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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212463/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-an-inhaled-selective-glucocorticoid-receptor-modulator-azd5423-in-copd-patients-phase-ii-study-results
#1
Piotr Kuna, Magnus Aurivillius, Carin Jorup, Susanne Prothon, Ziad Taib, Staffan Edsbäcker
AZD5423 is a novel, inhaled, selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator (SGRM), which in an allergen challenge model in asthmatics improved lung function and airway hyper-reactivity. In the current trial, AZD5423 was for the first time tested in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this double-blind, randomised and parallel group study, we examined airway and systemic effects of two doses of AZD5423, inhaled via Turbuhaler for 12 weeks, in 353 symptomatic COPD patients (average pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at screening was 50-52% of predicted normal)...
February 17, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211720/dynamical-response-near-quantum-critical-points
#2
Andrew Lucas, Snir Gazit, Daniel Podolsky, William Witczak-Krempa
We study high-frequency response functions, notably the optical conductivity, in the vicinity of quantum critical points (QCPs) by allowing for both detuning from the critical coupling and finite temperature. We consider general dimensions and dynamical exponents. This leads to a unified understanding of sum rules. In systems with emergent Lorentz invariance, powerful methods from quantum field theory allow us to fix the high-frequency response in terms of universal coefficients. We test our predictions analytically in the large-N O(N) model and using the gauge-gravity duality and numerically via quantum Monte Carlo simulations on a lattice model hosting the interacting superfluid-insulator QCP...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208489/prediction-of-the-moments-in-advection-diffusion-lattice-boltzmann-method-ii-attenuation-of-the-boundary-layers-via-double-%C3%AE-bounce-back-flux-scheme
#3
Irina Ginzburg
Impact of the unphysical tangential advective-diffusion constraint of the bounce-back (BB) reflection on the impermeable solid surface is examined for the first four moments of concentration. Despite the number of recent improvements for the Neumann condition in the lattice Boltzmann method-advection-diffusion equation, the BB rule remains the only known local mass-conserving no-flux condition suitable for staircase porous geometry. We examine the closure relation of the BB rule in straight channel and cylindrical capillary analytically, and show that it excites the Knudsen-type boundary layers in the nonequilibrium solution for full-weight equilibrium stencil...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208418/mixing-with-applications-to-inertial-confinement-fusion-implosions
#4
V Rana, H Lim, J Melvin, J Glimm, B Cheng, D H Sharp
Approximate one-dimensional (1D) as well as 2D and 3D simulations are playing an important supporting role in the design and analysis of future experiments at National Ignition Facility. This paper is mainly concerned with 1D simulations, used extensively in design and optimization. We couple a 1D buoyancy-drag mix model for the mixing zone edges with a 1D inertial confinement fusion simulation code. This analysis predicts that National Ignition Campaign (NIC) designs are located close to a performance cliff, so modeling errors, design features (fill tube and tent) and additional, unmodeled instabilities could lead to significant levels of mix...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208379/prediction-of-the-moments-in-advection-diffusion-lattice-boltzmann-method-i-truncation-dispersion-skewness-and-kurtosis
#5
Irina Ginzburg
The effect of the heterogeneity in the soil structure or the nonuniformity of the velocity field on the modeled resident time distribution (RTD) and breakthrough curves is quantified by their moments. While the first moment provides the effective velocity, the second moment is related to the longitudinal dispersion coefficient (k_{T}) in the developed Taylor regime; the third and fourth moments are characterized by their normalized values skewness (Sk) and kurtosis (Ku), respectively. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the role of the truncation corrections of the numerical scheme in k_{T}, Sk, and Ku because of their interference with the second moment, in the form of the numerical dispersion, and in the higher-order moments, by their definition...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208325/one-loop-diagrams-in-the-random-euclidean-matching-problem
#6
Carlo Lucibello, Giorgio Parisi, Gabriele Sicuro
The matching problem is a notorious combinatorial optimization problem that has attracted for many years the attention of the statistical physics community. Here we analyze the Euclidean version of the problem, i.e., the optimal matching problem between points randomly distributed on a d-dimensional Euclidean space, where the cost to minimize depends on the points' pairwise distances. Using Mayer's cluster expansion we write a formal expression for the replicated action that is suitable for a saddle point computation...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208193/approach-to-suspected-acute-pulmonary-embolism-should-we-use-scoring-systems
#7
Marc Righini, Grégoire Le Gal, Henri Bounameaux
Modern diagnostic strategies for pulmonary embolism diagnosis almost all rely on an initial assessment of the pretest probability. Clinical prediction rules are decision-making tools using combinations of easily available clinical predictors to define the probability of a disease. The assessment of the clinical probability of pulmonary embolism has an important impact on the diagnostic strategy and on therapeutic management. Clinical prediction rules provide accurate and reproducible estimates of clinical probability...
