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Julian A Harrison, J Andrew Aquilina
The compositions of paradoxin and taipoxin (PDx and TPx, respectively) were investigated using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and nano-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-ESI-MS). The elution profiles from size exclusion chromatography of the venoms from Oxyuranus microlepidotus and Oxyuranus scutellatus were similar. Fractions corresponding to the trimeric toxins were treated with guanidinium hydrochloride and the individual subunits were separated by HPLC. In this report we present the size exclusion chromatography profiles for these toxins, and the nano-ESI mass spectra of the subunits after separation by HPLC: the first such comparative study of these toxins at the protein level...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Celia R Carlini, Rodrigo Ligabue-Braun
Ureases are metalloenzymes that hydrolyze urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. They were the first enzymes to be crystallized and, with them, the notion that enzymes are proteins became accepted. Novel toxic properties of ureases that are independent of their enzyme activity have been discovered in the last three decades. Since our first description of the neurotoxic properties of canatoxin, an isoform of the jack bean urease, which appeared in Toxicon in 1981, about one hundred articles have been published on "new" properties of plant and microbial ureases...
February 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Thomas J Weber, Jordan N Smith, Zana A Carver, Charles Timchalk
Direct measurements of exposure represent the most accurate assessment of a subject's true exposure. The clearance of many drugs and chemicals, including pesticides such as chlorpyrifos (CPF), can be detected non-invasively in saliva. Here we have developed a serous-acinar transwell model system as an in vitro screening platform to prioritize chemicals for non-invasive biomonitoring through salivary clearance mechanisms. Rat primary serous-acinar cells express both α-amylase and aquaporin-5 proteins and develop significant tight junctions at postconfluence - a feature necessary for chemical transport studies in vitro...
November 11, 2015: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Munta Kartik, Sai Praveen Haranath, Rahul Amte, Palepu Gopal
SESSION TYPE: Critical Care Global Case Report PostersPRESENTED ON: Tuesday, October 23, 2012 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PMINTRODUCTION: Centipedes are multisegmeted arthropods with a single pair of legs per segment and one pair of antennae .Centipede stings occur in the warmer climates throughout the world. The species of medical importance is Scolopendra Sp which has been described as the longest and the most aggressive tropical centipede. Centipede stings often occur as the victim is putting on clothes or while in bed...
October 1, 2012: Chest
Sikander Zulqarnain, Samir Fahmy, Susan Cheng, Muhammad Khan, Ghassan Jamaleddine
SESSION TYPE: Miscellaneous Case Report Posters IPRESENTED ON: Tuesday, October 23, 2012 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PMINTRODUCTION: Susumber Berry (Solanum torvum) is a green, bitter tasting berry used in Jamaican foods. It is also known as devil's fig, fausse aubergine, gully bean, sundakkai, thai eggplant, turkey berry, and soda apple. Rarely, berries can become toxic when environmentally stressed. We report two cases with susumber berries' toxicity.CASE PRESENTATION: A Jamaican couple, 65 year old husband and 49 year old wife, presented almost 11 hours after having a meal that contained Susumber Barriers...
October 1, 2012: Chest
Julián Monge-Nájera, Yuh-Shan Ho
Despite of its small size, the Central American country of Costa Rica is internationally recognized as one of the world leaders in conservation and as the Central American leader in science. There have been no recent studies on the country's scientific production. The objective of this study was to analyze the Costa Rican scientific output as represented in the Science Citation Index Expanded. All documents with "Costa Rica" in the address field from 1981 to 2010 were included (total 6 801 publications). Articles (79%) were more frequent than other types of publication and were mostly in English (83%)...
December 2012: Revista de Biología Tropical
David Morgenstern, Glenn F King
Animal venoms are complex chemical mixtures that typically contain hundreds of proteins and non-proteinaceous compounds, resulting in a potent weapon for prey immobilization and predator deterrence. However, because venoms are protein-rich, they come with a high metabolic price tag. The metabolic cost of venom is sufficiently high to result in secondary loss of venom whenever its use becomes non-essential to survival of the animal. The high metabolic cost of venom leads to the prediction that venomous animals may have evolved strategies for minimizing venom expenditure...
March 1, 2013: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Dietrich Mebs
The International Society on Toxinology (IST) was founded in 1962 with its main purpose to advance knowledge on venoms, poisons and toxins of animal, plant and microbial origin. World Congresses of the Society and Symposia of the IST-Sections (European, Pan-American, Asia-Pacific) are regularly organized to promote communication and exchange of results in toxinology research. The officers of the Society, the President and Secretary-Treasurer, are assisted by a Council and they all are elected by the membership...
July 2013: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
I Claudet, E Gurrera, C Maréchal, L Cordier, R Honorat, E Grouteau
UNLABELLED: Adder bites and their progression to severe envenomations are more frequent in children than in adults. AIM: To describe the clinical, biological, and therapeutic characteristics of children bitten by adders and to identify risk factors associated with severe envenomations corresponding to grades II and III of the Audebert et al. classification (Toxicon 1992). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted between 2001 and 2009 in the pediatric emergency department of a tertiary children's hospital...
December 2011: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Edward R Chu, Scott A Weinstein, Julian White, David A Warrell
Venom ophthalmia caused by venoms of spitting elapid and other snakes: report of ten cases with review of epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiology and management. Chu, ER, Weinstein, SA, White, J and Warrell, DA. Toxicon XX:xxx-xxx. We present ten cases of ocular injury following instillation into the eye of snake venoms or toxins by spitting elapids and other snakes. The natural history of spitting elapids and the toxinology of their venoms are reviewed together with the medical effects and management of venom ophthalmia in humans and domestic animals including both direct and allergic effects of venoms...
