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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821546/a-supervised-statistical-learning-approach-for-accurate-legionella-pneumophila-source-attribution-during-outbreaks
#1
Andrew H Buultjens, Kyra Y L Chua, Sarah L Baines, Jason Kwong, Wei Gao, Zoe Cutcher, Stuart Adcock, Susan Ballard, Mark B Schultz, Takehiro Tomita, Nela Subasinghe, Glen P Carter, Sacha J Pidot, Lucinda Franklin, Torsten Seemann, Anders Gonçalves Da Silva, Benjamin P Howden, Timothy P Stinear
Public health agencies are increasingly relying on genomics during Legionnaires' disease investigations. However, the causative bacterium (Legionella pneumophila) has an unusual population structure with extreme temporal and spatial genome sequence conservation. Furthermore, Legionnaires' disease outbreaks can be caused by multiple L. pneumophila genotypes in a single source. These factors can confound cluster identification using standard phylogenomic methods. Here, we show that a statistical learning approach based onL...
August 18, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815736/the-diagnosis-and-management-of-contact-lens-related-microbial-keratitis
#2
REVIEW
Nicole Carnt, Chameen Samarawickrama, Andrew White, Fiona Stapleton
Contact lens-associated microbial keratitis poses a diagnostic dilemma for optometrists on two fronts. The distinction between sterile inflammation and microbial infection is often blurred. In addition, there is a requirement with nearly 50 per cent of the Australian and New Zealand optometric profession being therapeutically endorsed, to distinguish between cases of infection that can be managed in the community verses those that require escalation to public hospitals that have access to laboratory diagnostic tools and advanced imaging techniques, such as in vivo confocal microscopy...
August 16, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811182/implementing-sustainable-data-collection-for-a-cardiac-outcomes-registry-in-an-australian-public-hospital
#3
Nicholas Cox, Angela Brennan, Diem Dinh, Rita Brien, Kath Cowie, Dion Stub, Christopher M Reid, Jeffrey Lefkovits
BACKGROUND: Clinical outcome registries are an increasingly vital component of ensuring quality and safety of patient care. However, Australian hospitals rarely have additional resources or the capacity to fund the additional staff time to complete the task of data collection and entry. At the same time, registry funding models do not support staff for the collection of data at the site but are directed towards the central registry tasks of data reporting, managing and quality monitoring...
March 12, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811050/vaccine-decision-making-begins-in-pregnancy-correlation-between-vaccine-concerns-intentions-and-maternal-vaccination-with-subsequent-childhood-vaccine-uptake
#4
M H Danchin, J Costa-Pinto, K Atwell, H Willaby, K Wiley, M Hoq, J Leask, K P Perrett, Jacinta O'Keefe, M L Giles, H Marshall
INTRODUCTION: Maternal and childhood vaccine decision-making begins prenatally. Amongst pregnant Australian women we aimed to ascertain vaccine information received, maternal immunisation uptake and attitudes and concerns regarding childhood vaccination. We also aimed to determine any correlation between a) intentions and concerns regarding childhood vaccination, (b) concerns about pregnancy vaccination, (c) socioeconomic status (SES) and (d) uptake of influenza and pertussis vaccines during pregnancy and routine vaccines during childhood...
August 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809175/the-use-of-data-analytics-to-build-an-australian-context-sensitive-health-informatics-framework-for-consumer-directed-community-aged-care
#5
Andrew Georgiou, Mikaela Jorgensen, Joyce Siette, Johanna I Westbrook
The challenge of providing services that meet the growing needs of an ageing population is one confronted by communities across Australia and internationally. The aim of this study was to: a) undertake semi-structured interviews and focus groups across a sample of service and technical staff to identify the interconnection between communication, information, work practices and performance; and b) carry out a comprehensive review of existing data sources to identify the data linkages required to identify and monitor performance across different dimensions of the quality of aged care spectrum...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808814/the-impact-of-being-a-migrant-from-a-non-english-speaking-country-on-healthcare-outcomes-in-frail-older-inpatients-an-australian-study
#6
David Basic, Chris Shanley, Rinaldo Gonzales
The purpose of this prospective study of 2180 consecutive index admissions to an acute geriatric service was to compare in-hospital outcomes of frail older inpatients born in non-English-speaking counties, referred to as culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) countries in Australia, with those born in English-speaking countries. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model in-hospital mortality and new nursing home placement. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model length of stay...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Cross-cultural Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806221/admission-to-intensive-care-for-palliative-care-or-potential-organ-donation-demographics-circumstances-outcomes-and-resource-use
#7
Andrew Melville, Gali Kolt, David Anderson, Joanna Mitropoulos, David Pilcher
OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics, circumstances, change over time, resource use, and outcomes of patients admitted to ICUs in Australia and New Zealand for the purposes of "palliative care of a dying patient" or "potential organ donation," and compare with actively managed ICU patients. DESIGN: A retrospective study of data from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database and a nested cohort analysis of a single center...
