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mesenchymal stromal cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338763/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-and-autoimmunity
#1
Vito Pistoia, Lizzia Raffaghello
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are committed progenitors of mesodermal origin that are found virtually in every organ and exhibit multilineage differentiation into osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. MSCs also mediate a wide spectrum of immunoregulatory activities that usually dampen innate and adaptive immune responses. These features have attracted interest in the perspective of developing novel cell therapies for autoimmune disease. However, depending on the microenvironmental conditions, MSCs may show a plastic behavior and switch to an immunostimulatory phenotype...
February 18, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338424/monocytes-seeded-on-engineered-hypertrophic-cartilage-do-not-enhance-endochondral-ossification-capacity
#2
Atanas Todorov, Celeste Scotti, Andrea Barbero, Arnaud Scherberich, Adam Papadimitropoulos, Ivan Martin
Engineered hypertrophic cartilage (HC) represents an attractive bone substitute material, capable to induce bone formation by endochondral ossification. Since bone formation by HC depends on factors released from the extracellular matrix, in this study, we hypothesized that HC seeding with monocytes committed to osteoclastogenesis could enhance its remodeling, improve chemotaxis of skeletal and vascular cells, and consequently enhance bone formation. This would be particularly relevant for devitalized HC, which currently exhibits only limited osteoinductivity...
March 24, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337256/human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-homing-induced-by-skov3-cells
#3
Dongmei Fan, Xiaojuan Xie, Pengwei Qi, Xianan Yang, Ximeng Jin
Human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) homing is the migration of endogenous and exogenous hMSCS to the target organs and the subsequent colonization under the action chemotaxic factors. This is an important process involved in the repair of damaged tissues. However, we know little about the mechanism of hMSC homing. Stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is a cytokine secreted by stromal cells. Its only receptor CXCR4 is widely expressed in blood cells, immune cells and cells in the central nervous system. SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway plays an important role in hMSC homing and tissue repair...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337224/gut-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-immunity
#4
REVIEW
Valeria Messina, Carla Buccione, Giulia Marotta, Giovanna Ziccheddu, Michele Signore, Gianfranco Mattia, Rossella Puglisi, Benedetto Sacchetti, Livia Biancone, Mauro Valtieri
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), first found in bone marrow (BM), are the structural architects of all organs, participating in most biological functions. MSCs possess tissue-specific signatures that allow their discrimination according to their origin and location. Among their multiple functions, MSCs closely interact with immune cells, orchestrating their activity to maintain overall homeostasis. The phenotype of tissue MSCs residing in the bowel overlaps with myofibroblasts, lining the bottom walls of intestinal crypts (pericryptal) or interspersed within intestinal submucosa (intercryptal)...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336906/identification-and-evaluation-of-new-immunoregulatory-genes-in-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-of-different-origins-comparison-of-normal-and-inflammatory-conditions
#5
Mohammad Fayyad-Kazan, Mehdi Najar, Hussein Fayyad-Kazan, Gordana Raicevic, Laurence Lagneaux
BACKGROUND Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) possess potent immunomodulatory properties that increase their value as a cell-based therapeutic tool for managing various immune-based disorders. Over the past years, accumulated results from trials using MSCs-based therapy have shown substantial contradictions. Although the reasons underlying these discrepancies are still not completely understood, it is well known that the immunomodulatory activities mediated by distinct MSCs differ in a manner dependent on their tissue origin and adequate response to inflammation priming...
March 24, 2017: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333993/integrated-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-analysis-of-the-molecular-cargo-of-extracellular-vesicles-derived-from-porcine-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#6
Alfonso Eirin, Xiang-Yang Zhu, Amrutesh S Puranik, John R Woollard, Hui Tang, Surendra Dasari, Amir Lerman, Andre J van Wijnen, Lilach O Lerman
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (MSC) transplantation is a promising therapy for tissue regeneration. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by MSCs act as their paracrine effectors by delivering proteins and genetic material to recipient cells. To assess how their cargo mediates biological processes that drive their therapeutic effects, we integrated miRNA, mRNA, and protein expression data of EVs from porcine adipose tissue-derived MSCs. METHODS: Simultaneous expression profiles of miRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins were obtained by high-throughput sequencing and LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis in porcine MSCs and their daughter EVs (n = 3 each)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332281/collagen-type-xv-and-the-osteogenic-status
#7
Gina Lisignoli, Elisabetta Lambertini, Cristina Manferdini, Elena Gabusi, Letizia Penolazzi, Francesca Paolella, Marco Angelozzi, Veronica Casagranda, Roberta Piva
