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Palmitoylation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749086/1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol-plag-reduces-hepatic-injury-in-concanavalin-a-treated-mice
#1
Young-Eun Ko, Sun Young Yoon, Sun-Yung Ly, Joo-Heon Kim, Ki-Young Sohn, Jae Wha Kim
1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol (PLAG), a chemically synthesized monoacetyldiaglyceride, is one of the constituents in Sika deer antlers and has been known traditionally as having immunomodulatory effects. However, the mechanism by which PLAG controls neutrophil migration, which evokes liver injury in the hepatitis animal model, remains largely unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of PLAG on cytokine secretion and neutrophil migration in vivo and in vitro. The injection of mice with Concanavalin A (Con A) induced leukocyte infiltration in the liver and increased plasma cytokine levels...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747860/lipolytic-efficacy-of-alginate-double-layer-nanoemulsion-containing-oleoresin-capsicum-in-differentiated-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#2
Mak-Soon Lee, Sunyoon Jung, Yoonjin Shin, Seohyun Lee, Chong-Tai Kim, In-Hwan Kim, Yangha Kim
Background: Oleoresin capsicum (OC) is an organic extract from fruits of the genus Capsicum, and has been reported to have an anti-obesity effect. Objective: This study comparatively investigated lipolytic effects of single-layer nanoemulsion (SN) and alginate double-layer nanoemulsion (AN) containing OC in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods: SN and AN were compared by analyzing the intracellular lipid accumulation, triglyceride (TG) content, release of free fatty acids (FFAs) and glycerol, and mRNA expression of genes related to adipogenesis and lipolysis were analyzed in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747438/palmitoylation-is-a-prerequisite-for-dimerization-dependent-raftophilicity-of-rhodopsin
#3
Keiji Seno, Fumio Hayashi
The visual photopigment rhodopsin (Rh) is a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) responsible for initiation of the phototransduction cascade in rod photoreceptors. Similar to other GPCRs, Rh can form dimers or even higher oligomers, and tends to have a supramolecular organization that is likely important in the dim light response. Rh also exhibits high affinity for lipid rafts (raftophilicity) upon light-dependent binding with cognate G protein transducin (Gt), suggesting the presence of lipid raft-like domains in the retinal disk membrane and their importance in phototransduction...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739689/lxr-activation-down-regulates-lipid-raft-markers-flot2-and-dhhc5-in-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cells
#4
Delphine Carbonnelle, Trang H Luu, Chloe Chaillou, Jean-Michel Huvelin, Jean-Marie Bard, Hassan Nazih
BACKGROUND/AIM: Lipid rafts are cholesterol-enriched microdomains of the plasma membrane. Recent studies have underlined that their integrity is critical for cancer cell survival. Liver X receptor (LXR) has a central role in cellular cholesterol homeostasis and its stimulation inhibits proliferation of several cancer cell lines. This study investigated whether LXR could modulate lipid rafts integrity and consequently alter proliferation of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Effect of LXR agonist T0901317 on integrity of MCF-7 lipid rafts was examined by studying the expression of rafts marker flotillin-2 (FLOT2) and DHHC5, which palmitoylates FLOT2, and by studying the expression of phospho-Akt...
August 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739256/palmitoylation-of-ca-2-channel-subunit-cav%C3%AE-2a-induces-pancreatic-beta-cell-toxicity-via-ca-2-overload
#5
Abdulla S Kazim, Petter Storm, Enming Zhang, Erik Renström
High blood glucose triggers the release of insulin from pancreatic beta cells, but if chronic, causes cellular stress, partly due to impaired Ca(2+) homeostasis. Ca(2+) influx is controlled by voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV) and high density of CaV in the plasma membrane could lead to Ca(2+) overload. Trafficking of the pore-forming CaVα1 subunit to the plasma membrane is regulated by auxiliary subunits, such as the CaVβ2a subunit. This study investigates, using Ca(2+) imaging and immunohistochemistry, the role of palmitoylation of CaVβ2a in maintaining Ca(2+) homeostasis and beta cell function...
