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Jay A Rosenheim, Bradley S Higbee, Jonathan D Ackerman, Matthew H Meisner
Capturing the complementary strengths of observational and experimental research methods usually requires the researcher to gather separate experimental and observational data sets. In some cases, however, commercial agricultural practices produce the spatial and temporal mixing of 'treatments' independently of other possibly covarying factors that is normally achieved only with formal experimentation. The resulting 'pseudoexperiments' can provide strong evidence for causal relationships. Here, we analyze a large observational data set that creates a series of such pseudoexperiments to assess the effect of different commercial varieties of almond, Prunus dulcis (Mill...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Anna Davidson, David Da Silva, Theodore M DeJong
The branch construction of trees is based on phytomers, repetitive subunits defined as node + leaf + axillary meristem + internode. The rate at which phytomers are added to a shoot is termed the phyllochron, which is determined by genetics, endogenous regulation and environmental conditions. The phyllochron is fundamental to understanding the growth of plants. Most phyllochron studies on woody species are of young plants under controlled conditions without consideration for different types of shoots that are present in mature trees...
September 2017: AoB Plants
Elizabeth Peach, Shelley Cogger, Kat Byron, Penny Francis, Daniel O'Keefe, Peter Higgs, Mark Stoove, Kasey Elmore, Paul Dietze, Margaret Hellard
Background: Following a HIV outbreak among Aboriginal people in a culturally diverse inner-city suburb of Melbourne, a blood-borne virus (BBV) screening program was conducted to inform public health interventions to prevent transmission and facilitate timely diagnosis and linkage to care. Methods: In August-September 2014, community health workers recruited people who inject drugs (PWID) from a local needle and syringe program. Participants were tested for hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), HIV and syphilis and completed a bio-behavioural questionnaire...
October 12, 2017: Sexual Health
Maria Zubair, Neil H Chadborn, John R F Gladman, Tom Dening, Adam L Gordon, Claire Goodman
INTRODUCTION: Care home residents are relatively high users of healthcare resources and may have complex needs. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) may benefit care home residents and improve efficiency of care delivery. This is an approach to care in which there is a thorough multidisciplinary assessment (physical and mental health, functioning and physical and social environments) and a care plan based on this assessment, usually delivered by a multidisciplinary team. The CGA process is known to improve outcomes for community-dwelling older people and those in receipt of hospital care, but less is known about its efficacy in care home residents...
October 10, 2017: BMJ Open
Jiangmei Sun, Leiting Li, Peng Wang, Shaoling Zhang, Juyou Wu
BACKGROUND: Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase (LRR-RLK) is the largest gene family of receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) and actively participates in regulating the growth, development, signal transduction, immunity, and stress responses of plants. However, the patterns of LRR-RLK gene family evolution in the five main Rosaceae species for which genome sequences are available have not yet been reported. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of LRR-RLK genes for five Rosaceae species: Fragaria vesca (strawberry), Malus domestica (apple), Pyrus bretschneideri (Chinese white pear), Prunus mume (mei), and Prunus persica (peach), which contained 201, 244, 427, 267, and 258 LRR-RLK genes, respectively...
October 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
Yi Zhang, Liangju Wang, Yongge Yuan, Jing Xu, Cong Tu, Connie Fisk, Weijian Zhang, Xin Chen, David Ritchie, Shuijin Hu
Orchard management practices such as weed control and irrigation are primarily aimed at maximizing fruit yields and economic profits. However, the impact of these practices on soil fertility and soil microbiology is often overlooked. We conducted a two-factor experimental manipulation of weed control by herbicide and trickle irrigation in a nutrient-poor peach (Prunus persica L. cv. Contender) orchard near Jackson Springs, North Carolina. After three and eight years of treatments, an array of soil fertility parameters were examined, including soil pH, soil N, P and cation nutrients, microbial biomass and respiration, N mineralization, and presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)...
October 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Zhengrong Zhang, Li Yuan, Xin Liu, Xuesen Chen, Xiaoyun Wang
As a family of transcription factors, DNA binding with one figure (Dof) proteins play important roles in various biological processes in plants. Here, a total of 60 putative apple (Malus domestica) Dof genes (MdDof) were identified and mapped to different chromosomes. Chromosomal distribution and synteny analysis indicated that the expansion of the MdDof genes came primarily from segmental and duplication events, and from whole genome duplication, which lead to more Dof members in apples than in other plants...
