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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245183/increased-expression-and-modulated-regulatory-activity-of-co-inhibitory-receptors-pd-1-tigit-and-tim-3-in-lymphocytes-of-systemic-sclerosis-patients
#1
Michelle Fleury, Anna C Belkina, Elizabeth A Proctor, Christopher Zammitti, Robert W Simms, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Jennifer E Snyder-Cappione, Robert Lafyatis, Hans Dooms
OBJECTIVE: Immune dysfunction is an important component of the disease process underlying Systemic Sclerosis (SSc), but the mechanisms contributing to altered immune cell function in SSc remain poorly defined. Here, we measured the expression and function of the co-inhibitory receptors (co-IRs) PD-1, TIGIT, TIM-3, and LAG-3 in lymphocyte subsets from the peripheral blood of SSc patients. METHODS: Co-IR expression levels on immune cell subsets were analyzed using a 16-color flow cytometry panel...
December 15, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245178/transcriptional-regulation-of-cd4-t-cell-differentiation-in-experimentally-induced-arthritis-and-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
REVIEW
Yuya Kondo, Masahiro Yokosawa, Shunta Kaneko, Kotona Furuyama, Seiji Segawa, Hiroto Tsuboi, Isao Matsumoto, Takayuki Sumida
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by infiltration of the joint synovium by activated inflammatory cells. CD4+ T cells form a large proportion of the inflammatory cells invading the synovial tissue, and are involved in the RA pathological process. In general, CD4+ T cells differentiate into various T helper (Th) cell subsets and acquire the functional characterization to respond to specific pathogens, and also mediated some autoimmune disorders such as RA. Because the differentiation of Th cell subsets is determined by the expression of specific transcription factors in response to cytokine environment, these transcription factors is considered to have a role in pathology of RA...
December 15, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245136/small-maf-functions-in-the-maintenance-of-germline-stem-cells-in-the-drosophila-testis
#3
Sharon Wui Sing Tan, George W Yip, Toshio Suda, Gyeong Hun Baeg
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are byproducts generated during normal cellular metabolism, and redox states have been shown to influence stem cell self-renewal and lineage commitment across phyla. However, the downstream effectors of ROS signaling that control stem cell behavior remain largely unexplored. Here, we used the Drosophila testis as an in vivo model to identify ROS-induced effectors that are involved in the differentiation process of germline stem cells (GSCs). In the Affymetrix microarray analysis, 152 genes were either upregulated or downregulated during GSC differentiation induced by elevated levels of ROS, and a follow-up validation of the gene expression by qRT-PCR showed a Spearman's rho of 0...
December 8, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245116/human-lung-epithelial-cells-a549-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-induced-by-pva-collagen-nanofiber
#4
Xiuchun Li, Shanshan Yan, Jing Dai, Yi Lu, Yiqun Wang, Man Sun, Jinkang Gong, Yuan Yao
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells lose their cell-cell contact to become mesenchymal stem cells, which is important on development and embryogenesis, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. This research aims to investigate the effect of topological cue as modulating factor on the EMT by tuning the diameter of electrospinning nanofiber. The cell-nanofiber interaction between human lung epithelial cell A549 and electrospinning nanofibers composed of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and type I collagen were investigated...
December 11, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245050/nanog-restores-the-impaired-myogenic-differentiation-potential-of-skeletal-myoblasts-after-multiple-population-doublings
#5
Aref Shahini, Debanik Choudhury, Mohammadnabi Asmani, Ruogang Zhao, Pedro Lei, Stelios T Andreadis
Adult skeletal muscle regeneration relies on the activity of satellite cells residing in the skeletal muscle niche. However, systemic and intrinsic factors decrease the myogenic differentiation potential of satellite cells thereby impairing muscle regeneration. Here we present data showing that late passage C2C12 myoblasts exhibited significantly impaired myogenic differentiation potential that was accompanied by impaired expression of myogenic regulatory factors (Myf5, MyoD, Myogenin, and MRF4) and members of myocyte enhancer factor 2 family...
