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Palmitoylation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335388/a-combination-of-flaxseed-oil-and-astaxanthin-improves-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-and-reduces-oxidative-stress-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#1
Jiqu Xu, Shuang Rong, Hui Gao, Chang Chen, Wei Yang, Qianchun Deng, Qingde Huang, Lingyun Xiao, Fenghong Huang
Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are crucial pathophysiological mechanisms for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Thus, we examined the effect of a combination of flaxseed oil (FO) and astaxanthin (ASX) on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet. ASX was dissolved in flaxseed oil (1 g/kg; FO + ASX). Animals were fed diets containing 20% fat, where the source was lard, or 75% lard and 25% FO + ASX, or 50% lard and 50% FO + ASX, or FO + ASX, for 10 weeks...
March 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335269/galactosylated-liposomes-for-targeted-co-delivery-of-doxorubicin-vimentin-sirna-to-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#2
Hea Ry Oh, Hyun-Young Jo, James S Park, Dong-Eun Kim, Je-Yoel Cho, Pyung-Hwan Kim, Keun-Sik Kim
The combination of therapeutic nucleic acids and chemotherapeutic drugs has shown great promise for cancer therapy. In this study, asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPR) targeting-ligand-based liposomes were tested to determine whether they can co-deliver vimentin siRNA and doxorubicin to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) selectively. To achieve this goal, we developed an ASGPR receptor targeted co-delivery system called gal-doxorubicin/vimentin siRNA liposome (Gal-DOX/siRNA-L). The Gal-DOX/siRNA-L was created via electrostatic interaction of galactose linked-cationic liposomal doxorubicin (Gal-DOX-L) on vimentin siRNA...
July 30, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334871/proteomics-insights-into-infantile-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis-cln1-point-to-the-involvement-of-cilia-pathology-in-the-disease
#3
Michal Segal-Salto, Karin Hansson, Tamar Sapir, Anna Kaplan, Talia Levy, Michaela Schwizer, Michael Frotscher, Peter James, Orly Reiner
Mutations in the depalmitoylation enzyme, palmitoyl protein thioesterase (PPT1), result in the early onset neurodegenerative disease known as Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis. Here, we provide proteomic evidence suggesting that PPT1 deficiency could be considered as a ciliopathy. Analysis of membrane proteins from brain enriched for acylated proteins from neonate Ppt1 knock out and control mice revealed a list of 88 proteins with differential expression levels. Amongst them, we identified Rab3IP, which regulates ciliogenesis in concert with Rab8 and Rab11...
March 6, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333970/-epicatechin-3-o-%C3%AE-d-allopyranoside-from-davallia-formosana-prevents-diabetes-and-dyslipidemia-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#4
Cheng-Hsiu Lin, Jin-Bin Wu, Jia-Ying Jian, Chun-Ching Shih
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and molecular mechanism of (-)-epicatechin-3-O-β-D-allopyranoside from Davallia formosana (BB) (also known as Gu-Sui-Bu) on type 1 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. This plant was demonstrated to display antioxidant activities and possess polyphenol contents. Diabetic mice were randomly divided into six groups and were given daily oral gavage doses of either BB (at three dosage levels), metformin (Metf) (at 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330968/examination-of-carnitine-palmitoyl-transferase-1-abundance-in-white-adipose-tissue-implications-in-obesity-research
#5
Jaycob D Warfel, Bolormaa Vandanmagsar, Olga S Dubuisson, Sydney M Hodgeson, Carrie M Elks, Eric Ravussin, Randall L Mynatt
Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) is essential for the transport of long chain fatty acids into the mitochondria for oxidation. Recently, it was reported that decreased CPT1b mRNA in adipose tissue was a contributing factor for obesity in rats. We therefore closely examined the expression level of Cpt1 in adipose tissue from mice, rats, and humans. Cpt1a is the predominate isoform in adipose tissue from all three species. Rat white adipose tissue has a moderate amount of Cpt1b mRNA, but it is very minor compared to Cpt1b expression in muscle...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325324/influence-of-fatty-chain-length-and-starch-composition-on-structure-and-properties-of-fully-substituted-fatty-acid-starch-esters
