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Elton J R Vasconcelos, Sarah A Billeter, Lindsey A Jett, Richard J Meinersmann, Margaret C Barr, Pedro P V P Diniz, Brian B Oakley
Flea-borne diseases (FBDs) impact both human and animal health worldwide. Because adult fleas are obligately hematophagous and can harbor potential pathogens, fleas act as ectoparasites of vertebrates, as well as zoonotic disease vectors. Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) are important vectors of two zoonotic bacterial genera listed as priority pathogens by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID-USA): Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp., causative agents of bartonelloses and rickettsioses, respectively...
June 12, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
J N Vijayan Genitha Helan, A Grinberg, K Gedye, M A Potter, S Harrus
AIM: To identify Bartonella spp. in rats from New Zealand using molecular methods. METHODS: DNA was extracted from the spleens of 143 black rats (Rattus rattus) captured in the Tongariro National Park, New Zealand. PCR was performed using Bartonella genus-specific primers amplifying segments of the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer and citrate synthase (gltA) and beta subunit of the RNA polymerase (rpoB) genes. PCR products were sequenced and compared online with sequences stored in the database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information of the United States of America...
June 6, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Renan Bressianini do Amaral, Elizabete Captivo Lourenço, Kátia Maria Famadas, Amanda Barbosa Garcia, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André
The family Streblidae comprises a monophyletic group of Hippoboscoidea, hematophagous dipterans that parasitize bats. Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. have been reported in bats sampled in Europe, Africa, Asia, North, Central and South America. However, there are few reports on the Bartonella and Rickettsia bacteria infecting Hippoboscoidea flies and mites. While Spinturnicidae mites are ectoparasites found only in bats, those belonging to the family Macronyssidae comprise mites that also parasitize other mammal species...
2018: PloS One
Joaquim Ruiz, Maria J Pons
All the studies published including Bartonella bacilliformis MLST data, as well as all B. bacilliformis genomes present in GenBank were analyzed. Overall 64 isolates and their geographical distribution were analyzed, and 14 different MLST patterns were observed, analyzed. The results highlight the need for expanding the MLST studies and adding a higher number of isolates from all endemic areas.
June 1, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Clifton D McKee, Lynn M Osikowicz, Teresa R Schwedhelm, Sarah E Maes, Russell E Enscore, Kenneth L Gage, Michael Y Kosoy
Few studies have been able to provide experimental evidence of the ability of fleas to maintain rodent-associated Bartonella infections and excrete these bacteria. These data are important for understanding the transmission cycles and prevalence of these bacteria in hosts and vectors. We used an artificial feeding approach to expose groups of the oriental rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis Rothschild; Siphonaptera, Pulicidae) to rat blood inoculated with varying concentrations of Bartonella elizabethae Daly (Bartonellaceae: Rhizobiales)...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Dionna M Mathews, Katie M Vance, Pamela M McMahon, Catherine Boston, Michael T Bolton
Bartonella henselae is a Gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of cat scratch disease (CSD). Atypical presentations of B. henselae that involve the musculoskeletal, hepatosplenic, cardiac, or neurologic systems are rare. In this case report, we describe a case of B. henselae osteomyelitis involving bilateral iliac bones complicated by hepatic lesions in a 12-year-old immunocompetent female patient. Although B. henselae is a rare cause of osteomyelitis, it should be considered when patients who present with fever, pain, and lymphadenopathy do not respond to routine osteomyelitis therapy...
2018: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Agnieszka Kloch, Marius A Wenzel, Dominik R Laetsch, Olek Michalski, Renata Welc-Falęciak, Stuart B Piertney
Selective pressure from pathogens is considered a key selective force driving the evolution of components of the immune system. Since single components of the immune system may interact with many pathogens, and single pathogens may be recognized by multiple components of the immune system, gaining a better understanding of the mechanisms of parasite-driven selection requires the study of multiple genes and pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a large gene family that code for antigen-presenting components of the innate immune response...
