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Palmitoylation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211935/the-vertical-location-of-%C3%AE-tocopherol-in-phosphatidylcholine-membranes-is-not-altered-as-a-function-of-the-degree-of-unsaturation-of-the-fatty-acyl-chains
#1
Alessio Ausili, Ana M de Godos, Alejandro Torrecillas, Francisco J Aranda, Senena Corbalán-García, Juan C Gómez-Fernández
α-Tocopherol is a natural preservative that prevents free radical chain oxidations in biomembranes. We have studied the location of α-tocopherol in model membranes formed by different unsaturated phosphatidylcholines, namely 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PLPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PAPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PDPC). Small angle X-ray diffraction revealed that α-tocopherol was well mixed with all the phospholipids...
February 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207776/the-improved-efficacy-of-sifuvirtide-compared-with-enfuvirtide-might-be-related-to-its-selectivity-for-the-rigid-biomembrane-as-determined-through-surface-plasmon-resonance
#2
Ping Cao, Guifang Dou, Yuanguo Cheng, Jinjing Che
Most mechanistic studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) peptide fusion inhibitors have focused on the interactions between fusion inhibitors and viral envelope proteins. However, the interactions of fusion inhibitors with viral membranes are also essential for the efficacy of these drugs. Here, we utilized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology to study the interactions between the HIV fusion inhibitor peptides sifuvirtide and enfuvirtide and biomembrane models. Sifuvirtide presented selectivity toward biomembrane models composed of saturated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) (32-fold higher compared with unsaturated 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [POPC]) and sphingomyelin (SM) (31-fold higher compared with POPC), which are rigid compositions enriched in the HIV viral membrane...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202682/protein-s-palmitoylation-in-cellular-differentiation
#3
REVIEW
Mingzi M Zhang, Howard C Hang
Reversible protein S-palmitoylation confers spatiotemporal control of protein function by modulating protein stability, trafficking and activity, as well as protein-protein and membrane-protein associations. Enabled by technological advances, global studies revealed S-palmitoylation to be an important and pervasive posttranslational modification in eukaryotes with the potential to coordinate diverse biological processes as cells transition from one state to another. Here, we review the strategies and tools to analyze in vivo protein palmitoylation and interrogate the functions of the enzymes that put on and take off palmitate from proteins...
February 8, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202546/identification-of-a-novel-series-of-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-oxidative-phospholipid-oxidation-products-containing-cyclopentenone-moiety-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-implication-in-atherosclerosis
#4
Jianhong Lu, Shuyuan Guo, Xinli Xue, Qun Chen, Jing Ge, Yujuan Zhuo, Huiqin Zhong, Buxing Chen, Mingming Zhao, Wei Han, Takashi Suzuki, Mingjiang Zhu, Lin Xia, Claus Schneider, Timothy S Blackwell, Ned A Porter, Lemin Zheng, Sotirios Tsimikas, Huiyong Yin
Oxidative stress and inflammation are two major contributing factors to atherosclerosis, a leading cause for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Oxidation of phospholipids on the surface of low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles generated under oxidative stress has been associated with the progression of atherosclerosis but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. We identified a novel series of oxidation products containing cyclopentenone moiety, termed deoxy-A2/J2-isoprostanes-phosphocholine (deoxy-A2/J2-IsoP-PC), from 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PAPC) in vivo using mass spectrometry and by comparison to a chemically synthesized standard...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196865/s-palmitoylation-of-junctional-adhesion-molecule-c-regulates-its-tight-junction-localization-and-cell-migration
#5
Pornpun Aramsangtienchai, Nicole A Spiegelman, Ji Cao, Hening Lin
Junctional Adhesion Molecule C (JAM-C) is an immunoglobulin superfamily protein expressed in epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and leukocytes. JAM-C has been implicated in leukocyte transendothelial migration, angiogenesis, cell-adhesion, cell polarity, spermatogenesis and metastasis. Here, we show that JAM-C undergoes S-palmitoylation on two juxtamembrane cysteine residues, Cys264 and Cys265. We have identified DHHC7 as a JAM-C palmitoylating enzyme by screening all known palmitoyltransferases (PATs or DHHCs)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195158/infection-derived-lipids-elicit-an-immune-deficiency-circuit-in-arthropods