February 2017: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206778/personal-and-cultural-identity-development-in-recently-immigrated-hispanic-adolescents-links-with-psychosocial-functioning
#8
Alan Meca, Raha F Sabet, Colleen M Farrelly, Cynthia G Benitez, Seth J Schwartz, Melinda Gonzales-Backen, Elma I Lorenzo-Blanco, Jennifer B Unger, Byron L Zamboanga, Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati, Simona Picariello, Sabrina E Des Rosiers, Daniel W Soto, Monica Pattarroyo, Juan A Villamar, Karina M Lizzi
OBJECTIVES: This study examined directionality between personal (i.e., coherence and confusion) and cultural identity (i.e., ethnic and U.S.) as well as their additive effects on psychosocial functioning in a sample of recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents. METHOD: The sample consisted of 302 recent (<5 years) immigrant Hispanic adolescents (53% boys; Mage = 14.51 years at baseline; SD = .88 years) from Miami and Los Angeles who participated in a longitudinal study...
February 16, 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203241/models-for-predicting-the-architecture-of-different-shoot-types-in-apple
#9
Emna Baïram, Mickaël Delaire, Christian Le Morvan, Gerhard Buck-Sorlin
In apple, the first-order branch of a tree has a characteristic architecture constituting three shoot types: bourses (rosettes), bourse shoots, and vegetative shoots. Its overall architecture as well as that of each shoot thus determines the distribution of sources (leaves) and sinks (fruits) and could have an influence on the amount of sugar allocated to fruits. Knowledge of architecture, in particular the position and area of leaves helps to quantify source strength. In order to reconstruct this initial architecture, rules equipped with allometric relations could be used: these allow predicting model parameters that are difficult to measure from simple traits that can be determined easily, non-destructively and directly in the orchard...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197843/copeptin-for-risk-stratification-in-non-traumatic-headache-in-the-emergency-setting-a-prospective-multicenter-observational-cohort-study
#10
Claudine Angela Blum, Bettina Winzeler, Nicole Nigro, Philipp Schuetz, Silke Biethahn, Timo Kahles, Cornelia Mueller, Katharina Timper, Katharina Haaf, Janina Tepperberg, Margareth Amort, Andreas Huber, Roland Bingisser, Peter Stephan Sándor, Krassen Nedeltchev, Beat Müller, Mira Katan, Mirjam Christ-Crain
BACKGROUND: In the emergency setting, non-traumatic headache is a benign symptom in 80% of cases, but serious underlying conditions need to be ruled out. Copeptin improves risk stratification in several acute diseases. Herein, we investigated the value of copeptin to discriminate between serious secondary headache and benign headache forms in the emergency setting. METHODS: Patients presenting with acute non-traumatic headache were prospectively enrolled into an observational cohort study...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196932/a-clinical-prediction-rule-for-rebound-hyperbilirubinemia-following-inpatient-phototherapy
#11
Pearl W Chang, Michael W Kuzniewicz, Charles E McCulloch, Thomas B Newman
OBJECTIVES: The American Academy of Pediatrics provides little guidance on when to discontinue phototherapy in newborns treated for hyperbilirubinemia. We sought to develop a prediction rule to estimate the probability of rebound hyperbilirubinemia after inpatient phototherapy. METHODS: Subjects for this retrospective cohort study were infants born in 2012 to 2014 at ≥35 weeks' gestation at 16 Kaiser Permanente Northern California hospitals who received inpatient phototherapy before age 14 days...
February 14, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196196/identification-of-transthyretin-cardiac-amyloidosis-using-serum-retinol-binding-protein-4-and-a-clinical-prediction-model
#12
Marios Arvanitis, Clarissa M Koch, Gloria G Chan, Celia Torres-Arancivia, Michael P LaValley, Daniel R Jacobson, John L Berk, Lawreen H Connors, Frederick L Ruberg
Importance: Transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR) is an underrecognized cause of heart failure (HF) in older individuals, owing in part to difficulty in diagnosis. ATTR can result from substitution of valine for isoleucine at codon 122 of the transthyretin (TTR) gene (V122I), present in 3.43% of African American individuals. Objective: To examine whether serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), an endogenous TTR ligand, could be used as a diagnostic test for ATTR V122I amyloidosis...
