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Fosfomycin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222483/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-fecal-antimicrobial-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-a-cohort-of-japanese-men-undergoing-prostate-biopsy
#1
Jun Kamei, Yuka Yagihara, Haruki Kume, Takamasa Horiuchi, Tomoaki Sato, Tohru Nakagawa, Tetsuya Fujimura, Hiroshi Fukuhara, Kyoji Moriya, Yukio Homma
OBJECTIVES: To examine resistant Escherichia coli in rectal swab culture of Japanese men undergoing prostate biopsy, and to determine its prevalence, genotypic characteristics and carriage risk factors. METHODS: Rectal swabs of consecutive men undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy from April 2013 to March 2015 were cultured to isolate fluoroquinolone-resistant and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of these resistant E...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221837/environmental-occurrence-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-profile-of-listeria-monocytogenes-at-a-slaughterhouse-raw-processing-plant-in-romania
#2
Claudia Sala, Adriana Morar, Emil Tîrziu, Ileana Nichita, Mirela Imre, Kálmán Imre
This survey was conducted to investigate the occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes isolates in the environment of a pig slaughterhouse raw processing plant complex in western Romania. A total of 97 environmental samples from food contact (n = 60) and nonfood contact (n = 37) surfaces were examined with standard methods. The susceptibility of the isolates to 17 antimicrobial agents was determined with the VITEK 2 automated system. Overall, 25 (25.8%) samples were positive for L...
October 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214713/comparative-analysis-of-metagenomes-of-italian-top-soil-improvers
#3
Federica Gigliucci, Gianfranco Brambilla, Rosangela Tozzoli, Valeria Michelacci, Stefano Morabito
Biosolids originating from Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plants are proposed as top soil improvers (TSI) for their beneficial input of organic carbon on agriculture lands. Their use to amend soil is controversial, as it may lead to the presence of emerging hazards of anthropogenic or animal origin in the environment devoted to food production. In this study, we used a shotgun metagenomics sequencing as a tool to perform a characterization of the hazards related with the TSIs. The samples showed the presence of many virulence genes associated to different diarrheagenic E...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197413/mechanism-of-reduced-susceptibility-to-fosfomycin-in-escherichia-coli-clinical-isolates
#4
Yasuo Ohkoshi, Toyotaka Sato, Yuuki Suzuki, Soh Yamamoto, Tsukasa Shiraishi, Noriko Ogasawara, Shin-Ichi Yokota
In recent years, multidrug resistance of Escherichia coli has become a serious problem. However, resistance to fosfomycin (FOM) has been low. We screened E. coli clinical isolates with reduced susceptibility to FOM and characterized molecular mechanisms of resistance and reduced susceptibility of these strains. Ten strains showing reduced FOM susceptibility (MIC ≥ 8 μg/mL) in 211 clinical isolates were found and examined. Acquisition of genes encoding FOM-modifying enzyme genes (fos genes) and mutations in murA that underlie high resistance to FOM were not observed...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167564/multiclonal-expansion-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-producing-ndm-1-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#5
Caio Augusto Martins Aires, Polyana Silva Pereira, Carlos Felipe Machado de Araujo, Thiago Pavoni Gomes Chagas, Jane Cleide Oliveira, Sibelle Nogueira Buonora, Rodolpho Mattos Albano, Ana Paula D'Alincourt Carvalho-Assef, Marise Dutra Asensi
We characterized NDM-1-producing Klebsiella spp. isolates from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PCR was applied for resistance and virulence determinants. The genetic context of blaNDM was determined by S1 PFGE and hybridization. The genotyping were performed by PFGE and MLST. Most isolates carried multiple resistance genes and remained susceptible to amikacin, fosfomycin/trometamol, polymyxin B and tigecycline. The spread of NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae was not associated with a clonal expansion and appears to be associated with Tn3000...
February 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167307/fosfomycin-in-vitro-efficacy-against-multidrug-resistant-isolates-beyond-urinary-isolates
#6
Tulin Demir, Tuncay Buyukguclu
OBJECTIVES: Fosfomycin (FOF) is a bactericidal antimicrobial agent active against a range of Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. However, data are scarce regarding use of the drug beyond urinary tract infections (UTIs). METHODS: In this study, susceptibility rates to FOF among 290 MDR Enterobacteriaceae isolates were analysed by gradient and disk diffusion tests and the results were compared with agar dilution according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162982/revival-of-old-antibiotics-needs-the-state-of-evidence-and-expectations
#7
Hiba Zayyad, Noa Eliakim-Raz, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
The gap between the emergence of antibiotic resistance and new antibiotic development has drawn attention to old antibiotics whose spectrum of coverage frequently comprises highly resistant bacteria. However, these antibiotics have frequently not undergone the structured process of antibiotic development of modern antibiotics, from pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) studies establishing safe and effective dosing, establishment of susceptibility breakpoints, to clinical trials establishing clinical safety and effectiveness...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156193/characterization-of-ndm-7-carbapenemase-producing-escherichia-coli-isolates-in-the-arabian-peninsula
#8
Tibor Pál, Akela Ghazawi, Dania Darwish, Laura Villa, Alessandra Carattoli, Rayhan Hashmey, Zulfa Aldeesi, Wafaa Jamal, Vincent Rotimi, Amina Al-Jardani, Seif S Al-Abri, Ágnes Sonnevend
AIM: The purpose of this study was to characterize the New Delhi metallo-beta lactamase (NDM)-7-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the Arabian Peninsula. METHODS: Enterobacteriaceae identified to carry blaNDM-7 in a collection of 157 NDM-producing isolates from Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were investigated for their antibiotic and disinfectant susceptibility, and resistance gene content. The virulence profile, phylogenetic and sequence types of the isolates were also determined...