#6
Dana K Shaw, Xiaowei Wang, Lindsey J Brown, Adela S Oliva Chávez, Kathryn E Reif, Alexis A Smith, Alison J Scott, Erin E McClure, Vishant M Boradia, Holly L Hammond, Eric J Sundberg, Greg A Snyder, Lei Liu, Kathleen DePonte, Margarita Villar, Massaro W Ueti, José de la Fuente, Robert K Ernst, Utpal Pal, Erol Fikrig, Joao H F Pedra
The insect immune deficiency (IMD) pathway resembles the tumour necrosis factor receptor network in mammals and senses diaminopimelic-type peptidoglycans present in Gram-negative bacteria. Whether unidentified chemical moieties activate the IMD signalling cascade remains unknown. Here, we show that infection-derived lipids 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl diacylglycerol (PODAG) stimulate the IMD pathway of ticks. The tick IMD network protects against colonization by three distinct bacteria, that is the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and the rickettsial agents Anaplasma phagocytophilum and A...
February 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193150/maleimide-scavenging-enhances-determination-of-protein-s-palmitoylation-state-in-acyl-exchange-methods
#7
Charlotte H Hurst, Dionne Turnbull, Fiona Plain, William Fuller, Piers A Hemsley
S-palmitoylation (S-acylation) is emerging as an important dynamic post-translational modification of cysteine residues within proteins. Current assays for protein S-palmitoylation involve either in vivo labeling or chemical cleavage of S-palmitoyl groups to reveal a free cysteine sulfhydryl that can be subsequently labeled with an affinity handle (acyl-exchange). Assays for protein S-palmitoylation using acyl-exchange chemistry therefore require blocking of non-S-palmitoylated cysteines, typically using N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), to prevent non-specific detection...
February 1, 2017: BioTechniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190808/quantification-of-triacylglycerol-molecular-species-in-edible-fats-and-oils-by-gas-chromatographyflame-ionization-detector-using-correction-factors
#8
Kazuaki Yoshinaga, Junji Obi, Toshiharu Nagai, Hiroyuki Iioka, Akihiko Yoshida, Fumiaki Beppu, Naohiro Gotoh
In the present study, the resolution parameters and correction factors (CFs) of triacylglycerol (TAG) standards were estimated by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) to achieve the precise quantification of the TAG composition in edible fats and oils. Forty seven TAG standards comprising capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and/or linolenic acid were analyzed, and the CFs of these TAGs were obtained against tripentadecanoyl glycerol as the internal standard...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168573/increasing-cocoa-butter-like-lipid-production-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-by-expression-of-selected-cocoa-genes
#9
Yongjun Wei, Michael Gossing, David Bergenholm, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans mainly consists of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP, C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POS, C16:0-C18:1-C18:0) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18:0), but CB supply is limited. Therefore, CB-like lipids (CBL, which are composed of POP, POS and SOS) are in great demand. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces TAGs as storage lipids, which are also mainly composed of C16 and C18 fatty acids...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167899/cysteine-modifications-in-the-pathogenesis-of-als
#10
REVIEW
Cristiana Valle, Maria Teresa Carrì
Several proteins are found misfolded and aggregated in sporadic and genetic forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These include superoxide dismutase (SOD1), transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP-43), fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma protein (FUS/TLS), p62, vasolin-containing protein (VCP), Ubiquilin-2 and dipeptide repeats produced by unconventional RAN-translation of the GGGGCC expansion in C9ORF72. Up to date, functional studies have not yet revealed a common mechanism for the formation of such diverse protein inclusions...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167047/lipidated-proteins-spotlight-on-protein-membrane-binding-interfaces
#11
REVIEW
Arjun Ray, Nidhi Jatana, Lipi Thukral
The covalent attachment of lipids to proteins is a fundamental property of all living cells. These lipidated or lipid-modified proteins are directly targeted to the membranes and display diverse functional roles that are critical to cell function, such as membrane signaling and trafficking. All lipidated proteins have been classified by the type of chemical moieties that are attached to them, majorly, palmitoylation, myristoylation, prenylation, cholesterylation, and addition of the Glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchor...
