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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353399/mri-findings-in-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-associated-autoimmune-epilepsy
#1
Jason R Fredriksen, Carrie M Carr, Kelly K Koeller, Jared T Verdoorn, Avi Gadoth, Sean J Pittock, Amy L Kotsenas
PURPOSE: Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) has been implicated in a number of autoimmune-associated neurologic syndromes, including autoimmune epilepsy. This study categorizes the spectrum of MRI findings in patients with a clinical diagnosis of autoimmune epilepsy and elevated serum GAD65 autoantibodies. METHODS: An institutional database search identified patients with elevated serum GAD65 antibodies and a clinical diagnosis of autoimmune epilepsy who had undergone brain MRI...
January 20, 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352657/electroencephalographic-monitoring-for-seizure-identification-and-prognosis-in-term-neonates
#2
REVIEW
Shavonne L Massey, Frances E Jensen, Nicholas S Abend
Seizures represent a manifestation of neurological disease in the neonatal period. Historically, neonatal seizures were identified by direct clinical observation. However, since most seizures are electroencephalographic (EEG)-only (subclinical, non-convulsive) and clinical manifestations may be subtle, many clinicians place increasing importance on EEG data including conventional EEG or amplitude-integrated EEG to identify seizures in neonates. Beyond seizure identification, the EEG is a robust source of information about brain function that can be useful for neurobehavioral prognostication in some neonates...
January 15, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352627/indications-and-limits-of-stereoelectroencephalography-seeg
#3
REVIEW
Lorella Minotti, Alexandra Montavont, Julia Scholly, Louise Tyvaert, Delphine Taussig
Epilepsy surgery is now an accepted treatment to achieve seizure control in carefully selected patients, both children and adults, suffering from drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Although surgical strategies can often be defined on the basis of non-invasive diagnostic procedures, and despite the recent advances in this field, an increasing number of more complex cases requires invasive EEG (iEEG) to provide precise information on the localization of the epileptogenic zone (EZ), its relationships with eloquent cortex (EC), and the feasibility of a tailored surgical resection...
January 15, 2018: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352316/kansl1-variation-is-not-a-major-contributing-factor-in-self-limited-focal-epilepsy-syndromes-of-childhood
#4
Kenneth A Myers, Amelia McGlade, Bernd A Neubauer, Dennis Lal, Samuel F Berkovic, Ingrid E Scheffer, Michael S Hildebrand
BACKGROUND: KANSL1 haploinsufficiency causes Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KdVS), characterized by dysmorphic features and intellectual disability; amiable personality, congenital malformations and seizures also commonly occur. The epilepsy phenotypic spectrum in KdVS is broad, but most individuals have focal seizures with some having a phenotype resembling the self-limited focal epilepsies of childhood (SFEC). We hypothesized that variants in KANSL1 contribute to pathogenesis of SFEC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We screened KANSL1 for single nucleotide variants in 90 patients with SFEC...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351934/continuous-subcutaneous-levetiracetam-in-end-of-life-care
#5
Inês Furtado, Fernando Gonçalves, João Gonçalves, João Neves
Seizures constitute a determining aspect in quality of life and are frequently challenging in palliative care-a field where treatment has yet to be standardised. Levetiracetam-a new generation anticonvulsant-has proved efficacy both through oral, as well as intravenous administration in the general population. This case reports on the use of continuous subcutaneous levetiracetam to effectively control seizures in a terminally ill patient without patent oral route.
January 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351559/characterisation-of-ictal-and-interictal-states-of-epilepsy-a-system-dynamic-approach-of-principal-dynamic-modes-analysis
#6
Zabit Hameed, Saqib Saleem, Jawad Mirza, Muhammad Salman Mustafa, Qamar-Ul-Islam
Epilepsy is a brain disorder characterised by the recurrent and unpredictable interruptions of normal brain function, called epileptic seizures. The present study attempts to derive new diagnostic indices which may delineate between ictal and interictal states of epilepsy. To achieve this, the nonlinear modeling approach of global principal dynamic modes (PDMs) is adopted to examine the functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal lobes with the occipital brain segment using an ensemble of paediatric EEGs having the presence of epileptic seizure...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351212/changes-in-the-expression-of-aqp4-and-aqp9-in-the-hippocampus-following-eclampsia-like-seizure
#7
Xinjia Han, Qian Huang, Lei Liu, Xiaoyan Sha, Bihui Hu, Huishu Liu
Eclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy that is defined by the new onset of grand mal seizures on the basis of pre-eclampsia. Until now, the mechanisms underlying eclampsia were poorly understood. Brain edema is considered a leading cause of eclamptic seizures; aquaporins (AQP4 and AQP9), the glial water channel proteins mainly expressed in the nervous system, play an important role in brain edema. We studied AQP4 and AQP9 expression in the hippocampus of pre-eclamptic and eclamptic rats in order to explore the molecular mechanisms involved in brain edema...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350659/thiopental-is-better-than-propofol-for-electroconvulsive-therapy
#8
Massimiliano Nuzzi, Dario Delmonte, Barbara Barbini, Laura Pasin, Ornella Sottocorna, Giuseppina Maria Casiraghi, Cristina Colombo, Giovanni Landoni, Alberto Zangrillo
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: electroconvulsive therapy is a psychiatric procedure requiring general anesthesia. The choice of the hypnotic agent is important because the success of the intervention is associated to the occurrence and duration of motor convulsion. However, all available anesthetic agents have anti-convulsant activity. We compared the effect of thiopental and propofol on seizures. METHODS: We designed a retrospective study at Mood Disorders Unit of a teaching Hospital...
