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Fosfomycin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093485/molecular-insights-into-fosfomycin-resistance-in-escherichia-coli
#1
M Ballestero-Téllez, F Docobo-Pérez, I Portillo-Calderón, J M Rodríguez-Martínez, L Racero, M S Ramos-Guelfo, J Blázquez, J Rodríguez-Baño, A Pascual
OBJECTIVES: Fosfomycin activity in Escherichia coli depends on several genes of unknown importance for fosfomycin resistance. The objective was to characterize the role of uhpT, glpT, cyaA and ptsI genes in fosfomycin resistance in E. coli. METHODS: WT E. coli BW25113 and null mutants, ΔuhpT, ΔglpT, ΔcyaA, ΔptsI, ΔglpT-uhpT, ΔglpT-cyaA, ΔglpT-ptsI, ΔuhpT-cyaA, ΔuhpT-ptsI and ΔptsI-cyaA, were studied. Susceptibility to fosfomycin was tested using CLSI guidelines...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087584/emergence-of-klebsiella-variicola-positive-for-ndm-9-a-variant-of-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-in-an-urban-river-in-south-korea
#2
Doris Y W Di, Jeonghwan Jang, Tatsuya Unno, Hor-Gil Hur
OBJECTIVES: To examine the presence of pathogenic bacteria carrying New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase in the environment and to characterize the genome structures of these strains. METHODS: Phenotypic screening of antimicrobial susceptibility and WGS were conducted on three Klebsiella variicola strains possessing NDM-9 isolated from an urban river. RESULTS: Three carbapenem-resistant K. variicola isolated from Gwangju tributary were found to possess blaNDM-9 genes...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081583/-early-results-of-adjuvant-topical-treatment-of-recurrent-osteomyelitis-with-absorbable-antibiotic-carriers
#3
Y Gramlich, G Walter, J Gils, R Hoffmann
Background Treatment of musculoskeletal infections principally consists of radical surgical debridement and systemic administration of antibiotics. Additional local antibiotic therapy is not yet generally established, and lacks evidence-based proof of efficacy. Nonetheless, there are a variety of practical approaches, as most specialised departments are unwilling to forego this option. The established polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) carrier system has a number of practical disadvantages. This has led to the increased use of absorbable carrier systems, and those based on calcium sulphate have given particularly encouraging results...
January 12, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064057/udp-n-acetylglucosamine-enolpyruvyl-transferase-mura-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-abmura-structural-and-functional-properties
#4
Amit Sonkar, Harish Shukla, Rohit Shukla, Jupitara Kalita, Tripti Pandey, Timir Tripathi
Peptidoglycan (PG) is the key component of the bacterial cell wall. The enzyme UDP-N-Acetylglucosamine Enolpyruvyl Transferase (MurA) catalyzes the transfer of enolpyruvate from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to uridinediphospho-N-acetylglucosamine (UNAG), which is the first committed step of PG biosynthesis. Here, we present the biochemical and structural features of the MurA enzyme of the opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii (AbMurA). The recombinant AbMurA exists as a monomer in solution and shows optimal activity at pH 7...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062557/fosfomycin-mechanism-and-resistance
#5
Lynn L Silver
Fosfomycin, a natural product antibiotic, has been in use for >20 years in Spain, Germany, France, Japan, Brazil, and South Africa for urinary tract infections (UTIs) and other indications and was registered in the United States for the oral treatment of uncomplicated UTIs because of Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli in 1996. It has a broad spectrum, is bactericidal, has very low toxicity, and acts as a time-dependent inhibitor of the MurA enzyme, which catalyzes the first committed step of peptidoglycan synthesis...
