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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329896/characterizing-literacy-and-cognitive-function-during-pregnancy-and-postpartum
#1
Lynn M Yee, Leslie A Kamel, Zara Quader, Priya V Rajan, Shaneah M Taylor, Rachel O'Conor, Michael S Wolf, Melissa A Simon
Objective The objective of this study was to characterize health literacy and cognitive function in a diverse cohort of pregnant women. Methods Pregnant and postpartum women underwent in-depth assessments of health literacy/numeracy and the cognitive domains of verbal ability, working memory, long-term memory, processing speed, and inductive reasoning. Differences by demographic characteristics and gestational age were assessed using chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression. Results In this cohort of pregnant (N = 77) or postpartum (N = 24) women, 41...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328029/structure-mapping-for-social-learning
#2
Stella Christie
Analogical reasoning is a foundational tool for human learning, allowing learners to recognize relational structures in new events and domains. Here I sketch some grounds for understanding and applying analogical reasoning in social learning. The social world is fundamentally characterized by relations between people, with common relational structures-such as kinships and social hierarchies-forming social units that dictate social behaviors. Just as young learners use analogical reasoning for learning relational structures in other domains-spatial relations, verbs, relational categories-analogical reasoning ought to be a useful cognitive tool for acquiring social relations and structures...
March 22, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327383/sigueme-technology-based-intervention-for-low-functioning-autism-to-train-skills-to-work-with-visual-signifiers-and-concepts
#3
María Vélez-Coto, María José Rodríguez-Fórtiz, María Luisa Rodriguez-Almendros, Marcelino Cabrera-Cuevas, Carlos Rodríguez-Domínguez, Tomás Ruiz-López, Ángeles Burgos-Pulido, Inmaculada Garrido-Jiménez, Juan Martos-Pérez
BACKGROUND: People with low-functioning ASD and other disabilities often find it difficult to understand the symbols traditionally used in educational materials during the learning process. Technology-based interventions are becoming increasingly common, helping children with cognitive disabilities to perform academic tasks and improve their abilities and knowledge. Such children often find it difficult to perform certain tasks contained in educational materials since they lack necessary skills such as abstract reasoning...
March 16, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327290/bayesian-brains-without-probabilities
#4
REVIEW
Adam N Sanborn, Nick Chater
Bayesian explanations have swept through cognitive science over the past two decades, from intuitive physics and causal learning, to perception, motor control and language. Yet people flounder with even the simplest probability questions. What explains this apparent paradox? How can a supposedly Bayesian brain reason so poorly with probabilities? In this paper, we propose a direct and perhaps unexpected answer: that Bayesian brains need not represent or calculate probabilities at all and are, indeed, poorly adapted to do so...
December 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326010/impact-of-resveratrol-on-glucose-control-hippocampal-structure-and-connectivity-and-memory-performance-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#5
Theresa Köbe, A Veronica Witte, Ariane Schnelle, Valentina A Tesky, Johannes Pantel, Jan-Philipp Schuchardt, Andreas Hahn, Jens Bohlken, Ulrike Grittner, Agnes Flöel
In healthy older adults, resveratrol supplementation has been shown to improve long-term glucose control, resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the hippocampus, and memory function. Here, we aimed to investigate if these beneficial effects extend to individuals at high-risk for dementia, i.e., patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In a randomized, double-blind interventional study, 40 well-characterized patients with MCI (21 females; 50-80 years) completed 26 weeks of resveratrol (200 mg/d; n = 18) or placebo (1,015 mg/d olive oil; n = 22) intake...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325448/diagnosis-of-autism-through-eeg-processed-by-advanced-computational-algorithms-a-pilot-study
#6
Enzo Grossi, Chiara Olivieri, Massimo Buscema
BACKGROUND: Multi-Scale Ranked Organizing Map coupled with Implicit Function as Squashing Time algorithm(MS-ROM/I-FAST) is a new, complex system based on Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) able to extract features of interest in computerized EEG through the analysis of few minutes of their EEG without any preliminary pre-processing. A proof of concept study previously published showed accuracy values ranging from 94%-98% in discerning subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment and/or Alzheimer's Disease from healthy elderly people...