#6
Audrey Vanmarcke, Lise Leroy, Gregory Stoclet, Lucie Duchatel-Crépy, Jean-Marc Lefebvre, Nicolas Joly, Valérie Gaucher
A series of almost fully substituted Fatty Acid Starch Esters (FASEs) has been obtained in a homogeneous LiCl/DMAc medium by grafting octanoyl (C8), lauroyl (C12) and palmitoyl (C16) chlorides onto 3 starch species: Amylo-Maize, Potato and Waxy Maize. Structure-property relationships of FASEs are investigated as a function of both fatty acid chain length and amylose/amylopectin ratio of the starch. The structural study has revealed a layered type organization in which starch chain planes are separated by fatty chains...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320309/correlated-duplications-and-losses-in-the-evolution-of-palmitoylation-writer-and-eraser-families
#7
Stijn Wittouck, Vera van Noort
BACKGROUND: Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) change protein properties. Each PTM type is associated with domain families that apply the modification (writers), remove the modification (erasers) and bind to the modified sites (readers) together called toolkit domains. The evolutionary origin and diversification remains largely understudied, except for tyrosine phosphorylation. Protein palmitoylation entails the addition of a palmitoyl fatty acid to a cysteine residue. This PTM functions as a membrane anchor and is involved in a range of cellular processes...
March 20, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315769/the-regulation-of-lipid-metabolism-by-a-hypothetical-p-loop-ntpase-and-its-impact-on-fecundity-of-the-brown-planthopper
#8
Rui Pang, Jieqi Qiu, Tengchao Li, Pan Yang, Lei Yue, Yixin Pan, Wenqing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Insect fecundity can be regulated by multiple genes in several important signaling pathways which form an extremely complicated regulatory network. However, there are still many genes that have significant impact on insect fecundity but their action mode are still unknown. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), immunofluorescence and western blot were used to study the expression profile of Nl23867 in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens...
March 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315450/phospholipid-oxidation-and-carotenoid-supplementation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#9
O S Ademowo, H K I Dias, I Milic, A Devitt, R Moran, R Mulcahy, A N Howard, J M Nolan, H R Griffiths
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease, characterised by decline of memory, cognitive function and changes in behaviour. Generic markers of lipid peroxidation are increased in AD, therefore reactive oxygen species have been suggested to be involved in the aetiology of cognitive decline. Carotenoids are depleted in AD serum, therefore we have compared serum lipid oxidation between AD and age-matched control subjects before and after carotenoid supplementation. The novel oxidised phospholipid biomarker 1-palmitoyl-2-(5'-oxo-valeroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC) was analysed using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), 8-isoprostane (IsoP) was measured by ELISA and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) was measured by a colorimetric assay...
March 14, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315413/akr1-attenuates-methylmercury-toxicity-through-the-palmitoylation-of-meh1-as-a-subunit-of-the-yeast-ego-complex
#10
Zhi-Ting Zhang, Yousuke Ogiwara, Yuichi Ito, Akinori Hikida, Nobuhiko Miura, Shusuke Kuge, Akira Naganuma, Gi-Wook Hwang
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that palmitoyltransferase activity of Akr1 is required for alleviation of methylmercury toxicity in yeast. In this study, we identified a factor that alleviates methylmercury toxicity among the substrate proteins palmitoylated by Akr1, and investigated the role of this factor in methylmercury toxicity. METHODS: Gene disruption and site-directed mutagenesis were used to examine the relationship of methylmercury toxicity and vacuole function...
