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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786737/anti-amyloidogenic-properties-of-an-ethyl-acetate-fraction-from-actinidia-arguta-in-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-icr-mice
#1
Jeong Su Ha, Jong Min Kim, Seon Kyeong Park, Jin Yong Kang, Du Sang Lee, Uk Lee, Dae-Ok Kim, Sung-Gil Choi, Ho Jin Heo
This study aimed to investigate the ameliorating effect of an ethyl acetate fraction from the fruit Actinidia arguta (EFAA) on amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive deficits in ICR mice. EFAA showed potent protective effects against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity through 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA), 2',3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release into the assay medium. EFAA treatment reduced the intracellular ROS level and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in the mitochondria, and increased cell viability in Aβ-induced neuroblastoma MC-IXC cells...
May 22, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785844/regularity-extraction-across-species-associative-learning-mechanisms-shared-by-human-and-non-human-primates
#2
Arnaud Rey, Laure Minier, Raphaëlle Malassis, Louisa Bogaerts, Joël Fagot
Extracting the regularities of our environment is a core cognitive ability in human and non-human primates. Comparative studies may provide information of strong heuristic value to constrain the elaboration of computational models of regularity learning. This study illustrates this point by testing human and non-human primates (Guinea baboons, Papio papio) with the same experimental paradigm, using a novel online learning measure. For local co-occurrence regularities, we found similar patterns of regularity extraction in baboons and humans...
May 21, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785584/interferon-free-therapy-in-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-monoinfected-and-hcv-hiv-coinfected-patients-effect-on-cognitive-function-fatigue-and-mental-health
#3
Felix Kleefeld, Sophie Heller, Patrick Ingiliz, Heiko Jessen, Anders Petersen, Ute Kopp, Antje Kraft, Katrin Hahn
The efficacy and safety of interferon-free therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have been reported. Considering the accumulating evidence for a direct central nervous system infection by HCV, we aim to evaluate the effect of direct acting antivirals (DAA) therapy on cognitive function in HCV patients. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of the cognitive performance of 22 patients (8 HCV+, 14 HCV+/HIV+) who completed neuropsychological testing at baseline and at week 12 after DAA therapy. In 20 patients, we analyzed specific attention parameters derived from an experimental testing based on the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA)...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785144/the-neuropsychology-of-emerging-psychosis-and-the-role-of-working-memory-in-episodic-memory-encoding
#4
Marlon O Pflueger, Pasquale Calabrese, Erich Studerus, Ronan Zimmermann, Ute Gschwandtner, Stefan Borgwardt, Jacqueline Aston, Rolf-Dieter Stieglitz, Anita Riecher-Rössler
Background: Episodic memory encoding and working memory (WM) deficits are among the first cognitive signs and symptoms in the course of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, it is not clear whether the deficit pattern is generalized or specific in nature. We hypothesized that encoding deficits at an early stage of the disease might be due to the more fundamental WM deficits. Methods: We examined episodic memory encoding and WM by administering the California Verbal Learning Test, a 2-back task, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in 90 first-episode psychosis (FE) patients and 116 individuals with an at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS) compared to 57 healthy subjects...
2018: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785039/extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields-impair-the-cognitive-and-motor-abilities-of-honey-bees
#5
S Shepherd, M A P Lima, E E Oliveira, S M Sharkh, C W Jackson, P L Newland
Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) pollution from overhead powerlines is known to cause biological effects across many phyla, but these effects are poorly understood. Honey bees are important pollinators across the globe and due to their foraging flights are exposed to relatively high levels of ELF EMF in proximity to powerlines. Here we ask how acute exposure to 50 Hz ELF EMFs at levels ranging from 20-100 µT, found at ground level below powerline conductors, to 1000-7000 µT, found within 1 m of the conductors, affects honey bee olfactory learning, flight, foraging activity and feeding...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785037/assessing-the-utility-of-frequency-tagging-for-tracking-memory-based-reactivation-of-word-representations
#6
Ashley Glen Lewis, Herbert Schriefers, Marcel Bastiaansen, Jan-Mathijs Schoffelen
Reinstatement of memory-related neural activity measured with high temporal precision potentially provides a useful index for real-time monitoring of the timing of activation of memory content during cognitive processing. The utility of such an index extends to any situation where one is interested in the (relative) timing of activation of different sources of information in memory, a paradigm case of which is tracking lexical activation during language processing. Essential for this approach is that memory reinstatement effects are robust, so that their absence (in the average) definitively indicates that no lexical activation is present...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784543/environmental-enrichment-affects-the-ontogeny-of-learning-memory-and-depth-perception-of-the-pharaoh-cuttlefish-sepia-pharaonis
#7
Haruhiko Yasumuro, Yuzuru Ikeda
We investigated the effects of environmental enrichment on the cognitive abilities of pharaoh cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis, which were reared from day seven in four different environments: isolated, poor, standard, and enriched. First, we used "prawn-in-the-tube" to test whether environmental enrichment affects the ontogeny of learning and memory of S. pharaonis. The results showed that cuttlefish could usually learn the task regardless of their age and environment. At early age (74 - 81 d), cuttlefish from the isolated environment memorized the task for 24h...
