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K Soelberg, A C Nilsson, C Nielsen, S Jarius, M Reindl, B Wildemann, S T Lillevang, N Asgari
BACKGROUND: Optic neuritis (ON) is an inflammatory optic neuropathy, where the genetic and autoimmune dependency remains poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: To investigate autoimmune and immunogenetic aspects of ON. METHOD: In a prospective population-based cohort 51 patients with ON were included. At follow up 20 patients had progressed to multiple sclerosis (MS-ON). All patients were screened for neuronal and systemic autoantibodies. HLA genotypes and allele and genotype frequencies of the PTPN22 C1858T and the PD-1...
March 7, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Carmen Scheibenbogen, Madlen Loebel, Helma Freitag, Anne Krueger, Sandra Bauer, Michaela Antelmann, Wolfram Doehner, Nadja Scherbakov, Harald Heidecke, Petra Reinke, Hans-Dieter Volk, Patricia Grabowski
INTRODUCTION: Infection-triggered disease onset, chronic immune activation and autonomic dysregulation in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) point to an autoimmune disease directed against neurotransmitter receptors. We had observed elevated autoantibodies against ß2 adrenergic receptors, and muscarinic 3 and 4 acetylcholine receptors in a subset of patients. Immunoadsorption (IA) was shown to be effective in removing autoantibodies and improve outcome in various autoimmune diseases...
2018: PloS One
Corinna Schmitz, Heidi Noels, Omar El Bounkari, Eva Straussfeld, Remco T A Megens, Marieke Sternkopf, Setareh Alampour-Rajabi, Christine Krammer, Pathricia V Tilstam, Norbert Gerdes, Christina Bürger, Aphrodite Kapurniotu, Richard Bucala, Joachim Jankowski, Christian Weber, Jürgen Bernhagen
The inflammatory cytokine macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MIF) promotes atherosclerosis via lesional monocyte and T-cell recruitment. B cells have emerged as important components in atherogenesis, but the interaction between MIF and B cells in atherogenesis is unknown. Here, we investigated the atherosclerotic phenotype of Mif-gene deletion in Apoe-/- mice. Apoe-/- Mif-/- mice on a Western-diet exhibited strongly reduced atherosclerotic lesions in brachiocephalic artery (BC) and abdominal aorta compared with controls...
March 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Ya-Mei Zhang, Han-Bo Yang, Jing-Li Shi, He Chen, Xiao-Ming Shu, Xin Lu, Guo-Chun Wang, Qing-Lin Peng
Autoantibodies against poly-U-binding factor 60 kDa protein (PUF60) have been reported in Caucasian dermatomyositis (DM) patients. However, their clinical significance in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) remains to be fully clarified. Our objective was to analyze the prevalence and clinical significance of anti-PUF60 antibodies in a large cohort of Chinese IIM patients. In our study, 388 IIM patients, 301 disease controls, and 167 healthy controls (HCs) were involved. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect serum anti-PUF60 levels and was validated using immunoblotting methods...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Ilaria Cavazzana, Laura Andreoli, Maarteen Limper, Franco Franceschini, Angela Tincani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on new clinical aspects of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in the last 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: The pathogenesis of APS is related to endothelial activation by mechanisms other than autoantibody-mediated massive coagulation. These include Toll-like receptors, the m-TORC pathway, and neutrophil activation, inducing an uncontrolled inflammatory cascade. Given these new pathogenetic hypotheses, the treatment of APS could be directed towards a fine balance between anticoagulation and immunomodulation...
March 15, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reports
Jianbo Chen, Yao Zhang, Yunsheng Liang, Ming Zhao, Hai Long, Rong Xiao, Haijing Wu, Jieyue Liao, Shuaihantian Luo, Guiying Zhang, Qianjin Lu
Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune blistering disease characterized by a loss of epidermal cell-cell adhesion caused by anti-desmoglein (Dsg) autoantibodies. The pathogenesis of PV remains unclear. However, abnormal frequency and function of Th2 cells are believed to contribute to PV. We investigated Nr4a2, a transcription factor, which has been found to regulate T cell differentiation, for its association with Th2 cell differentiation and functions in PV. We found significantly decreased mRNA and protein levels of Nr4a2 in CD4+ T cells from patients with PV, compared with healthy control subjects...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Boaz Palterer, Gianfranco Vitiello, Alessia Carraresi, Maria Grazia Giudizi, Daniele Cammelli, Paola Parronchi
Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies represent a heterogeneous group of autoimmune diseases with systemic involvement. Even though numerous specific autoantibodies have been recognized, they have not been included, with the only exception of anti-Jo-1, into the 2017 Classification Criteria, thus perpetuating a clinical-serologic gap. The lack of homogeneous grouping based on the antibody profile deeply impacts the diagnostic approach, therapeutic choices and prognostic stratification of these patients. This review is intended to highlight the comprehensive scenario regarding myositis-related autoantibodies, from the molecular characterization and biological significance to target antigens, from the detection tools, with a special focus on immunofluorescence patterns on HEp-2 cells, to their relative prevalence and ethnic diversity, from the clinical presentation to prognosis...