January 16, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350576/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-in-stroke-prone-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-on-high-salt-diet
#9
Fanny Herisson, Iris Zhou, Jerome Mawet, E Du, Arnavaz H Barfejani, Tao Qin, Marilyn J Cipolla, Philip Z Sun, Natalia S Rost, Cenk Ayata
Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) on high-salt diet are characterized by extremely high arterial pressures, and have been endorsed as a model for hypertensive small vessel disease and vascular cognitive impairment. However, rapidly developing malignant hypertension is a well-known cause of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in humans, associated with acute neurological deficits, seizures, vasogenic cerebral edema and microhemorrhages. In this study, we aimed to examine the overlap between human PRES and SHRSP on high-salt diet...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350373/pediatric-dural-venous-sinus-thrombosis-following-closed-head-injury-an-easily-overlooked-diagnosis-with-devastating-consequences
#10
Joe M Das, Rashmi Sapkota, Binjura Shrestha
Dural venous sinus thrombosis (DVST) is an uncommon finding after traumatic brain injury. The diagnosis can often be initially missed, particularly if not associated with an overlying fracture. Pediatric DVST following closed head injury and without an overlying fracture is very rare, with only 20 cases reported in the literature to date. Here we present the case of a 19-month-old boy who presented with a history of trivial fall and an episode of fever. On presentation, the pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale (pGCS) score was E3V4M6, and initial brain computed tomography (CT) was normal...
January 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350351/convection-enhanced-delivery-of-cetuximab-conjugated-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-for-treatment-of-spontaneous-canine-intracranial-gliomas
#11
A Courtenay Freeman, Simon R Platt, Shannon Holmes, M Kent, Kelsey Robinson, Elizabeth Howerth, Joe Eagleson, Alexandros Bouras, Milota Kaluzova, Constantinos G Hadjipanayis
Cetuximab conjugated iron-oxide nanoparticles (cetuximab-IONPs) have shown both in-vitro and in-vivo anti-tumor efficacy against gliomas. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the safety and potential efficacy of cetuximab-IONPs for treatment of spontaneously occurring intracranial gliomas in canines after convection-enhanced delivery (CED). The use of CED allowed for direct infusion of the cetuximab-IONPs both intratumorally and peritumorally avoiding the blood brain barrier (BBB) and limiting systemic effects...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350262/vagal-nerve-stimulation-for-medically-refractory-epilepsy-in-angelman-syndrome-a-series-of-three-cases
#12
REVIEW
Krystal L Tomei, Christine Y Mau, Michael Ghali, Jayoung Pak, Ira M Goldstein
BACKGROUND: We describe three children with Angelman syndrome and medically refractory epilepsy. METHODS: Case series of three pediatric patients with Angelman syndrome and medically refractory epilepsy. All three patients failed medical treatment and were recommended for vagal nerve stimulator (VNS) implantation. RESULTS: Following VNS implantation, all three patients experienced reduction in seizure frequency greater than that afforded by medication alone...
January 19, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350182/the-role-of-eeg-in-the-diagnosis-and-classification-of-the-epilepsy-syndromes-a-tool-for-clinical-practice-by-the-ilae-neurophysiology-task-force-part-2
#13
Michalis Koutroumanidis, Alexis Arzimanoglou, Roberto Caraballo, Sushma Goyal, Anna Kaminska, Pramote Laoprasert, Hirokazu Oguni, Guido Rubboli, William Tatum, Pierre Thomas, Eugen Trinka, Luca Vignatelli, Solomon L Moshé
The concept of epilepsy syndromes, introduced in 1989, was defined as "clusters of signs and symptoms customarily occurring together". Definition of epilepsy syndromes based on electro-clinical features facilitated clinical practice and, whenever possible, clinical research in homogeneous groups of patients with epilepsies. Progress in the fields of neuroimaging and genetics made it rapidly clear that, although crucial, the electro-clinical description of epilepsy syndromes was not sufficient to allow much needed development of targeted therapies and a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of seizures...
