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Xing Ge, Tofael Ahmed, Tiantao Zhang, Zhenying Wang, Kanglai He, Shuxiong Bai
Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) play an important role in olfaction of insects by transporting sex pheromones across the sensillum lymph to odorant receptors. To obtain a better understanding of the molecular basis between PBPs and semiochemicals, we have cloned, expressed, and purified two PBPs (CpunPBP2 and CpunPBP5) from the antennae of Conogethes punctiferalis . Fluorescence competitive binding assays were used to investigate binding affinities of CpunPBP2 and CpunPBP5 to sex pheromone and volatiles. Results indicate both CpunPBP2 and CpunPBP5 bind sex pheromones E 10-16:Ald, Z 10-16:Ald and hexadecanal with higher affinities...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
John M Chater, Donald J Merhaut, Zhenyu Jia, Mary Lu Arpaia, Peggy A Mauk, John E Preece
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an important fruit in many cultures. The fruit and juice have risen in popularity as it was discovered that pomegranate has relatively high antioxidant activity compared to most other fruits. In this study, six cultivars were utilized to determine consumer acceptance compared to the industry standard, 'Wonderful,' which comprises 90% to 95% of commercial production in the United States. Fruit were sourced from 2 cultivar field trials, one in inland Riverside, California, and one in coastal Ventura County, California...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Jordi Morata, Fatima Marín, Jordi Payet, Josep M Casacuberta
Transposable elements are one of the main drivers of plant genome evolution. Transposon insertions can modify the gene coding capacity or the regulation of their expression, the latter being a more subtle effect, and therefore particularly useful for evolution. Transposons have been show to contain transcription factor binding sites that can be mobilized upon transposition with the potential to integrate new genes into transcriptional networks. MITEs are a type of non-coding DNA transposons that could be particularly suited as a vector to mobilize transcription factor binding sites and modify transcriptional networks during evolution...
April 5, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Chunhua Zhang, Ruchao Feng, Ruijuan Ma, Zhijun Shen, Zhixiang Cai, Zhizhong Song, Bin Peng, Mingliang Yu
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor family is a superfamily found in all eukaryotes that plays important roles in regulating growth and development. Over the past several decades, many bHLH superfamily genes have been identified and characterized in herbaceous and woody plants. However, the genes belonging to the bHLH superfamily in peach (Prunus persica) have not yet been comprehensively identified and characterized. Here, we identified 95 members of the bHLH superfamily in the peach genome, and these genes were classified into 19 subfamilies based on a phylogenetic comparison with bHLH proteins from Arabidopsis...
2018: PloS One
Bryce Noblitt, Kristan P Alfonso, Margaret Adkins, Matthew L Bush
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess barriers to rehabilitation care for pediatric cochlear implant (CI) recipients. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire study. SETTING: Tertiary medical center. PATIENTS: Parents of children who received a CI from October 1996 to June 2013. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Factors related to access to and barriers in audiology and speech therapy services, factors related to CI use, and performance with CI using the Parents' Evaluation of Aural/Oral Performance of Children (PEACH)...
April 11, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Ayub Ebadi Fathabad, Nabi Shariatifar, Mojtaba Moazzen, Shahrokh Nazmara, Yadolah Fakhri, Mahmood Alimohammadi, Ali Azari, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah
In this study, the levels of Cd, Hg, Sn, Al, Pb and As of 72 samples (36 samples for fruits juices and 36 samples for fruits canned) of three different brands including of Peach, Orange, Cherry, and Pineapple (18 samples of each fruits) marketed in Tehran, Iran (2015) were evaluated using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) technique. Also, Probabilistic risk assessment (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks) was estimated by models include target hazard quotient (THQ) and cancer risk (CR) in the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) model...
April 2, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Andrea Sciarretta, Maria Rosaria Tabilio, Elena Lampazzi, Claudio Ceccaroli, Marco Colacci, Pasquale Trematerra
The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is a key pest of fruit crops in many tropical, subtropical and mild temperate areas worldwide. The economic importance of this fruit fly is increasing due to its invasion of new geographical areas. Efficient control and eradication efforts require adequate information regarding C. capitata adults in relation to environmental and physiological cues. This would allow effective characterisation of the population spatio-temporal dynamic of the C...
