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Roxann Diez Gross, Ronit Gisser, Gregory Cherpes, Katie Hartman, Rishi Maheshwary
Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is caused by a genetic imprinting abnormality resulting from the lack of expression of the paternal genes at 15q11-q13. Intellectual disability, low muscle tone, and life-threatening hyperphagia are hallmarks of the phenotype. The need for the Heimlich maneuver, death from choking, and pulmonary infection occur in a disproportionally high number of persons with PWS. The widely held belief is that eating behaviors are responsible for choking and aspiration; yet, no investigation had sought to determine if swallowing impairments were present in persons with PWS...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
M Formánek, D Jančatová, P Komínek, P Matoušek, K Zeleník
OBJECTIVE: The human papillomavirus causes recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Although human papillomavirus prevalence is high, the incidence of papillomatosis is low. Thus, factors other than human papillomavirus infection probably contribute to recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. This study investigated whether patients with papillomatosis are more often infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 and chlamydia trachomatis and whether laryngopharyngeal reflux occurs in this group of patients more often...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Rosemary Fama, Edith V Sullivan, Stephanie A Sassoon, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Natalie M Zahr
BACKGROUND: Executive functioning and episodic memory impairment occur in HIV infection (HIV) and chronic alcoholism (ALC). Comorbidity of these conditions (HIV + ALC) is prevalent and heightens risk of vulnerability to separate and compounded deficits. Age and disease-related variables can also serve as mediators of cognitive impairment and should be considered, given the extended longevity of HIV-infected individuals in this era of improved pharmacological therapy. METHODS: HIV, ALC, HIV + ALC, and normal controls (NC) were administered traditional and computerized tests of executive function and episodic memory...
October 19, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Massimo Del Fabbro, Stefano Corbella, Patrick Sequeira-Byron, Igor Tsesis, Eyal Rosen, Alessandra Lolato, Silvio Taschieri
BACKGROUND: When primary root canal therapy fails, periapical lesions can be retreated with or without surgery. Root canal retreatment is a non-surgical procedure that involves removal of root canal filling materials from the tooth, followed by cleaning, shaping and obturating of the canals. Root-end resection is a surgical procedure that involves exposure of the periapical lesion through an osteotomy, surgical removal of the lesion, removal of part of the root-end tip, disinfection and, commonly, retrograde sealing or filling of the apical portion of the remaining root canal...
October 19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Volkan Etus, Gokmen Kahilogullari, Hakan Karabagli, Agahan Unlu
AIM: Neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) usually results in posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH). This multicenter study describes the approach of early neuroendoscopic ventricular irrigation for the treatment of IVH/PHH and compares the results with the cases that have been initially treated only with conventional temporary CSF diversion techniques. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data of total 74 neonatal PHH cases that have been treated at three pediatric neurosurgery centers were retrospectively analyzed...
August 30, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
Camila V Ventura, Maria Paula Fernandez, Ivan A Gonzalez, Delia M Rivera-Hernandez, Roberto Lopez-Alberola, Maria Peinado, Angelica A Floren, Patricia A Rodriguez, Basil K Williams, Gabriela de la Vega Muns, Ana J Rodriguez, Catherin Negron, Brenda Fallas, Audina M Berrocal
A 6-day-old female baby with known diagnosis of congenital Zika infection was referred for ophthalmologic examination. The mother (37 years old) was referred for a pruritic rash, conjunctival hyperemia, and malaise at 12 weeks of gestation while still living in Venezuela. Upon arrival to Miami, Zika virus (ZIKV) exposure was confirmed during prenatal screening. At birth, due to the known exposure, a complete congenital ZIKV workup was performed, including brain ultrasound and MRI, which disclosed calcifications in the frontal lobe...
October 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Deng-Wei Chou, Shu-Ling Wu, Kuo-Mou Chung, Shu-Chen Han, Bruno Man-Hon Cheung
OBJECTIVES: Septic pulmonary embolism is an uncommon but life-threatening disorder. However, data on patients with septic pulmonary embolism who require critical care have not been well reported. This study elucidated the clinicoradiological spectrum, causative pathogens and outcomes of septic pulmonary embolism in patients requiring critical care. METHODS: The electronic medical records of 20 patients with septic pulmonary embolism who required intensive care unit admission between January 2005 and December 2013 were reviewed...