December 2, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245016/preferential-myofibroblast-differentiation-of-cardiac-mesenchymal-progenitor-cells-in-the-presence-of-atrial-fibrillation
#6
Elisa Gambini, Gianluca Lorenzo Perrucci, Beatrice Bassetti, Gabriella Spaltro, Giulia Campostrini, Maria Chiara Lionetti, Alberto Pilozzi, Federico Martinelli, Andrea Faruggia, Dario DiFrancesco, Andrea Barbuti, Giulio Pompilio
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is characterized by electrical, contractile, and structural remodeling mediated by interstitial fibrosis. It has been shown that human cardiac mesenchymal progenitor cells (CMPCs) can be differentiated into endothelial, smooth muscle, and fibroblast cells. Here, we have investigated, for the first time, the contribution of CMPCs in the fibrotic process occurring in AF. As expected, right auricolae samples displayed significantly higher fibrosis in AF vs control (CTR) patients. In tissue samples of AF patients only, double staining for c-kit and the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was detected...
November 27, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245000/does-traumatic-brain-injury-hold-the-key-to-the-alzheimer-s-puzzle
#7
Robert E Becker, Dimitrios Kapogiannis, Nigel H Greig
INTRODUCTION: Neurodegenerative disorders have been a graveyard for hundreds of well-intentioned efforts at drug discovery and development. Concussion and other traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) share many overlapping pathologies and possible clinical links. METHODS: We searched the literature since 1995 using MEDLINE and Google Scholar for the terms concussion, AD, and shared neuropathologies. We also studied a TBI animal model as a supplement to transgenic (Tg) mouse AD models for evaluating AD drug efficacy by preventing neuronal losses...
December 12, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244962/expression-of-the-frizzled-receptors-and-their-co-receptors-in-calcified-human-aortic-valves
#8
Ateeque Siddique, Bin Yu, Kashif Khan, Ryan Buyting, Hamood Al-Kindi, Hossny Alaws, Eric Rhéaume, Jean-Claude Tardif, Renzo Cecere, Adel Schwertani
The cellular mechanisms that induce calcific aortic stenosis are yet to be unravelled. Wnt signaling is increasingly being considered as a major player in the disease process. However, the presence of Wnt Frizzled receptors (Fzd) and co-receptors LRP5 and 6 in normal and diseased human aortic valves remains to be elucidated. Immunohistochemistry and qPCR were used to determine Fzd receptor expression in normal and calcified human aortic valve tissue, as well as human aortic valve interstitial cells (HAVICs) isolated from calcified and normal human aortic valves...
December 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244957/hypercementosis-associated-with-enpp1-mutations-and-gaci
#9
V Thumbigere-Math, A Alqadi, N I Chalmers, M B Chavez, E Y Chu, M T Collins, C R Ferreira, K FitzGerald, R I Gafni, W A Gahl, K S Hsu, M S Ramnitz, M J Somerman, S G Ziegler, B L Foster
Mineralization of bones and teeth is tightly regulated by levels of extracellular inorganic phosphate (Pi) and pyrophosphate (PPi). Three regulators that control pericellular concentrations of Pi and PPi include tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), progressive ankylosis protein (ANK), and ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1). Inactivation of these factors results in mineralization disorders affecting teeth and their supporting structures. This study for the first time analyzed the effect of decreased PPi on dental development in individuals with generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) due to loss-of-function mutations in the ENPP1 gene...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244883/effects-of-mechanical-repetitive-load-on-bone-quality-around-implants-in-rat-maxillae
#10
Yusuke Uto, Shinichiro Kuroshima, Takayoshi Nakano, Takuya Ishimoto, Nao Inaba, Yusuke Uchida, Takashi Sawase
Greater understanding and acceptance of the new concept "bone quality", which was proposed by the National Institutes of Health and is based on bone cells and collagen fibers, are required. The novel protein Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) is associated with osteoprotection by regulating bone cells. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of mechanical loads on Sema3A production and bone quality based on bone cells and collagen fibers around implants in rat maxillae. Grade IV-titanium threaded implants were placed at 4 weeks post-extraction in maxillary first molars...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244882/%C3%AE-ii-spectrin-in-t-cells-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-cell-cell-contact-leading-to-immunological-synapse-formation