2018: PloS One
Jiamei Li, Carlos A Avila, Denise M Tieman, Harry J Klee, Fiona L Goggin
The spr2 mutation in tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ), which disrupts function of FATTY ACID DESATURASE 7 (FAD7), confers resistance to the potato aphid ( Macrosiphum euphorbiae ) and modifies the plant’s C6 volatile profiles. To investigate whether C6 volatiles play a role in resistance, HYDROPEROXIDE LYASE ( HPL ), which encodes a critical enzyme in C6 volatile synthesis, was silenced in wild-type tomato plants and spr2 mutants. Silencing HPL in wild-type tomato increased potato aphid host preference and reproduction on 5-week old plants but had no influence on 3-week old plants...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kristen R Taylor Meadows, Marcos W Steinberg, Bryan Clemons, Matthew E Stokes, Gregory J Opiteck, Robert Peach, Fiona L Scott
Ozanimod (RPC1063) is a specific and potent small molecule modulator of the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) and receptor 5 (S1PR5), which has shown therapeutic benefit in clinical trials of relapsing multiple sclerosis and ulcerative colitis. Ozanimod and its active metabolite, RP-101075, exhibit a similar specificity profile at the S1P receptor family in vitro and pharmacodynamic profile in vivo. The NZBWF1 mouse model was used in therapeutic dosing mode to assess the potential benefit of ozanimod and RP-101075 in an established animal model of systemic lupus erythematosus...
2018: PloS One
Letícia Cristina Viana Miguel, Ana Beatriz Ramos de Oliveira Pinn, Horacio Dorigan Moya
An alternative method for quantification of the total reducing capacity (TRC) of processed ready-to-drink fruit juices (orange, grape, peach, mango, cashew, strawberry, apple and guava) is suggested. The spectrophotometric procedure is based on the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) by antioxidants (present in the samples) in aqueous buffered solution (pH 7.0), containing 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-biquinoline acid (H2 BCA), yielding the [Formula: see text] complexes. The absorbance values at 558 nm (A558 nm ) of the [Formula: see text] complexes obtained with juice samples were compared with A558 nm values of the same complexes obtained with a standard ascorbic acid solution and used to quantify and express the reducing capacity of each sample...
April 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Tracey E Siebert, Sheridan R Barter, Miguel A de Barros Lopes, Markus J Herderich, I Leigh Francis
Despite numerous studies, the identity of the compounds that are responsible for 'stone fruit' aroma in wine has not been conclusively established. This study focussed on wine varieties that often display peach and apricot characters, such as Chardonnay, Viognier and botrytis-affected sweet Semillon wines. Wines with high and low 'stone fruit' aroma were evaluated by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS) using extracts representative of the aroma of the wine in a glass. No aroma-active zone was described as 'stone fruit' aroma across all three wine varietals...
August 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Chao Gu, Yu-Hang Zhou, Wei-Sheng Shu, Hai-Yan Cheng, Lu Wang, Yue-Peng Han, Yu-Yan Zhang, Ming-Liang Yu, Dirk Joldersma, Shao-Ling Zhang
Fruit size is determined by fruit swelling that usually occurs in two distinct time periods in peach. However, little is known about gene regulation of fruit swelling. In this study, measurements of longitudinal and transverse diameters in developing and ripening peach fruits unveiled two periods of fruit swelling: the first swelling ends at approximately 65 days after flower blooming (DAFB) and the second swelling starts at approximately 75 DAFB. Comparisons of diameters sizes and development periods among cultivars and accession revealed a cooperative regulation of swelling velocity and swelling duration, which leads to final determination of fruit size...
March 30, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Feridun Gürlek, Mehmet Ünsel, Ömür Ardeniz, Zeynep Peker Koc, Okan Gülbahar, Aytül Zerrin Sin, Ali Kokuludag, Nihal Mete Gokmen
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that latex-specific IgE analysis may lead to false-positive results, especially in patients with pollen allergy. In the present study, the reasons underlying clinically irrelevant latex-specific IgE positivity were investigated. METHODS: Thirty patients with latex allergy (group 1), 89 patients sensitised to aeroallergens (group 2a), and 98 healthy individuals without allergy (group 2b) were enrolled. Participants from all 3 groups were subjected to skin prick tests with aeroallergens including latex, latex-specific IgE analysis (ImmunoCAP), and nasal provocation test with latex...