February 3, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160294/an-averaged-polarizable-potential-for-multiscale-modeling-in-phospholipid-membranes
#12
Sarah Witzke, Nanna Holmgaard List, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard Olsen, Casper Steinmann, Michael Petersen, Maarten T P Beerepoot, Jacob Kongsted
A set of average atom-centered charges and polarizabilities has been developed for three types of phospholipids for use in polarizable embedding calculations. The lipids investigated are 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phospho-L-serine given their common use both in experimental and computational studies. The charges, and to a lesser extent the polarizabilities, are found to depend strongly on the molecular conformation of the lipids...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159823/serum-acylcarnitines-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-death-and-acute-myocardial-infarction-in-patients-with-stable-angina-pectoris
#13
Elin Strand, Eva R Pedersen, Gard F T Svingen, Thomas Olsen, Bodil Bjørndal, Therese Karlsson, Jutta Dierkes, Pål R Njølstad, Gunnar Mellgren, Grethe S Tell, Rolf K Berge, Asbjørn Svardal, Ottar Nygård
BACKGROUND: Excess levels of serum acylcarnitines, which are intermediate products in metabolism, have been observed in metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, it is not known whether acylcarnitines may prospectively predict risk of cardiovascular death or acute myocardial infarction in patients with stable angina pectoris. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study included 4164 patients (median age, 62 years; 72% men). Baseline serum acetyl-, octanoyl-, palmitoyl-, propionyl-, and (iso)valerylcarnitine were measured using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry...
February 3, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159572/fasn-inhibition-and-taxane-treatment-combine-to-enhance-anti-tumor-efficacy-in-diverse-xenograft-tumor-models-through-disruption-of-tubulin-palmitoylation-and-microtubule-organization-and-fasn-inhibition-mediated-effects-on-oncogenic-signaling-and-gene-expression
#14
Timothy S Heuer, Richard Ventura, Kasia Mordec, Julie Lai, Marina Fridlib, Douglas Buckley, George Kemble
Palmitate, the enzymatic product of FASN, and palmitate-derived lipids support cell metabolism, membrane architecture, protein localization, and intracellular signaling. Tubulins are among many proteins that are modified post-translationally by acylation with palmitate. We show that FASN inhibition with TVB-3166 or TVB-3664 significantly reduces tubulin palmitoylation and mRNA expression. Disrupted microtubule organization in tumor cells is an additional consequence of FASN inhibition. FASN inhibition combined with taxane treatment enhances inhibition of in vitro tumor cell growth compared to treatment with either agent alone...
December 24, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159237/altered-plasma-lipidome-profile-of-dairy-cows-with-fatty-liver-disease
#15
C Gerspach, S Imhasly, M Gubler, H Naegeli, M Ruetten, E Laczko
Fatty liver disease is a common health problem of dairy cows occurring during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. It is a direct response to fat mobilization due to negative energy balance. Accumulation of lipids in the liver occurs if the uptake of non-esterified fatty acids by the liver exceeds the capacity of lipid oxidation or secretion by the liver. Currently, the diagnosis of fatty liver disease requires confirmation through biopsies to determine the hepatic lipid content. In view of this lack of a practical diagnostic tool, we compared the plasma lipidome of diseased dairy cows using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
February 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157411/novel-lipidomic-biomarkers-in-hyperlipidemia-and-cardiovascular-diseases-an-integrative-biology-analysis
#16
Sneha Rai, Sonika Bhatnagar
Lipidomics is a new frontier of omics research and offers much promise for new-generation biomarkers for common complex phenotypes such as hyperlipidemia (HL) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). HL is a disorder characterized by increased levels of blood lipids and is a well-established risk factor for CVD. Traditional clinical markers for prognosis of hyperlipidemic individuals are inadequate to forecast or diagnose cardiac events. In this expert review, lipidomic profiles from recent HL and CVD studies were compared with the normolipidemic profile prepared from the Standard Reference Material...