We have previously demonstrated that collagen type XV (ColXV) is a novel bone extracellular matrix (ECM) protein. It is well known that the complex mixture of multiple components present in ECM can help both to maintain stemness or to promote differentiation of stromal cells following change in qualitative characteristics or concentrations. We investigated the possible correlation between ColXV expression and mineral matrix deposition by human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) with different osteogenic potential and by osteoblasts (hOBs) that are able to grow in culture medium with or without calcium...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330754/injectable-nanoparticles-hydrogels-composite-as-sustained-release-system-with-stromal-cell-derived-factor-1%C3%AE-for-calvarial-bone-regeneration
#8
Lei Mi, Huaiqin Liu, Yu Gao, Hui Miao, Jianping Ruan
Repair of craniofacial bony defects remains a challenge for surgeons due to the delicate and complex anatomy of the craniofacial skeleton. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is an important chemokine which plays a critical role in the homing of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), while, the shortcomings including short half-life and easy degradation by enzymes made it in relatively low efficacy. In this work, SDF-1α/chitosan/carboxymeymethy-chitosan nanoparticles (SDF-1α/CS/CMCS NPs) were prepared and characterized for various parameters including morphology, particle size, zeta potential, loading efficiency and the release characteristics from thermosensitive chitosan/β-glycerol phosphate disodium salt (CS/GP) hydrogels...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330617/cd54-mediated-interaction-with-pro-inflammatory-macrophages-increases-the-immunosuppressive-function-of-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#9
Nicolas Espagnolle, Adélie Balguerie, Emmanuelle Arnaud, Luc Sensebé, Audrey Varin
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) sense and modulate inflammation and represent potential clinical treatment for immune disorders. However, many details of the bidirectional interaction of MSCs and the innate immune compartment are still unsolved. Here we describe an unconventional but functional interaction between pro-inflammatory classically activated macrophages (M1MΦ) and MSCs, with CD54 playing a central role. CD54 was upregulated and enriched specifically at the contact area between M1MФ and MSCs. Moreover, the specific interaction induced calcium signaling and increased the immunosuppressive capacities of MSCs dependent on CD54 mediation...
March 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329136/chronic-resveratrol-treatment-inhibits-mrc5-fibroblast-sasp-related-protumoral-effects-on-melanoma-cells
#10
Beatrice Menicacci, Anna Laurenzana, Anastasia Chillà, Francesca Margheri, Silvia Peppicelli, Elisabetta Tanganelli, Gabriella Fibbi, Lisa Giovannelli, Mario Del Rosso, Alessandra Mocali
Cellular senescence is related to organismal aging and is observed after DNA damaging cancer therapies, that induce tumor-suppressive modifications, but it is characterized by a strong increase in secreted factors, termed the "senescence-associated secretory phenotype" (SASP). Particularly, SASP from stroma senescent fibroblasts creates a cancer-favoring microenvironment, providing targets for anti-cancer interventions. In the present article, chronic treatment (5 weeks) with 5 µM resveratrol has been used to modulate senescence-related protumoral features of MRC5 fibroblasts, reducing SASP-related interleukins IL1α, IL1β, IL6, and IL8; transforming-growth-factor-β (TGFβ); matrix metallo-proteinases MMP3 and MMP2; urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA); receptor proteins uPAR, IL6R, insulin growth factor receptor-1 (IGF-1R), TGFβ-R2, and CXCR4...
January 20, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328009/microenvironmental-factors-that-regulate-mesenchymal-stem-cells-lessons-learned-from-the-study-of-heterotopic-ossification
#11
REVIEW
Chen Kan, Lijun Chen, Yangyang Hu, Haimei Lu, Yuyun Li, John A Kessler, Lixin Kan
Bone marrow contains a non-hematopoietic, clonogenic, multipotent population of stromal cells that are later called mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Similar cells that share many common features with MSC are also found in other organs, which are thought to contribute both to normal tissue regeneration and to pathological processes such as heterotopic ossification (HO), the formation of ectopic bone in soft tissue. Understanding the microenvironmental factors that regulate MSC in vivo is essential both for understanding the biology of the stem cells and for effective translational applications of MSC...
March 22, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326353/in-vitro-osteogenic-capacity-of-bone-marrow-mscs-from-postmenopausal-women-reflect-the-osseointegration-of-their-cementless-hip-stems
#12
Jessica J Alm, Niko Moritz, Hannu T Aro
Age-related dysfunction of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is suggested as a main cause of altered bone repair with aging. We recently showed that in postmenopausal women undergoing cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) aging, low bone mineral density (BMD) and age-related geometric changes of the proximal femur are risk factors for increased early migration and delayed osseointegration of the femoral stems. Extending these analyses, we have here explored how the in vitro osteogenic capacity of bone marrow MSCs from these patients reflects implant osseointegration, representing the patient's in vivo bone healing capacity...
December 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326295/role-of-the-cytokine-like-hormone-leptin-in-muscle-bone-crosstalk-with-aging
#13
REVIEW
Mark W Hamrick
The cytokine-like hormone leptin is a classic adipokine that is secreted by adipocytes, increases with weight gain, and decreases with weight loss. Additional studies have, however, shown that leptin is also produced by skeletal muscle, and leptin receptors are abundant in both skeletal muscle and bone-derived mesenchymal (stromal) stem cells. These findings suggest that leptin may play an important role in muscle-bone crosstalk. Leptin treatment in vitro increases the expression of myogenic genes in primary myoblasts, and leptin treatment in vivo increases the expression of microRNAs involved in myogenesis...