October 1, 2016: Clinics
Ines Dourado, Luís Augusto V da Silva, Laio Magno, Maycon Lopes, Caio Cerqueira, Adriana Prates, Sandra Brignol, Sarah MacCarthy
Trans persons, including transvestites and transsexual women, show disproportionately high HIV/AIDS rates when compared to the rest of the population. However, few quantitative/qualitative studies have addressed trans persons in Brazil. Thus, a team of researchers from different fields is developing an interdisciplinary research project with the objective of shedding light on living conditions and ways of life among transvestites and transsexual women, while investigating determinant factors for HIV infection, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C...
October 10, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Márcio Alexandre Terra Passos, Pedro Eder Portari-Filho
Background: Elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy has very low risk for infectious complications, ranging the infection rate from 0.4% to 1.1%. Many surgeons still use routine antibiotic prophylaxis. Aim: Evaluate the real impact of antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomies in low risk patients. Method: Prospective, randomized and double-blind study. Were evaluated 100 patients that underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy divided in two groups: group A (n=50), patients that received prophylaxis using intravenous Cephazolin (2 g) during anesthetic induction and group B (n=50), patients that didn't receive any antibiotic prophylaxis...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Irma Cláudia Saboya Ribeiro, Luiz Fernandao Kubrusly, Paulo Afonso Nunes Nassif, Patrícia Fernanda Saboya Ribeiro, Rodrigo de Oliveira Veras, Aline Neppel
Background: The influence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) in inflammatory disorders of the digestive mucosa has been the subject of several studies since socioeconomic, personal and environmental factors were implicated in the bacteria transmission. Aim: To correlate the inflammatory endoscopic findings with HP infection and the onset of mucosal diseases mucous of the upper digestive tract. Method: Comparative observational study, in which were collected data from 2247 patients who underwent upper endoscopy and biopsies for HP with urease test...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Patrícia Fernanda Saboya Ribeiro, Luiz Fernandao Kubrusly, Paulo Afonso Nunes Nassif, Irma Cláudia Saboya Ribeiro, Andressa de Souza Bertoldi, Venessa Caroline Batistão
Background: The Helicobacter pylori infection (HP) is related to the development of gastric lesions and lymphoma; however, it is not known if there is a relation with gastroesophageal reflux disease and reflux esophagitis. Aim: To evaluate HP's relationship with esophagitis in patients undergoing upper endoscopy. Methods: Observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study, being evaluated 9576 patients undergoing outpatient endoscopic examination during the period between January and December 2015...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Nara Rubia de Freitas, Edna Braz Rocha de Santana, Ágabo Macedo da Costa E Silva, Sueli Meira da Silva, Sheila Araújo Teles, Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Marcelo Alves Pinto, Regina Maria Bringel Martins
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has a worldwide distribution and represents an important cause of acute hepatitis. This study aims to investigate the occurrence of HEV infection and factors associated with this infection in patients with acute non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in Central Brazil. From April 2012 to October 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 379 patients with acute non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in the City of Goiania, Central Brazil. Serum samples of all patients were tested for serological markers of HEV infection (anti-HEV IgM and IgG) by ELISA...
October 13, 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Fernando J Andrade-Narvaez, Elsy Nalleli Loría-Cervera, Erika I Sosa-Bibiano, Nicole R Van Wynsberghe
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a major public health problem caused by vector-borne protozoan intracellular parasites from the genus Leishmania, subgenera Viannia and Leishmania. Asymptomatic infection is the most common outcome after Leishmania inoculation. There is incomplete knowledge of the biological processes explaining the absence of signs or symptoms in most cases while other cases present a variety of clinical findings. Most studies of asymptomatic infection have been conducted in areas of endemic visceral leishmaniasis...
October 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Milton Luiz Gorzoni, Sueli Luciano Pires, Lilian de Fátima Costa Faria, Márcia Regina Valadares Aguado, Miriam Carmen Santana
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: A search in the SciELO and PubMed databases showed few studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals in long-term care institutions (LTCIs), thus prompting the present study. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether there were any HIV-positive individuals in LTCIs for the elderly. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in which the Hospital Infection Control Committee (HICC) of a 405-bed LTCI was consulted. METHODS: The medical records of 405 individuals interned in the LTCI who had been tested for HIV infection were requested for analysis of the following variables: [1] age and gender; [2] length of stay at LTCI (months); [3] causes and diagnoses on admission to LTCI according to International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition; [4] date of HIV diagnosis; [5] seropositivity for syphilis and hepatitis B and C viruses; [6] medications used at last prescription in medical file; and [7] mean CD4 lymphocyte count based on: total lymphocyte count/6 and total lymphocyte count x 0...
