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Palmitoylation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147969/effect-of-dietary-phospholipid-levels-on-growth-lipid-metabolism-and-antioxidative-status-of-juvenile-hybrid-snakehead-channa-argus%C3%A3-channa-maculata
#1
Shi-Mei Lin, Fa-Jian Li, Bundit Yuangsoi, Sompong Doolgindachbaporn
The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary phospholipids (PLs) on growth, lipid metabolism, and antioxidative status of hybrid snakehead (Channa argus × Channa maculata). Five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets with graded levels of PLs (8.5, 19.3, 30.7, 41.5, and 50.8 g kg(-1)) were fed to triplicate groups of juveniles (initial body weight 12.6 ± 0.23 g) for 8 weeks. Results showed that dietary PL supplementation significantly improved growth of juveniles. The final body weight (FBW) and specific growth rate (SGR) significantly increased with dietary PLs increasing from 8...
November 16, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145099/degradation-kinetics-study-of-1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol-plag-by-a-validated-stability-indicating-rp-hplc-method
#2
Kyeong Soo Kim, Eun Su Yang, Dong Shik Kim, Dong Wuk Kim, Chul Soon Yong, Jong Oh Kim, Sung Giu Jin, Han-Gon Choi
The chemical stability of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol (PLAG), a therapeutic agent for neutropenia, was investigated using a validated stability-indicating reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method. The forced degradation of PLAG was carried out under the stress conditions of hydrolysis (alkaline, acidic and various pH buffers), oxidation, photolysis and heat. A simple, sensitive, specific, robust, precise and accurate RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for evaluating the degradation kinetics of PLAG...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144135/parameterization-of-palmitoylated-cysteine-farnesylated-cysteine-geranylgeranylated-cysteine-and-myristoylated-glycine-for-the-martini-force-field
#3
Yoav Atsmon-Raz, D Peter Tieleman
Peripheral membrane proteins go through various post-translational modifications that covalently bind fatty acid tails to specific amino acids. These post translational modifications significantly alter the lipophilicity of the modified proteins and allow them to anchor to biological membranes. Over 1000 different proteins have been identified to date that require such membrane-protein interactions in order to carry out their biological functions, including members of the Src and Ras superfamilies that play key roles in cell signaling and carcinogenesis...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133807/apelin-conformational-and-binding-equilibria-upon-micelle-interaction-primarily-depend-on-membrane-mimetic-headgroup
#4
Kyungsoo Shin, Muzaddid Sarker, Shuya K Huang, Jan K Rainey
Apelin is one of two peptide hormones that activate the apelin receptor (AR or APJ) to regulate the cardiovascular system, central nervous system, and adipoinsular axis. Here, we apply circular dichroism (CD) spectropolarimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to characterize the potential membrane binding by the two longest bioactive apelin isoforms, apelin-55 and -36, using membrane-mimetic dodecylphosphocholine (DPC), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 1-palmitoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (LPPG) micelles...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132536/effects-of-acute-hyperinsulinemia-on-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-function-reactive-oxygen-species-production-and-metabolism-in-premenopausal-women
#5
Jonathan L Warren, Sule Bulur, Fernando Ovalle, Samuel T Windham, Barbara A Gower, Gordon Fisher
BACKGROUND: Acute metabolic demands that promote excessive and/or prolonged reactive oxygen species production may stimulate changes in mitochondrial oxidative capacity. PURPOSE: To assess changes in skeletal muscle H2O2 production, mitochondrial function, and expression of genes at the mRNA and protein levels regulating energy metabolism and mitochondrial dynamics following a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in a cohort of 11 healthy premenopausal women. METHODS: Skeletal muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis were taken at baseline and immediately following the conclusion of a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp...
December 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130685/daptomycin-phosphatidylglycerol-domains-in-lipid-membranes
#6
Mark A Kreutzberger, Antje Pokorny, Paulo F Almeida
Daptomycin is an acidic, 13-amino acid, cyclic polypeptide that contains a number of nonproteinogenic residues and is modified at its N-terminus with a decanoyl chain. It has been in clinical use since 2003 against selected drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp infections. In vitro, daptomycin is active against Gram-positive pathogens at low concentrations but its antibiotic activity depends critically on the presence of calcium ions. This dependence has been thought to arise from binding of one or two Ca(2+) ions to daptomycin as a required step in its interaction with the bacterial membrane...
