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Palmitoylation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445758/bilayer-interactions-among-unsaturated-phospholipids-sterols-and-ceramide
#1
J Peter Slotte, Tomokazu Yasuda, Oskar Engberg, Md Abdullah Al Sazzad, Victor Hautala, Thomas K M Nyholm, Michio Murata
Using differential scanning calorimetry and lifetime analysis of trans-parinaric acid fluorescence, we have examined how cholesterol and cholesteryl phosphocholine (CholPC) affect gel-phase properties of palmitoyl ceramide (PCer) in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1,2-dioleyol-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) bilayers. By (2)H NMR, we also measured fluid-phase interactions among these lipids using deuterated analogs of POPC, PCer, and cholesterol. The PCer-rich gel phase in POPC bilayers (9:1 molar ratio of POPC to PCer) was partially and similarly dissolved (and thermostability decreased) by both cholesterol and CholPC (sterol was present equimolar to PCer, or in fourfold excess)...
April 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440748/palmitoylated-scp1-is-targeted-to-the-plasma-membrane-and-negatively-regulates-angiogenesis
#2
Peng Liao, Weichao Wang, Yu Li, Rui Wang, Jiali Jin, Weijuan Pang, Yunfei Chen, Mingyue Shen, Xinbo Wang, Dongyang Jiang, Jinjiang Pang, Mingyao Liu, Xia Lin, Xin-Hua Feng, Ping Wang, Xin Ge
SCP1 as a nuclear transcriptional regulator acts globally to silence neuronal genes and to affect the dephosphorylation of RNA Pol ll. However, we report the first finding and description of SCP1 as a plasma membrane-localized protein in various cancer cells using EGFP- or other epitope-fused SCP1. Membrane-located SCP1 dephosphorylates AKT at serine 473, leading to the abolishment of serine 473 phosphorylation that results in suppressed angiogenesis and a decreased risk of tumorigenesis. Consistently, we observed increased AKT phosphorylation and angiogenesis followed by enhanced tumorigenesis in Ctdsp1 (which encodes SCP1) gene - knockout mice...
March 31, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439717/negligible-effect-of-enos-palmitoylation-on-fatty-acid-regulation-of-contraction-in-ventricular-myocytes-from-healthy-and-hypertensive-rats
#3
Chun Li Jin, Yu Na Wu, Ji Hyun Jang, Zai Hao Zhao, Goo Taeg Oh, Sung Joon Kim, Yin Hua Zhang
S-palmitoylation is an important post-translational modification that affects the translocation and the activity of target proteins in a variety of cell types including cardiomyocytes. Since endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is known to be palmitoylated and the activity of eNOS is essential in fatty acid-dependent β-oxidation in muscle, we aimed to test whether palmitoylation of eNOS is involved in palmitic acid (PA) regulation of left ventricular (LV) myocyte contraction from healthy (sham) and hypertensive (HTN) rats...
