (2e) of the valence shell, akin to the octet rule in general chemistry...
December 2, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910703/co-calibration-of-two-self-reported-measures-of-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy
#7
Robin M Nance, J A Chris Delaney, Carol E Golin, Wendee M Wechsberg, Chinazo Cunningham, Frederick Altice, Katerina Christopoulos, Kevin Knight, Vu Quan, Michael S Gordon, Sandra Springer, Jeremy Young, Paul K Crane, Kenneth H Mayer, Michael J Mugavero, Carlos Del Rio, Richard A Kronmal, Heidi M Crane
Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is an important determinant of clinical success assessed in many HIV studies. Harmonizing adherence data from studies that use different measures is difficult without a co-calibration equation to convert between validated instruments. Our purpose was to co-calibrate two commonly used adherence measures: the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) questionnaire and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). We used robust linear regression to develop a co-calibration equation in a clinical care cohort...
December 2, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908898/clinically-useful-screen-for-borderline-personality-disorder-in-psychiatric-out-patients
#8
Mark Zimmerman, Matthew D Multach, Kristy Dalrymple, Iwona Chelminski
A total of 3674 psychiatric out-patients were evaluated with a semi-structured diagnostic interview for DSM-IV borderline personality disorder (BPD). The affective instability criterion had a sensitivity of 92.8%, higher than the sensitivities of the other eight BPD criteria. The negative predictive value of the affective instability criterion was 99%. We recommend that clinicians screen for BPD in the same way that they screen for other psychiatric disorders: by enquiring about a single feature of the disorder (i...
December 1, 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908125/a-h%C3%A3-ckel-source-sink-potential-theory-of-pauli-spin-blockade-in-molecular-electronic-devices
#9
Barry T Pickup, Patrick W Fowler, Irene Sciriha
This paper shows how to include Pauli (exclusion principle) effects within a treatment of ballistic molecular conduction that uses the tight-binding Hückel Hamiltonian and the source-sink-potential (SSP) method. We take into account the many-electron ground-state of the molecule and show that we can discuss ballistic conduction for a specific molecular device in terms of four structural polynomials. In the standard one-electron picture, these are characteristic polynomials of vertex-deleted graphs, with spectral representations in terms of molecular-orbital eigenvectors and eigenvalues...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907833/development-of-a-scale-to-evaluate-young-children-s-responses-to-uncertainty-and-low-environmental-structure
#10
Amanda L Sanchez, Danielle Cornacchio, Tommy Chou, Ovsanna Leyfer, Stefany Coxe, Donna Pincus, Jonathan S Comer
Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU), defined as the dispositional interpretation of uncertain or ambiguous events as stressful and problematic, has been linked to excessive worry and other anxiety-related problems in adults and youth. IU has been conceptualized as a vulnerability factor for excessive worry and anxiety, but the historical absence of a supported measure of IU in young children has hampered longitudinal research needed to evaluate temporal relationships between IU and anxiety and the differential developmental pathways of IU leading to different anxiety disorders and depression...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904602/comparison-of-different-risk-stratification-systems-in-predicting-short-term-serious-outcome-of-syncope-patients
#11
Saeed Safari, Alireza Baratloo, Behrooz Hashemi, Farhad Rahmati, Mohammad Mehdi Forouzanfar, Maryam Motamedi, Ladan Mirmohseni
BACKGROUND: Determining etiologic causes and prognosis can significantly improve management of syncope patients. The present study aimed to compare the values of San Francisco, Osservatorio Epidemiologico sulla Sincope nel Lazio (OESIL), Boston, and Risk Stratification of Syncope in the Emergency Department (ROSE) score clinical decision rules in predicting the short-term serious outcome of syncope patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present diagnostic accuracy study with 1-week follow-up was designed to evaluate the predictive values of the four mentioned clinical decision rules...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903911/mirtar2go-a-novel-rule-based-model-learning-method-for-cell-line-specific-microrna-target-prediction-that-integrates-ago2-clip-seq-and-validated-microrna-target-interaction-data
#12
Alireza Ahadi, Gaurav Sablok, Gyorgy Hutvagner
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ∼19-22 nucleotides (nt) long regulatory RNAs that regulate gene expression by recognizing and binding to complementary sequences on mRNAs. The key step in revealing the function of a miRNA, is the identification of miRNA target genes. Recent biochemical advances including PAR-CLIP and HITS-CLIP allow for improved miRNA target predictions and are widely used to validate miRNA targets. Here, we present miRTar2GO, which is a model, trained on the common rules of miRNA-target interactions, Argonaute (Ago) CLIP-Seq data and experimentally validated miRNA target interactions...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903616/immediate-rule-out-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-using-electrocardiogram-and-baseline-high-sensitivity-troponin-i
#13
Johannes Tobias Neumann, Nils Arne Sörensen, Francisco Ojeda, Tjark Schwemer, Jonas Lehmacher, Saskia Gönner, Nikolas Jarsetz, Till Keller, Sarina Schaefer, Thomas Renné, Ulf Landmesser, Peter Clemmensen, Nataliya Makarova, Renate B Schnabel, Tanja Zeller, Mahir Karakas, John W Pickering, Martin Than, William Parsonage, Jaimi Greenslade, Louise Cullen, Dirk Westermann, Stefan Blankenberg
AIMS: Serial measurements of high-sensitivity troponin are used to rule out acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with an assay specific cutoff at the 99th percentile. Here, we evaluated the performance of a single admission troponin with a lower cutoff combined with a low risk electrocardiogram (ECG) to rule out AMI. METHODS: Troponin I measured with a high-sensitivity assay (hs-TnI) was determined at admission in 1040 patients presenting with suspected AMI (BACC study)...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903076/the-potential-of-optimizing-prehospital-triage-of-patients-with-suspected-acute-myocardial-infarction-using-high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-t-and-copeptin
#14
Carsten Stengaard, Jacob T Sørensen, Søren A Ladefoged, Jens F Lassen, Martin B Rasmussnen, Claus Kjær Pedersen, Antoine Ayer, Hans Erik Bøtker, Christian J Terkelsen, Kristian Thygesen
PURPOSE: In patients with a suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI), to evaluate the potential for early triage based on measurement of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and copeptin in blood samples collected in the prehospital phase. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, we measured hs-cTnT and copeptin in blood samples collected in the ambulance form 962 patients with suspected AMI. The diagnostic accuracy was estimated by receiver-operating characteristics curve area under the curve (AUC) for both biomarkers and a combined model...