May 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
D Donà, L Nai Fovino, E Mozzo, G Cabrelle, G Bordin, R Lundin, C Giaquinto, T Zangardi, O Rampon
Background: We performed a review of published case studies of osteomyelitis associated with cat-scratch disease to consolidate existing information on clinical presentation, diagnostic tools, therapy, and outcome, as well as presenting a case of disseminated cat-scratch disease in a 12-year-old female with skull osteomyelitis and spleen involvement. Methods: A search for articles indexed in PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar was performed with the search terms " Bartonella ," "bone," "osteomyelitis," "osteolytic," and "cat-scratch disease" limited to the immunocompetent pediatric population and articles in English...
2018: Case Reports in Pediatrics
X Roura, G Santamarina, M-D Tabar, O Francino, L Altet
OBJECTIVES: The presence of Bartonella spp. was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in dogs from Spain with blood culture-negative endocarditis. The aim of this study is to add information about canine infectious endocarditis in Europe. ANIMALS: Thirty dogs with naturally occurring blood culture-negative endocarditis were examined from 2010 to 2017 at three veterinary referral hospitals, located in northwest, northeast, and southeast of Spain. METHODS: It is a retrospective study...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
Rama Chaudhry, Prathyusha Kokkayil, Arnab Ghosh, Tej Bahadur, Kamala Kant, Tanu Sagar, Sunil Kumar Kabra, Rakesh Lodha, Aparajit Ballav Dey, Vimala Menon
Background & objectives: : Bartonella henselae causes infections which closely resemble febrile illness and chronic diseases such as tuberculosis and haematological malignancies. There are not many studies on Bartonella infections from India. The present study was undertaken to diagnose B. henselae infection in diverse clinical conditions in a tertiary care hospital in north India. Methods: A total of 145 patients including those with fever and lymphadenopathy, infective endocarditis and neuroretinitis were enrolled in the study...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Syed Hassan A Akbari, Christine E Averill, Jarod L Roland, Rachel Orscheln, Jennifer Strahle
Bartonella henselae is a gram-negative bacillus implicated in cat-scratch disease. Cat-scratch disease is usually self-limiting and results in local lymphadenopathy. In rare circumstances, patients may develop endocarditis, neuroretinitis, or osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis of the cervical spine is exceedingly rare, especially in the pediatric population, and to date there have been only 4 previously reported cases of cervical spine osteomyelitis caused by B. henselae, all of which were treated surgically. In this article, the authors report the case of a 7-year-old boy who presented with neck swelling and was found to have a C2-4 paravertebral B...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Melissa C Fesler, Marianne J Middelveen, Raphael B Stricker
Morgellons disease (MD) is a dermatological condition characterized by aberrant production of keratin and collagen fibers in skin. Although infection with Borrelia burgdorferi , the causative agent of Lyme disease (LD), has been associated with MD, relatively few studies have hitherto provided epidemiological evidence regarding this association. A cohort of 1000 seropositive North American LD patients was evaluated for the presence of MD. Patients were diagnosed with MD based on detection of microscopic fibers in skin lesions or under unbroken skin...
April 23, 2018: Dermatology Reports
Sruthi Arepalli, Yasha S Modi, Ryan Deasy, Sunil K Srivastava
A patient underwent cataract surgery with prophylactic intracameral vancomycin (Vancocin; Pfizer, New York City, NY) in each eye, 2 weeks apart. Four weeks after, the patient presented with a mild bilateral hemorrhagic occlusive retinal vasculitis (HORV). A systemic work-up was negative for syphilis, toxoplasmosis, Bartonella, tuberculosis, and sarcoidosis. The patient was treated with oral steroids and one intravitreal steroid injection in the left eye. Ten months after presentation, the patient's vasculitis was quiescent...
