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Prediction rule

Kristen E Brown, Troy Alan Hottle, Rubenka Bandyopadhyay, Samaneh Babaee, Rebecca Susanne Dodder, Pervin Ozge Kaplan, Carol Lenox, Dan Loughlin
The energy system is the primary source of air pollution. Thus, evolution of the energy system into the future will affect society's ability to maintain air quality. Anticipating this evolution is difficult because of inherent uncertainty in predicting future energy demand, fuel use, and technology adoption. We apply Scenario Planning to address this uncertainty, developing four very different visions of the future. Stakeholder engagement suggested technological progress and social attitudes toward the environment are critical and uncertain factors for determining future emissions...
June 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Andreas Ritzau-Jost, Lukasz Jablonski, Julio Viotti, Noa Lipstein, Jens Eilers, Stefan Hallermann
During sustained synaptic transmission, recruitment of new transmitter-filled vesicles to the release site counteracts vesicle depletion and thus synaptic depression. Elevated intracellular Ca2+ concentration has been proposed to accelerate the rate of vesicle recruitment at many synapses. This conclusion was often based on the finding that increased intracellular Ca2+ buffering slows the recovery from synaptic depression. However, the molecular mechanisms of the activity-dependent acceleration of vesicle recruitment have only been analysed at some synapses...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Physiology
D Rex Mitchell, Emma Sherratt, Justin A Ledogar, Stephen Wroe
Increasing body size is accompanied by facial elongation across a number of mammalian taxa. This trend forms the basis of a proposed evolutionary rule, cranial evolutionary allometry (CREA). However, facial length has also been widely associated with the varying mechanical resistance of foods. Here, we combine geometric morphometrics and computational biomechanical analyses to determine whether evolutionary allometry or feeding ecology have been dominant influences on facial elongation across 16 species of kangaroos and relatives (Macropodiformes)...
June 27, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Lindsay Carlton, Joseph R Maccio, Joseph G Maccio, Colin McGowan
BACKGROUND: The prevalence and cost of hip osteoarthritis (OA) is rising. Mechanical diagnosis and therapy (MDT) is an orthopedic classification and treatment system based on mechanical and symptomatic response to repeated and sustained end-range movements. There has been no investigation of the association between MDT and patients diagnosed with hip OA. CASE DESCRIPTION: This case report presents a 71-year-old female diagnosed with hip OA and matching the currently accepted clinical prediction rule (CPR) for symptomatic hip OA...
June 20, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Francesca Maria Russo, Anne-Gael Cordier, Luc De Catte, Julien Saada, Alexandra Benachi, Jan Deprest
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a rare disease associated with high mortality and morbidity. Antenatal ultrasound screening identifies more than 70% of cases, providing the opportunity for in-utero referral to a tertiary care center for expert assessment and perinatal management. Additional genetic and morphologic assessment may be used to rule out associated anomalies. In isolated cases, the outcome may be predicted prenatally by medical imaging. The combination of lung size and liver herniation is a widely accepted method to stratify fetuses into groups with an increasing degree of pulmonary hypoplasia and corresponding mortality rates...
June 20, 2018: Prenatal Diagnosis
Paul Mortreuil, Sylvie Baggio, Camille Lagnet, Blandine Schraauwers, Florian Monlau
Currently, there is a growing worldwide interest for the treatment of wastes, and especially farm wastes, by anaerobic digestion. Biochemical methane potential is a key parameter for the design, optimisation and monitoring of the anaerobic digestion process, but it is also time consuming (4-7 weeks). Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy seems a promising method to predict the biochemical methane potential of a wide range of organic substrates. This study compares a 'global' predictive model mainly built with biogas plant feedstocks, and a more 'agricultural' specific one built with farm wastes only (e...
June 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Raphaël Le Bouc, Frédéric Clarençon, Elena Meseguer, Bertrand Lapergue, Arturo Consoli, Guillaume Turc, Olivier Naggara, Duc Long Duong, Jerome Servan, Peggy Reiner, Marc Antoine Labeyrie, Mathieu Fisselier, Raphaël Blanc, Wassim Farhat, Christine Pires, Mathieu Zuber, Michael Obadia, Mikael Mazighi, Fernando Pico, Jean-Louis Mas, Pierre Amarenco, Yves Samson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Efficacy of endovascular treatment (EVT) for ischemic stroke because of large vessel occlusion may depend on patients' age and stroke severity; we, therefore, developed a prognosis score based on these variables and examined whether EVT efficacy differs between patients with good, intermediate, or poor prognostic score. METHODS: A total of 4079 patients with an acute ischemic stroke were identified from the Paris Stroke Consortium registry...
June 18, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Elaine Rabin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 18, 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Sarah Kanana Kiburi, Keneilwe Molebatsi, Anne Obondo, Mary W Kuria
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders are a major cause of health and social problems worldwide. Research evidence shows a strong graded relationship of adverse childhood experiences and substance use in adulthood. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences and their association with substance use among patients with substance use disorders. METHOD: The study used a descriptive cross-sectional design. A total of 134 patients aged 18 years and above receiving inpatient treatment for substance use disorders were recruited into the study...
