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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913539/prevention-of-central-nervous-system-sequelae-in-sickle-cell-disease-without-evidence-from-randomized-controlled-trials-the-case-for-a-team-based-learning-collaborative
#1
Michael R DeBaun, Allison A King
Since 1998, the National Institutes of Health has funded 5 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for primary and secondary prevention of strokes in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA). In a systematic fashion, these trials have significantly advanced the care of children with SCA. In the absence of an RCT, clinicians are often compelled to make decisions at the bedside, based on experience, observational studies, and principles of hematology. We will provide an initial example that describes how a team-based, learning collaborative developed a multisite standard care protocol with a low budget (<$10 000 per year) to overcome the intrinsic limitations of advancing the care of neurologic complications in sickle cell disease (SCD)...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912107/limits-to-tdcs-effects-in-language-failures-to-modulate-word-production-in-healthy-participants-with-frontal-or-temporal-tdcs
#2
Samuel J Westwood, Andrew Olson, R Chris Miall, Raffaele Nappo, Cristina Romani
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a method of non-invasive brain stimulation widely used to modulate cognitive functions. Recent studies, however, suggests that effects are unreliable, small and often non-significant at least when stimulation is applied in a single session to healthy individuals. We examined the effects of frontal and temporal lobe anodal tDCS on naming and reading tasks and considered possible interactions with linguistic activation and selection mechanisms as well as possible interactions with item difficulty and participant individual variability...
November 3, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911937/an-investigation-of-the-outcomes-of-pgy-students-cognition-of-and-persistent-behavior-in-learning-through-the-intervention-of-the-flipped-classroom-in-taiwan
#3
Sheng-Der Hsu, Cheng-Jueng Chen, Wei-Kuo Chang, Yih-Jin Hu
The Postgraduate Year (PGY) Program allows doctors-in-training to learn about the diagnosis, treatment and nursing of various common, general diseases. These items form the core curriculum and are mostly learned through caring for patients and clinical teaching. Doctors-in-training are evaluated for their knowledge through written tests or assignments, based on which the effectiveness of their training is also assessed; however, this generally produces a negative learning attitude among them. So we introduced the flipped classroom into PGY training program to change PGY students' learning behavior...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911322/shape-attributes-of-brain-structures-as-biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Tanya Glozman, Justin Solomon, Franco Pestilli, Leonidas Guibas
We describe a fully automatic framework for classification of two types of dementia based on the differences in the shape of brain structures. We consider Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment of individuals who converted to AD within 18 months (MCIc), and normal controls (NC). Our approach uses statistical learning and a feature space consisting of projection-based shape descriptors, allowing for canonical representation of brain regions. Our framework automatically identifies the structures most affected by the disease...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911303/amylin-treatment-reduces-neuroinflammation-and-ameliorates-abnormal-patterns-of-gene-expression-in%C3%A2-the-cerebral-cortex-of-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#5
Erming Wang, Haihao Zhu, Xiaofan Wang, Adam Gower, Max Wallack, Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn, Neil Kowall, Wei Qiao Qiu
Our recent study has demonstrated that peripheral amylin treatment reduces the amyloid pathology in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models, and improves their learning and memory. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of amylin for AD was beyond reducing the amyloids in the brain, and have now directly tested the actions of amylin on other aspects of AD pathogenesis, especially neuroinflammation. A 10-week course of peripheral amylin treatment significantly reduced levels of cerebral inflammation markers, Cd68 and Iba1, in amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911299/chronotropic-response-and-cognitive-function-in-a-cohort-at-risk-for%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Lena L Law, Stephanie A Schultz, Elizabeth A Boots, Jean A Einerson, Ryan J Dougherty, Jennifer M Oh, Claudia E Korcarz, Dorothy F Edwards, Rebecca L Koscik, N Maritza Dowling, Catherine L Gallagher, Barbara B Bendlin, Cynthia M Carlsson, Sanjay Asthana, Bruce P Hermann, Mark A Sager, Sterling C Johnson, Dane B Cook, James H Stein, Ozioma C Okonkwo
The objective of this study was to examine the association of chronotropic response (CR) and heart rate (HR) recovery- two indices of cardiovascular function within the context of a graded exercise test- with cognitive performance in a cognitively healthy, late-middle-aged cohort at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ninety participants (age = 63.52±5.86 years; 65.6% female) from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention participated in this study. They underwent graded exercise testing and a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment that assessed the following four cognitive domains: Immediate Memory, Verbal & Learning Memory, Working Memory, and Speed & Flexibility...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910252/memory-performance-on-the-story-recall-test-and-prediction-of-cognitive-dysfunction-progression-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-dementia
#7
Jong-Hwan Park, Hyuntae Park, Sang Wuk Sohn, Sungjae Kim, Kyung Won Park
AIM: To determine the factors that influence diagnosis and differentiation of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD) by comparing memory test results at baseline with those at 1-2-year follow up. METHODS: We consecutively recruited 23 healthy participants, 44 MCI patients and 27 patients with very mild AD according to the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorder Association criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease and Petersen's clinical diagnostic criteria...
