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Neeraj Kumar Tulara
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common and painful human illness that, unfortunately not responsive to commonly used antibiotics in current practice. The role of fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin in the era of growing bacteria resistance has been widely discussed. In this study, we aimed to know the local antimicrobial susceptibilities, fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin susceptibility in particular, for urinary extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Escherichia pneumoniae (ESBL-EC and ESBL-KP) isolates in our hospital...
January 2018: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Ivana Mareković, Zrinka Bošnjak, Karla Jurić, Mario Ćorić, Sanja Popović-Grle
Nitroxoline (NTX), 5-nitro-8-hydroxyquinoline is an oral antibiotic with mechanism of bacteriostatic activity that is based on chelation of divalent cations required for bacterial RNA polymerase. Susceptibility to NTX of 100 Escherichia coli urine isolates was determined at the Department of Clinical and Molecular Microbiology, University Hospital Centre Zagreb during September and October 2017. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by disc diffusion and the results were interpreted according to the European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) standards...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Manuel Kussmann, Stefan Hauer, Petra Pichler, Gottfried Reznicek, Heinz Burgmann, Wolfgang Poeppl, Markus Zeitlinger, Martin Wiesholzer
Peritonitis is still the main infectious complication among patients on peritoneal dialysis. For treatment of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis, the intraperitoneal administration of antibiotics admixed to peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDFs) should be preferred. However, the influence of diverse PDFs on the activity of frequently used antibiotics has been investigated insufficiently. Thus, the present study set out to investigate the in vitro activity of fosfomycin against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus aureus in commercially available PDFs...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Norelle Sherry, Benjamin Howden
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as a major threat to human health globally. This has resulted in the "re-discovery" of some older antimicrobials and development of new agents, however resistance has also rapidly emerged to these agents. Areas Covered: Here we describe recent developments in resistance to three of the most important last-line antimicrobials for treatment of MDR and XDR Gram negatives: fosfomycin, colistin and ceftazidime-avibactam...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Jennifer Kranz, Stefanie Schmidt, Cordula Lebert, Laila Schneidewind, Falitsa Mandraka, Mirjam Kunze, Sina Helbig, Winfried Vahlensieck, Kurt Naber, Guido Schmiemann, Florian M Wagenlehner
BACKGROUND: We aimed to update the 2010 evidence- and consensus-based national clinical guideline on the diagnosis and management of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) in adult patients. Results are published in 2 parts. Part 1 covers methods, the definition of patient groups, and diagnostics. This second publication focuses on treatment of acute episodes of cystitis and pyelonephritis as well as on prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An interdisciplinary group consisting of 17 representatives of 12 medical societies and a patient representative was formed...
March 14, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
Zoe Yi Ng, Geok Yuan Annie Tan
Tioman Island is one of many sources for underexplored actinobacterial diversity in Malaysia. Selective isolation, molecular profiling, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were carried out to highlight the diversity of the marine actinobacterial community in a sediment collected off Tioman Island. A high number of diverse actinobacteria were recovered using skim milk/HEPES pre-treatment on a mannitol-based medium. A total of 123 actinobacterial strains were isolated, including thirty obligate marine actinobacteria putatively identified as Salinispora spp...
