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Research method

Valentina Brenzini, Rahul Pathak
There seems to be a limited amount of research about the detection of concealed bloodstains on painted surfaces. The bloodstains on walls and floors are often removed by cleaning, in some cases the surfaces are painted by the perpetrator after committing a violent crime in order to hide the crime that has occurred. The study hereafter extends and deepens on previous researches by investigating the detectability of horse bloodstains on painted ceramic tiles as a function of the number of layers of paint. In this study luminol was used as a reagent to detect the bloodstains...
April 27, 2018: Forensic Science International
Alexey Rayevsky, Mohsen Sharifi, Michael Tukalo
The accuracy of protein synthesis is provided by the editing functions of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), a mechanism that eliminates misactivated amino acids or mischarged tRNAs. Despite research efforts, some molecular bases of these mechanisms are still unclear. The post-transfer editing pathway of leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) carried out in a special insertion domain (the Connective Polypeptide 1 or CP1), as editing domain. Recently, it was shown by in vivo studies and was supported by mutagenesis, and the kinetics approaches that the CP1 domain of LeuRS has discriminatory power for different substrates...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Kaisar Kushibar, Sergi Valverde, Sandra González-Villà, Jose Bernal, Mariano Cabezas, Arnau Oliver, Xavier Lladó
Sub-cortical brain structure segmentation in Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) has attracted the interest of the research community for a long time as morphological changes in these structures are related to different neurodegenerative disorders. However, manual segmentation of these structures can be tedious and prone to variability, highlighting the need for robust automated segmentation methods. In this paper, we present a novel convolutional neural network based approach for accurate segmentation of the sub-cortical brain structures that combines both convolutional and prior spatial features for improving the segmentation accuracy...
June 15, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Florence Mei Fung Wong
BACKGROUND: Small group work is an effective teaching-learning approach in nursing education to enhance students' learning in theoretical knowledge and skill development. Despite its potential advantageous effects on learning, little is known about its actual effects on students' learning from students' and educators' perspectives. OBJECTIVES: To understand students' learning through small group work from the perspectives of students and educators. DESIGN: A qualitative study with focus group interviews was carried out...
June 18, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Zhaoan Xu, Tao Li, Jun Bi, Ce Wang
Natural lakes play a vital role as receiving system of a cocktail of antibiotics (ABs) which have triggered a major health concern. The comparisons of ABs concentrations have been substantially implemented throughout the worldwide range. However, from lake management, the questions are not yet adequately solved: "when and where does the overall pollution level of ABs present more serious, and what AB species dominate". In this study, we detected 22 ABs in water column and sediment bottom in Taihu Lake Basin in January, April, July and October in 2017...
June 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Rui Dong, Ziyue Zhu, Changchuan Yin, Rong L He, Stephen S-T Yau
Analyzing phylogenetic relationships using mathematical methods has always been of importance in bioinformatics. Quantitative research may interpret the raw biological data in a precise way. Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA) is used frequently to analyze biological evolutions, but is very time-consuming. When the scale of data is large, alignment methods cannot finish calculation in reasonable time. Therefore, we present a new method using moments of cumulative Fourier power spectrum in clustering the DNA sequences...
June 20, 2018: Gene
J A Lossio-Ventura, J Bian, C Jonquet, M Roche, M Teisseire
BACKGROUND: Rapid advancements in biomedical research have accelerated the number of relevant electronic documents published online, ranging from scholarly articles to news, blogs, and user-generated social media content. Nevertheless, the vast amount of this information is poorly organized, making it difficult to navigate. Emerging technologies such as ontologies and knowledge bases (KBs) could help organize and track the information associated with biomedical research developments. A major challenge in the automatic construction of ontologies and KBs is the identification of words with its respective sense(s) from a free-text corpus...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Yan Zhang, Yi Jin, Carel Vereijken, Bernd Stahl, Hong Jiang
Breastfeeding rates remain low in China despite decades of efforts at improving breastfeeding practices. The study aimed to explore mothers' breastfeeding experience throughout the breastfeeding period and to understand their challenges and support service needs at each stage. Qualitative research methods, individual in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were carried out with mothers and people who played various roles regarding breastfeeding such as service provider, researcher and policy maker. Mothers' breastfeeding practices can be categorized into five stages...
June 20, 2018: Appetite
Jian Li, Manyu Xiang, Ruixiang Zhang, Bin Xu, Wei Hu
Schistosomes are parasitic platyhelminths that threaten over 600 million people globally. In recent years, RNA interference (RNAi) has been widely used as a molecular tool in research into the genomic function of parasites. We aim to develop effective protocols for application of RNAi technology in the intra-mammalian life stages of Schistosoma japonicum. In this work, the expression of the parasite gene encoding cathepsin B1 (SjCB1) was targeted by exposing the worms to 10 μg of long dsRNA dissolved in 0...
June 20, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Mark G Swain, David E J Jones
The management of fatigue associated with chronic liver disease is a complex and major clinical challenge. Although fatigue can complicate many chronic diseases, it is particularly common in diseases with an inflammatory component. Fatigue can have both peripheral (i.e., neuromuscular) and central (i.e., resulting from changes in neurotransmission within the brain) causes. However, fatigue in chronic liver disease has strong social/contextual components and is often associated with behavioural alterations including depression and anxiety...
June 23, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Julian Borejdo, Zygmunt Gryczynski, Rafal Fudala, Chaitanya R Joshi, Kathleen Borgmann, Anuja Ghorpade, Ignacy Gryczynski
Total internal reflection microscopy (TIRF) has been a powerful tool in biological research. The most valuable feature of the method has been the ability to image 100- to 200-nm-thick layer of cell features adjacent to a coverslip, such as membrane lipids, membrane receptors, and structures proximal-to-basal membranes. Here, we demonstrate an alternative method of imaging thin-layer proximal-to-basal membranes by placing a sample on a high refractive index coverslip covered by a thin layer of gold. The sample is illuminated using the Kretschmann method (i...