December 1, 2016: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902658/understanding-negative-predictive-value-of-diagnostic-tests-used-in-clinical-practice
#15
Reba A Umberger, Linda A Hatfield, Patricia M Speck
Nurses review, evaluate, and use diagnostic test results on a routine basis. However, the skills necessary to evaluate a particular test using statistical outcome measures is often lacking. The purpose of this article is to examine and interpret the underlying principles for use of the statistical outcomes of diagnostic screening tests (sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values, with a discussion about use of SpPIn [Specificity, Positive test = rule in], and SnNOut [Sensitivity, Negative test = rule out]) in advanced nursing clinical practice...
January 2017: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901546/poroelasticity-driven-lubrication-in-hydrogel-interfaces
#16
Erik R Reale, Alison C Dunn
It is widely accepted that hydrogel surfaces are slippery, and have low friction, but dynamic applied stresses alter the hydrogel composition at the interface as water is displaced. The induced osmotic imbalance of compressed hydrogel which cannot swell to equilibrium should drive the resistance to slip against it. This paper demonstrates the driving role of poroelasticity in the friction of hydrogel-glass interfaces, specifically how poroelastic relaxation of hydrogels increases adhesion. We translate the work of adhesion into an effective surface energy density that increases with the duration of applied pressure from 10 to 50 mJ m(-2), as measured by micro-indentation...
November 30, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900363/integration-of-genomics-and-histology-revises-diagnosis-and-enables-effective-therapy-of-refractory-cancer-of-unknown-primary-with-pdl1-amplification
#17
Stefan Gröschel, Martin Bommer, Barbara Hutter, Jan Budczies, David Bonekamp, Christoph Heining, Peter Horak, Martina Fröhlich, Sebastian Uhrig, Daniel Hübschmann, Christina Geörg, Daniela Richter, Nicole Pfarr, Katrin Pfütze, Stephan Wolf, Peter Schirmacher, Dirk Jäger, Christof von Kalle, Benedikt Brors, Hanno Glimm, Wilko Weichert, Albrecht Stenzinger, Stefan Fröhling
Identification of the tissue of origin in cancer of unknown primary (CUP) poses a diagnostic challenge and is critical for directing site-specific therapy. Currently, clinical decision-making in patients with CUP primarily relies on histopathology and clinical features. Comprehensive molecular profiling has the potential to contribute to diagnostic categorization and, most importantly, guide CUP therapy through identification of actionable lesions. We here report the case of an advanced-stage malignancy initially mimicking poorly differentiated soft-tissue sarcoma that did not respond to multiagent chemotherapy...
November 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899622/uniprot-the-universal-protein-knowledgebase
#18
(no author information available yet)
The UniProt knowledgebase is a large resource of protein sequences and associated detailed annotation. The database contains over 60 million sequences, of which over half a million sequences have been curated by experts who critically review experimental and predicted data for each protein. The remainder are automatically annotated based on rule systems that rely on the expert curated knowledge. Since our last update in 2014, we have more than doubled the number of reference proteomes to 5631, giving a greater coverage of taxonomic diversity...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899327/novel-application-of-species-richness-estimators-to-predict-the-host-range-of-parasites
#19
David M Watson, Kirsty V Milner, Andrea Leigh
Host range is a critical life history trait of parasites, influencing prevalence, virulence and ultimately determining their distributional extent. Current approaches to measure host range are sensitive to sampling effort, the number of known hosts increasing with more records. Here, we develop a novel application of results-based stopping rules to determine how many hosts should be sampled to yield stable estimates of the number of primary hosts within regions, then use species richness estimation to predict host ranges of parasites across their distributional ranges...
November 27, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897213/decision-making-processes-based-on-social-conventional-rules-in-early-adolescents-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorders
#20
Hidetsugu Komeda, Hidekazu Osanai, Kaichi Yanaoka, Yuko Okamoto, Toru Fujioka, Sumiyoshi Arai, Keisuke Inohara, Masuo Koyasu, Takashi Kusumi, Shinichiro Takiguchi, Masao Kawatani, Hirokazu Kumazaki, Michio Hiratani, Akemi Tomoda, Hirotaka Kosaka
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by problems with reciprocal social interaction, repetitive behaviours/narrow interests, and impairments in the social cognition and emotional processing necessary for intention-based moral judgements. The aim of this study was to examine the information used by early adolescents with and without ASD when they judge story protagonists as good or bad. We predicted that adolescents with ASD would use protagonists' behaviour, while typically developing (TD) adolescents would use protagonists' characteristics when making the judgements...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
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