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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214841/drug-dosing-and-estimated-renal-function-any-step-forward-from-effersoe
#1
Mads Hornum, Bo Feldt-Rasmussen
Drug dosing in accordance with the renal function is a long-standing challenge to clinicians. For many years it has been evident that in many clinical situations there is no easy way to correctly dose any drug that is mainly cleared by the kidneys. Despite the development of many formulas for estimating the glomerular filtration rate, they all have serious shortcomings. Much effort has been put in to develop estimation formulas to evaluate the renal function as an alternative to direct methods with the aim of safely dosing drugs that are mainly cleared by the kidneys...
February 18, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214834/kidney-injury-molecule-1-is-elevated-in-nephropathy-and-mediates-macrophage-activation-via-the-mapk-signalling-pathway
#2
Lei Tian, Xinghua Shao, Yuanyuan Xie, Qin Wang, Xiajing Che, Minfang Zhang, Weijia Xu, Yao Xu, Shan Mou, Zhaohui Ni
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is highly expressed in renal tubular cells after injury and is usually regarded as an early biomarker of acute kidney injury(AKI). The aim of this study was to determine the role of KIM-1 in the development of renal tubular injury Methods: Clinical samples, three different animal models and in vitro experiments were utilized to determine the possible mechanism underlying the involvement of KIM-1 in kidney injury. RESULTS: Both plasma and urinary KIM-1 expression levels were significantly higher in AKI and chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients than in healthy volunteers, and urinary KIM-1 expression was significantly higher in CKD patients than in AKI patients...
February 13, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214724/where-biomedicalisation-and-magic-meet-therapeutic-innovations-of-elite-sports-injury-in-british-professional-football-and-cycling
#3
Alex Faulkner, Michael McNamee, Catherine Coveney, Jonathan Gabe
Injury is a conspicuous feature of the practice and public spectacle of contemporary elite sports. The paper argues that the 'biomedicalisation' thesis (medico-industrial nexus, techno-scientific drivers, medical optimisation, biologisation, the rise of evidence and health surveillance) goes some way to capturing the use in elite sports injury of some highly specialised mainstream therapies and some highly maverick biological therapies, which are described. Nevertheless, these main strands of biomedicalisation do not capture the full range of these phenomena in the contexts of sports medicine and athletes' practices in accessing innovative, controversial therapies...
February 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214719/host-guest-interaction-of-3-hydroxyflavone-and-7-hydroxyflavone-with-cucurbit-7-uril-a-spectroscopic-and-calorimetric-approach
#4
Sayeed Ashique Ahmed, Banibrata Maity, Soma Seth Duley, Debabrata Seth
The modulation of photophysical behaviour of small organic molecules in the presence of macrocycles is one of the most interesting areas of research. In this work we reported the interaction of two biologically active molecules 3-hydroxyflavone and 7-hydroxyflavone with macrocyclic host cucurbit [7]uril in aqueous medium. To investigate the change of photophysical properties of these two flavones, we have used steady state absorption, fluorescence, time resolved fluorescence emission spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetric technique...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214717/an-interactive-medical-image-segmentation-framework-using-iterative-refinement
#5
Pratik Kalshetti, Manas Bundele, Parag Rahangdale, Dinesh Jangra, Chiranjoy Chattopadhyay, Gaurav Harit, Abhay Elhence
Segmentation is often performed on medical images for identifying diseases in clinical evaluation. Hence it has become one of the major research areas. Conventional image segmentation techniques are unable to provide satisfactory segmentation results for medical images as they contain irregularities. They need to be pre-processed before segmentation. In order to obtain the most suitable method for medical image segmentation, we propose MIST (Medical Image Segmentation Tool), a two stage algorithm. The first stage automatically generates a binary marker image of the region of interest using mathematical morphology...
February 13, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214708/evaluating-the-role-of-smokeless-tobacco-use-indices-as-brief-measures-of-dependence
#6
Nasir Mushtaq, Laura A Beebe
INTRODUCTION: There is considerable interest in using brief measures of dependence for evaluation and treatment of tobacco dependence. The Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) is a validated measure of dependence among cigarette smokers. However, a similar index has not been studied among ST users. The aim of this study is to develop similar ST use indices and evaluate their utility as concise dependence measures. Time to first chew/dip of the day (TTFD), number of cans of ST used per week (CPW), and number of dips/chews per day (DPD) were used to create three ST use indices; heaviness of ST use index (HSTI), ST dependence index (STDI), and ST quantity frequency index (ST-QFI)...
February 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214589/enhanced-expression-and-purification-of-camelid-single-domain-vhh-antibodies-from-classical-inclusion-bodies
#7
Maristella Maggi, Claudia Scotti
Single domain antibodies (sdAbs) are small antigen-binding domains derived from naturally occurring, heavy chain-only immunoglobulins isolated from camelid and sharks. They maintain the same binding capability of full-length IgGs but with improved thermal stability and permeability, which justifies their scientific, medical and industrial interest. Several described recombinant forms of sdAbs have been produced in different hosts and with different strategies. Here we present an optimized method for a time-saving, high yield production and extraction of a poly-histidine-tagged sdAb from Escherichia coli classical inclusion bodies...
