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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528430/risk-classification-of-highly-sensitive-troponin-i-predict-presence-of-vulnerable-plaque-assessed-by-dual-source-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography
#1
Ting Liu, Guan Wang, Peiling Li, Xu Dai
Patients presenting to the emergency department with acute chest pain, negative conventional troponin and electrocardiogram require serial testing to rule out acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We studied the association of highly sensitive troponin (hsTn) I with vulnerable plaque features as detected by coronary dual source computed tomography angiography (DSCTA) and determined whether hsTn I at the time of presentation combined with early DSCTA could improve classification of patients as high-risk or low risk for ACS...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526665/the-sensor-study-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-study-of-self-management-checks-to-predict-exacerbations-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-patients-with-long-term-respiratory-conditions
#2
Claire Roberts, Thomas L Jones, Samal Gunatilake, Will Storrar, Scott Elliott, Sharon Glaysher, Ben Green, Steven Rule, Carole Fogg, Ann Dewey, Kevin A Auton, Anoop J Chauhan
BACKGROUND: There are an estimated three million people in the United Kingdom with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the incidence of bronchiectasis is estimated at around 0.1% but is more common in COPD and severe asthma. Both COPD and bronchiectasis are characterized by exacerbations in which bacteria play a central role. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is isolated from sputum samples from 4% to 15% of adults with COPD and is more likely to be isolated from patients with severe disease...
May 19, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525627/geographic-patterns-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-among-children-of-nurses-health-study-ii-women
#3
Kate Hoffman, Marc G Weisskopf, Andrea L Roberts, Raanan Raz, Jaime E Hart, Kristen Lyall, Elin M Hoffman, Francine Laden, Verónica M Vieira
Data indicate that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prevalence may be increasing and varies geographically. We investigated associations between residential location and ASD in the children of Nurses' Health Study II women in order to generate hypotheses about social and environmental factors related to etiology or diagnosis. Analyses included 13,507 children born from 1989-1999 (486 with ASD). We explored relationships between ASD and residential location at both birth and age 6 years (i.e. closer to average diagnosis age)...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522849/carcinopred-el-novel-models-for-predicting-the-carcinogenicity-of-chemicals-using-molecular-fingerprints-and-ensemble-learning-methods
#4
Li Zhang, Haixin Ai, Wen Chen, Zimo Yin, Huan Hu, Junfeng Zhu, Jian Zhao, Qi Zhao, Hongsheng Liu
Carcinogenicity refers to a highly toxic end point of certain chemicals, and has become an important issue in the drug development process. In this study, three novel ensemble classification models, namely Ensemble SVM, Ensemble RF, and Ensemble XGBoost, were developed to predict carcinogenicity of chemicals using seven types of molecular fingerprints and three machine learning methods based on a dataset containing 1003 diverse compounds with rat carcinogenicity. Among these three models, Ensemble XGBoost is found to be the best, giving an average accuracy of 70...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520199/economic-evaluation-of-strategies-for-restarting-anticoagulation-therapy-after-a-first-event-of-unprovoked-venous-thromboembolism
#5
M Monahan, J Ensor, D Moore, D Fitzmaurice, S Jowett
BACKGROUND: Following at least three months of anticoagulation therapy after a first unprovoked Venous Thromboembolism (VTE), there is uncertainty about the duration of therapy. Further anticoagulation therapy reduces the risk of having a potentially fatal recurrent VTE but at the expense of a higher risk of bleeding which can also be fatal. OBJECTIVE: An economic evaluation sought to estimate the long-term cost-effectiveness of using a decision rule for restarting anticoagulation therapy versus no extension of therapy in patients based on their risk of a further unprovoked VTE...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517021/low-discriminating-power-of-the-modified-ottawa-vte-risk-score-in-a-cohort-of-patients-with-cancer-from-the-riete-registry
#6
Adriano Alatri, Lucia Mazzolai, Carme Font, Alfonso Tafur, Reina Valle, Pablo Javier Marchena, Aitor Ballaz, Eros Tiraferri, Llorenç Font, Manuel Monreal
Treatment of patients with cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains a major challenge. The modified Ottawa score is a clinical prediction rule evaluating the risk of VTE recurrences during the first six months of anticoagulant treatment in patients with cancer-related VTE. We aimed to validate the Ottawa score using data from the RIETE registry. A total of 11,123 cancer patients with VTE were included in the analysis. According to modified Ottawa score, 2,343 (21 %) were categorised at low risk for VTE recurrences, 4,525 (41 %) at intermediate risk, and 4,255 (38 %) at high risk...
