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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452382/simulated-ablation-for-detection-of-cells-impacting-paracrine-signalling-in-histology-analysis
#1
Jake P Taylor-King, Etienne Baratchart, Andrew Dhawan, Elizabeth A Coker, Inga Hansine Rye, Hege Russnes, S Jon Chapman, David Basanta, Andriy Marusyk
Intra-tumour phenotypic heterogeneity limits accuracy of clinical diagnostics and hampers the efficiency of anti-cancer therapies. Dealing with this cellular heterogeneity requires adequate understanding of its sources, which is extremely difficult, as phenotypes of tumour cells integrate hardwired (epi)mutational differences with the dynamic responses to microenvironmental cues. The later comes in form of both direct physical interactions, as well as inputs from gradients of secreted signalling molecules. Furthermore, tumour cells can not only receive microenvironmental cues, but also produce them...
February 14, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452246/bmp-signalling-driven-osteogenesis-is-critically-dependent-on-prdx-1-expression-mediated-maintenance-of-chondrocyte-prehypetrophy
#2
Yogesh Kumar, Tathagata Biswas, Gatha Thacker, Jitendra Kumar Kanaujiya, Sandeep Kumar, Anukampa Shukla, Kainat Khan, Sabyasachi Sanyal, Naibedya Chattopadhyay, Amitabha Bandyopadhyay, Arun Kumar Trivedi
During endochondral ossification, cartilage template is eventually replaced by bone. This process involves several well characterised, stereotypic, molecular and cellular changes in the cartilage primordia. These steps involve transition from resting to proliferative and then pre-hypertrophic to finally hypertrophic cartilage. BMP signaling is necessary and sufficient for osteogenesis. However, the specific step(s) of endochondral ossification in which BMP signaling plays an essential role is not yet known...
February 13, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452238/human-adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-cells-in-combination-with-exogenous-stimuli-facilitate-three-dimensional-network-formation-of-human-endothelial-cells-derived-from-various-sources
#3
Dominique Manikowski, Birgit Andrée, Esther Samper, Clémence Saint-Marc, Ruth Olmer, Peter Vogt, Sarah Strauß, Axel Haverich, Andres Hilfiker
In natural tissues, the nutrition of cells and removal of waste products is facilitated by a dense capillary network which is generated during development. This perfusion system is also indispensable for tissue formation in vitro. Nutrition depending solely on diffusion is not sufficient to generate tissues of clinically relevant dimensions, which is a core aim in tissue engineering research. In this study, the establishment of a vascular network was investigated in a self-assembling approach employing endothelial and mural cells...
February 13, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452228/a-bach2-gene-variant-is-associated-with-postoperative-recurrence-of-crohn-s-disease
#4
Michael R Laffin, Richard N Fedorak, Eytan Wine, Bryan Dicken, Karen L Madsen
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease often requires intestinal resection, which is not considered curative. Repeat surgical intervention is necessary in over half of the patients following their initial operation. Although many genetic loci are implicated in Crohn's disease, few have been associated with post-resection recurrence. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort of Crohn's disease subjects who underwent intestinal resection was analyzed to determine genetic and clinical factors associated with post-resection recurrence...
February 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452170/expression-and-significance-of-sirt1-in-renal-allografts-at-the-early-stage-of-chronic-renal-allograft-dysfunction
#5
Yue Xia, Jin Deng, Qin Zhou, Xiaofei Shao, Xingyan Yang, Mengjiao Shao, Hequn Zou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression and significance of Sirt1 in renal allografts at the early stage of chronic renal allograft dysfunction (CRAD). METHODS: CRAD rat models were established using classical orthotopic F344-Lewis kidney transplantation. F344 and Lewis uninephrectomized rats were used as controls. Twelve weeks after the operation, the rats were sacrificed for renal function, histological, immunohistochemistry and molecular biological analyses...
February 13, 2018: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452165/the-beneficial-role-of-early-exercise-training-following-stroke-and-possible-mechanisms
#6
REVIEW
Ying Xing, Si-Dong Yang, Fang Dong, Man-Man Wang, Ya-Shuo Feng, Feng Zhang
Exercise training is a regular therapy for stroke patients in clinic. However, whether the early exercise is beneficial for stroke patients is still controversial. The review was performed in databases of OVID, PUBMED, and ISI Web of Science, from respective inception to December 2017. In this review, we summarize the effect of different exercise intensity, initiation time, and style on ischemic stroke. Moreover, the possible mechanism is also discussed. The conclusion is that the voluntary exercise is better in promoting the functional recovery following stroke compared to forced exercise; too early initiated exercise might play a harmful role following stroke, while early initiated exercise might exert benefits after stroke; mild and moderate intensity exercise training could generate better neuroprotection in comparison with high intensity exercise training; early excise training could regulate the process of brain edema, cell apoptosis, oxidative damage, stem cells and other mechanisms in order to exert neuroprotection for brain...