March 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315318/development-of-a-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-based-enzyme-activity-assay-for-phosphatidylcholine-specific-phospholipase-c
#11
Chiaki Murakami, Satoru Mizuno, Sayaka Kado, Fumio Sakane
Phosphatidylcholine (PC)-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) hydrolyzes PC to generate the second messenger 1,2-diacylglycerol (DG) and phosphocholine. PC-PLC plays pivotal roles in inflammation, carcinogenesis, tumor progression, atherogenesis, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Although the activity of PC-PLC in mammalian tissues was discovered approximately 40 years ago, neither the protein nor its gene has been identified. In the present study, we developed a non-radioactive enzyme activity assay for PC-PLC based on mass spectrometric detection of DG following HPLC separation...
March 14, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303328/effects-of-palmitoyl-kvk-l-ascorbic-acid-on-skin-wrinkles-and-pigmentation
#12
Hyeong Mi Kim, Hyo Sun An, Jung-Soo Bae, Jung Yun Kim, Chi Ho Choi, Ju Yeon Kim, Joo Hyuck Lim, Joon-Hun Choi, Hyunnam Song, Sung Ho Moon, Young Jun Park, Shin-Jae Chang, Sun Young Choi
Wrinkle formation and abnormal pigmentation are major clinical alterations associated with skin aging. As the aim of our study was to investigate the effects of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid on skin aging, the anti-wrinkle and depigmentation effects of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid were evaluated by measuring collagen expression in dermal fibroblast cells and inhibition of melanogenesis in B16F1 cells, respectively. The anti-aging effect of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid cream was also evaluated against a placebo cream in a clinical trial...
March 16, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302399/elucidation-of-structural-and-functional-integration-of-a-novel-antimicrobial-peptide-from-antheraea-mylitta
#13
Suhrid R Dutta, Samiran S Gauri, Twisa Ghosh, Suman K Halder, Pradeep K DasMohapatra, Keshab C Mondal, Ananta K Ghosh
We report here the amino acid sequence of an antimicrobial peptide of Antheraea mylitta (peptide fraction II) effectively killed urinary tract associated MDR E. coli (Dutta et al., 2016), as Gly-Gly-Gly-Gly-Gly-Gly-His-Leu-Val-Ala. The physicochemical and biological properties of this peptide were evaluated by computational analysis and its isoelectric point, grand average of hydropathicity and Boman index values were found to be 6.74, 0.42 and -1.17kcal/mol, respectively. One valid model of peptide fraction II was constructed, that contains two antiparallel β sheets with a hairpin and appeared as 'U' shaped structure...
March 3, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297656/the-long-chain-sphingoid-base-of-ceramides-determines-their-propensity-for-lateral-segregation
#14
Md Abdullah Al Sazzad, Tomokazu Yasuda, Michio Murata, J Peter Slotte
We examined how the length of the long-chain base or the N-linked acyl chain of ceramides affected their lateral segregation in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) bilayers. Lateral segregation and ceramide-rich phase formation was ascertained by a lifetime analysis of trans-parinaric acid (tPA) fluorescence. The longer the length of the long-chain base (d16:1, d17:1, d18:1, d19:1, and d20:1 in N-palmitoyl ceramide), the less ceramide was needed for the onset of lateral segregation and ceramide-rich phase formation...
March 14, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296537/microfluidic-mobility-shift-assay-for-real-time-analysis-of-peptide-n-palmitoylation
#15
Thomas Lanyon-Hogg, Neki V Patel, Markus Ritzefeld, Katherine J Boxall, Rosemary Burke, Julian Blagg, Anthony I Magee, Edward W Tate
The Hedgehog pathway is a key developmental signaling pathway but is also implicated in many types of cancer. The extracellular signaling protein Sonic hedgehog (Shh) requires dual lipidation for functional signaling, whereby N-terminal palmitoylation is performed by the enzyme Hedgehog acyltransferase (Hhat). Hhat is an attractive target for small-molecule inhibition to arrest Hedgehog signaling, and methods for assaying Hhat activity are central to understanding its function. However, all existing assays to quantify lipidation of peptides suffer limitations, such as safety hazards, high costs, extensive manual handling, restriction to stopped-assay measurements, or indirect assessment of lipidation...