February 3, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150578/resistotyping-phenotyping-and-genotyping-of-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-ndm-among-gram-negative-bacilli-from-iranian-patients
#9
Dariush Shokri, Mohammad Rabbani Khorasgani, Seyed Masih Fatemi, Abbas Soleimani-Delfan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was investigation of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) production among gram negative bacilli. METHODOLOGY: Antibiogram-Resistotyping and detection of NDM in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and comparative evaluation of the diagnostic performance of three phenotypic methods for NDM detection considering PCR as gold standard were performed. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of antibiotics against NDM positive strains by E-test and clonal relationship analysis using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus Polymerase Chain Reaction (ERIC-PCR) in these strains were determined...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137940/antimicrobial-resistance-in-uropathogens-and-appropriateness-of-empirical-treatment-a-population-based-surveillance-study-in-indonesia
#10
Adhi Kristianto Sugianli, Franciscus Ginting, R Lia Kusumawati, Emmy Hermiyati Pranggono, Ayodhia Pitaloka Pasaribu, Firza Gronthoud, Suzanne Geerlings, Ida Parwati, Menno D De Jong, Frank Van Leth, Constance Schultsz
OBJECTIVES: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common reason for empirical treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics worldwide. However, population-based antimicrobial resistance (AMR) prevalence data to inform empirical treatment choice are lacking in many regions, because of limited surveillance capacity. We aimed to assess the prevalence of AMR to commonly used antimicrobial drugs in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from patients with community- or healthcare-associated UTIs on two islands of Indonesia...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123141/antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-and-molecular-characterization-of-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-healthy-adults-in-ho-chi-minh-city-vietnam
#11
Phuong Hoai Hoang, Sharda Prasad Awasthi, Phuc DO Nguyen, Ngan Ly Hoang Nguyen, Dao Thi Anh Nguyen, Ninh Hoang LE, Chinh VAN Dang, Atsushi Hinenoya, Shinji Yamasaki
In this study, we attempted to isolate Escherichia coli from healthy individuals in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and characterized its antimicrobial resistance profile, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genotype, phylogenetic grouping and virulence gene profile. A total of 103 E. coli strains were obtained, and most of them were antimicrobial resistant such to streptomycin (80.6%), tetracycline (67.0%), ampicillin (65.0%), sulfamethoxsazole/trimethoprim (48.5%), nalidixic acid (43.7%), chloramphenicol (34...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119318/reply-to-activity-of-fosfomycin-on-clinical-isolates-of-campylobacter-jejuni-and-campylobacter-coli-of-enteric-origin
#12
Juan Aguilar-Company, Ibai Los-Arcos, Carlos Pigrau, Benito Almirante
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108677/in-vitro-susceptibility-to-19-agents-other-than-%C3%AE-lactams-among-third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-recovered-on-hospital-admission
#13
A Mischnik, P Baumert, A Hamprecht, A M Rohde, S Peter, S Feihl, J Knobloch, H Gölz, A Kola, B Obermann, C Querbach, M Willmann, F Gebhardt, E Tacconelli, P Gastmeier, H Seifert, W V Kern
OBJECTIVES: As part of the multicentre Antibiotic Therapy Optimisation Study, MIC values of 19 non-β-lactam agents were determined for third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species and Enterobacter species (3GCREB) isolates collected in German hospitals. METHODS: A total of 328 E. coli, 35 Klebsiella spp. (1 Klebsiella oxytoca and 34 Klebsiella pneumoniae) and 16 Enterobacter spp. (1 Enterobacter aerogenes and 15 Enterobacter cloacae) isolates were submitted to broth microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing with the MICRONAUT system...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093485/molecular-insights-into-fosfomycin-resistance-in-escherichia-coli
#14
M Ballestero-Téllez, F Docobo-Pérez, I Portillo-Calderón, J M Rodríguez-Martínez, L Racero, M S Ramos-Guelfo, J Blázquez, J Rodríguez-Baño, A Pascual
OBJECTIVES: Fosfomycin activity in Escherichia coli depends on several genes of unknown importance for fosfomycin resistance. The objective was to characterize the role of uhpT, glpT, cyaA and ptsI genes in fosfomycin resistance in E. coli. METHODS: WT E. coli BW25113 and null mutants, ΔuhpT, ΔglpT, ΔcyaA, ΔptsI, ΔglpT-uhpT, ΔglpT-cyaA, ΔglpT-ptsI, ΔuhpT-cyaA, ΔuhpT-ptsI and ΔptsI-cyaA, were studied. Susceptibility to fosfomycin was tested using CLSI guidelines...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087584/emergence-of-klebsiella-variicola-positive-for-ndm-9-a-variant-of-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-in-an-urban-river-in-south-korea