February 3, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154191/specific-palmitoyltransferases-associate-with-and-activate-the-epithelial-sodium-channel
#17
Anindit Mukherjee, Zhijian Wang, Carol L Kinlough, Paul A Poland, Allison L Marciszyn, Nicolas Montalbetti, Marcelo D Carattino, Michael B Butterworth, Thomas R Kleyman, Rebecca P Hughey
The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) has an important role in regulating extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure, as well as airway surface liquid volume and mucociliary clearance. ENaC is a trimer of three homologous subunits (α, β and γ). We previously reported that cytoplasmic residues on the β (βCys43 and βCys557) and γ (γCys33 and γCys41) subunits are palmitoylated. Mutation of Cys that blocked ENaC palmitoylation also reduced channel open probability. Furthermore, γ subunit palmitoylation had a dominant role over β subunit palmitoylation in regulating ENaC...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154182/reduced-lipid-bilayer-thickness-regulates-the-aggregation-and-cytotoxicity-of-amyloid-%C3%AE
#18
Kyle J Korshavn, Cristina Satriano, Yuxi Lin, Rongchun Zhang, Mark Dulchavsky, Anirban Bhunia, Magdalena I Ivanova, Young-Ho Lee, Carmelo La Rosa, Mi Hee Lim, Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy
The aggregation of amyloid-Aβ (Aβ) on lipid bilayers has been implicated as a mechanism by which Aβ exerts its toxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Lipid bilayer thinning has been observed during both oxidative stress and protein aggregation in AD, but whether these pathological modifications of the bilayer correlate with Aβ misfolding is unclear. Here, we studied peptide-lipid interactions in synthetic bilayers of the short-chain lipid dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC) as a simplified model for diseased bilayers to determine their impact on Aβ aggregate, protofibril, and fibril formation...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150429/roles-of-palmitoylation-in-axon-growth-degeneration-and-regeneration
#19
REVIEW
Sabrina M Holland, Gareth M Thomas
The protein-lipid modification palmitoylation plays important roles in neurons, but most attention has focused on roles of this modification in the regulation of mature pre- and post-synapses. However, exciting recent findings suggest that palmitoylation is also critical for both the growth and integrity of neuronal axons and plays previously unappreciated roles in conveying axonal anterograde and retrograde signals. Here we review these emerging roles for palmitoylation in the regulation of axons in health and disease...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138687/serum-endocannabinoids-and-n-acyl-ethanolamines-and-the-influence-of-simulated-solar-uvr-exposure-in-humans-in-vivo
#20
Sarah J Felton, Alexandra C Kendall, Abdalla F M Almaedani, Paula Urquhart, Ann R Webb, Richard Kift, Andy Vail, Anna Nicolaou, Lesley E Rhodes
Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure of human skin has beneficial and harmful effects on health, including impact on immune function, inflammation and reportedly mood, but these are not fully elucidated. Since the endocannabinoid system is implicated in many activities including mood alteration, our objective was to (i) determine and quantify circulating levels of a wide range of endocannabinoid and N-acyl ethanolamine (NAE) species (ii) evaluate whether these are modulated by cutaneous UVR exposures, as attained through repeated low level summer sunlight exposure...
January 31, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
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