April 25, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432123/an-amphipathic-%C3%AE-helix-directs-palmitoylation-of-the-large-intracellular-loop-of-the-sodium-calcium-exchanger
#4
Fiona Plain, Samitha Dilini Congreve, Rachel Sue Zhen Yee, Jennifer Kennedy, Jacqueline Howie, Chien-Wen Kuo, Niall Fraser, William Fuller
The electrogenic sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) mediates bidirectional calcium transport controlled by the transmembrane sodium gradient. NCX inactivation occurs in the absence of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), and is facilitated by palmitoylation of a single cysteine at position 739 within NCX's large intracellular loop. The aim of this investigation was to identify the structural determinants of NCX1 palmitoylation. Full-length NCX1 (FL-NCX1) and a YFP fusion protein of the NCX1 large intracellular loop (YFP-NCX1) were expressed in HEK cells...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430821/dietary-dha-epa-ratio-affected-tissue-fatty-acid-profiles-antioxidant-capacity-hematological-characteristics-and-expression-of-lipid-related-genes-but-not-growth-in-juvenile-black-seabream-acanthopagrus-schlegelii
#5
Min Jin, Óscar Monroig, You Lu, Ye Yuan, Yi Li, Liyun Ding, Douglas R Tocher, Qicun Zhou
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary docosahexaenoic to eicosapentaenoic acid ratio (DHA/EPA) on growth performance, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity, hematological characteristics and expression of some lipid metabolism related genes of juvenile black seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii) of initial weight 9.47 ± 0.03 g. Five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets (45% crude protein and 14% crude lipid) were formulated to contain graded DHA/EPA ratios of 0.65, 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428953/tetraspanins-function-as-regulators-of-cellular-signaling
#6
REVIEW
Christina M Termini, Jennifer M Gillette
Tetraspanins are molecular scaffolds that distribute proteins into highly organized microdomains consisting of adhesion, signaling, and adaptor proteins. Many reports have identified interactions between tetraspanins and signaling molecules, finding unique downstream cellular consequences. In this review, we will explore these interactions as well as the specific cellular responses to signal activation, focusing on tetraspanin regulation of adhesion-mediated (integrins/FAK), receptor-mediated (EGFR, TNF-α, c-Met, c-Kit), and intracellular signaling (PKC, PI4K, β-catenin)...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423352/prospective-serum-metabolomic-profile-of-prostate-cancer-by-size-and-extent-of-primary-tumor
#7
Jiaqi Huang, Alison M Mondul, Stephanie J Weinstein, Edward D Karoly, Joshua N Sampson, Demetrius Albanes
Two recent investigations found serum lipid and energy metabolites related to aggressive prostate cancer up to 20 years prior to diagnosis. To elucidate whether those metabolomic profiles represent etiologic or tumor biomarker signals, we prospectively examined serum metabolites of prostate cancer cases by size and extent of primary tumors in a nested case-control analysis in the ATBC Study cohort that compared cases diagnosed with T2 (n = 71), T3 (n = 51), or T4 (n = 15) disease to controls (n = 200). Time from fasting serum collection to diagnosis averaged 10 years (range 1-20)...
April 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415842/spectrophotometric-quantification-of-peroxidase-with-p-phenylene-diamine-for-analyzing-peroxidase-encapsulating-lipid-vesicles
#8
Ya Zhang, Yannick R F Schmid, Sandra Luginbühl, Qiang Wang, Petra S Dittrich, Peter Walde
A spectrophotometric assay for the determination of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in aqueous solution with p-phenylenediamine (PPD, benzene-1,4-diamine) as electron donor substrate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as oxidant was developed. The oxidation of PPD by HRP/H2O2 leads to the formation of Bandrowski's base ((3E,6E)-3,6-bis[(4-aminophenyl)imino]cyclohexa-1,4-diene-1,4-diamine), which can be quantified by following the increase in absorbance at 500 nm. The assay was applied for monitoring the activity of HRP inside ≈180 nm-sized lipid vesicles (liposomes), prepared from POPC (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) and purified by size exclusion chromatography...
April 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415343/normal-vibrational-modes-of-phospholipid-bilayers-observed-by-low-frequency-raman-scattering
#9
N V Surovtsev, A A Dmitriev, S A Dzuba
Low-frequency Raman spectra of multilamellar vesicles made either of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) or 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) have been studied in a wide temperature range. Below 0^{∘}C two peaks are found at frequencies around 8-9 and 14-17cm^{-1} and attributed to the normal vibrational modes of the phospholipid bilayer, which are determined by the bilayer thickness and stiffness (elastic modulus). The spectral positions of the peaks depend on the temperature and the bilayer composition...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413374/discrimination-of-pancreatic-cancer-and-pancreatitis-by-lc-ms-metabolomics
#10
Anna Lindahl, Rainer Heuchel, Jenny Forshed, Janne Lehtiö, Matthias Löhr, Anders Nordström
INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fifth most common cause of cancer-related death in Europe with a 5-year survival rate of <5%. Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a risk factor for PDAC development, but in the majority of cases malignancy is discovered too late for curative treatment. There is at present no reliable diagnostic marker for PDAC available. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to identify single blood-based metabolites or a panel of metabolites discriminating PDAC and CP using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)...