October 3, 2017: Gene
Consuelo Penella, Ángeles Calatayud, Juan C Melgar
Exogenous application of biochemicals has been found to improve water stress tolerance in herbaceous crops but there are limited studies on deciduous fruit trees. The goal of this research was to study if ascorbic acid applications could improve physiological mechanisms associated with water stress tolerance in young fruit trees. Ascorbic acid was foliarly applied at a concentration of 250 ppm to water-stressed and well-watered peach trees (control) of two cultivars ('Scarletprince' and 'CaroTiger'). Trees received either one or two applications, and 1 week after the second application all trees were rewatered to field capacity...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiude Hua, Hongjie You, Peiwen Luo, Zhexuan Tao, He Chen, Fengquan Liu, Minghua Wang
A sensitive fluorescence immunoassay for the detection of imidaclothiz was established by using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as concentration elements and upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) as signal labels. The NaYF4/Yb,Er UCNPs and MNPs were conjugated with imidaclothiz monoclonal antibody and imidaclothiz antigen, respectively. Imidaclothiz could compete with the antigen-conjugated MNPs for binding to the antibody-conjugated UCNPs and resulted in a decreased fluorescence signal when the MNPs were separated by an external magnet...
October 3, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Elisa González-Domínguez, Josep Armengol, Vittorio Rossi
The fungal genus Venturia Sacc. (anamorph Fusicladium Bonord.) includes plant pathogens that cause substantial economic damage to fruit crops worldwide. Although Venturia inaequalis is considered a model species in plant pathology, other Venturia spp. also cause scab on other fruit trees. Relative to the substantial research that has been conducted on V. inaequalis and apple scab, little research has been conducted on Venturia spp. affecting other fruit trees. In this review, the main characteristics of plant-pathogenic species of Venturia are discussed with special attention to V...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Josep Vicent Mercader, Antonio Abad-Somovilla, Consuelo Agulló, Antonio Abad-Fuentes
Fluxapyroxad is a new-generation carboxamide fungicide, with residues increasingly being found in food samples. Immunochemical assays have gained acceptance in food quality control as rapid, cost-effective, sensitive, and selective methods for large sample throughput and in situ applications. In the present study, immunoreagents to fluxapyroxad were obtained for the first time, and competitive immunoassays were developed for the sensitive and specific determination of fluxapyroxad residues in food samples. Two carboxyl-functionalized analogues of fluxapyroxad were prepared and antibodies with IC50 values in the low nanomolar range were generated from both haptens, though a dissimilar response was observed concerning specificity...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Hyeok-Jin Ko, Hyun Joo Park, Sun Hee Lee, Haeyoung Jeong, Jung-Hoon Bae, Bong Hyun Sung, In-Geol Choi, Jung-Hoon Sohn
Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the acid-tolerant yeast Candida zemplinina NP2, which was isolated from peach peels. This genome sequence will aid in the understanding of the organism's physiological properties as a potential producer of organic acids in acidic environments.