February 13, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452162/pseudorabies-virus-induces-autophagy-to-enhance-viral-replication-in-mouse-neuro-2a-cells-in-vitro
#7
Changmeng Xu, Mi Wang, Zhongbao Song, Zhijian Wang, Qianyu Liu, Ping Jiang, Juan Bai, Yufeng Li, Xianwei Wang
Autophagy of cytoplasmic components plays an essential role in the pathogenic infection process. Furthermore, research suggests that autophagy is an extremely important component of the innate immune response. Our study aimed to reveal the effect of virus-induced autophagy on pseudorabies virus (PRV) replication. Our results confirmed that light chain 3 (LC3)-I was converted into LC3-II after PRV infection; this transition is considered an important indicator of autophagy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that PRV infection could notably increase the number of autophagosomes in mouse neuro-2a (N2a) cells...
February 13, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452095/the-role-of-free-fatty-acid-receptor-4-ffa4-in-human-cancers-and-cancer-cell-lines
#8
REVIEW
Ilya S Senatorov, Nader H Moniri
A dietary influence on cancer progression has been evident for many decades, and dietary fatty acids, particularly long chain mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been shown to play significant roles in influencing growth of a variety of human cancers. The discovery of the family of cell-surface free-fatty acid receptors, which include the long-chain fatty acid receptors FFA1 and FFA4, suggest that many of the effects of dietary fats could be receptor-mediated. FFA4 is ubiquitously expressed and has recently been shown to modulate a variety of important anti-inflammatory and metabolic processes...
February 13, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452030/comparative-phylogenetic-and-expression-analysis-of-small-gtpases-families-in-legume-and-non-legume-plants
#9
Ana Claudia Flores, Virginia Dalla Via, Virginia Savy, Ulises Mancini Villagra, María Eugenia Zanetti, Flavio Blanco
BACKGROUND: Small monomeric GTPases act as molecular switches in several processes that involve polar cell growth, participating mainly in vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton rearrangements. This gene superfamily has largely expanded in plants through evolution as compared with other Kingdoms, leading to the suggestion that members of each subfamily might have acquired new functions associated to plant-specific processes. Legume plants engage in a nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interaction with rhizobia in a process that involves polar growth processes associated with the infection throughout the root hair...
February 16, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451823/evaluation-of-fetal-intestinal-cell-growth-and-antimicrobial-biofunctionalities-of-donor-human-milk-after-preparative-processes
#10
Pasinee Kanaprach, Nutkridta Pongsakul, Nopporn Apiwattanakul, Chatchai Muanprasat, Sarayut Supapannachart, Pracha Nuntnarumit, Somchai Chutipongtanate
BACKGROUND: Donor human milk is considered the next best nutrition following mother's own milk to prevent neonatal infection and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants who are admitted at neonatal intensive care unit. However, donor milk biofunctionalities after preparative processes have rarely been documented. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate biofunctionalities preserved in donor milk after preparative processes by cell-based assays. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten pools of donor milk were produced from 40 independent specimens...
February 16, 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451786/the-catalytic-reaction-of-nitroxides-with-peroxyl-radicals-and-its-relevance-to-their-cytoprotective-properties
#11
Markus Griesser, Ron Shah, Antonius T Van Kessel, Omkar Zilka, Evan A Haidasz, Derek A Pratt
Sterically-hindered nitroxides such as 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-N-oxyl (TEMPO) have long been ascribed antioxidant activity that is thought to underlie their chemopreventive and anti-aging properties. However, the most commonly invoked reactions in this context - combination with an alkyl radical to give a redox inactive alkoxyamine or the catalysis of superoxide dismutation - are unlikely to be relevant under (most) physiological conditions. Herein we characterize the kinetics and mechanisms of the reactions of TEMPO, as well as an N-arylnitroxide and a N,N-diarylnitroxide, with alkylperoxyl radicals, the propagating species in lipid peroxidation...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451726/single-organelle-dynamics-linked-to-3d-structure-by-correlative-live-cell-3d-electron-microscopy
#12
Job Fermie, Nalan Liv, Corlinda Ten Brink, Elly G van Donselaar, Wally H Müller, Nicole L Schieber, Yannick Schwab, Hans C Gerritsen, Judith Klumperman
Live-cell correlative light-electron microscopy (live-cell-CLEM) integrates live movies with the corresponding EM image, but a major challenge is to relate the dynamic characteristics of single organelles to their 3D ultrastructure. Here we introduce focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) in a modular live-cell CLEM pipeline for single organelle CLEM. We transfected cells with LAMP-1-GFP, analyzed the dynamics of individual GFP-positive spots, and correlated these to their corresponding fine-architecture and immediate cellular environment...
February 16, 2018: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451719/primary-sebocytes-and-sebaceous-gland-cell-lines-for-studying-sebaceous-lipogenesis-and-sebaceous-gland-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Marlon R Schneider, Christos C Zouboulis
Sebocytes, the major cell type in sebaceous glands (SGs), are differentiated epithelial cells that gradually accumulate lipids and eventually disrupt, releasing their content (sebum) in a secretory process known as holocrine secretion. Via the hair canal, sebum reaches the skin surface, where it has several known or postulated functions, including pheromonal, thermoregulatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Altered sebum secretion and/or structural SG changes have also been involved in the pathogenesis of skin diseases, such as acne vulgaris and some forms of alopecia...