July 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739175/sudden-infant-death-from-neonate-carnitine-palmitoyl-transferase-ii-deficiency
#6
Si-Hao Du, Fu Zhang, Yan-Geng Yu, Chuan-Xiang Chen, Hui-Jun Wang, Dong-Ri Li
A full-term female baby born to parents who gave birth three years prior to a girl who survived only 31h postpartum died 36h after birth. An autopsy showed that the heart was markedly hypertrophic (32g). Microscopically, the myocardium, liver and kidney cells exhibited extensive vacuolar degeneration. Sudan III staining was positive in cardiac muscle, liver and kidney tissue. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the deceased patient had a carnitine palmitoyl transferase II (CPT2) deficiency or a carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency...
June 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734478/ph-dependent-membrane-interactions-of-the-histidine-rich-cell-penetrating-peptide-lah4-l1
#7
Justine Wolf, Christopher Aisenbrey, Nicole Harmouche, Jesus Raya, Philippe Bertani, Natalia Voievoda, Regine Süss, Burkhard Bechinger
The histidine-rich designer peptide LAH4-L1 exhibits antimicrobial and potent cell-penetrating activities for a wide variety of cargo including nucleic acids, polypeptides, adeno-associated viruses, and nanodots. The non-covalent complexes formed between the peptide and cargo enter the cell via an endosomal pathway where the pH changes from neutral to acidic. Here, we investigated the membrane interactions of the peptide with phospholipid bilayers and its membrane topology using static solid-state NMR spectroscopy...
July 19, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734079/post-translational-palmitoylation-controls-the-voltage-gating-and-lipid-raft-association-of-calhm1-channel
#8
Akiyuki Taruno, Hongxin Sun, Koichi Nakajo, Tatsuro Murakami, Yasuyoshi Ohsaki, Mizuho A Kido, Fumihito Ono, Yoshinori Marunaka
Emerging roles of CALHM1, a recently discovered voltage-gated ion channel, include purinergic neurotransmission of tastes in taste buds and memory formation in the brain, highlighting its physiological importance. However, the regulatory mechanisms of the CALHM1 channel remain entirely unexplored, hindering full understanding of its contribution in vivo. In fact, the different gating properties of CALHM1 in vivo and in vitro suggest undiscovered regulatory mechanisms. Here, in searching for post-translational regulatory mechanisms, we discovered the regulation of CALHM1 gating and association with lipid microdomains via protein S-palmitoylation, the only reversible lipid modification of proteins on cysteine residues...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732768/molecular-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-four-fish-specific-cc-chemokine-receptors-ccr4la-ccr4lc1-ccr4lc2-and-ccr11-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#9
Zhitao Qi, Jason W Holland, Yousheng Jiang, Christopher J Secombes, Pin Nie, Tiehui Wang
The chemokine and chemokine receptor networks regulate leukocyte trafficking, inflammation, immune cell differentiation, cancer and other biological processes. Comparative immunological studies have revealed that both chemokines and their receptors have expanded greatly in a species/lineage specific way. Of the 10 human CC chemokine receptors (CCR1-10) that bind CC chemokines, orthologues only to CCR6, 7, 9 and 10 are present in teleost fish. In this study, four fish-specific CCRs, termed as CCR4La, CCR4Lc1, CCR4Lc2 and CCR11, with a close link to human CCR1-5 and 8, in terms of amino acid homology and syntenic conservation, have been identified and characterized in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)...
July 18, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731702/drude-polarizable-force-field-for-molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-saturated-and-unsaturated-zwitterionic-lipids
#10
Hui Li, Janamejaya Chowdhary, Lei Huang, Xibing He, Alexander D MacKerell, Benoît Roux
Additive force fields are designed to account for induced electronic polarization in a mean-field average way using effective empirical fixed charges. The limitation of this approximation is cause for serious concerns, particularly in the case of lipid membranes, where the molecular environment undergoes dramatic variations over microscopic length scales. A polarizable force field based on the classical Drude oscillator offers a practical and computationally efficient framework for an improved representation of electrostatic interactions in molecular simulations...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731533/improvement-of-d-lactic-acid-production-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-under-acidic-conditions-by-evolutionary-and-rational-metabolic-engineering
#11
Seung-Ho Baek, Eunice Y Kwon, Sang-Jeong Bae, Bo-Ram Cho, Seon-Young Kim, Ji-Sook Hahn
Microbial lactic acid (LA) production under acidic fermentation conditions is favorable to reduce the production cost, but circumventing LA toxicity is a major challenge. We generated D-LA-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain JHY5610 by expressing D-lactate dehydrogenase gene (Lm. ldhA) from Leuconostoc mesenteroides, while deleting genes involved in ethanol production (ADH1, ADH2, ADH3, ADH4, and ADH5), glycerol production (GPD1 and GPD2), and degradation of D-LA (DLD1). Adaptive laboratory evolution of JHY5610 led to a strain JHY5710 having higher LA tolerance and D-LA-production capability...