May 5, 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782824/apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-associates-with-hippocampal-volume-learning-and-memory-across-the-spectrum-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#8
Usman Saeed, Saira S Mirza, Bradley J MacIntosh, Nathan Herrmann, Julia Keith, Joel Ramirez, Sean M Nestor, Qinggang Yu, Jo Knight, Walter Swardfager, Steven G Potkin, Ekaterina Rogaeva, Peter St George-Hyslop, Sandra E Black, Mario Masellis
INTRODUCTION: Although the apolipoprotein E ε4-allele (APOE-ε4) is a susceptibility factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), its relationship with imaging and cognitive measures across the AD/DLB spectrum remains unexplored. METHODS: We studied 298 patients (AD = 250, DLB = 48; 38 autopsy confirmed; NCT01800214) using neuropsychological testing, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging, and APOE genotyping to investigate the association of APOE-ε4 with hippocampal volume and learning/memory phenotypes, irrespective of diagnosis...
May 18, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782510/individual-differences-in-learning-correlate-with-modulation-of-brain-activity-induced-by-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#9
Brian Falcone, Atsushi Wada, Raja Parasuraman, Daniel E Callan
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance cognitive performance on a variety of tasks. It is hypothesized that tDCS enhances performance by affecting task related cortical excitability changes in networks underlying or connected to the site of stimulation facilitating long term potentiation. However, many recent studies have called into question the reliability and efficacy of tDCS to induce modulatory changes in brain activity. In this study, our goal is to investigate the individual differences in tDCS induced modulatory effects on brain activity related to the degree of enhancement in performance, providing insight into this lack of reliability...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782313/kainic-acid-impairs-the-memory-behavior-of-app23-mice-by-increasing-brain-amyloid-load-through-a-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-dependent-mechanism
#10
Yang Ruan, Shi-Jie Guo, Xu Wang, Dong Dong, Dong-Hui Shen, Jie Zhu, Xiang-Yu Zheng
Kainic acid (KA) was recently identified as an epileptogenic and neuroexcitotoxic agent that is responsible for inducing learning and memory deficits in various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism by which KA acts upon AD remains unclear. To this end, we presently investigated the roles of KA in processing amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) and amyloid-β protein (Aβ) loads during the course of AD development and progression. Specifically, KA treatment clearly caused the upregulation of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) via activation of the PI3-K/AKT, ERK1/2, and p65 pathways in glial cells...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781982/the-motor-in-implicit-motor-sequence-learning-a-foot-stepping-serial-reaction-time-task
#11
Yue Du, Jane E Clark
This protocol describes a modified serial reaction time (SRT) task used to study implicit motor sequence learning. Unlike the classic SRT task that involves finger-pressing movements while sitting, the modified SRT task requires participants to step with both feet while maintaining a standing posture. This stepping task necessitates whole body actions that impose postural challenges. The foot-stepping task complements the classic SRT task in several ways. The foot-stepping SRT task is a better proxy for the daily activities that require ongoing postural control, and thus may help us better understand sequence learning in real-life situations...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781879/cognitive-burden-of-common-non-antiretroviral-medications-in-hiv-infected-women
#12
Leah H Rubin, Kendra K Radtke, Seenae Eum, Bani Tamraz, Krithika N Kumanan, Gayle Springer, Pauline M Maki, Kathryn Anastos, Daniel Merenstein, Roksana Karim, Kathleen M Weber, Deborah Gustafson, Ruth M Greenblatt, Jeffrey R Bishop
OBJECTIVE: The aging HIV population has increased comorbidity burden and consequently non-antiretroviral (ARV) medication utilization. Many non-ARV medications have known neurocognitive-adverse effects ("NC-AE medications"). We assessed the cognitive effects of NC-AE medications in HIV+ and HIV- women. METHODS: 1558 participants (1037 HIV+; mean age 46) from the Women's Interagency HIV Study completed a neuropsychological test battery between 2009 and 2011...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781731/neuropsychologists-as-primary-care-providers-of-cognitive-health-a-novel-comprehensive-cognitive-wellness-service-delivery-model
#13
Patricia A Pimental, John B O'Hara, Jessica L Jandak
By virtue of their extensive knowledge base and specialized training in brain-behavior relationships, neuropsychologists are especially poised to execute a unique broad-based approach to overall cognitive wellness and should be viewed as primary care providers of cognitive health. This article will describe a novel comprehensive cognitive wellness service delivery model including cognitive health, anti-aging, lifelong wellness, and longevity-oriented practices. These practice areas include brain-based cognitive wellness, emotional and spiritually centric exploration, and related multimodality health interventions...