May 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Orathai Pachirat, Sompop Prathanee, George Watt
Bartonella spp. are emerging pathogens that are reported as the cause of blood culture-negative endocarditis ( BCNE). However, echocardiographic features and assessment of this endocarditis remains unclear. Four patients with B. henselae endocarditis were identified. All patients had underlying cardiac conditions: rheumatic heart disease in three, congenital heart disease in one. Evidence of vegetations was found on the aortic valve in all patients with large, highly mobile vegetations and severely destroyed valves demonstrated by the transthoracic echocardiogram leading to severe aortic regurgitation and heart failure...
April 2018: Cardiology Research
Paula Lado, Barbara Qurollo, Cathy Williams, Randall Junge, Hans Klompen
Lemurs are primate species that are endemic to Madagascar. At present, about 90% of lemur species are endangered, and 5 species are among the 25 most endangered primates worldwide. Health status is a major factor impacting the viability of wild populations of many endangered species including lemurs. Given this context, we analyzed the microbiome of 24 specimens of Haemaphysalis lemuris, the most common tick parasitizing lemurs in their native habitats. Ticks were collected from 6 lemur species and microbiomes analyzed using next-generation sequencing...
May 2, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Zhila Esna Ashari, Nairanjana Dasgupta, Kelly A Brayton, Shira L Broschat
Type IV secretion systems (T4SS) are multi-protein complexes in a number of bacterial pathogens that can translocate proteins and DNA to the host. Most T4SSs function in conjugation and translocate DNA; however, approximately 13% function to secrete proteins, delivering effector proteins into the cytosol of eukaryotic host cells. Upon entry, these effectors manipulate the host cell's machinery for their own benefit, which can result in serious illness or death of the host. For this reason recognition of T4SS effectors has become an important subject...
2018: PloS One
J L Joseph, E M Oxford, R A Santilli
A 3-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair presented to the Cornell University Hospital for Animals for acute onset respiratory distress. Thoracic radiographs, echocardiogram, and electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed left-sided congestive heart failure, myocardial thickening with left atrial dilation, and sinus rhythm conducted with a left bundle branch block, respectively. Cardiac troponin I was elevated and continued to increase over 36 h (1.9 ng/mL, 3.1 ng/mL, and 3.5 ng/mL, sequentially every 12 h)...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
A Müller, F Soto, M Sepúlveda, P Bittencourt, J L Benevenute, P Ikeda, R Z Machado, M R André
This study aimed to molecularly survey Bartonella in dogs from Chile. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for Bartonella spp. based on nuoG gene was performed in 139 blood samples taken from dogs belonging to rural localities of the Valdivia Province, Los Ríos region, southern Chile. nuoG qPCR-positive samples were submitted to conventional PCR assays for ftsZ, gltA, rpoB and nuoG genes and sequencing for speciation and phylogenetic analysis. Based upon qPCR results, Bartonella spp. occurrence in dogs was 4...
May 6, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Pramod K Guru, Anjali Agarwal, Ashley Fritz
Infections caused by the Bartonella species are responsible for the human diseases collectively called 'bartonellosis'. The clinically important human infections are mostly caused by the three species (eg, B. bacilliformis, B. quintana and B. henselae ) of Bartonella out of the many progressively increasing identified species. Bartonella henselae transmitted by the arthropod vector, fleas, after cat bite is responsible for the rare multisystem cat scratch disease in humans. We present an extremely rare case of B...
May 4, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Huan Li, Tongtong Li, Jiapeng Qu
Vector-borne microbes influence pathogen transmission and blood microbiomes, thereby affecting the emergence of infectious diseases. Thus, understanding the relationship between host and vector microbiomes is of importance. In this study, we investigated the bacterial community composition, diversity and assembly of the flea (Rhadinopsylla dahurica vicina), torsalo (Hypoderma curzonial), and the blood and gut of their shared pika host, Ochotona curzoniae. Bartonella, Sphingomonas and Bradyrhizobium were enriched in blood, while Wolbachia and Fusobacterium were more abundant in fleas and torsaloes...
May 2, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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