2018: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
Daniel J Perry, Clive H Wasserfall, Richard A Oram, MacKenzie D Williams, Amanda Posgai, Andrew B Muir, Michael J Haller, Desmond A Schatz, Mark A Wallet, Clayton E Mathews, Mark A Atkinson, Todd M Brusko
Prior studies identified HLA class-II and 57 additional loci as contributors to genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes (T1D). We hypothesized that race and/or ethnicity would be contextually important for evaluating genetic risk markers previously identified from Caucasian/European cohorts. We determined the capacity for a combined genetic risk score (GRS) to discriminate disease-risk subgroups in a racially and ethnically diverse cohort from the southeastern U.S. including 637 T1D patients, 46 at-risk relatives having two or more T1D-related autoantibodies (≥2AAb+ ), 790 first-degree relatives (≤1AAb+ ), 68 second-degree relatives (≤1 AAb+ ), and 405 controls...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Li Wang, Yang Li, Na Ning, Jin Wang, Zi Yan, Suli Zhang, Xiangying Jiao, Xiaohui Wang, Huirong Liu
It has been recognized that myocardial apoptosis is one major factor in the development of heart dysfunction and autophagy has been shown to influence the apoptosis. In previous studies, we reported that anti-β1 -adrenergic receptor autoantibodies (β1 -AABs) decreased myocardial autophagy, but the role of decreased autophagy in cardiomyocyte apoptosis remains unclear. In the present study, we used a β1 -AAB-immunized rat model to investigate the role of decreased autophagy in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. We reported that the level of autophagic flux increased early and then decreased in an actively β1 -AAB-immunized rat model...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Thenappan Thenappan, Mark L Ormiston, John J Ryan, Stephen L Archer
Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25 mm Hg or above. This review deals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a type of pulmonary hypertension that primarily affects the pulmonary vasculature. In PAH, the pulmonary vasculature is dynamically obstructed by vasoconstriction, structurally obstructed by adverse vascular remodeling, and pathologically non-compliant as a result of vascular fibrosis and stiffening. Many cell types are abnormal in PAH, including vascular cells (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts) and inflammatory cells...
March 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Ewa Jaskiewicz, Thierry Peyrard, Radoslaw Kaczmarek, Agata Zerka, Marlena Jodlowska, Marcin Czerwinski
Antigens of the Gerbich blood group system are expressed on glycophorin C (GPC) and glycophorin D (GPD), minor sialoglycoproteins of human erythrocytes. GPC and GPD help maintain erythrocyte shape of and contributes to the stability of its membrane. There are six high-prevalence Gerbich antigens: Ge2, Ge3, Ge4, GEPL (GE10), GEAT (GE11), GETI (GE12) and five low-prevalence Gerbich antigens: Wb (GE5), Lsa (GE6), Ana (GE7), Dha (GE8), GEIS (GE9). Some Gerbich antigens (Ge4, Wb, Dha , GEAT) are expressed only on GPC, two (Ge2, Ana ) are expressed only on GPD, while others (Ge3, Lsa , GEIS, GEPL, GETI) are expressed on both GPC and GPD...
March 2, 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Lihong Zhang, Hongbin Wang, Xuejun Dong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnostic value of α-enolase (ENO1) and serum ENO1 autoantibody levels in lung cancer. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry staining and ELISA were performed to detect ENO1 expression in lung tissue and serum ENO1 autoantibody levels, respectively. RESULTS: The expression of ENO1 was higher in lung cancer tissues than in benign lung disease tissues (p < 0.001). The proportion of lung cancer samples expressing ENO1 was not significantly different among the various pathological classification groups...
January 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
Gerd Wallukat, Harald Prüss, Johannes Müller, Ingolf Schimke
Dementia in general and Alzheimer's disease in particular is increasingly seen in association with autoimmunity being causatively or supportively involved in the pathogenesis. Besides classic autoantibodies (AABs) present in dementia patients, there is the new autoantibody class called functional autoantibodies, which is directed against G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs; GPCR-AABs) and are seen as pathogenic players. However, less is known about dementia patients' burden with functional autoantibodies. We present here for the first time a study analyzing the prevalence of GPCR-AABs in patients with different dementia forms such as unclassified, Lewy body, vascular and Alzheimer's dementia...