March 28, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Jerson Garita-Cambronero, Ana Palacio-Bielsa, Jaime Cubero
Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Xap) causes bacterial spot of stone fruits and almond, an important disease that may reduce the yield and vigor of the trees, as well as the marketability of affected fruits. Xap, is within the Xanthomonas genus which has been intensively studied due its strain specialization and the host range complexity. Here, we have summarized the recent advances in our understanding of the complexities of Xap, including the studies of molecular features that resulted after comparative phenotypic and genomic analyses, in order to obtain a clearer overview of the bacterial behavior and their infection mechanisms in the context of the X...
March 25, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Huifu Zhuang, Juan Li, Juan Song, Christian Hettenhausen, Meredith C Schuman, Guiling Sun, Cuiping Zhang, Jing Li, Dunlun Song, Jianqiang Wu
Dodders (Cuscuta spp.) are shoot holoparasites, whose haustoria penetrate host tissues to enable fusion between the parasite and host vascular systems, allowing Cuscuta to extract water, nutrients and other molecules from hosts. Aphids are piercing-sucking herbivores that use specialized stylets to feed on phloem sap. Aphids are known to feed on Cuscuta, but how Cuscuta and its host plant respond to aphids attacking the parasite was unknown. Phytohormone quantification, transcriptomic analysis and bioassays were performed to determine the responses of Cuscuta australis and its soybean (Glycine max) hosts to the feeding of green peach aphid (GPA; Myzus persicae) on C...
March 25, 2018: New Phytologist
Abdelaziz M El-Minshawy, Samir A M Abdelgaleil, Gadelhak G Gadelhak, Mohamed A Al-Eryan, Rafiaa A Rabab
The peach fruit fly (PFF), Bactrocera zonata, is a serious insect pest infesting fruits and vegetables. The insecticidal activity of three monoterpenes, namely, (R)-camphor, (R)-carvone, and (1R,2S,5R)-menthol, was evaluated on the second-instar larvae of B. zonata. In addition, the latent effects of monoterpenes on pupation, adult emergence, deformation, oviposition, adult longevity, and ovarian development were also examined. The three tested monoterpenes showed pronounced insecticidal activity against B...
March 25, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yan He, Li Cai, Lingling Zhou, Zuokun Yang, Ni Hong, Guoping Wang, Shifang Li, Wenxing Xu
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
March 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shi Feng, Mingyang Huang, Jonathan Henry Crane, Yu Wang
Volatile compounds in 'Sweetheart' lychee were examined using gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). Solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) technique was used to identify the aroma-active compounds in lychee. Further characterization of the most important odorants in 'Sweetheart' lychee was achieved using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Thirty-one key aroma-active odorants were identified in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 2-1024. Methional (cooked potato) and geraniol (sweet, floral) exhibited the highest FD factors of 1024 and 512, respectively, these were followed by furaneol (sweet, caramel), nerol (floral, sweet), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) (preserved vegetable, sulfury), linalool (floral), (E,Z)-2,6 nonadienal (cucumber) and nerolidol (metalic, sesame oil)...
April 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Yasuhiro Uwadaira, Yasuyo Sekiyama, Akifumi Ikehata
Evaluating the maturity of peach fruit is desirable during both the preharvest and postharvest periods, and flesh firmness (FF) is a representative maturity index. Although a non-destructive FF measurement technique using visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been developed, the principle has been unclear. This study was conducted to examine the structure of the FF prediction model by comparing with that of the model for measuring water-soluble pectin (WSP) content. Those two prediction models have the same information regions related to the colors of pericarp and mesocarp (chlorophyll) and to a water band in the NIR region...
February 2018: Heliyon
Aleksandra Losvik, Lisa Beste, Jennifer Stephens, Lisbeth Jonsson
Aphids are serious pests in crop plants. In an effort to identify plant genes controlling resistance against aphids, we have here studied a protease inhibitor, CI2c in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The CI2c gene was earlier shown to be upregulated by herbivory of the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) in barley genotypes with moderate resistance against this aphid, but not in susceptible lines. We hypothesized that CI2c contributes to the resistance. To test this idea, cDNA encoding CI2c was overexpressed in barley and bioassays were carried out with R...
2018: PloS One
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