May 18, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515474/blunted-ambiguity-aversion-during-cost-benefit-decisions-in-antisocial-individuals
#7
Joshua W Buckholtz, Uma Karmarkar, Shengxuan Ye, Grace M Brennan, Arielle Baskin-Sommers
Antisocial behavior is often assumed to reflect aberrant risk processing. However, many of the most significant forms of antisocial behavior, including crime, reflect the outcomes of decisions made under conditions of ambiguity rather than risk. While risk and ambiguity are formally distinct and experimentally dissociable, little is known about ambiguity sensitivity in individuals who engage in chronic antisocial behavior. We used a financial decision-making task in a high-risk community-based sample to test for associations between sensitivity to ambiguity, antisocial behavior, and arrest history...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515285/cortical-amplification-models-of-the-experience-dependent-development-of-selective-columns-and-response-sparsification
#8
Ian Kaplan Christie, Paul Miller, Stephen D Van Hooser
The development of direction-selective cortical columns requires visual experience, but the neural circuits and plasticity mechanisms that are responsible for this developmental transition are unknown. To gain insight into the mechanisms that could underlie experience-dependent increases in selectivity, we explored families of cortical amplifier models that enhance weakly biased feed-forward signals. Here, we focused exclusively on possible contributions of cortico-cortical connections and took feed-forward input to be constant...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515106/direct-comparison-of-2-rule-out-strategies-for-acute-myocardial-infarction-2-h-accelerated-diagnostic-protocol-vs-2-h-algorithm
#9
Karin Wildi, Louise Cullen, Raphael Twerenbold, Jaimi H Greenslade, William Parsonage, Jasper Boeddinghaus, Thomas Nestelberger, Zaid Sabti, Maria Rubini-Giménez, Christian Puelacher, Janosch Cupa, Lukas Schumacher, Patrick Badertscher, Karin Grimm, Nikola Kozhuharov, Claudia Stelzig, Michael Freese, Katharina Rentsch, Jens Lohrmann, Wanda Kloos, Andreas Buser, Tobias Reichlin, John Pickering, Martin Than, Christian Mueller
BACKGROUND: We compared 2 high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn)-based 2-h strategies in patients presenting with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to the emergency department (ED): the 2-h accelerated diagnostic protocol (2h-ADP) combining hs-cTn, electrocardiogram, and a risk score, and the 2-h algorithm exclusively based on hs-cTn concentrations and their absolute changes. METHODS: Analyses were performed in 2 independent diagnostic cohorts [European Advantageous Predictors of Acute Coronary Syndrome Evaluation (APACE) study, Australian-New Zealand 2-h Accelerated Diagnostic Protocol to Assess patients with chest Pain symptoms using contemporary Troponins as the only biomarker (ADAPT) study] employing hs-cTnT (Elecsys) and hs-cTnI (Architect)...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515050/the-mapping-of-predicted-triplex-dna-rna-in-the-drosophila-genome-reveals-a-prominent-location-in-development-and-morphogenesis-related-genes
#10
Claude Pasquier, Sandra Agnel, Alain Robichon
Double-stranded DNA is able to form triple-helical structures by accommodating a third nucleotide strand. A nucleic acid triplex occurs according to Hoogsteen rules that predict the stability and affinity of the third strand bound to the Watson-Crick duplex. The "triplex-forming oligonucleotide" (TFO) can be a short sequence of RNA that binds to the major groove of the targeted duplex only when this duplex presents a sequence of purine or pyrimidine bases in one of the DNA strands. Many nuclear proteins are known to bind triplex DNA or DNA:RNA, but their biological functions are unexplored...
May 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514864/application-of-advanced-sampling-and-analysis-methods-to-predict-the-structure-of-adsorbed-protein-on-a-material-surface
#11
Tigran M Abramyan, David L Hyde-Volpe, Steven J Stuart, Robert A Latour
The use of standard molecular dynamics simulation methods to predict the interactions of a protein with a material surface have the inherent limitations of lacking the ability to determine the most likely conformations and orientations of the adsorbed protein on the surface and to determine the level of convergence attained by the simulation. In addition, standard mixing rules are typically applied to combine the nonbonded force field parameters of the solution and solid phases the system to represent interfacial behavior without validation...
May 17, 2017: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514639/warming-induced-changes-to-body-size-stabilize-consumer-resource-dynamics
#12
Matthew M Osmond, Matthew A Barbour, Joey R Bernhardt, Matthew W Pennell, Jennifer M Sunday, Mary I O'Connor
Both body size and temperature directly influence consumer-resource dynamics. There is also widespread empirical evidence for the temperature-size rule (TSR), which creates a negative relationship between temperature and body size. However, it is not known how the TSR affects community dynamics. Here we integrate temperature- and size-dependent models to include indirect effects of warming, through changes in body size, to answer the question, How does the TSR affect the predicted response of consumer-resource systems to warming? We find that the TSR is expected to maintain consumer-resource biomass ratios and buffer the community from extinctions under warming...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514592/soft-skyrmions-spontaneous-valence-and-selection-rules-in-nanoparticle-superlattices
#13
Alex Travesset
A number of bewildering paradoxes arise in the field of nanoparticle self-assembly: nominal low density superlattices, strong stability of low coordination sites and a clear but imperfect correlation between lattice stability and the maximum of hard sphere packing, despite that nanocrystals themselves are, through their ligands, very much compressible. In this study, I show that by regarding nanocrystals as pseudo-topological objects(``soft skyrmions''), it is possible to identify and classify the ligand textures that determine their bonding...