January 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062317/role-of-inoculum-and-mutant-frequency-on-fosfomycin-mic-discrepancies-by-agar-dilution-and-broth-microdilution-methods-in-enterobacteriaceae
#6
M Ballestero-Téllez, F Docobo-Pérez, J M Rodríguez-Martínez, M C Conejo, M S Ramos-Guelfo, J Blázquez, J Rodríguez-Baño, A Pascual
OBJECTIVES: Fosfomycin is re-evaluated as treatment of multidrug resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, MIC differences have been described among the different susceptibility testing. The aim was to study the role of the different inoculum size used in agar dilution with respect broth microdilution, according to CLSI, in the fosfomycin MIC discrepancies. METHODS: Fosfomycin MICs were determined using agar dilution (reference) and broth microdilution in 220 Escherichia coli (81) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (139) clinical isolates...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999619/comparative-genomics-analyses-revealed-two-virulent-listeria-monocytogenes-strains-isolated-from-ready-to-eat-food
#7
Shu Yong Lim, Kien-Pong Yap, Kwai Lin Thong
BACKGROUND: Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen that causes considerable morbidity in humans with high mortality rates. In this study, we have sequenced the genomes and performed comparative genomics analyses on two strains, LM115 and LM41, isolated from ready-to-eat food in Malaysia. RESULTS: The genome size of LM115 and LM41 was 2,959,041 and 2,963,111 bp, respectively. These two strains shared approximately 90% homologous genes. Comparative genomics and phylogenomic analyses revealed that LM115 and LM41 were more closely related to the reference strains F2365 and EGD-e, respectively...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999022/synergistic-activity-of-fosfomycin-%C3%AE-lactams-and-peptidoglycan-recycling-inhibition-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#8
Myriam Hamou-Segarra, Laura Zamorano, Grishma Vadlamani, Mitchell Chu, Irina Sanchez-Diener, Carlos Juan, Jesús Blazquez, Mitchell Hattie, Keith A Stubbs, Brian L Mark, Antonio Oliver
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the interconnection between peptidoglycan (PG) recycling, fosfomycin susceptibility and synergy between fosfomycin and β-lactams in Pseudomonas aeruginosa METHODS: Fosfomycin MICs were determined by broth microdilution and Etest for a panel of 47 PAO1 mutants defective in several components of PG recycling and/or AmpC induction pathways. PAO1 fosfomycin MICs were also determined in the presence of a 5 mM concentration of the NagZ inhibitor PUGNAc. Population analysis of fosfomycin susceptibility and characterization of the resistant mutants that emerged was also performed for selected strains...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986861/quality-controls-for-antimicrobial-disk-diffusion-testing-on-leptospira-vanaporn-wuthiekanun-agar
#9
Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Nicholas J White, Premjit Amornchai, Nicholas P J Day, Direk Limmathurotsakul
BACKGROUND: Disk diffusion susceptibility testing for Leptospira spp. on Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) solid agar was reported recently. However, it was unclear whether the zone sizes obtained on LVW agar were comparable with those of other bacteria on Mueller-Hinton agar. METHODS: Here, we evaluate the disk diffusion assay on LVW agar using the standard quality control (QC) bacterial strains for 22 antimicrobials. RESULTS: All antimicrobials provided zone sizes within the standard range for each QC bacterial strain, except for fosfomycin...
December 15, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977135/characterization-of-two-late-stage-enzymes-involved-in-fosfomycin-biosynthesis-in-pseudomonads
#10
Philip Olivares, Emily C Ulrich, Jonathan R Chekan, Wilfred A van der Donk, Satish K Nair
The broad-spectrum phosphonate antibiotic fosfomycin is currently in use for clinical treatment of infections caused by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative uropathogens. The antibiotic is biosynthesized by various streptomycetes, as well as by pseudomonads. Notably, the biosynthetic strategies used by the two genera share only two steps: the first step in which primary metabolite phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is converted to phosphonopyruvate (PnPy) and the terminal step in which 2-hydroxypropylphosphonate (2-HPP) is converted to fosfomycin...
December 27, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956267/intravenous-fosfomycin-back-to-the-future-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-clinical-literature
#11
REVIEW
B Grabein, W Graninger, J Rodríguez Baño, A Dinh, D B Liesenfeld
OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarise the clinical evidence and usage patterns of intravenous fosfomycin from its development to the present time. METHODS: PubMed, the Cochrane Library and local journals were searched for relevant studies reporting aggregated data of intravenous fosfomycin use in adults and children, with no restrictions regarding study design. Single case reports were excluded. Data were systematically abstracted for all included studies...
December 9, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938421/high-prevalence-of-fosfomycin-resistance-gene-fosa3-in-bla-ctx-m-harbouring-escherichia-coli-from-urine-in-a-chinese-tertiary-hospital-during-2010-2014
#12
X-L Cao, H Shen, Y-Y Xu, X-J Xu, Z-F Zhang, L Cheng, J-H Chen, Y Arakawa
Fosfomycin has become a therapeutic option in urinary tract infections. We identified 57 fosfomycin-resistant Escherichia coli from 465 urine-derived extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates from a Chinese hospital during 2010-2014. Of the 57 fosfomycin-resistant isolates, 51 (89·5%) carried fosA3, and one carried fosA1. Divergent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles and multi-locus sequence typing results revealed high clonal diversity in the fosA3-positive isolates. Conjugation experiments showed that the fosA3 genes from 50 isolates were transferable, with IncFII or IncI1 being the most prevalent types of plasmids...
December 12, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936860/detection-of-acra-acrb-aac-6-ib-cr-and-qepa-genes-among-clinical-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#13
Mohsen Heidary, Aghil Bahramian, Ali Hashemi, Mehdi Goudarzi, Vahid Fallah Omrani, Gita Eslami, Hossein Goudarzi
BACKGROUND: The distribution of drug resistance among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae has limited the therapeutic options. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of quinolone resistance genes among E. coli and K. pneumoniae clinical strains isolated from three educational hospitals of Tehran, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 strains of E. coli from Labbafinejad and Taleghani Hospitals and 100 strains of K. pneumoniae from Mofid Children and Taleghani Hospitals were collected between January 2013 and May 2014...