February 8, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194627/fragment-based-in-silico-modeling-of-multi-target-inhibitors-against-breast-cancer-related-proteins
#13
Alejandro Speck-Planche, M Natália D S Cordeiro
Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer reported in women, being responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths. Chemotherapy has proven to be effective against this malignant neoplasm depending on different biological factors such as the histopathology, grade, and stage, among others. However, breast cancer cells have become resistant to current chemotherapeutic regimens, urging the discovery of new anti-breast cancer drugs. Computational approaches have the potential to offer promising alternatives to accelerate the search for potent and versatile anti-breast cancer agents...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194146/modulation-of-replicative-lifespan-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-implications-for-virulence
#14
Tejas Bouklas, Neena Jain, Bettina C Fries
The fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans, has been shown to undergo replicative aging. Old cells are characterized by advanced generational age and phenotypic changes that appear to mediate enhanced resistance to host and antifungal-based killing. As a consequence of this age-associated resilience, old cells accumulate during chronic infection. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that shifting the generational age of a pathogenic yeast population would alter its vulnerability to the host and affect its virulence...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193864/ontogeny-of-collective-behavior-reveals-a-simple-attraction-rule
#15
Robert C Hinz, Gonzalo G de Polavieja
The striking patterns of collective animal behavior, including ant trails, bird flocks, and fish schools, can result from local interactions among animals without centralized control. Several of these rules of interaction have been proposed, but it has proven difficult to discriminate which ones are implemented in nature. As a method to better discriminate among interaction rules, we propose to follow the slow birth of a rule of interaction during animal development. Specifically, we followed the development of zebrafish, Danio rerio, and found that larvae turn toward each other from 7 days postfertilization and increase the intensity of interactions until 3 weeks...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193697/error-induced-blindness-error-detection-leads-to-impaired-sensory-processing-and-lower-accuracy-at-short-response-stimulus-intervals
#16
George A Buzzell, Paul J Beatty, Natalie A Paquette, Daniel M Roberts, Craig G McDonald
Empirical evidence indicates that detecting one's own mistakes can serve as a signal to improve task performance. However, little work has focused on how task constraints, such as the response-stimulus interval (RSI), influence post-error adjustments. In the present study, event-related potential (ERP) and behavioral measures were used to investigate the time course of error-related processing while humans performed a difficult visual discrimination task. We found that error commission resulted in a marked reduction in both task performance and sensory processing on the following trial when RSIs were short, but that such impairments were not detectable at longer RSIs...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193166/vacsol-a-high-throughput-in-silico-pipeline-to-predict-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-prokaryotic-pathogens-using-subtractive-reverse-vaccinology
#17
Muhammad Rizwan, Anam Naz, Jamil Ahmad, Kanwal Naz, Ayesha Obaid, Tamsila Parveen, Muhammad Ahsan, Amjad Ali
BACKGROUND: With advances in reverse vaccinology approaches, a progressive improvement has been observed in the prediction of putative vaccine candidates. Reverse vaccinology has changed the way of discovery and provides a mean to propose target identification in reduced time and labour. In this regard, high throughput genomic sequencing technologies and supporting bioinformatics tools have greatly facilitated the prompt analysis of pathogens, where various predicted candidates have been found effective against certain infections and diseases...
February 13, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193124/what-s-in-a-word-observing-the-contribution-of-underlying-and-surface-representations
#18
Yu-Fu Chien, Joan A Sereno, Jie Zhang
underlying representations play a crucial role in capturing predictable relations among different phonetic categories in phonological theory. Tone sandhi is a tonal alternation phenomenon in which a tone changes to a different tone in certain phonological environments. This study investigates whether Taiwanese listeners are more sensitive to the surface form of the tones or the underlying tonal representations of tone sandhi words. An auditory lexical decision experiment was conducted to examine priming effects between monosyllabic primes and disyllabic target words (tone sandhi T51 → T55 and sandhi T24 → T33)...
February 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192589/a-critical-evaluation-of-refractive-outcomes-following-lasik-for-moderate-to-high-astigmatism-using-two-excimer-laser-platforms
#19
Sudi Patel, Maja Bohac, Alma Biscevic, Mateja Koncarevic, Marija Anticic, Nikica Gabric
PURPOSE: To calculate the surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) following LASIK and identify any association between SIA and the target induced astigmatism (TIA) at 1 year postoperatively. METHODS: The SIA was calculated using the TIA and residual astigmatism values for [A] myopic astigmatism and [B] mixed astigmatism treated with either the [I] WaveLight Allegretto EyeQ 400-Hz (Alcon Laboratories, Inc. Fort Worth, TX) or [II] Schwind Amaris 750S (Schwind eye-tech-solutions, Kleinostheim, Germany) platforms...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191571/a-computer-based-prediction-platform-for-the-reaction-of-ozone-with-organic-compounds-in-aqueous-solution-kinetics-and-mechanisms
#20
Minju Lee, Lorenz C Blum, Emanuel Schmid, Kathrin Fenner, Urs von Gunten
Ozonation of secondary wastewater effluents can reduce the discharge of micropollutants by transforming their chemical structures. Therefore, a better understanding of the formation of transformation products during ozonation is important. In this study, a computer-based prediction platform for the kinetics and mechanisms of the reactions of ozone with organic compounds was developed to enable in silico predictions of transformation products. With the developed prediction platform, reaction kinetics expressed as second-order rate constants for the reactions of ozone with selected organic compounds (kO3, M(-1) s(-1)) can be predicted based on an adapted kO3 prediction model from a previous study (Lee et al...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
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