March 6, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Hajira Bilal, Anton Y Peleg, Michelle P McIntosh, Ian K Styles, Elizabeth B Hirsch, Cornelia B Landersdorfer, Phillip J Bergen
Objectives: To identify the fosfomycin pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) index (fT>MIC, fAUC/MIC or fCmax/MIC) most closely correlated with activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and determine the PK/PD target associated with various extents of bacterial killing and the prevention of emergence of resistance. Methods: Dose fractionation was conducted over 24 h in a dynamic one-compartment in vitro PK/PD model utilizing P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and two MDR clinical isolates (CR 1005 and CW 7)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Anuradha Ravi, Ekaterina Avershina, Inga Leena Angell, Jane Ludvigsen, Prashanth Manohar, Sumathi Padmanaban, Ramesh Nachimuthu, Lars Snipen, Knut Rudi
Use of the 16S rRNA gene in microbiota studies is limited by the lack of taxonomic and functional resolution. High resolution analyses are particularly important for understanding transmission and persistence of bacteria. The aim of our work was therefore to compare a novel reduced metagenome sequencing (RMS) approach with 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine both the metagenome genetic diversity and the mother-to-child sharing of the microbiota in a cohort of 17 mother-child pairs. We found that although both approaches gave comparable results with respect to sample separation and taxonomy, RMS gave higher resolution and the potential for genomic-/functional assignment...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Jurate Noreikaite, Patrick Jones, John Fitzpatrick, Ramachandran Amitharaj, Amelia Pietropaolo, Nikhil Vasdev, David Chadwick, Bhaskar K Somani, Bhavan Prasad Rai
BACKGROUND: Infection-related complications secondary to quinolone resistance have been on the rise following transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate (TRUSBP). The aim of this review was to compare the efficacy of fosfomycin with quinolone-based antibiotic prophylaxis for TRUSBP. METHODS: A systematic review in line with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) and Cochrane guidelines was conducted. All studies comparing fosfomycin vs...
February 27, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Zackery P Bulman, Miao Zhao, Michael J Satlin, Liang Chen, Barry N Kreiswirth, Thomas J Walsh, Roger L Nation, Jian Li, Brian T Tsuji
Polymyxin B and fosfomycin are two 'old' antibiotics that consistently maintain activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing organisms based on in vitro susceptibility testing. However, each antibiotic's use in monotherapy has been associated with high rates of treatment failure. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the combinatorial pharmacodynamics of polymyxin B and fosfomycin against KPC-producing K. pneumoniae. Polymyxin B front-loading (3.33 mg/kg for 1 dose followed by 1...
February 24, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Adarsh Gandhi, Murali Matta, Narayana Garimella, Tesfalem Zere, James Weaver
PURPOSE: Extensive use and misuse of antibiotics over the past 50 years has contributed to the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains rendering them as a global health concern. To address this issue, a dynamic in vitro hollow-fiber system, which mimics in vivo environment more closely than the static model, was used to study the emergence of bacterial resistance of Escherichia coli against fosfomycin (FOS). To aid in this endeavor we developed and validated a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for quantitative analysis of FOS in lysogeny broth...
February 20, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Belén Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Isabel Machuca, Alvaro Pascual
Therapy of invasive infections due to multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDR-E) is challenging, and some of the few active drugs are not available in many countries. For extended-spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC producers, carbapenems are the drugs of choice, but alternatives are needed because the rate of carbapenem resistance is rising. Potential active drugs include classic and newer β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, cephamycins, temocillin, aminoglycosides, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and, rarely, fluoroquinolones or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Uthaibhorn Singkham-In, Tanittha Chatsuwan
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates (n=23) were investigated for carbapenem resistance mechanisms and in vitro activities of carbapenems in combination with amikacin, colistin, or fosfomycin. Major carbapenem resistance mechanism was OXA-23 production. The vast majority of these isolates were OXA-23-producing A. baumannii ST195 and ST542, followed by novel STs, ST1417, and ST1423. The interuption of carO by a novel insertion sequence, ISAba40, was found in two isolates. The combinations of imipenem and fosfomycin, meropenem and amikacin, imipenem and amikacin, and imipenem and colistin were synergistic against carbapenem-resistant A...