February 2017: Journal of Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326166/trail-delivery-by-msc-derived-extracellular-vesicles-is-an-effective-anticancer-therapy
#14
ZhengQiang Yuan, Krishna K Kolluri, Kate H C Gowers, Sam M Janes
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid membrane-enclosed nanoparticles released by cells. They mediate intercellular communication by transferring biological molecules and therefore have potential as innovative drug delivery vehicles. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis of cancer cells. Unfortunately, the clinical application of recombinant rTRAIL has been hampered by its low bioavailability and resistance of cancer cells. EV-mediated TRAIL delivery may circumvent these problems...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325151/adipose-tissue-derived-pericytes-for-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#15
Jin Xin Zhang, Chun Yan Du, Wei Min Guo, Pan Li, Shu Yun Liu, Zhi Guo Yuan, Jian Hua Yang, Xun Sun, He Yong Yin, Quan Yi Guo, Chen Fu Zhou
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising alternative source for cartilage tissue engineering. However, MSC culture is labor-intensive, so these cells cannot be applied immediately to regenerate cartilage for clinical purposes. Risks during the ex vivo expansion of MSCs, such as infection and immunogenicity, can be a bottleneck in their use in clinical tissue engineering. As a novel stem cell source, pericytes are generally considered to be the origin of MSCs. Pericytes do not have to undergo time-consuming ex vivo expansion because they are uncultured cells...
March 21, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324028/a-duodenal-sdh-deficient-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumor-in-a-patient-with-a-germline-sdhb-mutation
#16
M S Elston, S Sehgal, M Dray, E Phillips, J V Conaglen, R J Clifton-Bligh, A J Gill
Context: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs) are mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract arising from the interstitial cells of Cajal. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) deficient GISTs are a unique class of GIST defined by: loss of immunohistochemical expression of SDHB indicating dysfunction of the mitochondrial complex 2, lack of driver mutations in KIT and PDGFRA, and a distinctive morphology and natural history. To date, all reported SDH-deficient GISTs have arisen in the stomach...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321876/effects-of-glucose-concentration-on-osteogenic-differentiation-of-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus-rat-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-on-a-nano-scale-modified-titanium
#17
I Yamawaki, Y Taguchi, S Komasa, A Tanaka, M Umeda
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common disease worldwide. Patients with DM have an increased risk of losing their teeth compared with other individuals. Dental implants are a standard of care for treating partial or full edentulism, and various implant surface treatments have recently been developed to increase dental implant stability. However, some studies have reported that DM reduces osseointegration and the success rate of dental implants. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high glucose levels for hard tissue formation on a nano-scale modified titanium surface...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321424/cell-based-meniscus-repair-and-regeneration-at-the-brink-of-clinical-translation-a-systematic-review-of-preclinical-studies
#18
Jasmijn V Korpershoek, Tommy S de Windt, Michella H Hagmeijer, Lucienne A Vonk, Daniel B F Saris
BACKGROUND: Meniscus damage can be caused by trauma or degeneration and is therefore common among patients of all ages. Repair or regeneration of the menisci could be of great importance not only for pain relief or regaining function but also to prevent degenerative disease and osteoarthritis. Current treatment does not offer consistent long-term improvement. Although preclinical research focusing on augmentation of meniscal tear repair and regeneration after meniscectomy is encouraging, clinical translation remains difficult...
February 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321124/combined-inhibition-of-%C3%AE-catenin-and-bcr-abl-synergistically-targets-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-resistant-blast-crisis-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-blasts-and-progenitors-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#19
H Zhou, P Y Mak, H Mu, D H Mak, Z Zeng, J Cortes, Q Liu, M Andreeff, B Z Carter
Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance and progression to blast crisis (BC), both related to persistent β-catenin activation remain formidable challenges for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We observed overexpression of β-catenin in BC-CML stem/progenitor cells, particularly in GMP progenitors, and highest among a novel CD34(+)CD38(+)CD123(hi)Tim-3(hi) subset as determined by CyTOF analysis. Co-culture with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) induced the expression of β-catenin and its target CD44 in CML cells...
March 21, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319729/stromal-networking-cellular-connections-in-the-germinal-centre
#20
REVIEW
Alice E Denton, Michelle A Linterman
Secondary lymphoid organs are organized into distinct zones, governed by different types of mesenchymal stromal cells. These stromal cell subsets are critical for the generation of protective humoral immunity because they direct the migration of, and interaction between, multiple immune cell types to form the germinal centre. The germinal centre response generates long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells which can provide long-term protection against re-infection. Stromal cell subsets mediate this response through control of immune cell trafficking, activation, localization and antigen access within the secondary lymphoid organ...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
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