#15
Doris Y W Di, Jeonghwan Jang, Tatsuya Unno, Hor-Gil Hur
OBJECTIVES: To examine the presence of pathogenic bacteria carrying New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase in the environment and to characterize the genome structures of these strains. METHODS: Phenotypic screening of antimicrobial susceptibility and WGS were conducted on three Klebsiella variicola strains possessing NDM-9 isolated from an urban river. RESULTS: Three carbapenem-resistant K. variicola isolated from Gwangju tributary were found to possess blaNDM-9 genes...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081583/-early-results-of-adjuvant-topical-treatment-of-recurrent-osteomyelitis-with-absorbable-antibiotic-carriers
#16
Y Gramlich, G Walter, J Gils, R Hoffmann
Background Treatment of musculoskeletal infections principally consists of radical surgical debridement and systemic administration of antibiotics. Additional local antibiotic therapy is not yet generally established, and lacks evidence-based proof of efficacy. Nonetheless, there are a variety of practical approaches, as most specialised departments are unwilling to forego this option. The established polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) carrier system has a number of practical disadvantages. This has led to the increased use of absorbable carrier systems, and those based on calcium sulphate have given particularly encouraging results...
January 12, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064057/udp-n-acetylglucosamine-enolpyruvyl-transferase-mura-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-abmura-structural-and-functional-properties
#17
Amit Sonkar, Harish Shukla, Rohit Shukla, Jupitara Kalita, Tripti Pandey, Timir Tripathi
Peptidoglycan (PG) is the key component of the bacterial cell wall. The enzyme UDP-N-Acetylglucosamine Enolpyruvyl Transferase (MurA) catalyzes the transfer of enolpyruvate from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to uridinediphospho-N-acetylglucosamine (UNAG), which is the first committed step of PG biosynthesis. Here, we present the biochemical and structural features of the MurA enzyme of the opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii (AbMurA). The recombinant AbMurA exists as a monomer in solution and shows optimal activity at pH 7...
April 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062557/fosfomycin-mechanism-and-resistance
#18
Lynn L Silver
Fosfomycin, a natural product antibiotic, has been in use for >20 years in Spain, Germany, France, Japan, Brazil, and South Africa for urinary tract infections (UTIs) and other indications and was registered in the United States for the oral treatment of uncomplicated UTIs because of Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli in 1996. It has a broad spectrum, is bactericidal, has very low toxicity, and acts as a time-dependent inhibitor of the MurA enzyme, which catalyzes the first committed step of peptidoglycan synthesis...
January 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062317/role-of-inoculum-and-mutant-frequency-on-fosfomycin-mic-discrepancies-by-agar-dilution-and-broth-microdilution-methods-in-enterobacteriaceae
#19
M Ballestero-Téllez, F Docobo-Pérez, J M Rodríguez-Martínez, M C Conejo, M S Ramos-Guelfo, J Blázquez, J Rodríguez-Baño, A Pascual
OBJECTIVES: Fosfomycin is re-evaluated as treatment of multidrug resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, MIC differences have been described among the different susceptibility testing. The aim was to study the role of the different inoculum size used in agar dilution with respect broth microdilution, according to CLSI, in the fosfomycin MIC discrepancies. METHODS: Fosfomycin MICs were determined using agar dilution (reference) and broth microdilution in 220 Escherichia coli (81) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (139) clinical isolates...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999619/comparative-genomics-analyses-revealed-two-virulent-listeria-monocytogenes-strains-isolated-from-ready-to-eat-food
#20
Shu Yong Lim, Kien-Pong Yap, Kwai Lin Thong
BACKGROUND: Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen that causes considerable morbidity in humans with high mortality rates. In this study, we have sequenced the genomes and performed comparative genomics analyses on two strains, LM115 and LM41, isolated from ready-to-eat food in Malaysia. RESULTS: The genome size of LM115 and LM41 was 2,959,041 and 2,963,111 bp, respectively. These two strains shared approximately 90% homologous genes. Comparative genomics and phylogenomic analyses revealed that LM115 and LM41 were more closely related to the reference strains F2365 and EGD-e, respectively...
2016: Gut Pathogens
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