November 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129455/plasma-palmitoyl-carnitine-ac16-0-is-a-marker-of-increased-postprandial-nonesterified-incomplete-fatty-acid-oxidation-rate-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes
#7
Fatima-Zahra Bouchouirab, Mélanie Fortin, Christophe Noll, Jean Dubé, André C Carpentier
OBJECTIVES: Enhanced mitochondrial fatty acid utilization is known to increase radical oxidative stress and induce insulin resistance. An increased level of plasma acylcarnitine (AC) has been proposed to indicate mitochondrial energy substrate overload, a possible mechanism leading to insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to determine fasting and postprandial plasma acetyl-carnitine (AC2:0), palmitoyl-carnitine (AC16:0), oleoyl-carnitine (AC18:1) and linoleoyl-carnitine (AC18:2) levels and their relationships with plasma nonesterified fatty acid appearance and oxidation rates and insulin sensitivity in participants with type 2 diabetes and normoglycemic offspring of 2 parents with type 2 diabetes (FH+) compared to healthy participants without family histories of type 2 diabetes (FH-)...
November 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125130/acid-sphingomyelinase-inhibitors-imipramine-and-zoledronic-acid-increase-skeletal-muscle-tissue-sensitivity-to-insulin-action-at-old-age
#8
Loay Kh M Hassouneh, Olga A Timofiychuk, Nataliya A Babenko
Malfunction of skeletal muscles and dysregulated turnover of sphingolipids in the insulin responsive tissues have been determined at old age. Present article investigates the role of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase)-dependent ceramide accumulation in reduction of the skeletal muscle sensitivity to insulin action at old age. The 3-, 12- and 24-month-old Wistar male rats were used in the experiments. The progressive increase of ceramide content and ceramide/sphingomyeline (SM) ratio was determined in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle during aging of rats...
November 10, 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122613/hemin-and-myoglobin-catalyzed-reaction-of-1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-sn-phosphatidylcholine-13-hydroperoxide-with-%C3%AE-tocopherol-in-micelles-and-liposomes
#9
Ryo Yamauchi, Tomomi Kinoshita, Yoshinori Hasegawa, Satoshi Iwamoto
The secondary process of lipid peroxidation proceeds by the free radical reaction to produce some toxic aldehydes. Since γ-tocopherol (γ-TH), one of the major forms of vitamin E in some vegetable oils, acts as a free radical scavenger, γ-TH may suppress the formation of such aldehydes. This study reports the effect and reaction products of γ-TH on the hemin- or myoglobin-catalyzed decomposition of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-sn-phosphatidylcholine 13-hydroperoxide (PLPC-OOH) in micelles and liposomes. γ-TH and PLPC-OOH in micelles were reacted in the presence of hemin, and the reaction products were characterized as 1-palmitoyl-2-[(8a-dioxy-γ-tocopherone)-12,13-epoxyoctadecenoyl]-3-sn-phosphatidylcholines (γT-OO-epoxyPLPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-[(γ-tocopheroxy)-12,13-epoxyoctadecenoyl]-3-sn-phosphatidylcholines (γT-epoxyPLPC), and the adducts of γ-TH dimer with PLPC-OOH derived epoxyperoxyl and epoxyalkyl radicals (γTD-OO-epoxyPLPC and γTD-epoxyPLPC)...
