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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306563/antimicrobial-resistant-gram-negative-infections-in-neonates-burden-of-disease-and-challenges-in-treatment
#1
Laura Folgori, Julia Bielicki, Paul T Heath, Mike Sharland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the main challenges of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the neonatal population with a special focus on multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative pathogens. RECENT FINDINGS: MDR-Gram-negative bacteria are a great concern in the neonatal population, with a worldwide rise in the reported incidence and with very limited therapeutic options. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have been reported as responsible for neonatal ICU outbreaks...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302074/clonality-outer-membrane-proteins-profile-and-efflux-pump-in-kpc-producing-enterobacter-sp-in-brazil
#2
Juliana Ferraz Rosa, Camila Rizek, Ana Paula Marchi, Thais Guimaraes, Lourdes Miranda, Claudia Carrilho, Anna S Levin, Silvia F Costa
BACKGROUND: Carbapenems resistance in Enterobacter spp. has increased in the last decade, few studies, however, described the mechanisms of resistance in this bacterium. This study evaluated clonality and mechanisms of carbapenems resistance in clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp. identified in three hospitals in Brazil (Hospital A, B and C) over 7-year. METHODS: Antibiotics sensitivity, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), PCR for carbapenemase and efflux pump genes were performed for all carbapenems-resistant isolates...
March 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300643/draft-genome-sequence-of-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-enterica-serovar-brancaster-strain-ps01-isolated-from-chicken-meat-malaysia
#3
Pui San Chin, Choo Yee Yu, Geik Yong Ang, Wai-Fong Yin, Kok-Gan Chan
OBJECTIVES: Salmonella spp. represent one of the main diarrhoeal pathogens that are transmitted via the food supply chain. Here we report the draft genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Brancaster (PS01) that was isolated from poultry meat in Malaysia. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from Salmonella strain PS01 and was sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The generated reads were de novo assembled using CLC Genomics Workbench...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298258/susceptibility-to-rifaximin-and-other-antimicrobials-of-bacteria-isolated-in-patients-with-acute-gastrointestinal-infections-in-southeast-mexico
#4
O Novoa-Farias, A C Frati-Munari, M A Peredo, S Flores-Juárez, O Novoa-García, J Galicia-Tapia, C E Romero-Carpio
INTRODUCTION: Enteropathogenic bacteria isolated in Mexico City have shown a high rate of resistance to different antibiotics, with the exception of rifaximin (RIF). RIF is a nonabsorbable antibiotic that reaches high fecal concentrations (≈ 8,000μg/g). Susceptibility to antimicrobials can vary in different geographic regions. AIM: To study the susceptibility to rifaximin and other antimicrobials of enteropathogenic bacteria isolated in patients with acute diarrhea in the southeastern region of Mexico...
March 12, 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295441/fosfomycin-for-the-treatment-of-cystitis-in-the-abdominal-solid-organ-transplant-population
#5
A A Loethen, L Kerstenetzky, J L Descourouez, G E Leverson, J A Smith, M R Jorgenson
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the use of fosfomycin (FOS) at the FDA-approved single-dose regimen as well as off-label multidose regimens for the treatment of cystitis after abdominal solid organ transplant (aSOT). DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS: Adult inpatients with history of aSOT receiving FOS between 1/1/2009-4/30/2015 for the treatment of cystitis. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Seventy-six courses of FOS were identified in 64 patients...
March 12, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293865/the-inhibition-effect-of-lactobacilli-against-growth-and-biofilm-formation-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#6
Dariush Shokri, Mohammad Rabbani Khorasgani, Milad Mohkam, Seyed Masih Fatemi, Younes Ghasemi, Asghar Taheri-Kafrani
The emergence of antibiotic-resistant and food-spoilage microorganisms has renewed efforts to identify safe and natural alternative agents of antibiotics such as probiotics. The aim of this study was the isolation of lactobacilli as potential probiotics from local dairy products with broad antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities against antibiotic-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and determination of their inhibition mechanism. Antibiotic susceptibility and classification of acquired resistance profiles of 80 P...
March 14, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285420/fosfomycin-and-comparator-activity-against-select-enterobacteriaceae-pseudomonas-and-enterococcus-urinary-tract-infection-isolates-from-the-united-states-in-2012
#7
Tiffany R Keepers, Marcela Gomez, Chris Celeri, Kevin M Krause, Donald Biek, Ian Critchley
INTRODUCTION: Fosfomycin is a broad-spectrum cell wall active agent that inhibits the MurA enzyme involved in peptidoglycan synthesis and is FDA-approved for treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis in women. Data regarding the susceptibility of recent UTI isolates to fosfomycin are limited. METHODS: This study compared the fosfomycin susceptibility of 658 US UTI isolates with susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT)...