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729673/distinct-functional-relevance-of-dynamic-gtpase-cysteine-methylation-in-fission-yeast
#12
Alejandro Franco, Teresa Soto, Rebeca Martín-García, Marisa Madrid, Beatriz Vázquez-Marín, Jero Vicente-Soler, Pedro M Coll, Mariano Gacto, Pilar Pérez, José Cansado
The final step in post-translational processing of Ras and Rho GTPases involves methylation of the prenylated cysteine residue by an isoprenylcysteine-O-carboxyl methyltransferase (ICMT). ICMT activity is essential for cell growth and development in higher eukaryotes, and inhibition of GTPase methylation has become an attractive target in cancer therapy to inactivate prenylated oncoproteins. However, the specificity and dynamics of the GTPase methylation process remain to be fully clarified. Notably, cells lacking Mam4, the ICMT ortholog in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, are viable...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724772/binding-of-hsv-1-ul20-to-godz-affects-its-palmitoylation-and-is-essential-for-infectivity-and-proper-targeting-and-localization-of-ul20-and-gk
#13
Shaohui Wang, Kevin R Mott, Kolja Wawrowsky, Konstantin G Kousoulas, Bernhard Luscher, Homayon Ghiasi
HSV-1 UL20 plays a crucial role in the envelopment of the cytoplasmic virion and its egress. It is a non-glycosylated envelope protein that is regulated as a γ1 gene. Two-hybrid and pull-down assays demonstrated that UL20, but no other HSV-1 gene-encoded proteins, binds specifically to GODZ (a.k.a.: DHHC3), a cellular Golgi-specific Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) zinc finger protein. A catalytically inactive dominant-negative GODZ construct significantly reduced HSV-1 replication in vitro and affected the localization of UL20 and gK and their interactions but not gC...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722168/role-of-palmitoylation-of-cysteine-415-in-functional-coupling-cb1-receptor-to-g%C3%AE-i2-protein
#14
Sergio Oddi, Antonio Totaro, Lucia Scipioni, Beatrice Dufrusine, Tomasz Maciej Stepniewski, Jana Selent, Mauro Maccarrone, Enrico Dainese
In this study, we investigated the role of CB1 palmitoylation in modulating the functional interaction with G proteins both in the absence and in the presence of agonist binding. Our data show that the non-palmitoylated CB1 receptor significantly reduced its association with Gαi2 . The agonist-stimulation induced a partial dissociation of Gαi2 proteins from the wild-type receptor, while on the C415A mutant the agonist binding was not able to induce a significant dissociation of Gαi2 from the receptor. Our data suggest that the lack of palmitoyl chain hampers the ability of the receptor to functionally interact with the Gαi2 and indicate that the palmitoyl chain is responsible for the functional transmission of the agonist-induced conformational change of the receptor to the G protein...