December 1, 2016: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909646/the-neural-mechanisms-of-meditative-practices-novel-approaches-for-healthy-aging
#8
REVIEW
Bianca P Acevedo, Sarah Pospos, Helen Lavretsky
OBJECTIVES: Meditation has been shown to have physical, cognitive, and psychological health benefits that can be used to promote healthy aging. However, the common and specific mechanisms of response remain elusive due to the diverse nature of mind-body practices. METHODS: In this review, we aim to compare the neural circuits implicated in focused-attention meditative practices that focus on present-moment awareness to those involved in active-type meditative practices (e...
2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909405/classifying-cognitive-profiles-using-machine-learning-with-privileged-information-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#9
Hanin H Alahmadi, Yuan Shen, Shereen Fouad, Caroline Di B Luft, Peter Bentham, Zoe Kourtzi, Peter Tino
Early diagnosis of dementia is critical for assessing disease progression and potential treatment. State-or-the-art machine learning techniques have been increasingly employed to take on this diagnostic task. In this study, we employed Generalized Matrix Learning Vector Quantization (GMLVQ) classifiers to discriminate patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) from healthy controls based on their cognitive skills. Further, we adopted a "Learning with privileged information" approach to combine cognitive and fMRI data for the classification task...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909400/the-demise-of-the-synapse-as-the-locus-of-memory-a-looming-paradigm-shift
#10
Patrick C Trettenbrein
Synaptic plasticity is widely considered to be the neurobiological basis of learning and memory by neuroscientists and researchers in adjacent fields, though diverging opinions are increasingly being recognized. From the perspective of what we might call "classical cognitive science" it has always been understood that the mind/brain is to be considered a computational-representational system. Proponents of the information-processing approach to cognitive science have long been critical of connectionist or network approaches to (neuro-)cognitive architecture, pointing to the shortcomings of the associative psychology that underlies Hebbian learning as well as to the fact that synapses are practically unfit to implement symbols...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908981/neurotrophin-signalling-novel-insights-into-mechanisms-and-pathophysiology
#11
REVIEW
Mariela Mitre, Abigail Mariga, Moses V Chao
Neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are prominent regulators of neuronal survival, growth and differentiation during development. While trophic factors are viewed as well-understood but not innovative molecules, there are many lines of evidence indicating that BDNF plays an important role in the pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative disorders, depression, anxiety and other psychiatric disorders. In particular, lower levels of BDNF are associated with the aetiology of Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908748/the-chemotherapeutic-agent-paclitaxel-selectively-impairs-learning-while-sparing-source-memory-and-spatial-memory
#12
Alexandra E Smith, Richard A Slivicki, Andrea G Hohmann, Jonathon D Crystal
: Chemotherapeutic agents are widely used to treat patients with systemic cancer. The efficacy of these therapies is undermined by their adverse side-effect profiles such as cognitive deficits that have a negative impact on the quality of life of cancer survivors. Cognitive side effects occur across a variety of domains, including memory, executive function, and processing speed. Such impairments are exacerbated under cognitive challenges and a subgroup of patients experience long-term impairments...
November 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908561/beyond-eye-gaze-what-else-can-eyetracking-reveal-about-cognition-and-cognitive-development
#13
REVIEW
Maria K Eckstein, Belén Guerra-Carrillo, Alison T Miller Singley, Silvia A Bunge
This review provides an introduction to two eyetracking measures that can be used to study cognitive development and plasticity: pupil dilation and spontaneous blink rate. We begin by outlining the rich history of gaze analysis, which can reveal the current focus of attention as well as cognitive strategies. We then turn to the two lesser-utilized ocular measures. Pupil dilation is modulated by the brain's locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system, which controls physiological arousal and attention, and has been used as a measure of subjective task difficulty, mental effort, and neural gain...