August 11, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803587/the-rise-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-now-the-dominant-cause-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infection-in-central-australia
#8
E Macmorran, S Harch, E Athan, S Lane, S Tong, L Crawford, S Krishnaswamy, S Hewagama
This study aimed to examine the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of community-onset purulent staphylococcal skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in Central Australia. We performed a prospective observational study of patients hospitalised with community-onset purulent staphylococcal SSTI (n = 160). Indigenous patients accounted for 78% of cases. Patients were predominantly young adults; however, there were high rates of co-morbid disease. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) was the dominant phenotype, accounting for 60% of cases...
August 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802911/childhood-maltreatment-and-high-dietary-fat-intake-behaviors-in-adulthood-a-birth-cohort-study
#9
Amanuel Alemu Abajobir, Steve Kisely, Gail Williams, Lane Strathearn, Jake Moses Najman
Childhood maltreatment has been associated with a wide range of chronic medical conditions including obesity, other metabolic events and eating disorders. However, little is known about the association between childhood maltreatment and high dietary fat intake. This study addresses the extent to which co-occurring and specific forms of substantiated childhood maltreatment are associated with self-reported high dietary fat intake in adulthood and whether there is a gender-childhood maltreatment interaction in predicting this association...
August 10, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800373/dysphagia-and-speech-language-pathology-involvement-following-chemical-ingestion-injury-a-review-of-44-cases-admitted-to-a-quaternary-australian-hospital-2008-2012
#10
Anna F Rumbach, Rebecca Cremer
Purpose: This study aimed to explore the clinical characteristics of an adult chemical ingestion population and examine the course of return to oral intake post injury and speech-language pathologist (SLP) involvement during the initial acute-care admission. Method: A retrospective chart review of adults admitted to a quaternary hospital for the treatment of an acute chemical ingestion injury between 2008 and 2012 was conducted. Results: Forty-four adults (23 men, 21 women) were identified as receiving treatment for ingestion injury, of whom 18 (40...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799698/retrospective-evaluation-of-cats-with-elapid-snake-envenomation-associated-neurotoxicity-requiring-mechanical-ventilation-12-cases-2005-2014
#11
Hui Mei Ong, Kylie Kelers, Dez Hughes, Manuel Boller
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively determine the population and outcome characteristics of a cohort of Australian elapid snake envenomed cats requiring mechanical ventilation (MV). DESIGN: Retrospective observational study (2005-2014). SETTING: Academic veterinary emergency and critical care service. ANIMALS: Twelve cats undergoing MV for elapid snake envenomation. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The medical records were searched to identify cats requiring MV as part of treatment for elapid snake envenomation...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797450/tube-feeding-during-treatment-for-head-and-neck-cancer-adherence-and-patient-reported-barriers
#12
Teresa Brown, Merrilyn Banks, Brett G M Hughes, Charles Lin, Lizbeth Kenny, Judith Bauer
OBJECTIVES: The main aim was to investigate the incidence of patient adherence to nutritional tube feeding recommendations in patients with head and neck cancer and to determine patient barriers to meeting tube feeding prescription. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an observational study from a randomised controlled trial in patients with head and neck cancer deemed at high nutritional risk with prophylactic gastrostomy (n=125). Patients were randomised to receive early tube feeding prior to treatment (intervention group) or standard care...
September 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793387/indigenous-cardiac-patients-and-relatives-experiences-of-hospitalisation-a-narrative-inquiry
#13
Vainess Mbuzi, Paul Fulbrook, Melanie Jessup
AIM: To explore Indigenous people's experiences of hospitalisation for acute cardiac care. BACKGROUND: Indigenous Australians suffer a higher burden of cardiovascular ill health and hospitalisation rates in comparison to other Australians, but there is little research that explores their perspectives of hospitalisation. DESIGN: Narrative inquiry. METHODS: Interviews were undertaken using storytelling to facilitate participants' descriptions of their hospital experience...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791752/is-higher-population-level-use-of-ics-laba-combination-associated-with-better-asthma-outcomes-cross-sectional-surveys-of-nationally-representative-populations-in-new-zealand-and-australia
#14
Helen K Reddel, Lutz Beckert, Angela Moran, Tristram Ingham, Rosario D Ampon, Matthew J Peters, Susan M Sawyer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: New Zealand (NZ) and Australia (AU) have similarly high asthma prevalence; both have universal public health systems, but different criteria for subsidized medicines. We explored differences in asthma management and asthma-related outcomes between these countries. METHODS: A web-based survey was administered in AU (2012) and NZ (2013) to individuals aged ≥16 years with current asthma, drawn randomly from web-based panels, stratified by national population proportions...