July 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781658/rapid-instruction-based-task-learning-ritl-in-schizophrenia
#14
Julia M Sheffield, Hannes Ruge, Sridhar Kandala, Deanna M Barch
Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate broad impairments in neurocognitive functioning as measured through laboratory-based tasks. Neuropsychological measures depend on rapid instruction-based task learning (RITL), the ability to rapidly translate task instruction into goal-directed behavior. Here, the authors present the first known investigation of RITL in schizophrenia and aim to test whether RITL deficits exist in schizophrenia, are associated with abnormal brain activation, and contribute to the generalized cognitive deficit...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781392/adolescent-athletes-with-learning-disability-display-atypical-maturational-trajectories-on-concussion-baseline-testing-implications-based-on-a-finnish-sample
#15
Kati Peltonen, Matti Vartiainen, Tiina Laitala-Leinonen, Sanna Koskinen, Teemu Luoto, Jon Pertab, Laura Hokkanen
Previous research has reported lower cognitive test scores on baseline testing in athletes reporting multiple previous concussions or a history of learning disability (LD). Age also has an important influence on cognitive performance. While these factors have been considered individually in previous studies, the present study is the first to explore the interaction of age, self-reported LD, and history of concussion on baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT®) in a nationwide study of adolescent athletes...
May 21, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781379/innovative-curriculum-integrating-the-bio-behavioral-and-social-science-principles-across-the-lifestages-in-basic-science-years
#16
Anuradha Lele Mookerjee, Bradford D Fischer, Susan Cavanaugh, Vijay Rajput
Behavioral and social science integration in clinical practice improves health outcomes across the life stages. The medical school curriculum requires an integration of the behavioral and social science principles in early medical education. We developed and delivered a four-week course entitled "LifeStages" to the first year medical students. The learning objectives of the bio-behavioral and social science principles along with the cultural, economic, political, and ethical parameters were integrated across the lifespan in the curriculum matrix...
May 20, 2018: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781130/compensating-for-an-inattentive-audience
#17
Nicole N Craycraft, Sarah Brown-Schmidt
The common ground that conversational partners share is thought to form the basic context for language use. According to the classic view, inferences about common ground, or mutual knowledge, are guided by beliefs about the physical, cognitive, and attentional states of one's communicative partners. Here, we provide a first test of the attention assumption for common ground, the proposal that common ground for a co-present entity-such as an object or an utterance-can only be formed if a person has evidence that his or her partner has also attended to it...
May 20, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780334/an-innovative-framework-for-delivering-psychotherapy-to-patients-with-treatment-resistant-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-rationale-for-interactive-motion-assisted-therapy
#18
Marieke J van Gelderen, Mirjam J Nijdam, Eric Vermetten
Despite an array of evidence-based psychological treatments for patients with a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a majority of patients do not fully benefit from the potential of these therapies. In veterans with PTSD, up to two-thirds retain their diagnosis after psychotherapy and often their disorder is treatment-resistant, which calls for improvement of therapeutic approaches for this population. One of the factors hypothesized to underlie low response in PTSD treatment is high behavioral and cognitive avoidance to traumatic reminders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779945/moderate-uv-exposure-enhances-learning-and-memory-by-promoting-a-novel-glutamate-biosynthetic-pathway-in-the-brain
#19
Hongying Zhu, Ning Wang, Lei Yao, Qi Chen, Ran Zhang, Junchao Qian, Yiwen Hou, Weiwei Guo, Sijia Fan, Siling Liu, Qiaoyun Zhao, Feng Du, Xin Zuo, Yujun Guo, Yan Xu, Jiali Li, Tian Xue, Kai Zhong, Xiaoyuan Song, Guangming Huang, Wei Xiong
Sunlight exposure is known to affect mood, learning, and cognition. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that moderate UV exposure elevated blood urocanic acid (UCA), which then crossed the blood-brain barrier. Single-cell mass spectrometry and isotopic labeling revealed a novel intra-neuronal metabolic pathway converting UCA to glutamate (GLU) after UV exposure. This UV-triggered GLU synthesis promoted its packaging into synaptic vesicles and its release at glutamatergic terminals in the motor cortex and hippocampus...
May 7, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779721/evaluation-of-an-ontology-based-system-for-computerized-cognitive-rehabilitation
#20
Anna Alloni, Silvana Quaglini, Silvia Panzarasa, Elena Sinforiani, Sara Bernini
OBJECTIVES: This paper describes the results of a randomized clinical trial about the effectiveness of a computerized rehabilitation treatment on a sample of 31 patients affected by Parkinson disease. METHODS: Computerized exercises were administered by the therapists to the intervention group (n = 17) through the CoRe tool, which automatically generates a big variety of exercises leveraging on a stimuli set (words, sounds and images) organized into a dedicated ontology...
July 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
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