February 15, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214538/contemporary-animal-models-of-cardiac-arrest-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Mikael Vognsen, Bjørn K Fabian-Jessing, Niels Secher, Bo Løfgren, Cameron Dezfulian, Lars W Andersen, Asger Granfeldt
AIM OF THE STUDY: Animal models are widely used in cardiac arrest research. This systematic review aimed to provide an overview of contemporary animal models of cardiac arrest. METHODS: Using a comprehensive research strategy, we searched PubMed and EMBASE from March 8, 2011 to March 8, 2016 for cardiac arrest animal models. Two investigators reviewed titles and abstracts for full text inclusions from which data were extracted according to pre-defined definitions...
February 15, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214519/detection-and-quantification-of-soil-transmitted-helminths-in-environmental-samples-a-review-of-current-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#9
REVIEW
Isaac Dennis Amoah, Gulshan Singh, Thor Axel Stenström, Poovendhree Reddy
It is estimated that over a billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) globally with majority occurring in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), and hookworms (Anclostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) are the main species infecting people. These infections are mostly gained through exposure to faecally contaminated water, soil or contaminated food and with an increase in the risk of infections due to wastewater and sludge reuse in agriculture...
February 15, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214393/flow-cytometric-bacterial-cell-counts-challenge-conventional-heterotrophic-plate-counts-for-routine-microbiological-drinking-water-monitoring
#10
REVIEW
S Van Nevel, S Koetzsch, C R Proctor, M D Besmer, E I Prest, J S Vrouwenvelder, A Knezev, N Boon, F Hammes
Drinking water utilities and researchers continue to rely on the century-old heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) method for routine assessment of general microbiological water quality. Bacterial cell counting with flow cytometry (FCM) is one of a number of alternative methods that challenge this status quo and provide an opportunity for improved water quality monitoring. After more than a decade of application in drinking water research, FCM methodology is optimised and established for routine application, supported by a considerable amount of data from multiple full-scale studies...
February 8, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214290/evaluate-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-anti-epileptic-medications-for-partial-seizures-of-epilepsy-a-network-meta-analysis
#11
Teng Zhao, Xuemin Feng, Jingyao Liu, Jiguo Gao, Chunkui Zhou
Epilepsy is a brain and neurological disorder with high prevalence. It was reported that more than 70% of epileptic seizures were controlled by anti-epileptic medications, whereas the lack of evidence with respect to head-to-head comparisons motivated researchers to seek alternative approaches that are able to provide deep insights into the profile of anti-epileptic medications. In this study, we performed a network meta-analysis (NMA) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-epileptic medications for partial seizures of epilepsy...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214168/medication-adherence-a-practical-measurement-selection-guide-using-case-studies
#12
Leah L Zullig, Phil Mendys, Hayden B Bosworth
OBJECTIVES: Medication adherence is a complex problem and can be evaluated using a variety of methods. There is no single or perfect strategy to assess adherence. The "best" measure depends on contextual factors. Our objective is to provide a practical, illustrative guide for selecting the most appropriate measure of medication adherence in common contexts. METHODS: We present three case studies - from the perspectives of an academic researcher, health care payer, and clinical care provider - to describe common problems and processes for measuring medication adherence, as well as proposing possible solutions...
February 10, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214006/-conduct-of-epidemiologic-studies-in-french-cancer-survivors-methods-difficulties-encountered-and-solutions-provided-lessons-learned-from-the-simonal-study-on-long-term-toxicities-after-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-treatment
#13
Sabine Anthony, Pierre Hebel, André Garrel, Vanina Oliveri, Catherine Thieblemont, Vincent Ribrag, Hervé Tilly, Corinne Haioun, René-Olivier Casasnovas, Franck Morschhauser, Pierre Feugier, Richard Delarue, Loic Ysebaert, Catherine Sebban, Florence Broussais, Gandhi Damaj, Virginie Nerich, Jean-Philippe Jais, Gilles Salles, Michel Henry-Amar, Nicolas Mounier
INTRODUCTION: Since the introduction of targeted therapies, specific lymphoma mortality has decreased. Possible long-term toxicities, however, are not known yet. This article describes the implementation of the SIMONAL study that investigates the hypothesis of an overconsumption of care after lymphoma treatment with a 10-year follow-up. METHODS: After the mandatory regulatory steps (CCTIRS and CNIL) the vital status and address of 5247 patients treated in 131 French centers were retrieved using a secure web portal, in order to send a quality of life after lymphoma questionnaire...
February 14, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213999/application-of-the-acoustic-voice-quality-index-for-objective-measurement-of-dysphonia-severity
#14
Faustino Núñez-Batalla, Estefanía Díaz-Fresno, Andrea Álvarez-Fernández, Gabriela Muñoz Cordero, José Luis Llorente Pendás
INTRODUCTION: Over the past several decades, many acoustic parameters have been studied as sensitive to and to measure dysphonia. However, current acoustic measures might not be sensitive measures of perceived voice quality. A meta-analysis which evaluated the relationship between perceived overall voice quality and several acoustic-phonetic correlates, identified measures that do not rely on the extraction of the fundamental period, such the measures derived from the cepstrum, and that can be used in sustained vowel as well as continuous speech samples...