2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413120/endosome-to-trans-golgi-network-transport-of-proprotein-convertase-7-is-mediated-by-a-cluster-of-basic-amino-acids-and-palmitoylated-cysteines
#11
Jeroen Declercq, Bruno Ramos-Molina, Ragna Sannerud, Bas Brouwers, Vincent P E G Pruniau, Sandra Meulemans, Evelyn Plets, Wim Annaert, John W M Creemers
Proprotein Convertase 7 (PC7) is a Furin-like endoprotease that cleaves precursor proteins at basic amino acids. PC7 is concentrated in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) but it shuttles between the plasma membrane and the TGN depending on sequences in the cytoplasmic tail. A short region containing a three amino acids motif, P(724)-L(725)-C(726), is essential and sufficient for internalization of PC7 but not for TGN localization, which requires the additional presence of the juxtamembrane region. In this study we have investigated the contribution of a cluster of basic amino acids and two reversibly palmitoylated cysteine residues to endocytic trafficking...
April 7, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412504/endotoxin-induced-tlr4-signaling-downregulates-cyp19a1-expression-through-cebpb-in-buffalo-granulosa-cells
#12
Vengala Rao Yenuganti, Ravinder, Dheer Singh
Estrogen is essential for growth and development of ovarian follicles. Infections associated with E. coli or Endotoxin (LPS) suppress estradiol production by the downregulation of CYP19A1 expression. However, the molecular mechanism of its down regulation is not yet known. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of LPS-mediated downregulation of CYP19A1 gene expression, we studied the effect of LPS and TLR4 signaling pathway inhibitor (OxPAPC, OxPAPC-Oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) on CYP19A1 expression, and expression of CEBPB and CEBPB binding on CYP19A1 proximal promoter (CYP19A1 PII) in buffalo granulosa cells in vitro...
April 13, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411171/g-protein-membrane-interactions-ii-effect-of-g-protein-linked-lipids-on-membrane-structure-and-g-protein-membrane-interactions
#13
Jesús Casas, Maitane Ibarguren, Rafael Álvarez, Silvia Terés, Victoria Lladó, Stefano P Piotto, Simona Concilio, Xavier Busquets, David J López, Pablo V Escribá
G proteins often bear myristoyl, palmitoyl and isoprenyl moieties, which favor their association with the membrane and their accumulation in G Protein Coupled Receptor-rich microdomains. These lipids influence the biophysical properties of membranes and thereby modulate G protein binding to bilayers. In this context, we showed here that geranylgeraniol, but neither myristate nor palmitate, increased the inverted hexagonal (HII) phase propensity of phosphatidylethanolamine-containing membranes. While myristate and palmitate preferentially associated with phosphatidylcholine membranes, geranylgeraniol favored nonlamellar-prone membranes...
April 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408866/post-translational-modifications-and-protein-quality-control-in-motor-neuron-and-polyglutamine-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Fabio Sambataro, Maria Pennuto
Neurodegenerative diseases, including motor neuron and polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, are a broad class of neurological disorders. These diseases are characterized by neuronal dysfunction and death, and by the accumulation of toxic aggregation-prone proteins in the forms of inclusions and micro-aggregates. Protein quality control is a cellular mechanism to reduce the burden of accumulation of misfolded proteins, a function that results from the coordinated actions of chaperones and degradation systems, such as the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy-lysosomal degradation system...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408481/palmitoylation-of-proteins-in-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Marilyn D Resh
Post-translational modification of proteins by attachment of palmitate serves as a mechanism to regulate protein localization and function in both normal and malignant cells. Given the essential role that palmitoylation plays in cancer cell signaling, approaches that target palmitoylated proteins and palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs) have the potential for therapeutic intervention in cancer. Highlighted here are recent advances in understanding the importance of protein palmitoylation in tumorigenic pathways...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404627/multiphasic-regulation-of-systemic-and-peripheral-organ-metabolic-responses-to-cardiac-hypertrophy
#16
Chong Wee Liew, Shanshan Xu, Xuerong Wang, Maximilian McCann, Hyerim Whang Kong, Andrew C Carley, Jingbo Pang, Giamila Fantuzzi, J Michael O'Donnell, E Douglas Lewandowski
BACKGROUND: Reduced fat oxidation in hypertrophied hearts coincides with a shift of carnitine palmitoyl transferase I from muscle to increased liver isoforms. Acutely increased carnitine palmitoyl transferase I in normal rodent hearts has been shown to recapitulate the reduced fat oxidation and elevated atrial natriuretic peptide message of cardiac hypertrophy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Because of the potential for reduced fat oxidation to affect cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide, and thus, induce adipose lipolysis, we studied peripheral and systemic metabolism in male C57BL/6 mice model of transverse aortic constriction in which left ventricular hypertrophy occurred by 2 weeks without functional decline until 16 weeks (ejection fraction, -45...