February 16, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451708/promotion-of-bone-regeneration-on-titanium-implants-through-a-chemical-treatment-process-using-calcium-phosphate-slurry-microscopic-analysis-cellular-response-and-animal-experiment
#14
Tatsuro Ito, Naofumi Ohtsu, Masanari Tomozawa, Mitsuhiro Hirano, Hiroko Takita, Tadashi Iizuka, Atsuro Yokoyama
The present study provides scientific evidence that a new chemical treatment process using calcium phosphate slurry promotes bone regeneration on titanium (Ti) implants. The material's surface modified by the treatment was analyzed using microscopic observation and the bone regeneration efficacy was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Formation of a thin hydroxyapatite layer with a thickness of about 50 nm and an increase of surface roughness were confirmed by microscopic observations. Histological evaluation of rat femora implanted with the specimens showed that the areas of the specimens directly attached to bone tissue were significantly more extensive than those implanted with control Ti at 2 and 8 weeks...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451682/metabolic-regulation-of-leukocyte-motility-and-migration
#15
REVIEW
Federica M Marelli-Berg, Maryam Jangani
Dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton is essential for numerous cellular processes including leukocyte migration. This process presents a substantial bioenergetic challenge to migrating cells as actin polymerization is dependent on ATP hydrolysis. Hence, migrating cells must increase ATP production to meet the increased metabolic demands of cytoskeletal reorganization. Despite this long-standing evidence, the metabolic regulation of leukocyte motility and trafficking has only recently begun to be investigated...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451601/cell-division-in-genus-corynebacterium-protein-protein-interaction-and-molecular-docking-of-sepf-and-ftsz-in-the-understanding-of-cytokinesis-in-pathogenic-species
#16
Alberto F Oliveira, Edson L Folador, Anne C P Gomide, Aristóteles Goes-Neto, Vasco A C Azevedo, Alice R Wattam
The genus Corynebacterium includes species of great importance in medical, veterinary and biotechnological fields. The genus-specific families (PLfams) from PATRIC have been used to observe conserved proteins associated to all species. Our results showed a large number of conserved proteins that are associated with the cellular division process. Was not observe in our results other proteins like FtsA and ZapA that interact with FtsZ. Our findings point that SepF overlaps the function of this proteins explored by molecular docking, protein-protein interaction and sequence analysis...
February 15, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451494/single-cell-transcriptional-dynamics-of-flavivirus-infection
#17
Fabio Zanini, Szu-Yuan Pu, Elena Bekerman, Shirit Einav, Stephen R Quake
Dengue and Zika viral infections affect millions of people annually and can be complicated by hemorrhage or neurological manifestations, respectively. However, a thorough understanding of the host response to these viruses is lacking, partly because conventional approaches ignore heterogeneity in virus abundance across cells. We present viscRNA-Seq (virus-inclusive single cell RNA-Seq), an approach to probe the host transcriptome together with intracellular viral RNA at the single cell level. We applied viscRNA-Seq to monitor dengue and Zika virus infection in cultured cells and discovered extreme heterogeneity in virus abundance...
February 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451485/-the-roles-of-mast-cells-in-radiation-induced-damage-are-still-an-enigma
#18
Fabien Milliat, Agnès François
Mast cells are immune cells that mature within the host tissue. The acquired phenotype is dictated by the tissue microenvironment, giving rise to diverse tissue-dependent phenotypes and functions. The lack of cellular models reflecting phenotypes found in vivo and important differences between human and rodent mast cells are obstacles to the understanding of their exact role in several pathophysiological processes. Studies published over the past few years showed that mast cells' role lies far beyond their involvement in allergy and anaphylaxis...
February 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451384/a-highly-elastic-biodegradable-single-network-hydrogel-for-cell-printing
#19
Cancan Xu, Wenhan Lee, Guohao Dai, Yi Hong
Cell printing is becoming a common technique to fabricate cellularized printed-scaffold for biomedical application. There are still significant challenges in soft tissue bioprinting using hydrogels which requires live cells inside the hydrogels. Moreover, the resilient mechanical properties from hydrogels are also required to mechanically mimic the native soft tissues. Herein, we developed a visible-light crosslinked, single-network, biodegradable hydrogel with high elasticity and flexibility for cell printing, which is different from previous highly elastic hydrogel with double-network and two-components...
February 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451340/therapeutic-neural-stem-cells-engineered-during-different-stages-of-reprogramming-reveal-varying-therapeutic-efficacies
#20
Deepak Bhere, Rajiv Kumar Khajuria, William T Hendriks, Antara Bandyopadhyay, Tugba Bagci-Onder, Khalid Shah
Stem cells are emerging as promising treatment strategies for several brain disorders and pathologies including brain tumors. In this study, we explored the potential of creating induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived therapeutic NSCs (ipNSC) by using either unmodified or gene-modified somatic cells and tested their fate and therapeutic efficacies in vitro and in vivo. We show that cells engineered in somatic state lose transgene-expression during the neural induction process, which is partially restored by HDAC inhibitor (i) treatment whereas cells engineered at the ipNSC state have sustained expression of transgenes...
February 16, 2018: Stem Cells
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