October 13, 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
Tatiane Sott, Carina Franciscato, Adolfo Firmino da Silva, Iucif Abrão Nascif, Fagner Luiz da Costa Freitas
The objective of this study was to assess the occurence of animals seropositive for Anaplasma marginale in the municipality of Realeza, Paraná State, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 344 cows on 18 small farms in the municipality of Realeza-PR. The animals'serum samples were forwarded to the Federal University of Fronteira do Sul, in order to investigate the occurrence of anti-A. marginale IgG antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay commercial kit. IgG antibodies to A. marginale were detected in cattle from 77...
October 13, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Emily McNicholas, Ahmed H Abdelhafiz
Unexplained fever and confusion is a common reason for emergency medical admission. When this occurs in the context of new urinary incontinence, a urinary tract infection may be considered to be the most likely cause. However it is also important to consider spinal pathology when this combination of symptoms arises. We present a case of a retropharygeal collection presenting in a patient with this combination of symptoms.
2016: Acute Medicine
Sergio Pina-Oviedo, Carlos A Torres-Cabala, Roberto N Miranda, Michael T Tetzlaff, Selina Singh, Ronald P Rapini, Victor G Prieto, Phyu P Aung
Leukemia cutis develops in <4% of all acute leukemias. Concurrent acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is rare, with most cases involving lymph nodes or spleen, and no cutaneous involvement. We report the case of a 59-year-old man who presented with fever, malaise, and fatigue. The CBC showed leukocytosis (30.4 × 10/L, 9% blasts), anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Bone marrow biopsy was diagnosed with AML, not otherwise specified, with mutations of FLT3 and IDH2 (R140Q). The patient developed skin rash on the right flank with the clinical differential diagnosis of herpes simplex virus or varicella-zoster virus infection/reactivation versus leukemia cutis...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Joshua D Billings, Dvora L Joseph Davey, Kelika A Konda, Claire C Bristow, Jeremy Chow, Jeffrey D Klausner, Carlos F Cáceres
The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgender women in Lima, Peru.We analyzed characteristics of 378 MSM and transgender women recruited from 2 sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Lima, Peru. Descriptive analyses compared: (A) HIV-uninfected, (B) previously undiagnosed HIV-infected, and (C) previously diagnosed HIV-infected participants. Multivariable logistic regression models identified: (1) correlates of previously undiagnosed HIV-infection among participants thought to be HIV-uninfected (B vs A); and (2) correlates of previously undiagnosed HIV-infection among HIV-infected participants (B vs C)...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Rossella Letizia Mancusi, Massimo Andreoni, Daniela d'Angela, Cesare Sarrecchia, Federico Spandonaro
Between western European countries, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) endemic is highest in Italy. The main objective of this paper is to estimate the endemic diffusion of hepatitis C at the national level and by geographical area, with an extrapolation at the regional level and by uniform cohorts of subjects (by sex and year of birth). The secondary objective is a stratification by gravity of the estimated statistical figures to provide an overview of possible targets of the new anti-HCV treatments.PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant Italian populations studies regarding HCV prevalence...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Rafael Sauter, Ruizhu Huang, Bruno Ledergerber, Manuel Battegay, Enos Bernasconi, Matthias Cavassini, Hansjakob Furrer, Matthias Hoffmann, Mathieu Rougemont, Huldrych F Günthard, Leonhard Held
Plasma HIV viral load is related to declining CD4 lymphocytes. The extent to which CD8 cells, in addition to RNA viral load, predict the depletion of CD4 cells is not well characterized so far. We examine if CD8 cell count is a prognostic factor for CD4 cell counts during an HIV infection.A longitudinal analysis is conducted using data from the Swiss HIV cohort study collected between January 2000 and October 2014. Linear mixed regression models were applied to observations from HIV-1-infected treatment naive patients (NAIVE) and cART-treated patients to predict the short-term evolution of CD4 cell counts...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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