March 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276281/in-vitro-susceptibility-and-resistance-phenotypes-in-contemporary-citrobacter-isolates-in-a-university-hospital-in-crete-greece
#8
Sofia Maraki, Konstantinos Z Vardakas, Viktoria-Eirini Mavromanolaki, Margarita Kyriakidou, George Spais, Diamantis P Kofteridis, George Samonis, Matthew E Falagas
BACKGROUND: Data on Citrobacter spp. susceptibility are scarce. We sought to study the evolution in the susceptibility of 385 Citrobacter spp. at the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece during a six-year period (2010-2015). METHODS: Non-duplicate strains isolated from inpatients (intensive care unit, oncology, surgery, internal medicine, paediatrics) and outpatients were studied using Vitek 2. Phenotypic confirmatory tests were applied for detection of β-lactamases and aminoglycoside modifying enzymes...
March 9, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273381/role-of-combination-antimicrobial-therapy-for-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-infections-review-of-the-current-evidence
#9
Juwon Yim, Jordan R Smith, Michael J Rybak
Enterococcus species are the second most common cause of nosocomial infections in the United States and are particularly concerning in critically ill patients with preexisting comorbid conditions. Rising resistance to antimicrobials that were historically used as front-line agents for treatment of enterococcal infections, such as ampicillin, vancomycin, and aminoglycosides, further complicates the treatment of these infections. Of particular concern are Enterococcus faecium strains that are associated with the highest rate of vancomycin resistance...
March 8, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265005/metabolic-constraints-on-the-evolution-of-antibiotic-resistance
#10
Mattia Zampieri, Tim Enke, Victor Chubukov, Vito Ricci, Laura Piddock, Uwe Sauer
Despite our continuous improvement in understanding antibiotic resistance, the interplay between natural selection of resistance mutations and the environment remains unclear. To investigate the role of bacterial metabolism in constraining the evolution of antibiotic resistance, we evolved Escherichia coli growing on glycolytic or gluconeogenic carbon sources to the selective pressure of three different antibiotics. Profiling more than 500 intracellular and extracellular putative metabolites in 190 evolved populations revealed that carbon and energy metabolism strongly constrained the evolutionary trajectories, both in terms of speed and mode of resistance acquisition...
March 6, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258116/inhibitory-effects-of-vancomycin-and-fosfomycin-on-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-from-antibiotic-impregnated-articulating-cement-spacers
#11
V Yuenyongviwat, N Ingviya, P Pathaburee, B Tangtrakulwanich
OBJECTIVES: Vancomycin and fosfomycin are antibiotics commonly used to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. This study compares the in vitro inhibitory effects against MRSA of articulating cement spacers impregnated with either vancomycin or fosfomycin. METHODS: Vancomycin-impregnated articulating cement spacers and fosfomycin-impregnated articulating cement spacers were immersed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solutions and then incubated...
March 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254461/genetic-diversity-of-enterococcus-faecalis-isolated-from-environmental-animal-and-clinical-sources-in-malaysia
#12
Diane S Daniel, Sui M Lee, Han M Gan, Gary A Dykes, Sadequr Rahman
Enterococcus faecalis ranks as one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. A strong epidemiological link has been reported between E. faecalis inhabiting animals and environmental sources. This study investigates the genetic diversity, antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants in E. faecalis from three sources in Malaysia. A total of 250 E. faecalis isolates were obtained consisting of 120 isolates from farm animals, 100 isolates from water sources and 30 isolates from hospitalized patients. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis-typing yielded 63 pulsotypes, with high diversity observed in all sources (D=≥0...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247722/-complex-treatment-of-chronic-cystitis-in-women
#13
A I Neymark, M V Razdorskaya, B A Neymark
PURPOSE: Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of Phytolysin in complex treatment of female patients with chronic cystitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 women with chronic cystitis were examined from January 2016 to March 2016. Depending on the treatment, all patients were divided into two groups of 20 people. Main group of patients was treated with Fosfomycin (Monural) and Phytolysin. Control group of patients received monotherapy with fosfomycin. RESULTS: The results were assessed at 1 and 2 months after initiation of therapy...
August 2016: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247617/-are-there-alternatives-to-antimicrobial-therapy-and-prophylaxis-of-uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infections
#14
K G Naber, J F Alidjanov
The acute uncomplicated cystitis in women is one of the most frequently diagnosed bacterial infection. A clinically symptomatic urinary tract infection must be differentiated from the asymptomatic bacteriuria, which is not considered an infection but rather a colonization which should not be treated. For the antimicrobial therapy according to the European guidelines the old oral antibiotics (fosfomycin trometamol, nitrofurantoin, pivmecillinam) should be prescribed, against which E. coli is still susceptible in over 90%...
