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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102970/microbiomes-in-respiratory-health-and-disease-an-asia-pacific-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Sanjay H Chotirmall, Shaan L Gellatly, Kurtis F Budden, Micheál Mac Aogain, Shakti D Shukla, David L A Wood, Philip Hugenholtz, Kevin Pethe, Philip M Hansbro
There is currently enormous interest in studying the role of the microbiome in health and disease. Microbiome's role is increasingly being applied to respiratory diseases, in particular COPD, asthma, cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. The changes in respiratory microbiomes that occur in these diseases and how they are modified by environmental challenges such as cigarette smoke, air pollution and infection are being elucidated. There is also emerging evidence that gut microbiomes play a role in lung diseases through the modulation of systemic immune responses and can be modified by diet and antibiotic treatment...
February 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102931/the-impact-of-hpv-type-on-colposcopy-performance-in-women-offered-hpv-immunisation-in-a-catch-up-vaccine-programme-a-two-centre-observational-study
#2
Ami Munro, Collette Gillespie, Seonaidh Cotton, Camille Busby-Earle, Kim Kavanagh, Kate Cuschieri, Heather Cubie, Chris Robertson, Louise Smart, Kevin Pollock, Catherine Moore, Timothy Palmer, Margaret E Cruickshank
OBJECTIVE: To determine if HPV immunisation has affected the prevalence of HPV genotypes and colposcopic features of CIN in young women referred for colposcopy. DESIGN: A two-centre observational study including vaccinated and unvaccinated women. SETTING: Colposcopy clinics serving two health regions in Scotland, UK. POPULATION: 361 women aged 20-25 years attending colposcopy following an abnormal cervical cytology result at routine cervical screening...
January 19, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102927/complex-abdominal-wall-reconstruction-in-the-setting-of-active-infection-and-contamination-a-systematic-review-of-hernia-and-fistula-recurrence-rates
#3
REVIEW
Jonathan D Hodgkinson, Yasuko Maeda, Cosimo A Leo, Janindra Warusavitarne, Carolynne J Vaizey
INTRODUCTION: Minimal evidence exists to guide the surgeon on the risk of complications when performing abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) in the presence of active infection, contamination or enterocutaneous fistula. This study aims to establish the outcomes of contaminated complex AWR. METHODS: Analysis was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. Systematic search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Pubmed databases was performed. Studies reporting exclusively on single-staged repair of contaminated complex AWR were included...
January 19, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102850/japanese-encephalitis-virus-induces-human-neural-stem-progenitor-cell-death-by-elevating-grp78-phb-and-hnrnpc-through-er-stress
#4
Sriparna Mukherjee, Noopur Singh, Nabonita Sengupta, Mahar Fatima, Pankaj Seth, Anita Mahadevan, Susarla Krishna Shankar, Arindam Bhattacharyya, Anirban Basu
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which is a causative agent of sporadic encephalitis, harbours itself inside the neural stem/progenitor cells. It is a well-known fact that JEV infects neural stem/progenitor cells and decreases their proliferation capacity. With mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomic study, it is possible to reveal the impact of virus on the stem cells at protein level. Our aim was to perceive the stem cell proteomic response upon viral challenge. We performed a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic study of the human neural stem cells (hNS1 cell line) post JEV infection and found that 13 proteins were differentially expressed...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102839/foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-infection-suppresses-autophagy-and-nf-%C3%B0%C2%BAb-antiviral-responses-via-degradation-of-atg5-atg12-by-3c-pro
#5
Xuxu Fan, Shichong Han, Dan Yan, Yuan Gao, Yanquan Wei, Xiangtao Liu, Ying Liao, Huichen Guo, Shiqi Sun
Autophagy-related protein ATG5-ATG12 is an essential complex for the autophagophore elongation in autophagy, which has been reported to be involved in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication. Previous reports show that ATG5-ATG12 positively or negatively regulates type I interferon (IFN-α/β) pathway during virus infection. In this study, we found that FMDV infection rapidly induced LC3 lipidation and GFP-LC3 subcellular redistribution at the early infection stage in PK-15 cells. Along with infection time course to 2-5 h...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102802/norovirus-gii-17-natural-infections-in-rhesus-monkeys-china
#6
Zhanlong He, Bo Liu, Yufen Tao, Chao Li, Ming Xia, Weiming Zhong, Xi Jiang, Hongqi Liu, Ming Tan
Noroviruses are a leading viral cause of acute gastroenteritis among humans. During the 2014-15 epidemic season, norovirus GII.17 was detected in rhesus monkeys in China. Genetic, structural, and challenge studies revealed virus mutations and verified the infections. Thus, cross-species transmission may occur, and monkeys may be a virus reservoir.