April 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294156/stk16-regulates-actin-dynamics-to-control-golgi-organization-and-cell-cycle
#16
Juanjuan Liu, Xingxing Yang, Binhua Li, Junjun Wang, Wenchao Wang, Jing Liu, Qingsong Liu, Xin Zhang
STK16 is a ubiquitously expressed, myristoylated, and palmitoylated serine/threonine protein kinase with underexplored functions. Recently, it was shown to be involved in cell division but the mechanism remains unclear. Here we found that human STK16 localizes to the Golgi complex throughout the cell cycle and plays important roles in Golgi structure regulation. STK16 knockdown or kinase inhibition disrupts actin polymers and causes fragmented Golgi in cells. In vitro assays show that STK16 directly binds to actin and regulates actin dynamics in a concentration- and kinase activity-dependent way...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291657/oxidized-phospholipids-exert-a-dual-effect-on-bile-acid-induced-ccl2-expression-in-pancreatic-acini
#17
Alberto Mateu, Isabel De Dios, Manuel Antonio Manso, Laura Ramudo
BACKGROUND: oxidized phospholipids (oxPLs) generated in inflammatory diseases could play a key role by inducing pro- and anti-inflammatory effects. OBJETIVES: we investigated the effect of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and oxidized POPC (oxPOPC) in the inflammatory response triggered in pancreatic acini. METHODS: control acini were incubated in the absence or presence of either POPC or oxPOPC (≤100 μM). In additional experiments, oxPOPC effects were evaluated in sodium taurocholate (NaTc)-treated acini...
March 1, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284949/inhibition-of-wnt-signalling-dose-dependently-impairs-the-acquisition-and-expression-of-amphetamine-induced-conditioned-place-preference
#18
Farhana Islam, Kathleen Xu, Richard J Beninger
The mechanisms by which dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is involved in incentive learning produced by rewarding stimuli remain unclear. Recently, Wnt signalling has been implicated in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Functional interactions between Wnt and dopamine (DA) signalling has been demonstrated using in vitro and tissue physiology approaches, however there remains a lack of in vivo research into the involvement of Wnt in DA-mediated learning in behaving animals...
March 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280002/n-acetylcysteine-accelerates-amputation-stump-healing-in-the-setting-of-diabetes
#19
Mohamed A Zayed, Xiachao Wei, Kyoung-Mi Park, Larisa Belaygorod, Uzma Naim, Joseph Harvey, Li Yin, Kendall Blumer, Clay F Semenkovich
Over 60% of lower extremity amputations are performed in patients with diabetes and peripheral arterial disease, and at least 25% require subsequent reamputation due to poor surgical site healing. The mechanisms underlying poor amputation stump healing in the setting of diabetes are not understood. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is known to promote endothelial cell function and angiogenesis and may have therapeutic benefits in the setting of diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that NAC alters the vascular milieu to improve healing of amputation stumps in diabetes using a novel in vivo murine hindlimb ischemia-amputation model...
March 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276657/investigation-of-correlations-between-dna-methylation-suicidal-behavior-and-aging
#20
Richie Jeremian, Yi-An Chen, Vincenzo De Luca, John B Vincent, James L Kennedy, Clement C Zai, John Strauss
OBJECTIVES: Suicidal behavior (SB) is a major cause of mortality for patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD). In this study, we investigated epigenetic differences in BD participants with and without a history of SB. METHODS: We used suicidality scores constructed from Schedule for Clinical Assessments in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) interview questions about suicidal thought and behavior to identify individuals from a BD cohort of n=452; participants with the most extreme high (H-SB, n=18) and most extreme low (L-SB, n=22) scores were used as cases and controls, respectively...
March 9, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
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