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María J Rubio-Cabetas, Clara Pons, Beatriz Bielsa, María L Amador, Cristina Marti, Antonio Granell
Analysis of the transcriptomic changes produced in response to hypoxia in root tissues from two rootstock Prunus genotypes differing in their sensitivity to waterlogging: resistant Myrobalan 'P.2175' (P. cerasifera Erhr.), and sensitive 'Felinem' hybrid [P. amygdalus Batsch × P. persica (L.) Batsch] revealed alterations in both metabolism and regulatory processes. Early hypoxia response in both genotypes is characterized by a molecular program aimed to adapt the cell metabolism to the new conditions. Upon hypoxia conditions, tolerant Myrobalan represses first secondary metabolism gene expression as a strategy to prevent the waste of resources/energy, and by the up-regulation of protein degradation genes probably leading to structural adaptations to long-term response to hypoxia...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Zhixia Li, Jiyun Nie, Zhen Yan, Yang Cheng, Feng Lan, Yunan Huang, Qiusheng Chen, Xubo Zhao, An Li
The presence of pesticide residues in fruit has been of extensive concern worldwide. In this paper, pesticide residues in peach samples in China and their dietary exposure risks for the Chinese general population and children were evaluated. Thirty-nine different pesticides were detected, and 92.3% of samples contained one or more pesticide residues. The most frequently detected pesticide was carbendazim with a detection rate of 60.6%. Residues for eight pesticides in 3.2% of the samples exceeded their MRLs with the highest exceedance of 345%...
June 14, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Celia M Cantín, Pere Arús, Iban Eduardo
OBJECTIVE: Peach brachytic dwarfism determined by Dwarf gene (Dw) is an undesired trait segregating in some peach breeding programs. Recently, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation in the gibberellin insensitive dwarf 1 (GID1) peach gene causing brachytic dwarfism was described. In this research we wanted to validate this marker in an F2 population of the 'Nectavantop' peach cultivar (Nv) to include it as a marker assisted selection tool for peach breeding programs. RESULTS: The observed segregation of the trait was in agreement with that of a recessive gene, the individuals homozygous for the recessive allele (dwdw) presenting the dwarf genotype...
June 14, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Chen-Yo Chung, Yi-Min Hsiao, Ting-Yu Huang, Tien-Hsien Chang, Chun-Che Chang
In animals, differentiation of germline from soma usually takes place during embryogenesis. Genes and their products that are preferentially expressed in the embryonic germ cells are regarded as candidates for maintaining germline fate or promoting germline identity. In Drosophila, for example, the protein encoded by the germline gene vasa is specifically restricted to the germ cells while products of the gap gene hunchback (hb), a somatic gene, are preferentially expressed in the neuroblasts. In this study, we report the expression of both mRNA and protein encoded by Aphb, an hb orthologue in the asexual viviparous pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, in germ cells as well as in neuroblasts...
June 11, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Zhi-Wei Kang, Fang-Hua Liu, Zhan-Feng Zhang, Hong-Gang Tian, Tong-Xian Liu
In nature, plants have evolved sophisticated defense mechanisms against the attack of pathogens and insect herbivores. Plant volatile-mediated plant-to-plant communication has been assessed in multitrophic systems in different plant species and different pest species. β-ocimene is recognized as an herbivore-induced plant volatile that play an important role in the chemical communication between plants and pests. However, it is still unclear whether β-ocimene can active the defense mechanism of Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis against the peach aphid Myzus persicae ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Stefano Brizzolara, Maarten Hertog, Roberta Tosetti, Bart Nicolai, Pietro Tonutti
Refrigerated storage is widely applied in order to maintain peach quality but it can also induce chilling injuries (CIs) such as flesh browning and bleeding, and mealiness. Peach fruit from three cultivars ('Red Haven', RH, 'Regina di Londa', RL, and 'Flaminia', FL) were stored for 4 weeks under low temperatures (0.5 and 5.5°C). GC-MS was employed to study changes in both metabolome and volatilome induced by cold storage in the mesocarp. CIs were assessed both at the end of each week of storage and after subsequent shelf-life (SL) at 20°C...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yona Vaisbuch, Jennifer C Alyono, Cherian Kandathil, Stanley H Wu, Matthew B Fitzgerald, Robert K Jackler
BACKGROUND: Noise-induced hearing loss is one of the most common occupational hazards in the United States. Several studies have described noise-induced hearing loss in patients following mastoidectomy. Although otolaryngologists care for patients with noise-induced hearing loss, few studies in the English literature have examined surgeons' occupational risk. METHODS: Noise dosimeters and sound level meters with octave band analyzers were used to assess noise exposure during drilling of temporal bones intraoperatively and in a lab setting...