August 2016: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246454/molecular-identification-and-histopathological-study-of-natural-streptococcus-agalactiae-infection-in-hybrid-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#15
A A Laith, Mohd Azmi Ambak, Marina Hassan, Shahreza Md Sheriff, Musa Nadirah, Ahmad Shuhaimi Draman, Wahidah Wahab, Wan Nurhafizah Wan Ibrahim, Alia Syafiqah Aznan, Amina Jabar, Musa Najiah
AIM: The main objective of this study was to emphasize on histopathological examinations and molecular identification of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from natural infections in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Temerloh Pahang, Malaysia, as well as to determine the susceptibility of the pathogen strains to various currently available antimicrobial agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The diseased fishes were observed for variable clinical signs including fin hemorrhages, alterations in behavior associated with erratic swimming, exophthalmia, and mortality...
January 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238801/chromosomal-location-of-the-fosa3-and-blactx-m-genes-in-proteus-mirabilis-and-clonal-spread-of-escherichia-coli-st117-carrying-fosa3-positive-inchi2-st3-or-f2-a-b-plasmids-in-a-chicken-farm
#16
Dandan He, Lanping Liu, Baowei Guo, Shengjun Wu, Xiaojie Chen, Jing Wang, Zhenling Zeng, Jian-Hua Liu
The aim of this study was to investigate the spread and location of the fosA3 gene among Enterobacteriaceae from diseased broiler chickens. Twenty-nine Escherichia coli and seven Proteus mirabilis isolates recovered from one chicken farm were screened for the presence of plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance genes by PCR. The clonal relatedness of fosA3-positive isolates, the transferability and location of fosA3, and the genetic context of the fosA3 gene were determined. Seven P. mirabilis isolates with three different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns and five E...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222483/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-fecal-antimicrobial-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-a-cohort-of-japanese-men-undergoing-prostate-biopsy
#17
Jun Kamei, Yuka Yagihara, Haruki Kume, Takamasa Horiuchi, Tomoaki Sato, Tohru Nakagawa, Tetsuya Fujimura, Hiroshi Fukuhara, Kyoji Moriya, Yukio Homma
OBJECTIVES: To examine resistant Escherichia coli in rectal swab culture of Japanese men undergoing prostate biopsy, and to determine its prevalence, genotypic characteristics and carriage risk factors. METHODS: Rectal swabs of consecutive men undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy from April 2013 to March 2015 were cultured to isolate fluoroquinolone-resistant and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of these resistant E...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221837/environmental-occurrence-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-profile-of-listeria-monocytogenes-at-a-slaughterhouse-raw-processing-plant-in-romania
#18
Claudia Sala, Adriana Morar, Emil Tîrziu, Ileana Nichita, Mirela Imre, Kálmán Imre
This survey was conducted to investigate the occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes isolates in the environment of a pig slaughterhouse raw processing plant complex in western Romania. A total of 97 environmental samples from food contact (n = 60) and nonfood contact (n = 37) surfaces were examined with standard methods. The susceptibility of the isolates to 17 antimicrobial agents was determined with the VITEK 2 automated system. Overall, 25 (25.8%) samples were positive for L...
October 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214713/comparative-analysis-of-metagenomes-of-italian-top-soil-improvers
#19
Federica Gigliucci, Gianfranco Brambilla, Rosangela Tozzoli, Valeria Michelacci, Stefano Morabito
Biosolids originating from Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plants are proposed as top soil improvers (TSI) for their beneficial input of organic carbon on agriculture lands. Their use to amend soil is controversial, as it may lead to the presence of emerging hazards of anthropogenic or animal origin in the environment devoted to food production. In this study, we used a shotgun metagenomics sequencing as a tool to perform a characterization of the hazards related with the TSIs. The samples showed the presence of many virulence genes associated to different diarrheagenic E...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197413/mechanism-of-reduced-susceptibility-to-fosfomycin-in-escherichia-coli-clinical-isolates
#20
Yasuo Ohkoshi, Toyotaka Sato, Yuuki Suzuki, Soh Yamamoto, Tsukasa Shiraishi, Noriko Ogasawara, Shin-Ichi Yokota
In recent years, multidrug resistance of Escherichia coli has become a serious problem. However, resistance to fosfomycin (FOM) has been low. We screened E. coli clinical isolates with reduced susceptibility to FOM and characterized molecular mechanisms of resistance and reduced susceptibility of these strains. Ten strains showing reduced FOM susceptibility (MIC ≥ 8 μg/mL) in 211 clinical isolates were found and examined. Acquisition of genes encoding FOM-modifying enzyme genes (fos genes) and mutations in murA that underlie high resistance to FOM were not observed...
2017: BioMed Research International
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