May 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513274/cognitive-functioning-and-adjudicative-competence-defendants-referred-for-neuropsychological-evaluation-in-a-psychiatric-inpatient-setting
#14
Beth C Arredondo, Bernice A Marcopulos, Jesse G Brand, Kristen T Campbell, Julie-Ann Kent
OBJECTIVE: A paucity of peer-reviewed research exists regarding the relation between cognitive functioning and adjudicative competence, despite increasing awareness of cognitive deficits associated with serious mental illness. This retrospective study sought to add to and expand upon existing research by considering performance validity and court determinations of competence, when available. METHOD: We compared demographic and cognitive variables of a group of defendants with presumed valid testing admitted to an inpatient psychiatric facility for evaluation of adjudicative competence and referred for neuropsychological evaluation (n = 45) and compared individuals determined by the evaluator and/or the court to be competent (n = 30) and incompetent (n = 15)...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512853/derivation-and-validation-of-the-append-score-an-acute-appendicitis-clinical-prediction-rule
#15
Hinetamatea Mikaere, Irene Zeng, Melanie Lauti, Malsha Kularatna, Andrew D MacCormick
BACKGROUND: Although many clinical prediction rules (CPRs) for appendicitis exist, none have been developed for a New Zealand population presenting with right iliac fossa (RIF) pain. The aim of this study was to derive and validate an appendicitis CPR for our population. METHOD: This is a retrospective review of all patients from December 2010 to February 2012 of at least 15 years of age presenting to the general surgery service with RIF pain. Patient data were divided into derivation and validation groups...
May 16, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512224/the-general-form-of-hamilton-s-rule-makes-no-predictions-and-cannot-be-tested-empirically
#16
Martin A Nowak, Alex McAvoy, Benjamin Allen, Edward O Wilson
Hamilton's rule asserts that a trait is favored by natural selection if the benefit to others, [Formula: see text], multiplied by relatedness, [Formula: see text], exceeds the cost to self, [Formula: see text] Specifically, Hamilton's rule states that the change in average trait value in a population is proportional to [Formula: see text] This rule is commonly believed to be a natural law making important predictions in biology, and its influence has spread from evolutionary biology to other fields including the social sciences...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509553/uncovering-the-thermo-kinetic-origins-of-phase-ordering-in-mixed-valence-antimony-tetroxide-by-first-principles-modeling
#17
Chang-Eun Kim, Su-Hyun Yoo, David F Bahr, Catherine Stampfl, Aloysius Soon
Phase ordering in the mixed-valence oxide Sb2O4 has been examined by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We find that the ground-state total energies of the two phases (α and β) are almost degenerate and are highly sensitive to the choice of the approximation to the exchange correlation (xc) functional used in our calculations. Interestingly, with the inclusion of the zero-point energy corrections, the α phase is predicted to be the ground state polymorph for most xc functionals used. We also illustrate the pronounced stereochemical activity of Sb in these polymorphs of Sb2O4, setting an exception to the Keve and Skapski rule...
May 16, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508799/comparison-of-body-weight-trend-algorithms-for-prediction-of-heart-failure-related-events-in-home-care-setting
#18
Alphons Eggerth, Robert Modre-Osprian, Dieter Hayn, Peter Kastner, Gerhard Pölzl, Günter Schreier
BACKGROUND: Automatic event detection is used in telemedicine based heart failure disease management programs supporting physicians and nurses in monitoring of patients' health data. OBJECTIVES: Analysis of the performance of automatic event detection algorithms for prediction of HF related hospitalisations or diuretic dose increases. METHODS: Rule-Of-Thumb and Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD) algorithm were applied to body weight data from 106 heart failure patients of the HerzMobil-Tirol disease management program...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508644/normal-leveled-and-enhanced-steric-effects-in-alkoxyamines-carrying-a-%C3%AE-phosphorylated-nitroxyl-fragment
#19
Gérard Audran, Raphael Bikanga, Paul Brémond, Jean-Patrick Joly, Sylvain R A Marque, Paulin Nkolo
The design of new R1R2NOR3 alkoxyamines for various applications relies on the accurate prediction of two kinetic parameters, the C-ON bond homolysis rate constant (kd) and its re-formation rate constant (kc). Relationships to describe the steric and polar effects of the R1R2NO fragment ruling kd have been developed. For all cyclic nitroxyl fragments, the steric effect is described as the sum of the bulkiness of the R1 and R2 groups (i.e., normal steric effect), while for the noncyclic nitroxyl fragment (except for one case), a leveled steric effect is assumed...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508479/prediction-of-complex-traits-conciliating-genetics-and-statistics
#20
E Manfredi, L Tusell, Z G Vitezica
This review focuses on methods used to predict complex traits. Main characteristics of prediction approaches are given: the deterministic or stochastic nature of prediction, the objects of prediction, the sources of information and the main statistical methods. Sources of information discussed are the traditional genealogies and phenotypes, nucleotide sequences, expression data and epigenetics marks. Statistical methods are presented as successive degrees of generalization from the definition of the conditional expectation as the prediction rule, to best linear unbiased prediction, then Bayesian and, recently, machine learning methods, including meta-methods...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
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