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102784/model-systems-for-the-study-of-enterococcal-colonization-and-infection
#7
H M Sharon Goh, M H Adeline Yong, Kelvin Kian Long Chong, Kimberly A Kline
Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract, as well as frequent opportunistic pathogens. Enterococci cause a range of infections including, most frequently, infections of the urinary tract, catheterized urinary tract, bloodstream, wounds and surgical sites, and heart valves in endocarditis. Enterococcal infections are often biofilm-associated, polymicrobial in nature, and resistant to antibiotics of last resort. Understanding Enterococcal mechanisms of colonization and pathogenesis are important for identifying new ways to manage and intervene with these infections...
January 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102761/virulent-nontyphoidal-salmonella-producing-ctx-m-and-cmy-2-%C3%AE-lactamases-from-livestock-food-and-human-infection-brazil
#8
Quézia Moura, Miriam R Fernandes, Ketrin C Silva, Daniel F Monte, Fernanda Esposito, Milena Dropa, César Noronha, Andrea M Moreno, Mariza Landgraf, Fábio J Negrão, Nilton Lincopan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102756/treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-using-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
Krista M Newman, Kevin M Rank, Byron P Vaughn, Alexander Khoruts
We recently compared results of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with refractory, recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI), with and without underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here we extend this cohort and analyze outcomes in greater detail by subtype of IBD. We find that FMT is generally effective in breaking the cycle of CDI recurrence, but its effects on overall IBD progression are much less predictable. We discuss a number of challenges intrinsic to this complex clinical situation and outline the next steps that can address these challenges going forward...
January 19, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102738/optimization-and-partial-characterization-of-intracellular-anticandidal-protein-from-aspergillus-giganteus-mtcc-8408-using-taguchi-doe
#10
Debashis Dutta, Mira Debnath Das
A new intracellular antifungal protein (afp) production with average molecular weight 24.3 kDa and yield of 0.65 ± 0.1 mg/gram dry cell weight (gdcw) of mycelia in submerged fermentation of Aspergillus giganteus MTCC 8408 was optimized. Taguchi's DOE (design of experiment) L27 orthogonal array (OA) was constructed using Qualitek-4 software with 8 most influensive factors namely, culture pH, temperature, slant age, inoculum volume, agitation and KH2PO4. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to correlate the effect of selected factors on fungal cell morphology and afp production...
January 19, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102737/platelet-microvesicles-in-health-and-disease
#11
Imene Melki, Nicolas Tessandier, Anne Zufferey, Eric Boilard
Interest in cell-derived extracellular vesicles and their physiological and pathological implications is constantly growing. Microvesicles, also known as microparticles, are small extracellular vesicles released by cells in response to activation or apoptosis. Among the different microvesicles present in the blood of healthy individuals, platelet-derived microvesicles (PMVs) are the most abundant. Their characterization has revealed a heterogeneous cargo that includes a set of adhesion molecules. Similarly to platelets, PMVs are also involved in thrombosis through support of the coagulation cascade...
January 19, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102736/dengue-and-zika-viruses-subvert-reticulophagy-by-ns2b3-mediated-cleavage-of-fam134b
#12
Nicholas J Lennemann, Carolyn B Coyne
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is exploited by a number of diverse viruses during their infectious life cycles. Flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), utilize the ER as a source of membranes to establish their replication organelles and to facilitate their assembly and eventual maturation along the secretory pathway. In order to maintain normal homeostasis, host cells have evolved highly efficient processes to dynamically regulate the ER, such as through reticulophagy, a selective form of autophagy that leads to ER degradation...
January 19, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102654/tuberculosis-and-tuberculin-skin-test-reactivity-in-pediatric-patients-with-celiac-disease
#13
Nafiye Urganci, Derya Kalyoncu
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine tuberculin skin test reactivity and associated factors in pediatric patients with celiac disease (CD). METHODS: Tuberculin skin test (TST) was performed on 28 patients with CD aged from 1 year to 15 years (mean, 6.64±4.8) and 28 healthy age and sex-matched children. The association between TST reactivity and parameters such as age, gender, malnutrition, clinical presentation, compliance to gluten free diet and response to hepatitis A and B vaccinations were determined...