#11
Justyna M Meissner, Aleksander F Sikorski, Tomasz Nawara, Jakub Grzesiak, Krzysztof Marycz, Dżamila M Bogusławska, Izabela Michalczyk, Marie-Christine Lecomte, Beata Machnicka
T-lymphocyte activation after antigen presentation to the T-Cell Receptor (TCR) is a critical step in the development of proper immune responses to infection and inflammation. This dynamic process involves reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and signaling molecules at the cell membrane, leading to the formation of the Immunological Synapse (IS). The mechanisms regulating the formation of the IS are not completely understood. Nonerythroid spectrin is a membrane skeletal protein involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, including cell adhesion, signaling and actin cytoskeleton remodeling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244879/characterization-of-toxoplasma-degp-a-rhoptry-serine-protease-crucial-for-lethal-infection-in-mice
#12
Gaelle Lentini, Hiba El Hajj, Julien Papoin, Gamou Fall, Alexander W Pfaff, Nadim Tawil, Catherine Braun-Breton, Maryse Lebrun
During the infection process, Apicomplexa discharge their secretory organelles called micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules to sustain host cell invasion, intracellular replication and to modulate host cell pathways and immune responses. Herein, we describe the Toxoplasma gondii Deg-like serine protein (TgDegP), a rhoptry protein homologous to High temperature requirement A (HtrA) or Deg-like family of serine proteases. TgDegP undergoes processing in both types I and II strains as most of the rhoptries proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244854/morphological-switch-to-a-resistant-subpopulation-in-response-to-viral-infection-in-the-bloom-forming-coccolithophore-emiliania-huxleyi
#13
Miguel José Frada, Shilo Rosenwasser, Shifra Ben-Dor, Adva Shemi, Helena Sabanay, Assaf Vardi
Recognizing the life cycle of an organism is key to understanding its biology and ecological impact. Emiliania huxleyi is a cosmopolitan marine microalga, which displays a poorly understood biphasic sexual life cycle comprised of a calcified diploid phase and a morphologically distinct biflagellate haploid phase. Diploid cells (2N) form large-scale blooms in the oceans, which are routinely terminated by specific lytic viruses (EhV). In contrast, haploid cells (1N) are resistant to EhV. Further evidence indicates that 1N cells may be produced during viral infection...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244817/curcumin-inhibits-activation-induced-by-urban-particulate-material-or-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-in-primary-human-endothelial-cells
#14
Angélica Montiel-Dávalos, Guadalupe Jazmin Silva Sánchez, Elizabeth Huerta-García, Cristhiam Rueda-Romero, Giovanny Soca Chafre, Irma B Mitre-Aguilar, Ernesto Alfaro-Moreno, José Pedraza-Chaverri, Rebeca López-Marure
Curcumin has protective effects against toxic agents and shows preventive properties for various diseases. Particulate material with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤10 μm (PM10) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) induce endothelial dysfunction and activation. We explored whether curcumin is able to attenuate different events related to endothelial activation. This includes adhesion, expression of adhesion molecules and oxidative stress induced by PM10 and TiO2-NPs. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were treated with 1, 10 and 100 μM curcumin for 1 h and then exposed to PM10 at 3 μg/cm2 or TiO2-NPs at 10 μg/cm2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244767/regulatory-elements-located-in-the-upstream-region-of-the-rhizobium-leguminosarum-rosr-global-regulator-are-essential-for-its-transcription-and-mrna-stability
#15
Kamila Rachwał, Paulina Lipa, Iwona Wojda, José-María Vinardell, Monika Janczarek
Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii is a soil bacterium capable of establishing a symbiotic relationship with clover (Trifolium spp.). Previously, the rosR gene, encoding a global regulatory protein involved in motility, synthesis of cell-surface components, and other cellular processes was identified and characterized in this bacterium. This gene possesses a long upstream region that contains several regulatory motifs, including inverted repeats (IRs) of different lengths. So far, the role of these motifs in the regulation of rosR transcription has not been elucidated in detail...