July 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Lin Zhu, Jiansheng Guo, Zhongyou Ma, Jianfei Wang, Cheng Zhou
Induction of ethylene biosynthesis by aphids increases the susceptibility of several plant species to aphids. Recent studies have indicated that some MYB transcription factors regulate the phloem-based defense against aphid infestation by modulating ethylene (ET) signaling. Arabidopsis MYB102 has previously been shown to be induced by wound signaling and regulate defense response against chewing insects. However, it remains unclear whether Arabidopsis MYB102 takes part in the defense response of plants to aphids...
June 7, 2018: Biomolecules
Xiaoqin Wu, Xiujuan An, Mingliang Yu, Ruijuan Ma, Zhifang Yu
In the present study, the potential effect of 1-MCP treatment on phenolics and antioxidant capacity in postharvest peach was assessed. Peach fruit (CV. Xiahui-8) treated with 1-MCP or without treatment were stored in 25 ℃ for 2, 4, 6, 8 d. The phenolic composition and change trend were evaluated by LC/MS. The ROS production and scavenging capacity against DPPH, O2•- and HO• were determined. Gene expression of enzymes in flavonoids biosynthetic pathway were assayed by qRT-PCR analysis. 1-MCP application inhibited the ethylene and CO2 production and stimulated the total phenol and total flavonoids content...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Zhiqiang Tian, Guisheng Qiu, Yanyan Li, Huaijiang Zhang, Wentao Yan, Qiang Yue, Lina Sun
BACKGROUND: The peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae), is one of the most destructive pests of pome and stone fruits, while few studies of their molecular biology and physiology have been conducted . Research into CsasPBPs and CsasGOBPs may provide insights in to the mechanisms of olfaction in C. sasakii. RESULTS: In our study, results of real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays demonstrated that CsasPBP1-3 and CsasGOBP1-2 transcripts were abundantly expressed in the antennae of both sexes, suggesting they play a their vital roles in olfaction...
June 4, 2018: Pest Management Science
Paul R Atkinson, James Milne, Laura Diegelmann, Hein Lamprecht, Melanie Stander, David Lussier, Chau Pham, Ryan Henneberry, Jacqueline M Fraser, Michael K Howlett, Jayanand Mekwan, Brian Ramrattan, Joanna Middleton, Daniel J van Hoving, Mandy Peach, Luke Taylor, Tara Dahn, Sean Hurley, Kayla MacSween, Luke R Richardson, George Stoica, Samuel Hunter, Paul A Olszynski, David A Lewis
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Point-of-care ultrasonography protocols are commonly used in the initial management of patients with undifferentiated hypotension in the emergency department (ED). There is little published evidence for any mortality benefit. We compare the effect of a point-of-care ultrasonography protocol versus standard care without point-of-care ultrasonography for survival and clinical outcomes. METHODS: This international, multicenter, randomized controlled trial recruited from 6 centers in North America and South Africa and included selected hypotensive patients (systolic blood pressure <100 mm Hg or shock index >1) randomized to early point-of-care ultrasonography plus standard care versus standard care without point-of-care ultrasonography...
June 2, 2018: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Jihyae Ann, Agnes Czikora, Amandeep Saini, Xiaoling Zhou, Gary A Mitchell, Nancy E Lewin, Megan L Peach, Peter M Blumberg, Jeewoo Lee
Diacylglycerol-lactones have proven to be a powerful template for the design of potent ligands targeting C1 domains, the recognition motif for the cellular second messenger diacylglycerol. A major objective has been to better understand the structure activity relations distinguishing the seven families of signaling proteins that contain such domains, of which the protein kinase C (PKC) and RasGRP families are of particular interest. Here, we synthesize a series of aryl/alkyl substituted diacylglycerol-lactones and probe their relative selectivities for RasGRP3 versus PKC...
June 3, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Marc D Moncrieff, David Gyorki, Robyn Saw, Andrew J Spillane, Howard Peach, Deemesh Oudit, Jenny Geh, Peter Dziewulski, Ewan Wilson, Paolo Matteucci, Rowan Pritchard-Jones, Roger Olofsson Bagge, Frances C Wright, Nic Crampton, Oliver Cassell, Navid Jallali, Adam Berger, John Kelly, Stephen Hamilton, Amer Durrani, Serigne Lo, Elizabeth Paton, Michael A Henderson
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of consensus regarding optimal surgical excision margins for primary cutaneous melanoma > 1 mm in Breslow thickness (BT). A narrower surgical margin is expected to be associated with lower morbidity, improved quality of life (QoL), and reduced cost. We report the results of a pilot international study (MelMarT) comparing a 1 versus 2-cm surgical margin for patients with primary melanoma > 1 mm in BT. METHODS: This phase III, multicentre trial [NCT02385214] administered by the Australia & New Zealand Medical Trials Group (ANZMTG 03...