July 19, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715456/the-trypanosoma-brucei-dihydroxyacetonephosphate-acyltransferase-tbdat-is-dispensable-for-normal-growth-but-important-for-synthesis-of-ether-glycerophospholipids
#15
Rachel Zufferey, Karim Pirani, Melanie Cheung-See-Kit, Sungsu Lee, Tyler A Williams, Daniel G Chen, Md Faruk Hossain
Glycerophospholipids are the most abundant constituents of biological membranes in Trypanosoma brucei, which causes sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in cattle. They are essential cellular components that fulfill various important functions beyond their structural role in biological membranes such as in signal transduction, regulation of membrane trafficking or control of cell cycle progression. Our previous studies have established that the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase TbGAT is dispensable for growth, viability, and ester lipid biosynthesis suggesting the existence of another initial acyltransferase(s)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714922/application-of-an-improved-hplc-fl-method-to-screen-serine-palmitoyl-transferase-inhibitors
#16
Simone Bertini, Giuseppe Saccomanni, Sara Del Carlo, Maria Digiacomo, Claudia Gargini, Ilaria Piano, Giuseppe Matteo Campisi, Riccardo Ghidoni, Marco Macchia, Clementina Manera
In this work, we reported the application and validation of an improved high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with a fluorimetric detector (HPLC-FL) to screen the activity of two heterocyclic derivatives reported as serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT) inhibitors. The analytical conditions were optimized in terms of the derivatization procedure, chromatographic condition, extraction procedure, and method validation according to EMEA guidelines. Once fully optimized, the method was applied to assess the SPT-inhibitory activity of the above-mentioned derivatives and of the reference inhibitor myriocin...
July 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711675/molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-t-2410-and-t-2429-hiv-fusion-inhibitors-interacting-with-model-membranes-insight-into-peptide-behavior-structure-and-dynamics
#17
I C V C Mavioso, V C R de Andrade, A J Palace Carvalho, A M T Martins do Canto
T-2410 and T-2429 are HIV fusion inhibitor peptides (FI) designed to present a higher efficiency even against HIV strains that developed resistance against other FIs. Similar peptides were shown to interact with model membranes both in the liquid disordered phase and in the liquid ordered state. Those results indicated that such interaction is important to function and could be correlated with their effectiveness. Extensive molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the interactions between both T-2410 and T-2429 with bilayers of pure 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) and a mixture of POPC/cholesterol (Chol) (1:1)...
July 8, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710476/inflammatory-pain-control-by-blocking-oxidized-phospholipid-mediated-trp-channel-activation
#18
Beatrice Oehler, Katrin Kistner, Corinna Martin, Jürgen Schiller, Rafaela Mayer, Milad Mohammadi, Reine-Solange Sauer, Milos R Filipovic, Francisco R Nieto, Jan Kloka, Diana Pflücke, Kerstin Hill, Michael Schaefer, Marzia Malcangio, Peter W Reeh, Alexander Brack, Robert Blum, Heike L Rittner
Phospholipids occurring in cell membranes and lipoproteins are converted into oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) by oxidative stress promoting atherosclerotic plaque formation. Here, OxPL were characterized as novel targets in acute and chronic inflammatory pain. Oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (OxPAPC) and its derivatives were identified in inflamed tissue by mass spectrometry and binding assays. They elicited calcium influx, hyperalgesia and induced pro-nociceptive peptide release...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700225/combining-elements-from-two-antagonists-of-formyl-peptide-receptor-2-generates-more-potent-peptidomimetic-antagonists
#19
Sarah Line Skovbakke, André Holdfeldt, Christina Nielsen, Anna Mette Hansen, Iris Perez-Gassol, Claes Dahlgren, Huamei Forsman, Henrik Franzyk
Structural optimization of a peptidomimetic antagonist of formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) was explored by an approach involving combination of elements from the two most potent FPR2 antagonists described: a Rhodamine B-conjugated 10-residue gelsonin-derived peptide (i.e., PBP10: RhB-QRLFQVKGRR-OH) and the palmitoylated α-peptide/β-peptoid hybrid Pam-(Lys-βNspe)6-NH2. This generated an array of hybrid compounds from which a new subclass of receptor-selective antagonists was identified. The most potent representatives displayed activity in the low nanomolar range...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698283/long-term-rates-of-mitochondrial-protein-synthesis-are-increased-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle-with-high-fat-feeding-regardless-of-insulin-sensitizing-treatment
#20
Sean A Newsom, Benjamin F Miller, Karyn L Hamilton, Sarah E Ehrlicher, Harrison D Stierwalt, Matthew M Robinson
Skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis is regulated in part by insulin. The development of insulin resistance with diet-induced obesity may therefore contribute to impairments to protein synthesis and decreased mitochondrial respiration. Yet, the impact of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance on mitochondrial energetics is controversial with reports varying from decreases to increases in mitochondrial respiration. We investigated the impact of changes in insulin sensitivity on long-term rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis as a mechanism for changes to mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle...
July 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
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