February 14, 2017: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213913/application-of-crs-pcr-rflp-to-identify-cyp1a1-gene-polymorphism
#15
Mingcui Ding, Xiaoran Duan, Xiaolei Feng, Pengpeng Wang, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) is a member of the cytochrome P450 gene family and plays an important role in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous material. In recent research, it has been shown that its genetic polymorphisms are associated with many diseases. But the isoschizomers such as the BsrDI enzyme required for the detection of this polymorphism are expensive. METHODS: The study used an improved PCR-RFLP method with mismatched base for detection of the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1048943...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213644/circulating-micrornas-and-diabetes-mellitus-a-novel-tool-for-disease-prediction-diagnosis-and-staging
#16
REVIEW
G Sebastiani, L Nigi, G E Grieco, F Mancarella, G Ventriglia, F Dotta
Diabetes is a complex, multifactorial group of metabolic diseases characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia due to pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction and/or loss. It is characterized by an asymptomatic and highly variable prodromic phase, which renders diabetes mellitus difficult to be predicted with sufficient accuracy. Despite several efforts in the identification and standardization of newly trustable. Biomarkers able to predict and follow-up diabetes and to specifically subtype its different forms, few of them have proven of clinical utility...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213601/protocol-for-a-scoping-review-of-post-trial-extensions-of-randomised-controlled-trials-using-individually-linked-administrative-and-registry-data
#17
Tiffany Fitzpatrick, Laure Perrier, Andrea C Tricco, Sharon E Straus, Peter Jüni, Merrick Zwarenstein, Lisa M Lix, Mark Smith, Laura C Rosella, David A Henry
INTRODUCTION: Well-conducted randomised controlled trials (RCTs) provide the least biased estimates of intervention effects. However, RCTs are costly and time-consuming to perform and long-term follow-up of participants may be hampered by lost contacts and financial constraints. Advances in computing and population-based registries have created new possibilities for increasing the value of RCTs by post-trial extension using linkage to routinely collected administrative/registry data in order to determine long-term interventional effects...
February 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213330/drug-discovery-strategies-in-the-field-of-tumor-energy-metabolism-limitations-by-metabolic-flexibility-and-metabolic-resistance-to-chemotherapy
#18
REVIEW
N D Amoedo, E Obre, R Rossignol
The search for new drugs capable of blocking the metabolic vulnerabilities of human tumors has now entered the clinical evaluation stage, but several projects already failed in phase I or phase II. In particular, very promising in vitro studies could not be translated in vivo at preclinical stage and beyond. This was the case for most glycolysis inhibitors that demonstrated systemic toxicity. A more recent example is the inhibition of glutamine catabolism in lung adenocarcinoma that failed in vivo despite a strong addiction of several cancer cell lines to glutamine in vitro...
February 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213300/experiences-of-stigma-and-discrimination-faced-by-family-caregivers-of-people-with-schizophrenia-in-india
#19
Mirja Koschorke, R Padmavati, Shuba Kumar, Alex Cohen, Helen A Weiss, Sudipto Chatterjee, Jesina Pereira, Smita Naik, Sujit John, Hamid Dabholkar, Madhumitha Balaji, Animish Chavan, Mathew Varghese, R Thara, Vikram Patel, Graham Thornicroft
Stigma associated with schizophrenia significantly affects family caregivers, yet few studies have examined the nature and determinants of family stigma and its relationship to their knowledge about the condition. This paper describes the experiences and determinants of stigma reported by the primary caregivers of people living with schizophrenia (PLS) in India. The study used mixed methods and was nested in a randomised controlled trial of community care for people with schizophrenia. Between November 2009 and October 2010, data on caregiver stigma and functional outcomes were collected from a sample of 282 PLS-caregiver dyads...
February 1, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213265/magnetic-mixed-hemimicelles-dispersive-solid-phase-extraction-based-on-ionic-liquid-coated-attapulgite-polyaniline-polypyrrole-fe3o4-nanocomposites-for-determination-of-acaricides-in-fruit-juice-prior-to-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-diode-array-detection
#20
Xiaoling Yang, Kexin Qiao, Fang Liu, Xiaoling Wu, Miyi Yang, Jing Li, Haixiang Gao, Sanbing Zhang, Wenfeng Zhou, Runhua Lu
In this research, a novel method using magnetic mixed hemimicelles dispersive solid-phase extraction (MMHDSPE) based on C16mimBr-coated attapulgite/polyaniline-polypyrrole/Fe3O4 (ATP/PANI-PPY/Fe3O4) nanocomposites were investigated for enrichment and separation of three acaricides in fruit juice. In this method, we combined the simplicity and speed of dispersive solid-phase extraction, the advantages of mixed hemimicelles and the facility of the phase separation of the magnetic nanoparticles to develop a simple, rapid, sensitive, and effective method for detecting target analytes from the juice samples...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
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