2018: PloS One
C G Bien
The paraneoplastic and autoimmune encephalitides are now well-established entities. Detection of neural autoantibodies enables specific diagnoses, provides information on the underlying disease pathophysiology, immunological treatability and the likelihood of a tumor being the underlying cause. This is true for the "high ranking" neural antibodies that have been established in the context of circumscribed clinical images and in consideration of large control groups, have been found in the same way by other laboratories and they respond to immunotherapy...
March 13, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Subhodip Pramanik, Sujoy Ghosh, Pradip Mukhopadhyay, Rana Bhattacharjee, Bidisha Mukherjee, Samim Ali Mondal, Ipsita Ghosh, Ranajit Bari, Subhankar Chowdhury
Objective: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and thyroid dysfunction (TD) are two major public health endocrine problem, but the prevalence of TD and iodine status in patients with T2 DM in India is less studied. The study objective was to explore the prevalence of TD and to evaluate iodine health in type 2 diabetes patients attending a tertiary care center in Eastern India. Methods: Consecutive 100 patients with diabetes attending outpatient department were evaluated clinically and biochemically (thyrotropin [TSH], free thyroxine, anti-TPO antibody, and urinary iodine)...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Roberta Lotti, En Shu, Tiziana Petrachi, Alessandra Marconi, Elisabetta Palazzo, Marika Quadri, Ann Lin, Lorraine A O'Reilly, Carlo Pincelli
Pemphigus is a blistering disease characterized by pemphigus autoantibodies (PVIgG) directed mostly against desmogleins (Dsgs), resulting in the loss of keratinocyte adhesion (acantholysis). Yet, the mechanisms underlying blister formation remain to be clarified. We have shown previously that anti-Fas ligand (FasL) antibody (Ab) prevents PVIgG-induced caspase-8 activation and Dsg cleavage in human keratinocytes, and that sera from pemphigus patients contain abnormally increased levels of FasL. Here, we demonstrate that recombinant FasL induces the activation of caspases prior to Dsg degradation, and anti-FasL Ab prevents acantholysis in cultured keratinocytes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Sakeen W Kashem, Colleen K Correll, Richard K Vehe, Patricia M Hobday, Bryce A Binstadt, Sheilagh M Maguiness
BACKGROUND: Morphea, or 'localized scleroderma', is an inflammatory disorder resulting in fibrosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Joint contractures, arthralgias and functional compromise are recognized associations of pediatric morphea. The co-existence of inflammatory arthritis and morphea is not well-described in the literature. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between pediatric morphea and inflammatory arthritis with regards to cutaneous, musculoskeletal and laboratory findings and treatment regimens...
March 10, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Hanbo Yang, Xin Lu, Qinglin Peng, Wei Jiang, Jingli Shi, Yamei Zhang, He Chen, Guochun Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between anti-NXP-2 autoantibody levels and disease activity as well as calcinosis severity. METHODS: The serum levels of anti-NXP-2 autoantibodies were determined in 709 idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) and also serially measured by an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant MORC3. Patients with anti-NXP-2 autoantibodies were divided into two subgroups: with or without calcinosis. The associations of anti-NXP-2 autoantibody levels with organ-specific disease activity, serum creatine kinase (CK) levels, and calcinosis severity were investigated in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses...
March 13, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Widian K Jubair, Jason D Hendrickson, Erin L Severs, Hanna M Schulz, Sumitra Adhikari, Diana Ir, Jose Pagan, Robert Anthony, Charles E Robertson, Daniel N Frank, Nirmal K Banda, Kristine A Kuhn
OBJECTIVE: Observations of microbial dysbiosis in patients with RA have raised interest in studying microbial-mucosal interactions as a potential trigger of RA. Using the murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model, we hypothesized that microbiota modulate immune responses leading to autoimmune arthritis. METHODS: CIA was induced by immunization of mice with type II collagen (CII) in adjuvant on days 0 and 21, with arthritis appearing at days 23-24. Intestinal microbiota were profiled by 16S rRNA sequencing every 7 days during the course of CIA, and intestinal mucosal changes evaluated on days 14 and 35...
March 13, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
G Authried, S C Prasad, E Rye Rasmussen, A Bygum
A subset of patients with angioedema (AE) and urticaria has histamine releasing autoanti-boies. The histamine release test (HR-test) has been used as a tool in chronic urticaria to de-fine the autoimmune subgroup and may possibly guide the clinician to a more personalized therapy, like omalizumab and cyclosporine. The prevalence and value of positive histamine releasing autoantibodies in monosymptomatic AE is sparsely described in the literature. The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence of positive histamine releasing autoanti-bodies in a cohort of patients with recurrent AE and evaluate the usefulness of this test in AE patients...
February 19, 2018: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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