December 12, 2016: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934817/exploring-the-hidden-potential-of-fosfomycin-for-the-fight-against-severe-gram-negative-infections
#14
REVIEW
P V Saiprasad, K Krishnaprasad
Gram-negative resistance is a serious global crisis putting the world on the cusp of 'pre-antibiotic era'. This serious crisis has been catalysed by the rapid increase in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Spurge in colistin usage to combat CRE infections leads to the reports of (colistin and carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaceae) CCRE (resistance to colistin in isolates of CRE) infections further jeopardising our last defence. The antibacterial apocalypse imposed by global resistance crisis requires urgent alternative therapeutic options...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924470/emerging-issues-and-treatment-strategies-in-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-cre
#15
REVIEW
Dana R Bowers, Vanthida Huang
Carbapenems are the broadest spectrum antimicrobials utilized in the treatment of serious infections since the 1980s. Soon after their introduction, the discovery of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) was reported in the 1990s. Invasive CRE infections are associated with high mortality and limited treatment options making care for patients with these infections challenging for clinicians. Current practice has reverted back to the use of "older" antimicrobials, such as the polymyxins, tigecycline, and fosfomycin, to combat invasive CRE infections...
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912884/synergism-of-coumarins-from-the-chinese-drug-zanthoxylum-nitidum-with-antibacterial-agents-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa
#16
Guo-Ying Zuo, Chun-Juan Wang, Jun Han, Yu-Qing Li, Gen-Chun Wang
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious therapeutic challenge in current clinic and new drug development. Natural coumarins have diverse bioactivities and the potential of resistance modifying effects. PURPOSE: This study is to present in-depth evaluations of in vitro antimicrobial activities of four natural coumarins 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin (Gm, 1), (5,7-dimethoxy-8-prenyloxycoumarin (artanin, Ar, 2)), isopimpinellin (Is, 3) and phellopterin (Ph, 4) from Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893543/changes-in-intestinal-microbiota-following-combination-therapy-with-fecal-microbial-transplantation-and-antibiotics-for-ulcerative-colitis
#17
Dai Ishikawa, Takashi Sasaki, Taro Osada, Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai, Keiichi Haga, Tomoyoshi Shibuya, Keiichi Hiramatsu, Sumio Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a potential therapeutic approach to restore normal intestinal microbiota in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), which is associated with dysbiosis; however, treatment efficacy remains unclear. Hence, we studied the impact of antibiotic pretreatment with amoxicillin, fosfomycin, and metronidazole (AFM therapy) and FMT versus AFM alone. METHODS: AFM therapy was administered to patients for 2 weeks until 2 days before FMT...
January 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890714/a-randomized-trial-of-the-amikacin-fosfomycin-inhalation-system-for-the-adjunctive-therapy-of-gram-negative-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-iasis-trial
#18
Marin H Kollef, Jean-Damien Ricard, Damien Roux, Bruno Francois, Eleni Ischaki, Zsolt Rozgonyi, Thierry Boulain, Zsolt Ivanyi, Gál János, Denis Garot, Firas Koura, Epaminondas Zakynthinos, George Dimopoulos, Antonio Torres, Wayne Danker, A Bruce Montgomery
BACKGROUND: Clinical failures in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by Gram-negative bacteria are common and associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and resource utilization. METHODS: We assessed the safety and efficacy of the amikacin fosfomycin inhalation system (AFIS) for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial VAP in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, phase 2 study between May 2013 and March 2016. We compared standard of care in each arm plus 300 mg amikacin/120 mg fosfomycin or placebo (saline), delivered by aerosol twice daily for 10 days (or to extubation if <10 days) via the investigational eFlow Inline System (PARI GmbH, Germany)...
November 24, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887965/muropeptide-signature-of-inhibitors-of-protein-synthesis-correlates-with-%C3%AE-lactam-synergism-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
Bertrand Guignard, Paul A Majcherczyk, Cédric Monachon, Jacques Vouillamoz, Philippe Moreillon
Quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D) and β-lactams interact positively against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The effect extends to other inhibitors of protein synthesis, but not to inhibitors of polynucleotide synthesis or assembly, or to Q/D plus non-β-lactam cell wall inhibitors. Moreover, electron microscopy studies have correlated this effect with a thickened cell wall. In this study, we sought to determine whether inhibitors of protein synthesis might produce a specific peptidoglycan muropeptide signature that would correlate with their positive β-lactam interaction...
January 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881539/coexistence-of-fosfomycin-and-colistin-resistance-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-whole-genome-shotgun-sequencing
#20
Balaji Veeraraghavan, Susmitha K Perumalla, Naveen Kumar Devanga Ragupathi, Agila Kumari Pragasam, Dhiviya Prabaa Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, Sandhana Inian, Francis Yesurajan Inbanathan
Resistance to colistin is a major threat that limits therapeutic choices for treating carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections. Herein, we report the draft genome sequences of two colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates (BA41763 and B6753). The sequence data indicate that BA41763 and B6753 contain genomes of ~5.9 and 5.7 Mb in size with several plasmids.
November 23, 2016: Genome Announcements
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