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Donor management

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329348/outcome-and-treatment-of-nocardiosis-after-solid-organ-transplantation-new-insights-from-a-european-study
#1
David Lebeaux, Romain Freund, Christian van Delden, Hélène Guillot, Sierk D Marbus, Marie Matignon, Eric Van Wijngaerden, Benoit Douvry, Julien De Greef, Fanny Vuotto, Leïla Tricot, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Jacques Dantal, Cédric Hirzel, Jean-Philippe Jais, Veronica Rodriguez-Nava, Frédérique Jacobs, Olivier Lortholary, Julien Coussement
Background: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at risk of nocardiosis, a rare opportunistic bacterial infection, but prognosis and outcome of these patients are poorly defined. Our objectives were to identify factors associated with one-year mortality after nocardiosis and describe the outcome of patients receiving short-course antibiotics (≤120 days). Methods: We analyzed data from a multicenter European case-control study that included 117 SOT recipients with nocardiosis diagnosed between 2000 and 2014...
February 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328685/whole-blood-transfusion-closest-to-the-point-of-injury-during-french-remote-military-operations
#2
Yann Daniel, Anne Sailliol, Thomas Pouget, Sébastien Peyrefitte, Sylvain Ausset, Christophe Martinaud
To improve the survival of combat casualties, interest in the earliest resort to whole blood (WB) transfusion on the battlefield has been emphasized. Providing volume, coagulation factors, plasma and oxygenation capacity, WB appears actually as an ideal product severe trauma management. WB can be collected in advance, and stored for subsequent utilization, or can be drawn, directly on the battlefield, once a soldier is wounded, from an uninjured companion and immediately transfused.Such concepts require a great control of risks at each step, especially regarding ABO mismatches, and transfusion transmitted diseases...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323545/creation-of-a-bioengineered-skin-flap-scaffold-with-a-perfusable-vascular-pedicle
#3
Bernhard J Jank, Jeremy Goverman, Jacques P Guyette, Jon M Charest, Mark A Randolph, Glenn R Gaudette, Joshua R Gershlak, Martin Purschke, Emilia Javorsky, Rosalynn M Nazarian, David A Leonard, Curtis L Cetrulo, William G Austen, Harald Christian Ott
Full thickness skin loss is a challenging problem due to limited reconstructive options, demanding 75 million surgical procedures annually in the United States. Autologous skin grafting is the gold standard treatment, but results in donor site morbidity and poor aesthetics. Numerous skin substitutes are available on the market to date, however, none truly function as full thickness skin due to their lack of a vascular network. The creation of an autologous full thickness skin analogue with a vascular pedicle would result in a paradigm shift in the management of wounds and in reconstruction of full thickness skin defects...
March 21, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321356/island-posterior-thigh-flap-revisited-in-covering-extensive-sacral-wounds-our-experience-with-two-patients
#4
F Nangole Wanjala, Ajujo Martin
Deep sacral wounds are best covered by flaps. Posterior thigh flaps have routinely been used to cover such wounds. The flap can however be modified as an island flap. Two patients with extensive sacral wounds were managed with island posterior thigh flaps. Both patients were admitted secondary to road traffic accident with subsequent soft tissue loss of the sacral area. The sacral defects in both patients were approximately 17 cm by 23 cm in dimensions. Unilateral island posterior thigh flap was raised and used to cover the wounds...
2017: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321326/first-canadian-case-report-of-kidney-transplantation-from-an-hiv-positive-donor-to-an-hiv-positive-recipient
#5
Georges Ambaraghassi, Héloïse Cardinal, Daniel Corsilli, Claude Fortin, Marie-Chantal Fortin, Valérie Martel-Laferrière, Jacques Malaise, Michel R Pâquet, Danielle Rouleau
RATIONALE: Kidney transplantation has become standard of care for carefully selected patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. American and European prospective cohort studies have reported similar patient and graft survival compared with HIV-negative kidney transplant recipients. Despite an increased rate of acute rejection, partially due to drug interactions, HIV immunovirologic parameter generally remains under control during immunosuppression...
2017: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318749/experience-and-outcomes-of-micrografting-for-major-paediatric-burns
#6
H Rode, R Martinez, D Potgieter, S Adams, A D Rogers
BACKGROUND: The deficit of donor sites in major burns over 50% of the total body surface area has necessitated the application of methods besides traditional meshed autografting to achieve definitive skin cover. The Meek micrografting technique was introduced at this hospital in 2011, especially in the absence of a reliable source of deceased donor allograft skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this strategy with reference to its technical execution, efficacy and indications in the context of major paediatric burn surgery...