August 9, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782226/perspectives-of-hospital-emergency-department-staff-on-trauma-informed-care-for-injured-children-an-australian-and-new-zealand-analysis
#15
Claire Hoysted, Franz E Babl, Nancy Kassam-Adams, Markus A Landolt, Laura Jobson, Sarah Curtis, Anupam B Kharbanda, Mark D Lyttle, Niccolò Parri, Rachel Stanley, Eva Alisic
AIM: To examine Australian and New Zealand emergency department (ED) staff's training, knowledge and confidence regarding trauma-informed care for children after trauma, and barriers to implementation. METHODS: ED staff's perspectives on trauma-informed care were assessed using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Participants included 468 ED staff (375 nursing and 111 medical staff) from hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, χ(2) tests and multiple regressions...
August 6, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782212/knowledge-of-proprietary-and-generic-drug-names-among-hospital-prescribers-time-to-mandate-generic-prescribing
#16
Joshua S Davis, Thomas Barrett, Lisa Harris
Although medical students are taught clinical pharmacology using generic drug names, prescribing in hospitals often uses brand names. As a result, junior doctors may be prescribing drugs without knowing their nature or mode of action. We carried out a knowledge survey of 81 medical students and doctors at a 650-bed Australian teaching hospital to assess their knowledge of common drugs when given the brand name. We identified 20 commonly prescribed drugs and their brand names based on current hospital inpatients...
August 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780550/improving-discharge-care-the-potential-of-a-new-organisational-intervention-to-improve-discharge-after-hospitalisation-for-acute-stroke-a-controlled-before-after-pilot-study
#17
Dominique A Cadilhac, Nadine E Andrew, Enna Stroil Salama, Kelvin Hill, Sandy Middleton, Eleanor Horton, Ian Meade, Sarah Kuhle, Mark R Nelson, Rohan Grimley
OBJECTIVE: Provision of a discharge care plan and prevention therapies is often suboptimal. Our objective was to design and pilot test an interdisciplinary, organisational intervention to improve discharge care using stroke as the case study using a mixed-methods, controlled before-after observational study design. SETTING: Acute care public hospitals in Queensland, Australia (n=15). The 15 hospitals were ranked against a benchmark based on a composite outcome of three discharge care processes...
August 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776149/how-do-oncologists-make-decisions-about-chemotherapy-for-their-older-patients-with-cancer-a-survey-of-australian-oncologists
#18
E B Moth, B E Kiely, V Naganathan, A Martin, P Blinman
PURPOSE: Oncologists are making treatment decisions on increasing numbers of older patients with cancer. Due to comorbidities and frailty that increase with age, such decisions are often complex. We determined factors influencing oncologists' decisions to prescribe chemotherapy for older adults. METHODS: Members of the Medical Oncology Group of Australia (MOGA) were invited to complete an online survey in February to April 2016. RESULTS: Ninety-three oncologists completed the survey of which 69 (74%) were consultants and 24 (26%) were trainees, with most (72, 77%) working predominantly in a public hospital-associated practice...
August 3, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768522/exploring-the-reliability-and-acceptability-of-cognitive-tests-for-indigenous-australians-a-pilot-study
#19
Kylie M Dingwall, Allison O Gray, Annette R McCarthy, Jennifer F Delima, Stephen C Bowden
BACKGROUND: Reliable cognitive assessment for Indigenous Australians is difficult given that mainstream tests typically rely on Western concepts, content and values. A test's psychometric properties should therefore be assessed prior to use in other cultures. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the reliability and acceptability of four cognitive tests for Australian Aboriginal people. METHODS: Participants were 40 male and 44 female (N = 84) Aboriginal patients from Alice Springs Hospital...
August 2, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767175/acknowledging-medical-students-reports-of-intimidation-and-humiliation-by-their-teachers-in-hospitals
#20
Jenny Barrett, Karen M Scott
AIM: The continuing existence of 'teaching by humiliation' of medical students and junior doctors in Australia has recently been highlighted in a number of research publications and media reports. This study investigates medical students' experiences of being intimidated or humiliated during their clinical rotations in Australian hospitals in paediatrics and adult medicine. METHODS: From factors identified in earlier research, a two-page survey was developed for administration at two Australian medical schools...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
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