April 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400525/manipulation-of-the-host-cell-membrane-during-plasmodium-liver-stage-egress
#17
Paul-Christian Burda, Reto Caldelari, Volker T Heussler
A crucial step in the life cycle of Plasmodium parasites is the transition from the liver stage to the blood stage. Hepatocyte-derived merozoites reach the blood vessels of the liver inside host cell-derived vesicles called merosomes. The molecular basis of merosome formation is only partially understood. Here we show that Plasmodium berghei liver stage merozoites, upon rupture of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane, destabilize the host cell membrane (HCM) and induce separation of the host cell actin cytoskeleton from the HCM...
April 11, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399625/cavity-orientation-regulated-by-mixture-composition-and-clustering-of-amphiphilic-cyclodextrins-in-phospholipid-monolayers
#18
John J Pinzón Barrantes, Bruno Maggio, Rita H de Rossi, Raquel V Vico
Artificial supramolecular-hierarchical structures that emulate nature represent an overcoming alternative for the design of new drug delivery systems. Thermodynamic and topographic properties of films formed by a monoacylated amphiphilic β-cyclodextrin (βCD-C16) with the phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) at the air/water interface were studied. βCD-C16 formed stable mixed films with POPC at several proportions when spread together at the air/water interface. The orientation of βCD-C16 cavity at the interface depends on its mole fraction in the film as reveled by the analysis of partial mean molecular areas as a function of composition...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398240/anti-inflammatory-antioxidant-and-crystallographic-studies-of-n-palmitoyl-ethanol-amine-pea-derivatives
#19
Carmela Saturnino, Ada Popolo, Anna Ramunno, Simona Adesso, Michela Pecoraro, Maria Rosaria Plutino, Silvia Rizzato, Alberto Albinati, Stefania Marzocco, Marina Sala, Domenico Iacopetta, Maria Stefania Sinicropi
N-Palmitoyl-ethanolamine (PEA) is an anti-inflammatory component of egg yolk that is usually employed for the prevention of respiratory apparatus virus infection and then frequently used for its efficient anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in experimental models of visceral, neuropathic, and inflammatory diseases. Nevertheless, data of its use in animal or human therapy are still scarce and further studies are needed. Herein, we report the biological evaluation of a small library of N-palmitoyl-ethanolamine analogues or derivatives, characterized by a protected acid function (either as palmitoyl amides or hexadecyl esters), useful to decrease their hydrolysis rate in vitro and prolong their biological activity...
April 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396835/using-a-biologically-annotated-library-to-analyze-the-anticancer-mechanism-of-serine-palmitoyl-transferase-spt-inhibitors
#20
Osamu Sano, Ken-Ichi Kazetani, Ryutaro Adachi, Osamu Kurasawa, Tomohiro Kawamoto, Hidehisa Iwata
Mechanistic understanding is crucial to anticancer drug discovery. Here, we reveal that inhibition of serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT), the rate-limiting enzyme in sphingolipid synthesis, induced death in a lung cancer cell line via a necrosis-dependent pathway. To elucidate the mechanism of cell death induced by SPT inhibition, a biologically annotated library of diverse compounds was screened with an SPT inhibitor. This analysis identified suppressors of SPT inhibitor-mediated cell death. Further analysis using hit compounds from this screening revealed that SPT inhibitors induce COX-2 expression, leading to necrosis-dependent cell death...
April 2017: FEBS Open Bio
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