November 7, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120777/synthesis-and-characterization-of-alkylated-caseinate-and-its-structure-curcumin-loading-property-relationship-in-water
#10
Yaqiong Zhang, Fangyi Yao, Jie Liu, Wen Zhou, Liangli Lucy Yu
Alkylated caseinates (Cn-caseinates) containing selected C8-C16 alkyl groups were successfully synthesized through a two-step reaction between the protein and fatty acids. The substitution degree (SD) of the alkyl groups was 5.2-72.9%, which depended on the feed molar ratio of reagents and fatty acid chain length. The SD value was positively associated with the surface hydrophobicity index (S0) of the Cn-caseinate. Among the tested Cn-caseinates (n = 0, 8, 12, 14 and 16), C16-caseinate showed the best self-assembly and curcumin-loading properties in water...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120692/epithelial-na-channel-regulation-by-extracellular-and-intracellular-factors
#11
Thomas R Kleyman, Ossama B Kashlan, Rebecca P Hughey
Epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaCs) are members of the ENaC/degenerin family of ion channels that evolved to respond to extracellular factors. In addition to being expressed in the distal aspects of the nephron, where ENaCs couple the absorption of filtered Na(+) to K(+) secretion, these channels are found in other epithelia as well as nonepithelial tissues. This review addresses mechanisms by which ENaC activity is regulated by extracellular factors, including proteases, Na(+), and shear stress. It also addresses other factors, including acidic phospholipids and modification of ENaC cytoplasmic cysteine residues by palmitoylation, which enhance channel activity by altering interactions of the channel with the plasma membrane...
November 8, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120186/constrained-vs-free-cholesterol-in-dppc-membranes-a-comparison-of-chain-ordering-ability-using-deuterium-nmr
#12
Mehran Shaghaghi, Amir Keyvanloo, Zhaohua Huang, Francis C Szoka, Jenifer L Thewalt
We report here the first exploration of the nature of the hydrophobic region of bilayer membranes formed from sterol modified phospholipids [Huang, Z.; Szoka, F. C., Sterol-Modified Phospholipids: Cholesterol and Phospholipid Chimeras with Improved Biomembrane Properties. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130 (46), 15702-15712] & [Ding, J.; Starling, A. P.; East, J.M.; Lee, A. G., Binding Sites for Cholesterol on Ca(2+)-ATPase Studied by using a Cholesterol-containing Phospholipid. Biochemistry. 1994, 33(16), 4974-4979]...
November 9, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117518/protein-sequence-and-membrane-lipid-roles-in-the-activation-kinetics-of-bovine-and-human-rhodopsins
#13
Istvan Szundi, Chie Funatogawa, Ying Guo, Elsa C Y Yan, David S Kliger
Rhodopsin is a G protein-coupled receptor found in the rod outer segments in the retina, which triggers a visual response under dim light conditions. Recently, a study of the late, microsecond-to-millisecond kinetics of photointermediates of the human and bovine rhodopsins in their native membranes revealed a complex, double-square mechanism of rhodopsin activation. In this kinetic scheme, the human rhodopsin exhibited more Schiff base deprotonation than bovine rhodopsin, which could arise from the ∼7% sequence difference between the two proteins, or from the difference between their membrane lipid environments...
November 7, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117232/rate-of-acyl-migration-in-lysophosphatidylcholine-lpc-is-dependent-upon-the-nature-of-the-acyl-group-greater-stability-of-sn-2-docosahexaenoyl-lpc-compared-to-the-more-saturated-lpc-species
#14
Dhavamani Sugasini, Papasani V Subbaiah
Several previous studies reported that sn-2 acyl lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) undergo rapid isomerization due to acyl migration, especially at physiological pH and temperature. However, these studies have been carried out using mostly sn-2 palmitoyl LPC, whereas the naturally occurring sn-2 LPCs are predominantly unsaturated. In this study, we investigated the acyl migration in four naturally occurring sn-2 acyl LPCs (sn-2 16:0, sn-2 18:1, sn-2 20:4, and sn-2 22:6) stored at various temperatures in aqueous or organic solvents, employing LC/MS to analyze the isomer composition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117121/increased-loading-efficacy-and-sustained-release-of-silibinin-a-poorly-soluble-drug-using-hydrophobically-modified-chitosan-nanoparticles-for-enhanced-delivery-of-anticancer-drug-delivery-systems
#15
Cha Yee Kuen, Sharida Fakurazi, Siti Sarah Othman, Mas Jaffri Masarudin
Conventional delivery of anticancer drugs is less effective due to pharmacological drawbacks such as lack of aqueous solubility and poor cellular accumulation. This study reports the increased drug loading, therapeutic delivery, and cellular accumulation of silibinin (SLB), a poorly water-soluble phenolic compound using a hydrophobically-modified chitosan nanoparticle (pCNP) system. In this study, chitosan nanoparticles were hydrophobically-modified to confer a palmitoyl group as confirmed by 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) assay...