March 15, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318674/organ-donor-management-eight-common-recommendations-and-actions-that-deserve-reflection
#7
C Chamorro-Jambrina, M R Muñoz-Ramírez, J L Martínez-Melgar, M S Pérez-Cornejo
Despite major advances in our understanding of the physiopathology of brain death (BD), there are important controversies as to which protocol is the most appropriate for organ donor management. Many recent reviews on this subject offer recommendations that are sometimes contradictory and in some cases are not applied to other critically ill patients. This article offers a review of the publications (many of them recent) with an impact upon these controversial measures and which can help to confirm, refute or open new areas of research into the most appropriate measures for the management of organ donors in BD, and which should contribute to discard certain established recommendations based on preconceived ideas, that lead to actions lacking a physiopathological basis...
March 16, 2017: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315515/tailored-corneo-conjunctival-autografting-in-primary-and-secondary-pterygium-surgery
#8
Mahmoud M Genidy, Ahmed A Abdelghany, Jorge L Alio
PURPOSE: To describe the outcomes of a novel technique for pterygium removal: tailored corneo-conjunctival autograft, which offers the advantages of better postoperative cosmetic outcomes and recurrence prevention. METHODS: This retrospective interventional noncomparative study included 420 eyes in 370 patients (ages 25-60 years) (127 women, 243 men). We divided the patients into 2 groups. The first group included 348 primary pterygium; the second group included 72 recurrent pterygium...
February 28, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301996/management-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-prevention-surveillance-diagnosis-and-staging
#9
Digdem Ozer Etik, Nurettin Suna, Ahmet Sedat Boyacioglu
More than 600 000 people die from hepatocellular carcinoma each year. Worldwide, research on the disease needs to be intensified in both the medical and pharmaceutical fields, with a focus on providing help to geographic areas where resources are limited. Treatment approaches depend on the stage of the disease at diagnosis and on access to complex treatment regimens. However, advanced disease is not curable, and treating these patients is expensive and only marginally effective for increasing quality-adjusted life-years...
March 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301387/antibody-mediated-rejection-in-heart-transplantation-new-developments-and-old-uncertainties
#10
Valentina Manfredini, Ornella Leone, Valentina Agostini, Luciano Potena
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) currently represents one of the main problems for clinical management of heart transplant because of its diagnostic complexity and poor evidences supporting treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Disorder-based diagnosis is a cornerstone in defining AMR. The limitations of the current classification have been partially overcome by novel studies improving the description of the immune-pathological graft abnormalities, and by new molecular approaches allowing a better understanding of the mechanisms behind AMR and of its relationship with cellular rejection and chronic vasculopathy...
March 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300421/the-state-of-cloud-based-biospecimen-and-biobank-data-management-tools
#11
Shonali Paul, Aditi Gade, Sumani Mallipeddi
Biobanks are critical for collecting and managing high-quality biospecimens from donors with appropriate clinical annotation. The high-quality human biospecimens and associated data are required to better understand disease processes. Therefore, biobanks have become an important and essential resource for healthcare research and drug discovery. However, collecting and managing huge volumes of data (biospecimens and associated clinical data) necessitate that biobanks use appropriate data management solutions that can keep pace with the ever-changing requirements of research...
March 16, 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299897/towards-canine-rabies-elimination-economic-comparisons-of-three-project-sites
#12
J L Elser, B G Hatch, L H Taylor, L H Nel, S A Shwiff
An appreciation of the costs of implementing canine rabies control in different settings is important for those planning new or expanded interventions. Here we compare the costs of three canine rabies control projects in South Africa, the Philippines and Tanzania to identify factors that influence the overall costs of rabies control efforts. There was considerable variation in the cost of vaccinating each dog, but across the sites these were lower where population density was higher, and later in the projects when dog vaccination coverage was increased...
March 15, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298338/quality-of-care-in-performance-based-financing-how-it-is-incorporated-in-32-programs-across-28-countries
#13
REVIEW
Jessica Gergen, Erik Josephson, Martha Coe, Samantha Ski, Supriya Madhavan, Sebastian Bauhoff
OBJECTIVE: To describe how quality of care is incorporated into performance-based financing (PBF) programs, what quality indicators are being used, and how these indicators are measured and verified. METHODS: An exploratory scoping methodology was used to characterize the full range of quality components in 32 PBF programs, initiated between 2008 and 2015 in 28 low- and middle-income countries, totaling 68 quality tools and 8,490 quality indicators. The programs were identified through a review of the peer-reviewed and gray literature as well as through expert consultation with key donor representatives...