September 1, 2010: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Robert H Cichewicz, K David Hambright
The Publisher regrets that this article is an accidental duplication of an article that has already been published, doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2010.02.008. The duplicate article has therefore been withdrawn.
February 13, 2010: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
S Devaraja, K S Girish, V R Devaraj, K Kemparaju
In the recent past, a low molecular mass serine protease, the Hag-protease that caused pro-coagulant activity and as well as local toxicity was isolated and characterized from the Hippasa agelenoides spider venom gland extract (Devaraja et al., Toxicon 52:130-138, 2008). In the current study, the pro-coagulant property has been investigated further and the results are presented. The Hag-protease reduced the re-calcification time of citrated human plasma. It reduced the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT) suggesting its participation in common pathway of blood coagulation...
January 2010: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
N-E Leo Saris, Maria A Andersson, Raimo Mikkola, Leif C Andersson, Vera V Teplova, Pavel A Grigoriev, Mirja S Salkinoja-Salonen
We studied the effects of toxins, which inhibited the motility of boar spermatozoa, on rat liver mitochondria. The toxins studied were originally from bacteria isolated from moisture-damaged buildings where inhabitants exhibited symptoms, or from food causing poisoning. Some strains of Bacillus cereus and Streptomyces griseus produced potassium ionophoric peptides cereulide and valinomycin (Mikkola, et al., European Journal of Biochemistry 1999; 263: 112-117). Of interest is that channels were formed in black-lipid membranes (BLM) with a selectivity of K(+) > Na(+) at a concentration of 26 nM...
August 2009: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Thomas Rundberget, Eli Gustad, Ingunn A Samdal, Morten Sandvik, Christopher O Miles
Passive sampling disks were developed based on the method of MacKenzie, L, Beuzenberg, V., Holland, P., McNabb, P., Selwood, A. [2004. Solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT): a new monitoring tool that simulates the biotoxin contamination of filter feeding bivalves. Toxicon 44, 901-918] and protocols were formulated for recovering toxins from the adsorbent resin via elution from small columns. The disks were used in field studies to monitor in situ toxin dynamics during mixed algal blooms at Flødevigen in Norway...
April 2009: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Tom Turk, William R Kem
Cnidarians are the largest phylum of generally toxic animals, yet their toxins and venoms have not received as much scientific attention as those of many terrestrial (snakes, scorpions, spiders, etc.) and even some marine animals (i.e. cone snails). Approximately 13,000 living cnidarian species have been described by systematists. A major rationale for their study in the past, besides scientific curiosity, was to better treat victims of their envenomation. While that goal remains a high priority, it is now appreciated that the toxins of these mostly marine animals can be very useful molecular probes for the analysis of ion channels involved in electrical signaling, immune responses and other signal transduction processes of biomedical interest...
December 15, 2009: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Erica Pereira Costa, Carolina Beltrame Del Debbio, Leandro Carrijo Cintra, Luciano da Fontoura Costa, Dânia Emi Hamassaki, Marinilce Fagundes Santos
It has been shown previously that the snake venom metalloprotease-disintegrin jararhagin stimulates cell migration and cytoskeletal rearrangement, independently of its effects on cellular adhesion but possibly associated with the activation of small GTP-binding proteins from the Rho family [Costa, E.P., Santos, M.F., 2004. Toxicon 44(8), 861-870.] Here we show that jararhagin stimulates spreading, actin dynamics and neurite outgrowth in neuroblastoma cells, and that this effect is accompanied by the translocation of the Rac1 small GTPase to the membrane fraction, suggesting its activation...
August 1, 2008: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Antony Gomes, Biplab Giri, Labanyamoy Kole, Archita Saha, Anindita Debnath, Aparna Gomes
In our earlier communication, it was reported that Indian toad (Bufo melanostictus) skin extract (TSE) possesses antiproliferative and apoptogenic activity in U937 and K562 cells [Giri et al., 2006. Antiproliferative, cytotoxic and apoptogenic activity of Indian toad (Bufo melanostictus, Schneider) skin extract in U937 and K562 cells. Toxicon 48 (4), 388-400]. In the present study, a compound (BM-ANF1) has been isolated from the TSE by alumina gel column chromatography, crystallized and evaluated for its antiproliferative and apoptogenic activity in U937, K562 and HepG2 cells...
November 2007: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Carlos Sevcik, Victor Salazar, Patricia Díaz, Gina D'Suze
Fast disappearance of F(ab')2 antivenoms from the plasma compartment [Sevcik et al., 2004. Modelling Tityus scorpion venom and antivenom pharmacokinetics. Evidence of active immunoglobulin G's F(ab')2 extrusion mechanism from blood to tissues. Toxicon 44, 731-734; Vazquez et al., 2005. Pharmacokinetics of a F(ab')2 scorpion antivenom in healthy human volunteers. Toxicon 46, 797-805] suggests a quick time course to reach its final distribution volume. An equation was developed to describe how the volume occupied by a drug in the body grows with time...
October 2007: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Graham M Nicholson
Arthropod pests are responsible for major crop devastation and are vectors for the transmission of new and re-emerging diseases in humans and livestock. Despite many years of effective control by conventional agrochemical insecticides, a number of factors are threatening the effectiveness and continued use of these agents. These include the development of insecticide resistance and use-cancellation or de-registration of some insecticides due to human health and environmental concerns. Several approaches are being investigated for the design of new (bio)pesticides...
March 15, 2007: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Sylvia Mendes Carneiro, Wilson Fernandes, Savio Stefanini Sant'anna, Norma Yamanouye
The Publisher regrets that this article was an accidental duplication of an article that has already been published in Toxicon, 49 (2007) 106-110, . The duplicate article has therefore been withdrawn.
November 15, 2006: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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