November 8, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110806/masturbation-to-orgasm-stimulates-the-release-of-the-endocannabinoid-2-arachidonoylglycerol-in-humans
#16
Johannes Fuss, Laura Bindila, Klaus Wiedemann, Matthias K Auer, Peer Briken, Sarah V Biedermann
BACKGROUND: Endocannabinoids are critical for rewarding behaviors such as eating, physical exercise, and social interaction. The role of endocannabinoids in mammalian sexual behavior has been suggested because of the influence of cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists on rodent sexual activity. However, the involvement of endocannabinoids in human sexual behavior has not been studied. AIM: To investigate plasma endocannabinoid levels before and after masturbation in healthy male and female volunteers...
November 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110674/characterization-of-endocannabinoids-and-related-acylethanolamides-in-the-synovial-fluid-of-dogs-with-osteoarthritis-a-pilot-study
#17
Carmela Valastro, Debora Campanile, Mariarosaria Marinaro, Delia Franchini, Fabiana Piscitelli, Roberta Verde, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Antonio Di Bello
BACKGROUND: Cannabis-based drugs have been shown to be effective in inflammatory diseases. A number of endocannabinoids including N- arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA) and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG) with activity at the cannabinoid receptors (CBR) CBR1 and CBR2, have been identified. Other structurally related endogenous fatty acid compounds such as oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoyl ethanolamide (PEA) have been identified in biological tissues. These compounds do not bind to CBR but might be involved in facilitating the actions of directly acting endocannabinoids and thus are commonly termed "entourage" compounds due to their ability to modulate the endocannabinoid system...
November 6, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108227/inhibition-of-porcupine-prolongs-metastasis-free-survival-in-a-mouse-xenograft-model-of-ewing-sarcoma
#18
Masanori Hayashi, Alissa Baker, Seth D Goldstein, Catherine M Albert, Kyle W Jackson, Gregory McCarty, Ulf D Kahlert, David M Loeb
The most pressing unmet clinical need for patients with Ewing sarcoma (ES) is the prevention and treatment of metastasis. The Wnt signaling pathway regulates a number of cellular functions associated with metastasis, including proliferation, motility, and stem cell self-renewal. Functional interaction between Wnt ligands and their receptors requires palmitoylation by Porcupine (Porcn), making this an ideal therapeutic target. We studied the effect of WNT974, a potent, selective Porcn inhibitor, on ES metastasis...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103984/olr1-scavenger-receptor-knockdown-affects-mitotic-gene-expression-but-is-dispensable-for-oxidized-phospholipid-mediated-stress-signaling-in-sz-95-sebocytes
#19
Ionela-Mariana Nagelreiter, Masomeh Parvardeh, Marie-Sophie Narzt, Lucian Beer, Christopher Kremslehner, Ximena Maria Muresan, Johannes Grillari, Christos C Zouboulis, Erwin Tschachler, Florian Gruber
Phospholipid oxidation products (OxPL) are versatile stress signaling mediators in the skin. These lipid signaling molecules can be generated non-enzymatically or enzymatically by ultraviolet light, the major extrinsic skin aging factor. OxPL regulate cytoprotective, immunological and metabolic adaptation of the skin to oxidant stress. We here investigated whether the scavenger receptor Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor 1 (OLR1, LOX-1) would have a function in cutaneous oxPL signaling. We found, that OLR1 is expressed in several cutaneous cell types, most prominently in cells of the sebaceous gland and in keratinocytes...
November 2, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100983/acetyl-coa-carboxylase-in-escherichia-coli-exhibits-a-pronounced-hysteresis-when-inhibited-by-palmitoyl-acyl-carrier-protein
#20
Alexandra Evans, Wendy Ribble, Erin Schexnaydre, Grover L Waldrop
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in bacteria is composed of three components: biotin carboxylase, biotin carboxyl carrier protein, and carboxyltransferase. ACC catalyzes the first committed step in fatty acid synthesis: the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA via a two-step reaction. In the first half-reaction, biotin carboxylase catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of the vitamin biotin covalently linked to biotin carboxyl carrier protein. In the second half-reaction, the carboxyl group is transferred from biotin to acetyl-CoA by the enzyme carboxyltransferase...
October 31, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
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