January 31, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Natalia V Ortiz Zacarías, Anneke C Dijkmans, Jacobus Burggraaf, Johan W Mouton, Erik B Wilms, Cees van Nieuwkoop, Daan J Touw, Ingrid M C Kamerling, Jasper Stevens
Fosfomycin has emerged as a potential therapy for multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. In most European countries, the oral formulation is only approved as a 3 g single dose for treatment of uncomplicated cystitis. However, for the treatment of complicated systemic infections, this dose regimen is unlikely to reach efficacious serum and tissue concentrations. This study aims to investigate different fosfomycin-dosing regimens to evaluate its rationale for treatment of systemic infections. Serum concentration-time profiles of fosfomycin were simulated using a population pharmacokinetic model based on published pharmacokinetic parameter values, their uncertainty, inter-individual variability and covariates...
February 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Joel W Francis, Christopher J Royer, Paul D Cook
Bacillithiol is a low-molecular weight thiol produced by many gram-positive organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis. It is the major thiol responsible for maintaining redox homeostasis and cellular detoxification, including inactivation of the antibiotic fosfomycin. The metal-dependent bacillithiol transferase BstA is likely involved in these sorts of detoxification processes, but the exact substrates and enzyme mechanism have not been identified. Here we report the 1.34 Å resolution X-ray crystallographic structure of BstA from S...
February 8, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Abdulaziz Alamri, Mohamed E Hamid, Muhammad Abid, Abdulrahman M Alwahhabi, Khalid M Alqahtani, Mohammed S Alqarni, Mosleh Abomughaid
Purpose: To analyze the prevalence and resistance rates of bacterial agents causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Aseer, Saudi Arabia (2013-2016). Patients and Methods: This was a 4-year (2013-2016) retrospective study undertaken in Aseer Central Hospital, Saudi Arabia. A total of 49,779 urine and other UT specimens obtained from patients suspected of having a UTI were analyzed. Urine specimens were inoculated onto cystine lactose electrolyte deficient agar following standard procedures...
January 2018: Urology Annals
Lea Papst, Bojana Beović, Céline Pulcini, Emanuele Durante-Mangoni, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Keith S Kaye, George L Daikos, Lul Raka, Mical Paul
OBJECTIVES: To explore contemporary antibiotic management of infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGNB) in hospitals. METHODS: Cross-sectional, internet-based questionnaire survey. We contacted representatives of all hospitals with more than 800 acute-care hospital beds in France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Kosovo, Slovenia, Spain and selected hospitals in the United States. We asked respondents to describe the most common actual practice at their hospital regarding management of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa through close-ended questions...
January 30, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Laura Buzón-Durán, Rosa Capita, Carlos Alonso-Calleja
Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) are a major concern to public and animal health. Thirty MRS (Staphylococcus aureus, S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. lentus, S. lugdunensis, S. sciuri, and S. xylosus) isolates from meat and poultry preparations were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials (belonging to seven different categories) of clinical significance using both the standard agar disc diffusion method and a commercially available miniaturized system (Sensi Test Gram-positive)...
June 2018: Food Microbiology
Elisa Demonchy, Johan Courjon, Estelle Ughetto, Matthieu Durand, Karine Risso, Rodolphe Garraffo, Pierre-Marie Roger
INTRODUCTION: The emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) infections requires therapeutic tool reassessment. We report the efficacy of a cefoxitin-based antibiotic therapy for ESBL-E prostatitis. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study including patients with ESBL-E prostatitis, resistant to cotrimoxazole and fluoroquinolones from January 2014 to March 2016. Cefoxitin was administered by continuous infusion for three weeks in the case of acute prostatitis or six weeks in the case of chronic prostatitis with intravenous fosfomycin for the first five days...
January 25, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
A Aguinaga, A Gil-Setas, A Mazón Ramos, A Alvaro, J J García-Irure, A Navascués, C Ezpeleta Baquedano
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a high prevalence infection at the community level. In order to improve the adequacy of the empirical therapy, we evaluated the etiology and the resistance pattern of the main uropathogens responsible for community acquired UTI in Navarre. METHODS: Retrospective study (2014-2016) in which we included microorganisms recovered with significant counts from samples of patients with community-acquired UTI. The global etiology and etiology according to age and sex was analyzed...
January 23, 2018: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
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