November 11, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906996/reach-the-person-behind-the-dementia-physical-therapists-reflections-and-strategies-when-composing-physical-training
#14
Anncristine Fjellman-Wiklund, Ellinor Nordin, Dawn A Skelton, Lillemor Lundin-Olsson
Dementia is a disease characterized by cognitive impairment and physical decline that worsens over time. Exercise is one lifestyle factor that has been identified as a potential means of reducing or delaying progression of the symptoms of dementia, maximizing function and independence. The purpose of this study was to explore physical therapists' (PTs) experiences and reflections on facilitating high-intensity functional exercise with older people living with dementia, in residential care home settings. The study used a qualitative design based on interviews, individually or in small groups, with seven PTs engaged as leaders in the training of older people with dementia...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906522/educating-executive-function
#15
REVIEW
Clancy Blair
Executive functions are thinking skills that assist with reasoning, planning, problem solving, and managing one's life. The brain areas that underlie these skills are interconnected with and influenced by activity in many different brain areas, some of which are associated with emotion and stress. One consequence of the stress-specific connections is that executive functions, which help us to organize our thinking, tend to be disrupted when stimulation is too high and we are stressed out, or too low when we are bored and lethargic...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906505/what-do-we-learn-about-development-from-baby-robots
#16
Pierre-Yves Oudeyer
Understanding infant development is one of the great scientific challenges of contemporary science. In addressing this challenge, robots have proven useful as they allow experimenters to model the developing brain and body and understand the processes by which new patterns emerge in sensorimotor, cognitive, and social domains. Robotics also complements traditional experimental methods in psychology and neuroscience, where only a few variables can be studied at the same time. Moreover, work with robots has enabled researchers to systematically explore the role of the body in shaping the development of skill...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906001/evolution-of-changes-in-cognitive-function-after-the-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#17
Borja Mora-Peris, Elizabeth Stevens, Francesca Ferretti, Jonathan Underwood, Stephen Taylor, Alan Winston
BACKGROUND: Cognitive function is reported to improve after the initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Data on the evolution of such changes are limited. We assessed the dynamics of changes in cognitive parameters, in HIV-positive subjects initiating cART. METHODS: Cognitive function in seven domains was evaluated for HIV-infected patients without clinically significant cognitive impairment prior to the initiation of cART, and 24 and 48 weeks after...
April 14, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905080/a-neural-model-of-normal-and-abnormal-learning-and-memory-consolidation-adaptively-timed-conditioning-hippocampus-amnesia-neurotrophins-and-consciousness
#18
Daniel J Franklin, Stephen Grossberg
How do the hippocampus and amygdala interact with thalamocortical systems to regulate cognitive and cognitive-emotional learning? Why do lesions of thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cortex have differential effects depending on the phase of learning when they occur? In particular, why is the hippocampus typically needed for trace conditioning, but not delay conditioning, and what do the exceptions reveal? Why do amygdala lesions made before or immediately after training decelerate conditioning while those made later do not? Why do thalamic or sensory cortical lesions degrade trace conditioning more than delay conditioning? Why do hippocampal lesions during trace conditioning experiments degrade recent but not temporally remote learning? Why do orbitofrontal cortical lesions degrade temporally remote but not recent or post-lesion learning? How is temporally graded amnesia caused by ablation of prefrontal cortex after memory consolidation? How are attention and consciousness linked during conditioning? How do neurotrophins, notably brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), influence memory formation and consolidation? Is there a common output path for learned performance? A neural model proposes a unified answer to these questions that overcome problems of alternative memory models...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904994/rapamycin-protects-sepsis-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-mouse-hippocampus-by-enhancing-autophagy
#19
Wenyu Liu, Jia'nan Guo, Jie Mu, Linyu Tian, Dong Zhou
The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway might mediate neuroprotection in a mouse model of septic encephalopathy and also to identify the role of autophagy. Mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or a sham operation, and all 50 mice were randomly assigned to five groups: sham, CLP+ saline, CLP+ rapamycin (1, 5, 10 mg/kg) groups. Two weeks after the operation, Morris water maze was conducted for behavioral test; Nissl staining was used for observing glia infiltration; immunohistochemical staining and biochemical measures in hippocampi were performed to detect mTOR targets and autophagy indicators...
December 1, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903935/impairment-of-decision-making-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-neuroeconomic-approach
#20
Maria Sepúlveda, Begoña Fernández-Diez, Elena H Martínez-Lapiscina, Sara Llufriu, Nuria Sola-Valls, Irati Zubizarreta, Yolanda Blanco, Albert Saiz, Dino Levy, Paul Glimcher, Pablo Villoslada
OBJECTIVE: To assess the decision-making impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and how they relate to other cognitive domains. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis in 84 patients with MS, and 21 matched healthy controls using four tasks taken from behavioral economics: (1) risk preferences, (2) choice consistency, (3) delay of gratification, and (4) rate of learning. All tasks were conducted using real-world reward outcomes (food or money) in different real-life conditions...
November 30, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
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