June 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Paola Imbrici, Orazio Nicolotti, Francesco Leonetti, Diana Conte, Antonella Liantonio
Ion channels are membrane proteins involved in almost all physiological processes, including neurotransmission, muscle contraction, pace-making activity, secretion, electrolyte and water balance, immune response, and cell proliferation. Due to their broad distribution in human body and physiological roles, ion channels are attractive targets for drug discovery and safety pharmacology. Over the years ion channels have been associated to many genetic diseases ("channelopathies"). For most of these diseases the therapy is mainly empirical and symptomatic, often limited by lack of efficacy and tolerability for a number of patients...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Supratik Kar, Kunal Roy, Jerzy Leszczynski
In the context of human safety assessment through quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling, the concept of applicability domain (AD) has an enormous role to play. The Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) for QSAR model validation recommended as principle 3 "A defined domain of applicability" to be present for a predictive QSAR model. The study of AD allows estimating the uncertainty in the prediction for a particular molecule based on how similar it is to the training compounds which are used in the model development...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Nasima Arshad, Shahid Iqbal Farooqi
Cancer is developed by rapid, uncontrolled, and abnormal cell proliferation and one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide in human beings. For the remedial measures of preventing different types of cancers, one of the research domains that have gained substantial importance in medical science is the development of new metallo-drugs and their investigations as potential anticancer drug agents by using various analytical techniques. Since metal-based complexes show weak absorption bands, electrochemical methods are considered more feasible and preferable over spectroscopic methods for easy characterization...
June 22, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Márton Kiss-Leizer, Adrien Rigó
PURPOSE: Our aim was to measure the personality profile of people with high orthorexic tendency using an assessment method which is acknowledged in the research of the classical eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: In our research, 739 participants completed a self-administered, online questionnaire consisting of two measures: Temperament and Character Inventory-56 (TCI-56) and Ortho-11-Hu. RESULTS: The orthorexia nervosa (ON) grouping variable has a significant effect on three factors of TCI: MANOVA revealed higher harm avoidance (F (2, 736) = 19...
June 22, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Guillermo Vallejo, Manuel Ato, M Paula Fernández, Pablo E Livacic-Rojas
In this study, two approaches were employed to calculate how large the sample size needs to be in order to achieve a desired statistical power to detect a significant group-by-time interaction in longitudinal intervention studies-a power analysis method, based on derived formulas using ordinary least squares estimates, and an empirical method, based on restricted maximum likelihood estimates. The performance of both procedures was examined under four different scenarios: (a) complete data with homogeneous variances, (b) incomplete data with homogeneous variances, (c) complete data with heterogeneous variances, and (d) incomplete data with heterogeneous variances...
June 22, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
David Burgenson, Chandrasekhar Gurramkonda, Manohar Pilli, Xudong Ge, Abhay Andar, Yordan Kostov, Leah Tolosa, Govind Rao
Several groups have recently reported on the utility of cell-free expression systems to make therapeutic proteins, most of them employing CHO or E. coli cell-free extracts. Here, we propose an alternative that uses human blood derived leukocyte cell extracts for the expression of recombinant proteins. We demonstrate expression of nano luciferase (Nluc), Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and Erythropoietin (EPO) in cell-free leukocyte extracts within two hours. Human blood is readily available from donors and blood banks and leukocyte rich fractions are easy to obtain...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eric Courchesne, Tiziano Pramparo, Vahid H Gazestani, Michael V Lombardo, Karen Pierce, Nathan E Lewis
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has captured the attention of scientists, clinicians and the lay public because of its uncertain origins and striking and unexplained clinical heterogeneity. Here we review genetic, genomic, cellular, postmortem, animal model, and cell model evidence that shows ASD begins in the womb. This evidence leads to a new theory that ASD is a multistage, progressive disorder of brain development, spanning nearly all of prenatal life. ASD can begin as early as the 1st and 2nd trimester with disruption of cell proliferation and differentiation...
June 22, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Martin Freesmeyer, Christian Kuehnel, Thomas Opfermann, Tobias Niksch, Steffen Wiegand, Ronny Stolz, Ralph Huonker, Otto W Witte, Thomas Winkens
In ovo research is a valuable option of preclinical research, but imaging studies are severely limited by the costs of dedicated equipment needed for small-size eggs. We sought to verify the feasibility of using larger eggs of ostrich (Struthio camelus) for the imaging with PET/CT scanners used for routine clinical investigations. Methods: Ostrich eggs were incubated until shortly before hatching and prepared for the intra-vitelline venous injection of contrast media or radiotracers. Imaging was performed by native computed tomography (CT), contrast-enhanced CT and positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT; Biograph mCT40; Siemens, Germany)...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
M Issaoui, A Debost-Legrand, K Skerl, B Chauveau, B Magnin, A Delabaere, L Boyer, M-P Sauvant-Rochat, D Lémery
PURPOSE: To identify the effects of shear wave elastography in the fetus for evaluation in widespread use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Health Risk Assessment method proposed by the National Research Council was used with literature to evaluate the safety of shear wave elastography for the fetus regarding its potential effects in human tissues. RESULTS: The experimental and epidemiologic data from 25 articles showed that shear wave elastography maintained the same thermal effect as pulsed Doppler ultrasound already authorized in obstetrics, and that cavitation effect on fetal tissue is improbable...
June 19, 2018: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
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