September 28, 2017: Genome Announcements
Camila Corrêa Pereira, Alexander Ossanes de Souza, Eliézer Quadro Oreste, Mariana Antunes Vieira, Anderson Schwingel Ribeiro
The acid decomposition method was applied for the sample preparation of processed fruit juice. The decomposition of 15mL of juice sample using HNO3 and H2O2 was performed in a digester block with reflux system and heated at 200°C for 150min. The limits of detection were 0.03; 0.24; 0.8; 0.008; 0.026 and 0.056mgL(-1) for Cr, Cu, K, Mg, Na and Zn, respectively and for Pb was 0.99μgL(-1). The accuracy was evaluated by spiked experiments (80 to 119%). Four processed fruit juice samples commercialized in Brazil (strawberry, mango, peach, and orange) were analyzed and indicated the absence of Cr, Zn and Cu in the samples, except for Cu in strawberry juice...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Yun Zhao, Weiqi Dong, Ke Wang, Bo Zhang, Andrew C Allan, Kui Lin-Wang, Kunsong Chen, Changjie Xu
Anthocyanins provide nutritional benefits and are responsible for red coloration in many fruits. Light affects anthocyanin biosynthesis in peach (Prunus persica). However, some cultivars show differential sensitivity to light. In the present study, 'Hujingmilu (HJ),' a naturally deeply colored cultivar, and 'Yulu (YL),' showing low pigmentation, were used to study the mechanism underlying UV-light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. Both UVA and UVB induced fruit pigmentation of 'HJ,' but 'YL' was only sensitive to UVB...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiaokun Zhang, Lara A Patel, Olivia Beckwith, Robert Schneider, Christopher J Weeden, James T Kindt
Micelle cluster distributions from molecular dynamics simulations of a solvent-free coarse-grained model of sodium octyl sulfate (SOS) have been analyzed using an improved method to extract equilibrium association constants from small-system simulations, containing one or two micelle clusters at equilibrium with free surfactants and counterions. The statistical-thermodynamic and mathematical foundations of this "Partition-Enabled Analysis of Cluster Histograms" (PEACH) approach are presented. A dramatic reduction in computational time for analysis is achieved through a strategy similar to the "selector variable method" to circumvent the need for exhaustive enumeration of the possible partitions of surfactants and counterions into clusters...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Seςil Kepil Özdemir, Selcan Özgüςlü
BACKGROUND: There is limited data regarding pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS) in Turkey. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical characteristics and possible risk factors of PFAS in Turkey, and to evaluate if there was an association between skin test reactivity to pollens and presence of PFAS. METHODS: A total of 254 consecutive adult patients with pollen sensitivity were prospectively recruited. Patients were interviewed with a questionnaire including a list of pollen-associated foods...
September 17, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
Jürg A Zarn, Caitlyn D O'Brien
Dietary risk assessment (DRA) of pesticides includes the estimation of chronic and acute exposures from crop residues, but assesses acute exposures only for pesticides with an acute reference dose (ARfD). Acute estimation uses high percentiles of food consumption surveys which are considerably higher than per capita lifetime averaged food consumption values which are used for chronic estimations. Assessing acute risks only for pesticides with an ARfD tacitly assumes that chronic risk assessment covers also intermittent occurring exposures which could significantly exceed chronic estimates...
September 19, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
R Martínez-Las Heras, E F Landines, A Heredia, M L Castelló, A Andrés
Persimmon, given its current surplus production, could be an alternative source for the extraction of certain interesting ingredients for the food industry and human health, such as fibre. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyse the influence of hot air and freeze-drying, as well as the particle size of fibre extracted from persimmon peels or pulp on their physicochemical, antioxidant, hydration and emulsifying properties, compared to commercial fibres (from peach, lemon, orange and apple). The results showed that both freeze-dried persimmon pulp and freeze-dried peel had better hydration properties and oil holding capacity than other fibres analysed, although the swelling capacity was higher for lemon fibre...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Xiao-Long Du, Hui Li, Wei-Hong Zhou, Ying Liu, Jian-Long Li
Peaches are known for their palatable flavor and abundant nutrients. However, peaches are perishable, and the existing preservation techniques for peaches are still immature. To further extend the shelf life and prevent nutrient loss of perishable peaches under ambient temperature in summer (approximately 25-32 °C), we conducted experiments wrapping peaches (Prunus persica cv 'Baihua') in single- and composite-treated vegetal fibrous papers that contained calcium carbonate, phytic acid, Na-alginate and vitamin C...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Georgia Tanou, Ioannis S Minas, Federico Scossa, Maya Belghazi, Aliki Xanthopoulou, Ioannis Ganopoulos, Panagiotis Madesis, Alisdair Fernie, Athanassios Molassiotis
Cold storage of fruit may induce the physiological disorder chilling injury (CI); however, the molecular basis of CI development remains largely unexplored. Simulated conditions of CI priming and suppression provided an interesting experimental system to study cold response in fruit. Peaches (cv. June Gold) at the commercial harvest (CH) or tree-ripe (TR) stages were immediately exposed to cold treatment (40 d, 0 °C) and an additional group of CH fruits were pre-conditioned 48 h at 20 °C prior to low-temperature exposure (pre-conditioning, PC)...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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