February 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102638/farnesoid-x-receptor-ablation-sensitizes-mice-to-hepatitis-b-virus-x-protein-induced-hepatocarcinogenesis
#14
Yongdong Niu, Meishu Xu, Betty L Slagle, Haihua Huang, Song Li, Grace L Guo, Ganggang Shi, Wenxin Qin, Wen Xie
: Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is a hepatitis B virus protein that has multiple cellular functions, but its role in HCC pathogenesis has been controversial. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear receptor with activities in anti-inflammation and inhibition of hepatocarcinogenesis. However, whether or how FXR can impact hepatitis B virus/HBx-induced hepatocarcinogenesis remains unclear...
November 5, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102626/neonatal-apnea-with-chlamydia-pneumoniae-infection
#15
Yuta Sasaoka, Yuko Yoto, Masatoshi Tatsumi, Kazuki Iida, Hiroyuki Tsutsumi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102569/human-%C3%AE-defensin-3-increases-the-tlr9-dependent-response-to-bacterial-dna
#16
Sarah L McGlasson, Fiona Semple, Heather MacPherson, Mohini Gray, Donald J Davidson, Julia R Dorin
Human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) is a cationic antimicrobial peptide with potent bactericidal activity in vitro. HBD3 is produced in response to pathogen challenge and can modulate immune responses. The amplified recognition of self-DNA by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells has been previously reported, but we show here that hBD3 preferentially enhances the response to bacterial DNA in mouse Flt-3 induced dendritic cells (FLDCs) and in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We show the effect is mediated through TLR9 and although hBD3 significantly increases the cellular uptake of both E...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102546/ataluren-and-similar-compounds-specific-therapies-for-premature-termination-codon-class-i-mutations-for-cystic-fibrosis
#17
REVIEW
Aisha A Aslam, Colin Higgins, Ian P Sinha, Kevin W Southern
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is a common life-shortening genetic disorder in the Caucasian population (less common in other ethnic groups) caused by the mutation of a single gene that codes for the production of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein. This protein coordinates the transport of salt (and bicarbonate) across cell surfaces and the mutation most notably affects the airways. In the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis, defective protein results in a dehydrated surface liquid and compromised mucociliary clearance...
January 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102520/us-fda-perspective-on-elbasvir-grazoprevir-treatment-for-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-or-4-infection
#18
Sarita D Boyd, LaRee Tracy, Takashi E Komatsu, Patrick R Harrington, Prabha Viswanathan, Jeff Murray, Adam Sherwat
Elbasvir/grazoprevir demonstrated high sustained virologic response rates 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12) across five clinical trials in subjects infected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1, including those with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), and GT4. Despite favorable results overall, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) encountered challenging regulatory issues due to the limitations of clinical trial data in certain subpopulations. In GT1a-infected subjects, baseline NS5A resistance-associated polymorphisms emerged as the strongest baseline characteristic associated with diminished SVR12 rates following 12 weeks of elbasvir/grazoprevir treatment...
January 19, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102519/nmdar-encephalitis-following-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis
#19
REVIEW
Jonathan Galli, Stacey L Clardy, Amanda L Piquet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) is often associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and despite appropriate treatment with antivirals, worsening of neurological symptoms or relapse occurs in a subset of patients. Recent data suggests that many relapses are likely caused by a secondary immune response, with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibody being the most commonly associated autoantibody. We provide a review of the relevant literature, examining the relationship between HSVE and development of autoimmunity...
January 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102514/carbapenemase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bloodstream-infection-in-critically-ill-patients-risk-factors-and-predictors-of-mortality
#20
M Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, F Fligou, C Bartzavali, A Zotou, A Spyropoulou, K Koutsileou, S Vamvakopoulou, N Sioulas, V Karamouzos, E D Anastassiou, I Spiliopoulou, M Christofidou, M Marangos
A significant increase in carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp) bacteraemias has been observed worldwide. The objective of the present work was to study the risk factors and predictors of mortality of CP-Kp bacteraemias among critically ill patients. During a 4-year period (2012-3015), a matched 1:2 case-control study was conducted. Klebsiella pneumoniae was identified by Vitek 2 technology. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by the agar disc diffusion method and Etest. The presence of the bla KPC, bla VIM and bla NDM genes was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
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