June 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Alberto Antonietti, Jessica Monaco, Egidio D'Angelo, Alessandra Pedrocchi, Claudia Casellato
During natural learning, synaptic plasticity is thought to evolve dynamically and redistribute within and among subcircuits. This process should emerge in plastic neural networks evolving under behavioral feedback and should involve changes distributed across multiple synaptic sites. In eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC), the cerebellum learns to predict the precise timing between two stimuli, hence EBCC represents an elementary yet meaningful paradigm to investigate the cerebellar network functioning. We have simulated EBCC mechanisms by reconstructing a realistic cerebellar microcircuit model and embedding multiple plasticity rules imitating those revealed experimentally...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Neural Systems
Renke He, Shuxin Chen, Hao Wu, Lei Hong, Kun Chen
Bearings-only tracking only adopts measurements from angle sensors to realize target tracking, thus, the accuracy of the state prediction has a significant influence on the final results of filtering. There exist unpredictable approximation errors in the process of filtering due to state propagation, discretization, linearization or other adverse effects. The idea of online covariance adaption is proposed in this work, where the post covariance information is proved to be effective for the covariance adaption...
June 17, 2018: Sensors
Mohamed El-Naggar, Hadia Almahli, Hany S Ibrahim, Wagdy M Eldehna, Hatem A Abdel-Aziz
In our endeavor towards the development of effective anticancer agents, a novel series of pyridine-ureas 8a ⁻ n were synthesized. All the newly prepared derivatives were evaluated in vitro for their growth inhibitory activity towards the proliferation of breast cancer MCF-7 cell line. Compounds 8e and 8n were found to be the most active congeners against MCF-7 cells (IC50 = 0.22 and 1.88 µM after 48 h treatment; 0.11 and 0.80 µM after 72 h treatment, respectively) with increased activity compared to the reference drug doxorubicin (IC50 = 1...
June 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sudeep Bhatia, Neil Stewart
We study how people evaluate and aggregate the attributes of naturalistic choice objects, such as movies and food items. Our approach applies theories of object representation in semantic memory research to large-scale crowd-sourced data, to recover multiattribute representations for common choice objects. We then use standard choice experiments to test the predictive power of various decision rules for weighting and aggregating these multiattribute representations. Our experiments yield three novel conclusions: 1...
June 15, 2018: Cognition
Aurelie M C Lange, Rachel E A van der Rijken, Marc J M H Delsing, Jan J V Busschbach, Ron H J Scholte
Therapist adherence to the treatment manual is assumed to be crucial for adequate implementation and subsequent achievement of the intended, positive treatment outcomes. Although adherence has been mostly studied as a static factor, recent studies suggest that adherence might be dynamic and changes over time. We investigated how parent-perceived adherence to the multisystemic therapy (MST) model develops during treatment and how this development is related to treatment outcomes up to 18 months posttreatment, controlling for the effect of alliance...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Marlena Maziarz, Tianxi Cai, Li Qi, Anna S Lok, Yingye Zheng
Little attention has been given to the design of efficient studies to evaluate longitudinal biomarkers. Measuring longitudinal markers on an entire cohort is cost prohibitive and, especially for rare outcomes such as cancer, may be infeasible. Thus, methods for evaluation of longitudinal biomarkers using efficient and cost-effective study designs are needed. Case cohort (CCH) and nested case-control (NCC) studies allow investigators to evaluate biomarkers rigorously and at reduced cost, with only a small loss in precision...
April 18, 2018: Biostatistics
Eva Steinmann, Hans-Peter Brunner-La Rocca, Micha T Maeder, Beat A Kaufmann, Matthias Pfisterer, Peter Rickenbacher
BACKGROUND: Whether the clinical presentation and in particular prevalence of symptoms and signs of heart failure (HF) is different in elderly versus younger patients and in those with reduced (HFrEF) versus preserved (HFpEF) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a matter of ongoing debate. AIMS: To compare detailed clinical characteristics of these important subgroups and to develop a prediction rule for the differentiation of HFpEF and HFrEF based on clinical parameters...
June 13, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Brian Fisak, Alicia Kissinger-Knox, Enrique Cibrian
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The mood-as-input hypothesis (MAIH), which emphasizes the role of mood and stop rules on perseverative thinking, has been extensively studied in relation to worry (Meeten & Davey, 2011). However, relatively few studies have focused on the applicability of the MAIH to depressive rumination. Consequently, two studies were conducted to further examine the potential relevance of the MAIH to depressive rumination. METHODS: In the first study, a sample of undergraduate students completed a rumination interview under one of four conditions, including mood (positive vs...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
A Zhang, Z Guo, S-M Xiong
The influence of natural convection on lamellar eutectic growth was determined by a comprehensive phase-field lattice-Boltzmann study for Al-Cu and CBr_{4}-C_{2}Cl_{6} eutectic alloys. The mass differences resulting from concentration differences led to the fluid flow and a robust parallel and adaptive mesh refinement algorithm was employed to improve the computational efficiency. By means of carefully designed "numerical experiments", the eutectic growth under natural convection was explored and a simple analytical model was proposed to predict the adjustment of the lamellar spacing...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Tom Bultreys, Qingyang Lin, Ying Gao, Ali Q Raeini, Ahmed AlRatrout, Branko Bijeljic, Martin J Blunt
Pore-scale two-phase flow modeling is an important technology to study a rock's relative permeability behavior. To investigate if these models are predictive, the calculated pore-scale fluid distributions which determine the relative permeability need to be validated. In this work, we introduce a methodology to quantitatively compare models to experimental fluid distributions in flow experiments visualized with microcomputed tomography. First, we analyzed five repeated drainage-imbibition experiments on a single sample...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Tengda Zhao, Yuehua Xu, Yong He
The human brain undergoes explosive growth during the prenatal period and the first few postnatal years, establishing an early infrastructure for the later development of behaviors and cognitions. Revealing the developmental rules during the early phrase is essential in understanding the emergence of brain function and the origin of developmental disorders. The graph-theoretical network modeling in combination with multiple neuroimaging probes provides an important research framework to explore early development of the topological wiring and organizational paradigms of the brain...
June 12, 2018: NeuroImage
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