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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046055/topographic-distribution-pattern-of-morphologically-different-g-cells-in-the-murine-antral-mucosa
#1
Claudia Frick, Hanna Luisa Martin, Johanna Bruder, Kerstin Lang, Heinz Breer
Gastrin-secreting enteroendocrine cells (G cells) in the antrum play an important role in the regulation of gastric secretion, gastric motility and mucosal cell proliferation. Recently we have uncovered the existence of two subpopulations of G cells with pivotally different morphology and a distinct localization in the antral invaginations; the functional implications of the different G cell types are still elusive. In this study a transgenic mouse line in which EGFP is expressed under the control of a gastrin promoter was used to elucidate the distribution pattern of the two G cell types throughout the different regions of the antrum...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046050/immunofluorescent-characterization-of-non-myelinating-schwann-cells-and-their-interactions-with-immune-cells-in-mouse-mesenteric-lymph-node
#2
Zhongli Shi, Wayne K Greene, Philip K Nicholls, Dailun Hu, Janina E E Tirnitz-Parker, Qionglan Yuan, Changfu Yin, Bin Ma
The central nervous system (CNS) influences the immune system in a general fashion by regulating the systemic concentration of humoral substances, whereas the autonomic nervous system communicates specifically with the immune system according to local interactions. Data concerning the mechanisms of this bidirectional crosstalk of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and immune system remain limited. To gain a better understanding of local interactions of the PNS and immune system, we have used immunofluorescent staining of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), coupled with confocal microscopy, to investigate the non-myelinating Schwann cell (NMSC)-immune cell interactions in mouse mesenteric lymph nodes...
August 7, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046049/treatment-of-diabetic-foot-ulcers-with-therapeutic-magnetic-resonance-tmr%C3%A2-improves-the-quality-of-granulation-tissue
#3
Letizia Ferroni, Chiara Gardin, Andrea De Pieri, Maria Sambataro, Elena Seganfreddo, Chiara Goretti, Elisabetta Iacopi, Barbara Zavan, Alberto Piaggesi
Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) often result in severely adverse outcomes, such as serious infections, hospitalization, and lower extremity amputations. In last few years, to improve the outcome of DFUs, clinicians and researchers put their attention on the application of low intensity pulsating electro-magnetic fields through Therapeutic Magnetic Resonance (TMR®). In our study, patients with DFUs have been divided into two groups: The Sham Group treated with non-functioning TMR® device, and the Active Group treated with a functioning device...
August 7, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046044/lipidomics-profiling-reveals-the-role-of-glycerophospholipid-metabolism-in-psoriasis
#4
Chunwei Zeng, Bo Wen, Guixue Hou, Li Lei, Zhanlong Mei, Xuekun Jia, Xiaomin Chen, Wu Zhu, Jie Li, Yehong Kuang, Weiqi Zeng, Juan Su, Siqi Liu, Cong Peng, Xiang Chen
Psoriasis is a common and chronic inflammatory skin disease that is complicated by gene-environment interactions. Although genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses have been performed to investigate the pathogenesis of psoriasis, the role of metabolites in psoriasis, particularly of lipids, remains unclear. Lipids not only comprise the bulk of the cellular membrane bilayers but also regulate a variety of biological processes such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, immunity, angiogenesis, and inflammation...
October 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045904/inkt-cells-orchestrate-a-switch-from-inflammation-to-resolution-of-sterile-liver-injury
#5
Pei Xiong Liew, Woo-Yong Lee, Paul Kubes
After traumatic injury, some cells function as detectors to sense injury and to modulate the local immune response toward a restitution phase by affecting the local cytokine milieu. Using intravital microscopy, we observed that patrolling invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells were initially excluded from a site of hepatic injury but subsequently were strategically arrested first via self-antigens and then by cytokines, circumscribing the injured site at exactly the location where monocytes co-localized and hepatocytes proliferated...
October 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045901/by-capturing-inflammatory-lipids-released-from-dying-cells-the-receptor-cd14-induces-inflammasome-dependent-phagocyte-hyperactivation
#6
Ivan Zanoni, Yunhao Tan, Marco Di Gioia, James R Springstead, Jonathan C Kagan
A heterogeneous mixture of lipids called oxPAPC, derived from dying cells, can hyperactivate dendritic cells (DCs) but not macrophages. Hyperactive DCs are defined by their ability to release interleukin-1 (IL-1) while maintaining cell viability, endowing these cells with potent aptitude to stimulate adaptive immunity. Herein, we found that the bacterial lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14 captured extracellular oxPAPC and delivered these lipids into the cell to promote inflammasome-dependent DC hyperactivation...