April 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325118/is-asthma-associated-with-cognitive-impairments-a-meta-analytic-review
#7
Farzin Irani, Jordan Mark Barbone, Janet Beausoleil, Lynn Gerald
INTRODUCTION: Asthma is a chronic disease with significant health burden and socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities related to diagnosis and treatment. Asthma primarily affects the lungs, but can impact brain function through direct and indirect mechanisms. Some studies have suggested that asthma negatively impacts cognition, while others have failed to identify asthma-related cognitive compromise. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of cognition in individuals with asthma compared to that in healthy controls...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325117/psychometric-summary-of-the-technology-delivered-tension-scales-for-weight-management
#8
Kelli L Kramer-Jackman, Sue Popkess-Vawter
The purpose of this article is to summarize the psychometric results from studies of the last 25 years of the Overeating Tension Scale, Exercise Tension Scale, Feelings Tension Scale, and Feelings About Weight Tension Scale. These reliable and valid technology-delivered weight management scales can be used by clinicians independently or in combination to longitudinally identify specific triggers of overeating, skipping exercise, feeling low or down, and strong feelings about one's body weight; motivational states, and related tension levels...
March 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324951/mentor-s-brain-functional-connectivity-network-during-robotic-assisted-surgery-mentorship
#9
Somayeh B Shafiei, Scott T Doyle, Khurshid A Guru
In many complicated cognitive-motor tasks mentoring is inevitable during the learning process. Although mentors are expert in doing the task, trainee's operation might be new for a mentor. This makes mentoring a very difficult task which demands not only the knowledge and experience of a mentor, but also his/her ability to follow trainee's movements and patiently advise him/her during the operation. We hypothesize that information binding throughout the mentor's brain areas, contributed to the task, changes as the expertise level of the trainee improves from novice to intermediate and expert...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324948/association-between-visuomotor-adaptation-and-mathematics-skills
#10
M N Anwar, R Rehman, U Hassan
Learning a new motor skill involves multiple cognitive aspects such as attention, planning, prioritizing, execution, and error correction. In current study, we examined whether the students opted for pure mathematics at their undergraduate level have enhanced motor skills as compared to those pursuing biological sciences at the same level of education. A total of twenty subjects participated in a visuomotor adaptation task. The results showed that the overall movement related errors in subjects with mathematics background were lower than the biosciences students (p = 0...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324757/perceptual-category-learning-and-visual-processing-an-exercise-in-computational-cognitive-neuroscience
#11
George Cantwell, Maximilian Riesenhuber, Jessica L Roeder, F Gregory Ashby
The field of computational cognitive neuroscience (CCN) builds and tests neurobiologically detailed computational models that account for both behavioral and neuroscience data. This article leverages a key advantage of CCN-namely, that it should be possible to interface different CCN models in a plug-and-play fashion-to produce a new and biologically detailed model of perceptual category learning. The new model was created from two existing CCN models: the HMAX model of visual object processing and the COVIS model of category learning...
March 6, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324301/neuroimaging-in-epilepsy
#12
REVIEW
Erik H Middlebrooks, Lawrence Ver Hoef, Jerzy P Szaflarski
In recent years, the field of neuroimaging has undergone dramatic development. Specifically, of importance for clinicians and researchers managing patients with epilepsies, new methods of brain imaging in search of the seizure-producing abnormalities have been implemented, and older methods have undergone additional refinement. Methodology to predict seizure freedom and cognitive outcome has also rapidly progressed. In general, the image data processing methods are very different and more complicated than even a decade ago...
April 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324119/the-impact-of-cognitive-training-in-substance-use-disorder-the-effect-of-working-memory-training-on-impulse-control-in-methamphetamine-users
#13
Samantha J Brooks, L Wiemerslage, K H Burch, S A Maiorana, E Cocolas, H B Schiöth, K Kamaloodien, D J Stein
OBJECTIVES: Impulsivity is a vulnerability trait for poor self-regulation in substance use disorder (SUD). Working memory (WM) training improves impulsivity and self-regulation in psychiatric disorders. Here we test WM training in methamphetamine use disorder (MUD). METHODS: There are 15 MUD patients receiving inpatient treatment as usual (TAU) and 20 who additionally completed WM cognitive training (CT) and 25 healthy controls (HC). MANCOVA repeated measures analyses examined changes in impulsivity and self-regulation at baseline and after 4 weeks...