December 15, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244724/rlj-rgd3-suppresses-the-growth-of-heya8-cells-in-nude-mice
#16
Yuanyuan Zheng, Li Lv, Longda Yi, Rui Wu, Rong Xiao, Jihong Wang
In the previous study, rLj-RGD3, a recombinant toxin protein which contains three RGD motifs, was reported to not only inhibit the proliferation of an ovarian cancer cell line, HeyA8 cells, by inducing apoptosis, but also block their adhesion, migration and invasion processes. However, whether rLj-RGD3 could also suppress the tumor growth in HeyA8 xenografted mice has not been reported yet. In the present study, rLj-RGD3 was intraperitoneally injected in the nude mice bearing HeyA8 tumors. Compared with the control group (normal saline), rLj-RGD3 inhibited the tumor growth significantly in the HeyA8 xenografted mice in a dose-dependent manner without affecting their body weights...
December 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244714/identification-of-novel-human-nk-cell-progenitor-subsets
#17
Priyanka Sathe, Swee Heng Milon Pang, Rebecca Delconte, Ngaire Elwood, Nicholas D Huntington
Understanding the pathways and regulation of human haematopoiesis, in particular, lymphopoiesis, is vital to manipulation of these processes for therapeutic purposes. However, although haematopoiesis has been extensively characterised in mice, translation of these findings to human biology remains rudimentary. Here, we describe the isolation of three progenitor subsets from human foetal bone marrow that represent differential stages of commitment to the natural killer (NK) cell lineage based on IL-15 responsiveness...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244656/characterization-of-gelatin-and-chitosan-scaffolds-cross-linked-by-addition-of-dialdehyde-starch
#18
B Kaczmarek, A Sionkowska, F J Monteiro, A Carvalho, K Łukowicz, A M Osyczka
In this study the influence of the addition of dialdehyde starch on the properties of scaffolds based on gelatin and chitosan obtained by the freeze-drying method was investigated. In addition, the adhesion and proliferation of human osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cells on the obtained scaffolds was examined. Chitosan and gelatin were mixed in different weight ratios (75/25, 50/50, 25/75) with 1, 2 and 5 wt% addition of dialdehyde starch. The obtained scaffolds were subjected to mechanical testing, infrared spectroscopy, swelling measurements, low-pressure porosimetry and zeta potential measurement...
December 15, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244481/nanostructured-na2ti9o19-for-hybrid-sodium-ion-capacitors-with-excellent-rate-capability
#19
Swetha S M Bhat, Binson Babu, Mikhail Feygenson, Joerg C Neuefeind, Manikoth M Shaijumon
Herein we report a new Na-insertion electrode material, Na2Ti9O19, as a potential candidate for Na-ion hybrid capacitors. We study the structural properties of nanostructured Na2Ti9O19, synthesized by hydrothermal technique, upon electrochemical cycling vs. Na. Average and local structure of Na2Ti9O19 are elucidated from neutron Rietveld refinement and pair distribution function (PDF), respectively, to investigate the initial discharge and charge events. Rietveld refinement reveals electrochemical cycling of Na2Ti9O19 is driven by single phase solid solution reaction during (de)sodiation without any major structural deterioration, keeping the average structure intact...
December 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244193/comparative-peptidomic-profile-between-human-hypertrophic-scar-tissue-and-matched-normal-skin-for-identification-of-endogenous-peptides-involved-in-scar-pathology
#20
Jingyun Li, Ling Chen, Qian Li, Jing Cao, Yanli Gao, Jun Li
Endogenous peptides recently attract increasing attention for their participation in various biological processes. Their roles in the pathogenesis of human hypertrophic scar remains poorly understood. In this study, we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to construct a comparative peptidomic profiling between human hypertrophic scar tissue and matched normal skin. A total of 179 peptides were significantly differentially expressed in human hypertrophic scar tissue, with 95 upregulated and 84 downregulated peptides between hypertrophic scar tissue and matched normal skin...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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