March 15, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297620/germline-genetic-predisposition-to-hematologic-malignancy
#14
Elissa Furutani, Akiko Shimamura
Development of hematologic malignancies is driven by mutations that may be somatic or germline. Availability of next-generation DNA sequencing technologies has facilitated the development of individualized diagnostic evaluations and tailored treatment strategies. Until now, such personalized medical approaches have largely centered on prognostic stratification and treatment strategies informed by acquired somatic mutations. The role of germline mutations in children and adults with hematologic malignancies was previously underappreciated...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296287/bio-inspired-nanomedicine-strategies-for-artificial-blood-components
#15
REVIEW
Anirban Sen Gupta
Blood is a fluid connective tissue where living cells are suspended in noncellular liquid matrix. The cellular components of blood render gas exchange (RBCs), immune surveillance (WBCs) and hemostatic responses (platelets), and the noncellular components (salts, proteins, etc.) provide nutrition to various tissues in the body. Dysfunction and deficiencies in these blood components can lead to significant tissue morbidity and mortality. Consequently, transfusion of whole blood or its components is a clinical mainstay in the management of trauma, surgery, myelosuppression, and congenital blood disorders...
March 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288014/the-times-they-are-a-changing-hope-for-hiv-to-hiv-organ-transplantation
#16
Ghady Haidar, Nina Singh
HIV-infected persons who achieve undetectable viral loads on antiretroviral therapy currently have near-normal lifespans. Liver disease is a major cause of non-AIDS-related deaths, and as a result of longer survival, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease in HIV is increasing. HIV-infected persons undergoing organ transplantation generally achieve comparable patient and graft survival rates compared to their HIV-uninfected counterparts, despite a nearly threefold increased risk of acute rejection. However, the ongoing shortage of suitable organs can limit transplantation as an option, and patients with HIV have higher waitlist mortality than others...
March 1, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280376/single-donor-islet-transplantation-in-type-1-diabetes-patient-selection-and-special-considerations
#17
REVIEW
Jacob A Tatum, Max O Meneveau, Kenneth L Brayman
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disorder of the endocrine pancreas that currently affects millions of people in the United States. Although the disease can be managed with exogenous insulin administration, the ultimate cure for the condition lies in restoring a patient's ability to produce their own insulin. Islet cell allotransplantation provides a means of endogenous insulin production. Though far from perfected, islet transplants are now a proven treatment for type 1 diabetics. However, proper patient selection is critical for achieving optimal outcomes...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279825/optimal-practices-in-unrelated-donor-cord-blood-transplantation-for-hematologic-malignancies
#18
REVIEW
Juliet N Barker, Joanne Kurtzberg, Karen Ballen, Michael Boo, Claudio Brunstein, Corey Cutler, Mitchell Horwitz, Filippo Milano, Amanda Olson, Stephen Spellman, John E Wagner, Colleen Delaney, Elizabeth Shpall
Unrelated donor cord blood (CB) transplantation (CBT) results in disease-free survival comparable to that of unrelated adult donor transplantation in patients with hematologic malignancies. Extension of allograft access to racial and ethnic minorities, rapid graft availability, flexibility of transplant date, and low risks of disabling chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and relapse are significant advantages of CBT, and multiple series have reported a low risk of late transplant-related mortality (TRM) post-transplant...
March 6, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279666/pediatric-heart-failure-a-practical-guide-to-diagnosis-and-management
#19
REVIEW
Daniele Masarone, Fabio Valente, Marta Rubino, Rossella Vastarella, Rita Gravino, Alessandra Rea, Maria Giovanna Russo, Giuseppe Pacileo, Giuseppe Limongelli
Pediatric heart failure represents an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. Currently, there are well-established guidelines for the management of heart failure in the adult population, but an equivalent consensus in children is lacking. In the clinical setting, ensuring an accurate diagnosis and defining etiology is essential to optimal treatment. Diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition are the first-line therapies, whereas beta-blockers and devices for electric therapy are less used in children than in adults...
February 1, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278748/evaluation-of-a-pilot-intervention-to-redesign-the-decentralised-vaccine-supply-chain-system-in-nigeria
#20
Shola Molemodile, Maruchi Wotogbe, Seye Abimbola
Responsibility for immunisation in Nigeria is decentralised to sub-national governments. So far, they have failed to achieve optimal coverage for their populations. We evaluated a pilot intervention implemented between 2013 and 2014 to redesign a vaccine supply chain management system in Kano, Nigeria. The intervention included financing immunisation services from a designated pool of government and donor funds, a visibility tool to track vaccine stock, and a private vendor engaged to deliver vaccines directly to health facilities...
February 24, 2017: Global Public Health
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