October 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045899/early-transcriptional-divergence-marks-virus-specific-primary-human-cd8-t-cells-in-chronic-versus-acute-infection
#7
David Wolski, Peter K Foote, Diana Y Chen, Lia L Lewis-Ximenez, Catherine Fauvelle, Jasneet Aneja, Andreas Walker, Pierre Tonnerre, Almudena Torres-Cornejo, Daniel Kvistad, Sabrina Imam, Michael T Waring, Damien C Tully, Todd M Allen, Raymond T Chung, Jörg Timm, W Nicholas Haining, Arthur Y Kim, Thomas F Baumert, Georg M Lauer
Distinct molecular pathways govern the differentiation of CD8(+) effector T cells into memory or exhausted T cells during acute and chronic viral infection, but these are not well studied in humans. Here, we employed an integrative systems immunology approach to identify transcriptional commonalities and differences between virus-specific CD8(+) T cells from patients with persistent and spontaneously resolving hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection during the acute phase. We observed dysregulation of metabolic processes during early persistent infection that was linked to changes in expression of genes related to nucleosomal regulation of transcription, T cell differentiation, and the inflammatory response and correlated with subject age, sex, and the presence of HCV-specific CD4(+) T cell populations...
October 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045898/peptidoglycan-sensing-receptors-trigger-the-formation-of-functional-amyloids-of-the-adaptor-protein-imd-to-initiate-drosophila-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#8
Anni Kleino, Nancy F Ramia, Gunes Bozkurt, Yanfang Shen, Himani Nailwal, Jing Huang, Johanna Napetschnig, Monique Gangloff, Francis Ka-Ming Chan, Hao Wu, Jixi Li, Neal Silverman
In the Drosophila immune response, bacterial derived diaminopimelic acid-type peptidoglycan binds the receptors PGRP-LC and PGRP-LE, which through interaction with the adaptor protein Imd leads to activation of the NF-κB homolog Relish and robust antimicrobial peptide gene expression. PGRP-LC, PGRP-LE, and Imd each contain a motif with some resemblance to the RIP Homotypic Interaction Motif (RHIM), a domain found in mammalian RIPK proteins forming functional amyloids during necroptosis. Here we found that despite sequence divergence, these Drosophila cryptic RHIMs formed amyloid fibrils in vitro and in cells...
October 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045897/monocyte-macrophages-and-t-cells-in-atherosclerosis
#9
REVIEW
Ira Tabas, Andrew H Lichtman
Atherosclerosis is an arterial disease process characterized by the focal subendothelial accumulation of apolipoprotein-B-containing lipoproteins, immune and vascular wall cells, and extracellular matrix. The lipoproteins acquire features of damage-associated molecular patterns and trigger first an innate immune response, dominated by monocyte-macrophages, and then an adaptive immune response. These inflammatory responses often become chronic and non-resolving and can lead to arterial damage and thrombosis-induced organ infarction...
October 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045892/wait-wait-%C3%A2-ok-now-go-in-inkt-cells-resolve-liver-inflammation
#10
Haiguang Wang, Kristin A Hogquist
Resolution of inflammation is pivotal to restoring tissue homeostasis, yet there is limited understanding of how this process is regulated. In this issue of Immunity, Liew et al. (2017) reveal a critical role for invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells in switching inflammation to tissue repair in an interlukin-4-dependent process.
October 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045882/untangling-the-hairball-fitness-based-asymptotic-reduction-of-biological-networks
#11
Félix Proulx-Giraldeau, Thomas J Rademaker, Paul François
Complex mathematical models of interaction networks are routinely used for prediction in systems biology. However, it is difficult to reconcile network complexities with a formal understanding of their behavior. Here, we propose a simple procedure (called ϕ¯) to reduce biological models to functional submodules, using statistical mechanics of complex systems combined with a fitness-based approach inspired by in silico evolution. The ϕ¯ algorithm works by putting parameters or combination of parameters to some asymptotic limit, while keeping (or slightly improving) the model performance, and requires parameter symmetry breaking for more complex models...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045879/probing-cell-adhesion-profiles-with-a-microscale-adhesive-choice-assay
#12
Harsha Kittur, Andy Tay, Avery Hua, Min Yu, Dino Di Carlo
In this work, we introduce, to our knowledge, a new set of adhesion-based biomarkers for characterizing mammalian cells. Mammalian cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix influences numerous physiological processes. Current in vitro methods to probe adhesion focus on adhesive force to a single surface, which can investigate only a subcomponent of the adhesive, motility, and polarization cues responsible for adhesion in the 3D tissue environment. Here, we demonstrate a method to quantify the transhesive properties of cells that relies on the microscale juxtaposition of two extracellular matrix-coated surfaces...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045871/mapping-cell-membrane-fluctuations-reveals-their-active-regulation-and-transient-heterogeneities
#13
Arikta Biswas, Amal Alex, Bidisha Sinha
Shape fluctuations of the plasma membrane occur in all cells, are incessant, and are proposed to affect membrane functioning. Although studies show how membrane fluctuations are affected by cellular activity in adherent cells, their spatial regulation and the corresponding change in membrane mechanics remain unclear. In this article, we study how ATP-driven activities and actomyosin cytoskeleton impact basal membrane fluctuations in adherent cells. Using interference imaging, we map height fluctuations within single cells and compare the temporal spectra with existing theoretical models to gain insights about the underlying membrane mechanics...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045864/molecular-simulations-suggest-a-force-dependent-mechanism-of-vinculin-activation