December 1, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349290/a-novel-neuroprotective-mechanism-for-lithium-that-prevents-association-of-the-p75ntr-sortilin-receptor-complex-and-attenuates-prongf-induced-neuronal-death-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#14
Shayri G Greenwood, Laura Montroull, Marta Volosin, Helen E Scharfman, Kenneth K Teng, Matthew Light, Risa Torkin, Fredrick Maxfield, Barbara L Hempstead, Wilma J Friedman
Neurotrophins play critical roles in the survival, maintenance and death of neurons. In particular, proneurotrophins have been shown to mediate cell death following brain injury induced by status epilepticus (SE) in rats. Previous studies have shown that pilocarpine-induced seizures lead to increased levels of proNGF, which binds to the p75NTR-sortilin receptor complex to elicit apoptosis. A screen to identify compounds that block proNGF binding and uptake into cells expressing p75 and sortilin identified lithium citrate as a potential inhibitor of proNGF and p75NTR-mediated cell death...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349289/mixed-neurodevelopmental-and-neurodegenerative-pathology-in-nhe6-null-mouse-model-of-christianson-syndrome
#15
Meiyu Xu, Qing Ouyang, Jingyi Gong, Matthew F Pescosolido, Brandon S Pruett, Sasmita Mishra, Michael Schmidt, Richard N Jones, Ece D Gamsiz Uzun, Sofia B Lizarraga, Eric M Morrow
Christianson syndrome (CS) is an X-linked disorder resulting from loss-of-function mutations in SLC9A6, which encodes the endosomal Na+/H+ exchanger 6 (NHE6). Symptoms include early developmental delay, seizures, intellectual disability, nonverbal status, autistic features, postnatal microcephaly, and progressive ataxia. Neuronal development is impaired in CS, involving defects in neuronal arborization and synaptogenesis, likely underlying diminished brain growth postnatally. In addition to neurodevelopmental defects, some reports have supported neurodegenerative pathology in CS with age...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348993/delayed-presentation-of-cerebral-air-embolism-from-a-left-atrial-esophageal-fistula-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Catherine Peterson, Clay Elswick, Vicki Diaz, R Shane Tubbs, Marc Moisi
Air embolism developing from an atrial-esophageal fistula that was created as a complication from an atrial ablation procedure is a rare, yet usually fatal diagnosis. Neurologic manifestations such as meningitis, altered mental status, seizures, strokes, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), psychiatric changes, and coma can ensue. Imaging of the brain might reveal infarcts, cerebral edema, as well as signs of pneumocephalus. This case describes a 42-year-old male with recent cardiac ablation procedure at an outside hospital for refractory atrial fibrillation (A-fib) who presented with altered mental status, dyspnea and diaphoresis...
November 15, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348376/-benign-outcome-of-cochlear-implantation-in-a-patient-with-superficial-siderosis
#17
Kei Sato, Takekazu Ohi, Taisaku Shozaki, Shin Kariya
We report the case of a 38-year-old man with gait disorder and hearing loss. The patient had developed gait disorder due to a cervical meningioma since 4 year-old disappeared for 15 years after the surgical removal of the meningioma. However, at the age of 21 year-old, the gait disorder reappeared and worsened progressively. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and epileptic seizures developed during the disease course, and he was diagnosed with superficial siderosis (SS). When he was 37 years old, he experienced sudden-onset of right-side hearing impairment and was considered a candidate for cochlear implantation (CI) at the otorhinolaryngology clinic of the nearby University Hospital...
January 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348303/absence-epilepsy-beyond-adolescence-an-outcome-analysis-after-45-years-of-follow-up
#18
Martin Holtkamp, Dieter Janz, Andrea Kirschbaum, Alexander B Kowski, Bernd J Vorderwülbecke
OBJECTIVES: Depending on patient age at onset, absence epilepsy is subdivided into childhood and juvenile forms. Absence seizures can occur several times per day (pyknoleptic course) or less frequently than daily (non-pyknoleptic course). Seizures typically terminate before adulthood, but a quarter of patients need ongoing treatment beyond adolescence. Little is known about their long-term seizure and psychosocial outcome. METHODS: Files of 135 outpatients with absence epilepsy (76 females; 123 had additional generalised tonic-clonic seizures) were retrospectively analysed after a median follow-up of 45...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348113/genetics-in-endocrinology-the-expanding-genetic-horizon-of-primary-aldosteronism
#19
Silvia Monticone, Fabrizio Buffolo, Martina Tetti, Franco Veglio, Barbara Pasini, Paolo Mulatero
Aldosterone is the main mineralocorticoid hormone in humans and plays a key role in maintaining water and electrolyte homeostasis. Primary aldosteronism (PA), characterized by autonomous aldosterone overproduction by the adrenal glands, affects 6% of the general hypertensive population and can be either sporadic or familial. Aldosterone producing adenoma (APA) and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH) are the two most frequent subtypes of sporadic PA, and 4 forms of familial hyperaldosteronism (FH-I to FH-IV) have been identified...
January 18, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347379/neuronal-network-model-of-interictal-and-recurrent-ictal-activity
#20
M A Lopes, K-E Lee, A V Goltsev
We propose a neuronal network model which undergoes a saddle node on an invariant circle bifurcation as the mechanism of the transition from the interictal to the ictal (seizure) state. In the vicinity of this transition, the model captures important dynamical features of both interictal and ictal states. We study the nature of interictal spikes and early warnings of the transition predicted by this model. We further demonstrate that recurrent seizures emerge due to the interaction between two networks.
December 2017: Physical Review. E
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