March 21, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324109/sex-specific-life-course-changes-in-the-neuro-metabolic-phenotype-of-glut3-null-heterozygous-mice-ketogenic-diet-ameliorates-electroencephalographic-seizures-and-improves-sociability
#14
Yun Dai, Yuanzi Zhao, Masatoshi Tomi, Bo-Chul Shin, Shanthie Thamotharan, Andrey Mazarati, Raman Sankar, Elizabeth A Wang, Carlos Cepeda, Michael S Levine, Jingjing Zhang, Andrew Frew, Jeffry R Alger, Peter Clark, Monica Sondhi, Sudatip Kositamongkol, Leah Leibovitch, Sherin U Devaskar
We tested the hypothesis that exposure of glut3+/- mice to a ketogenic diet ameliorates autism-like features which includes aberrant behavior and electrographic seizures. We first investigated the life course sex-specific changes in basal plasma-CSF-brain metabolic profile, brain glucose transport/uptake, glucose and monocarboxylate transporter proteins, and ATP in the presence or absence of systemic insulin administration. Glut3+/- male but not female mice (5m of age) displayed reduced CSF glucose/lactate concentrations with no change in brain Glut1, Mct2, glucose uptake or ATP...
January 24, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323747/supporting-a-youth-with-cerebellar-ataxia-into-adolescence
#15
Veronica Meneses, Zurisadai Gonzalez-Castillo, Veronica B Edgar, Marilyn Augustyn
Zoe, a 13-year-old white girl, presents as a new patient to your pediatric clinic with complaints of frequent emesis, anxiety, and learning problems, and previous diagnosis of cerebellar ataxia. Parents accompany Zoe and state, "it is really hard for her to go out, she gets sick and falls easily." She was born full term by vaginal delivery without complications. Given globally delayed milestones, she received early intervention services. Feeding problems began at infancy, including gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration pneumonia...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323440/does-prior-administration-of-the-rbans-influence-performance-on-subsequent-neuropsychological-testing
#16
Matthew Calamia, Scott Roye, Austin Lemke
The objective of this study was to determine whether administration of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) prior to other neuropsychological testing improves performance on subsequent measures due to practice effects. Participants completed the RBANS and related neuropsychological measures of the same cognitive domain in one of two counterbalanced orders. A MANOVA and follow-up independent t-tests were used to examine whether or not completing one set of measures prior to the other was associated with score differences...
March 21, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322777/preeclampsia-and-cognitive-impairment-later-in-life
#17
Julie A Fields, Vesna D Garovic, Michelle M Mielke, Kejal Kantarci, Muthuvel Jayachandran, Wendy M White, Alissa M Butts, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Brian D Lahr, Kent R Bailey, Virginia M Miller
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease and cognitive impairment. Women who suffer hypertensive episodes during pregnancy report variable neurocognitive changes within the first decade following the affected pregnancy. However, long-term follow-up of these women into their post-menopausal years has not been conducted. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether women with a history of preeclampsia were at increased risk of cognitive decline 35-40 years after the affected pregnancy...
March 17, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322190/activity-patterns-of-serotonin-neurons-underlying-cognitive-flexibility
#18
Sara Matias, Eran Lottem, Guillaume P Dugué, Zachary F Mainen
Serotonin is implicated in mood and affective disorders. However, growing evidence suggests that a core endogenous role is to promote flexible adaptation to changes in the causal structure of the environment, through behavioral inhibition and enhanced plasticity. We used long-term photometric recordings in mice to study a population of dorsal raphe serotonin neurons, whose activity we could link to normal reversal learning using pharmacogenetics. We found that these neurons are activated by both positive and negative prediction errors, and thus report signals similar to those proposed to promote learning in conditions of uncertainty...
March 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321188/explicit-action-switching-interferes-with-the-context-specificity-of-motor-memories-in-older-adults
#19
Carly J Sombric, Harrison M Harker, Patrick J Sparto, Gelsy Torres-Oviedo
Healthy aging impairs the ability to adapt movements to novel situations and to switch choices according to the context in cognitive tasks, indicating resistance to changes in motor and cognitive behaviors. Here we examined if this lack of "flexibility" in old subjects observed in motor and cognitive domains were related. To this end, we evaluated subjects' performance in a motor task that required switching walking patterns and its relation to performance in a cognitive switching task. Specifically, a group of old (>73 years old) and young subjects learned a new locomotor pattern on a split-belt treadmill, which drives the legs at different speeds...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321185/sex-matters-hippocampal-volume-predicts-individual-differences-in-associative-memory-in-cognitively-normal-older-women-but-not-men
#20
Zhiwei Zheng, Rui Li, Fengqiu Xiao, Rongqiao He, Shouzi Zhang, Juan Li
The hippocampus plays a prominent role in associative memory by supporting relational binding and recollection processes. Structural atrophy in the hippocampus is likely to induce associative memory deficits in older adults. Previous studies have primarily focused on average age-related differences in hippocampal structure and memory performance. To date, however, it remains unclear whether individual differences in hippocampal morphometry underlie differential associative memory performance, and whether there are sex differences in the structural correlates of associative memory in healthy older adults...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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