May 30, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Carly J Moores, Jacqueline Miller, Lynne A Daniels, Helen A Vidgen, Anthea M Magarey
Parenting, Eating and Activity for Child Health (PEACH) is a multi-component lifestyle intervention for families with overweight and obese children. PEACH was translated from an efficacious randomised-controlled trial (RCT) and delivered at scale as PEACH Queensland (QLD) in Queensland, Australia. The aim of this study is to explore pre-post changes in parenting, and child-level eating, activity and anthropometry, in the PEACH QLD service delivery project. PEACH QLD enrolled 926 overweight/obese children (817 families)...
June 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Li-Jing Du, Chu Chu, Elisa Warner, Qiu-Yan Wang, Yu-Han Hu, Ke-Jie Chai, Jun Cao, Li-Qing Peng, Yu-Bo Chen, Juan Yang, Qi-Dong Zhang
Mycotoxins are a group of secondary fungi metabolites present in foods that cause adverse effects in humans and animals. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a reliable and sensitive method to determine the presence of fumonisin B1, aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin B, T-2 toxin, ochratoxin A and zearalenone. A rapid, effective process, which involves microwave-assisted dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (MA-d-μ-SPE), has been proposed for the extraction and detection of 6 mycotoxins in peach seed, milk powder, corn flour and beer sample matrixes, for subsequent analysis by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS)...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Shuning Chen, Yunyun Wang, Guido Schnabel, Congyue Annie Peng, Satyanarayana Lagishetty, Kerry Smith, Chao-Xi Luo, Huizhu Yuan
Anthracnose disease, caused by Colletotrichum truncatum, affects marketable yield during preharvest production and postharvest storage of fruits and vegetables worldwide. Demethylation inhibitor fungicides (DMIs) are among the very few chemical classes of single-site mode of action fungicides that are effective in controlling anthracnose disease. However, some species are inherently resistant to DMIs and more information is needed to understand this phenomenon. Isolates of C. truncatum were collected from the USA and China from peach, soybean, citrus, and begonia and sensitivity to six DMIs (difenoconazole, propiconazole, metconazole, tebuconazole, flutriafol and fenbuconazole) was determined...
May 24, 2018: Phytopathology
Kathryn S Ingerslew, Deborah L Finke
Most studies investigating the importance of non-consumptive interactions for herbivore suppression focus on pairwise interactions between one predator and one prey, ignoring any community context. Further, the potential for non-consumptive interactions to arise between herbivores and non-enemy organisms is commonly overlooked. We investigated the relative contributions of consumptive and non-consumptive effects to aphid suppression by a wasp assemblage containing both enemies and non-enemies. We examined the suppression of two aphid species with different defensive strategies, pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum), which drop from their host plant to the ground, and green peach aphids (Myzus persicae), which remain on the plant and merely walk away...
2018: PloS One
Y Mori, F Okazaki, C Inuo, Y Yamaguchi, S Masuda, S Sugiura, T Fukuie, M Nagao, I Tsuge, T Yosikawa, A Yagami, K Matsunaga, T Fujisawa, K Ito, H Narita, Y Kondo
BACKGROUND: Lipid transfer protein (LTP) is a major fruit allergen. It has, however, recently been revealed that the systemic reaction in peach-allergic patients is related not only to LTP (Pru p 3) but also to gibberellin-regulated protein (Pru p 7). We investigated recombinant Pru p 7 (rPru p 7) for its potential use in worldwide standardization for the diagnosis of peach allergy. METHODS: Natural Pru p 7 (nPru p 7) was purified from peach crude extract using a monoclonal antibody affinity column...
May 18, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Shifeng Cao, Kun Bian, Liyu Shi, Hsiao-Hang Chung, Wei Chen, Zhenfeng Yang
Melatonin reportedly increased chilling tolerance in postharvest peach fruit during cold storage but information on its effect on cell wall disassembly in chilling injured peaches is limited. In this study, we investigated the role of cell wall depolymerization in chilling tolerance induction in melatonin-treated peaches. Treatment with melatonin at 100 µM alleviated chilling symptom (mealiness) characterized by decrease in fruit firmness and increase in juice extractability in treated peaches during storage...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Marco Cirilli, Daniela Giovannini, Angelo Ciacciulli, Remo Chiozzotto, Stefano Gattolin, Laura Rossini, Alessandro Liverani, Daniele Bassi
BACKGROUND: Texture is one of the most important fruit quality attributes. In peach, stony hard (SH) is a recessive monogenic trait (hd/hd) that confers exceptionally prolonged firm flesh to fully ripe fruit. Previous studies have shown that the SH mutation affects the fruit ability to synthesize appropriate amounts of indol-3-acetic acid (IAA), which orchestrates the ripening processes through the activation of system 2 ethylene pathway. Allelic variation in a TC microsatellite located within the first intron of PpYUC11-like (a YUCCA-like auxin-biosynthesis gene) has been recently proposed as the causal mutation of the SH phenotype...
May 18, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
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