#14
Li Sun, Jeffrey K Noel, Herbert Levine, José N Onuchic
Focal adhesions are dynamic constructs at the leading edge of migrating cells, linking them to the extracellular matrix and enabling force sensing and transmission. The lifecycle of a focal adhesion is a highly coordinated process involving spatial and temporal variations of protein composition, interaction, and cellular tension. The assembly of focal adhesions requires the recruitment and activation of vinculin. Vinculin is present in the cytoplasm in an autoinhibited conformation in which its tail is held pincerlike by its head domains, further stabilized by two high-affinity head-tail interfaces...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045838/p75-is-required-for-the-establishment-of-postnatal-sensory-neuron-diversity-by-potentiating-ret-signaling
#15
Zhijiang Chen, Christopher R Donnelly, Bertha Dominguez, Yoshinobu Harada, Weichun Lin, Alan S Halim, Tasha G Bengoechea, Brian A Pierchala, Kuo-Fen Lee
Producing the neuronal diversity required to adequately discriminate all elements of somatosensation is a complex task during organogenesis. The mechanisms guiding this process during dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neuron specification remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the p75 neurotrophin receptor interacts with Ret and its GFRα co-receptor upon stimulation with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Furthermore, we demonstrate that p75 is required for GDNF-mediated Ret activation, survival, and cell surface localization of Ret in DRG neurons...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045819/disruption-of-the-epidermal-barrier-induces-regulatory-t-cells-via-il-33-in-mice
#16
Anika Bruhs, Ehrhardt Proksch, Thomas Schwarz, Agatha Schwarz
Disturbance of the epidermal barrier by UV radiation (UVR) is associated with the release of antimicrobial peptides and inflammatory cytokines for the purpose of a danger response. On the other hand, UVR causes immunosuppression via regulatory T cells (Treg) which limit the inflammatory reaction. The concurrent induction of antimicrobial peptides and Treg by UVR may represent a counter-regulatory mechanism in response to barrier disruption, preventing microbial superinfection and sensitization to contact allergens, respectively, both of which cross impaired epidermis more easily...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045817/transcriptomic-characterization-of-the-human-cell-cycle-in-individual-unsynchronized-cells
#17
Joakim Karlsson, Thomas Kroneis, Emma Jonasson, Erik Larsson, Anders Ståhlberg
The highly fine-tuned dynamics of cell cycle gene expression have been intensely studied for several decades. However, some previous observations may be difficult to fully decouple from artifacts induced by traditional cell synchronization procedures. In addition, bulk cell measurements may have disguised intricate details. Here, we address this by sorting and transcriptomic sequencing of single cells progressing through the cell cycle without prior synchronization. Genes and pathways with known cell cycle roles are confirmed, associated regulatory sequence motifs are determined and we also establish ties between other biological processes and the unsynchronized cell cycle...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045816/assessment-of-bacterial-membrane-fluidity-by-flow-cytometry
#18
Marielle Bouix, Sarrah Ghorbal
It can be interesting to evaluate the cytoplasmic membrane fluidity of bacteria in order to understand the impacts of stresses during processing. Traditionally, membrane fluidity was assessed by fluorescence anisotropy measured by spectrofluorimetry, but this method does not make it possible to reveal the heterogeneity of bacterial populations. Flow cytometry, as opposed to spectrofluorimetry, has the ability to simultaneously detect different sub-populations. We developed a new method to measure the fluorescence anisotropy of bacterial membranes using flow cytometry...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045811/top2a-induces-malignant-character-of-pancreatic-cancer-through-activating-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#19
Yao-Fei Pei, Xi-Min Yin, Xi-Qiang Liu
It has been reported that Topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) could induce tumor development and progression in many cancer types. Herein, through analysis of different independent cohorts, we found TOP2A was up-regulated in pancreatic cancer as compared with non-tumor tissues. Moreover, the up-regulation of TOP2A was significantly correlated with tumor metastasis and shorter survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. Knockdown of TOP2A in pancreatic cancer cell lines inhibited cell proliferation and migration...
October 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045730/ribosomal-protein-ntrpl17-interacts-with-kinesin-12-family-protein-ntkrp-and-functions-in-the-regulation-of-embryo-seed-size-and-radicle-growth
#20
Shujuan Tian, Jingjing Wu, Yuan Liu, Xiaorong Huang, Fen Li, Zhaodan Wang, Meng-Xiang Sun, Miriam Gifford
We previously reported that a novel motor protein belonging to the kinesin-12 family, NtKRP, displays critical roles in regulating embryo and seed size establishment. However, it remains unknown exactly how NtKRP contributes to this developmental process. Here, we report that a 60S ribosomal protein NtRPL17 directly interacts with NtKRP. The phenotypes of NtRPL17 RNAi lines show notable embryo and seed size reduction. Structural observations of the NtRPL17-silenced embryos/seeds reveal that the embryo size reduction is due to a decrease in cell number...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
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