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milk thistle

Neha, Amteshwar S Jaggi, Nirmal Singh
Silymarin is the active constituent of Silybum marianum (milk thistle) which is a C-25 containing flavonolignan. Milk thistle has a lot of traditional values, being used as a vegetable, as salad, as bitter tonic, and as galactogogue in nursing mothers and in various ailments such as liver complications, depression, dyspepsia, spleenic congestions, varicose veins, diabetes, amenorrhea, uterine hemorrhage, and menstrual problems. In this present chapter, a comprehensive attempt has been made to discuss the potential of silymarin in chronic disorders...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ming Gu, Ping Zhao, Jinwen Huang, Yuanyuan Zhao, Yahui Wang, Yin Li, Yifei Li, Shengjie Fan, Yue-Ming Ma, Qingchun Tong, Li Yang, Guang Ji, Cheng Huang
Background and purpose: Silymarin, a standardized extract of the milk thistle seeds, has been widely used to treat chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and other types of toxic liver damage. Despite increasing studies on the action of silymarin and its major active constituent, silybin in their therapeutic properties against insulin resistance, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia in vitro and in vivo, the mechanism underlying silymarin action remains unclear. Experimental approach: C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 months to induce obesity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidaemia, and fatty liver...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Pallab Kumar Borah, Sourav Chakraborty, Anupam N Jha, Sanchaita Rajkhowa, Raj Kumar Duary
ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17 (ADAM17) is an attractive target for the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. We aimed to identify selective inhibitors of ADAM17 against matrix metalloproteinase enzymes (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-13, and MMP-16) which have substantial structural similarity. Target proteins were docked with 29 anti-inflammatory natural molecule ligands and a known selective inhibitor IK682. The ligands were screened based on Lipinski rules, interaction with the ADAM17 active site cavity, and then ranked using the proportional odds model multinomial logistic regression...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Rojalini Samanta, Ashok K Pattnaik, Kishanta K Pradhan, Beena K Mehta, Shakti P Pattanayak, Sugato Banerjee
BACKGROUND: Silibinin is a semi-purified fraction of silymarin contained in milk thistle (Silybum marianum Asteraceae). Primarily known for its hepatoprotective actions, silymarin may also stimulate epithelialization and reduce inflammation in excision wound. Previous studies show antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial actions of silibinin. However, wound healing property of silibinin is not well studied. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates wound healing activity of silibinin topical formulation...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
Birgit M Dietz, Atieh Hajirahimkhan, Tareisha L Dunlap, Judy L Bolton
Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women's health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger)...
October 2016: Pharmacological Reviews
Dae Gyu Yun, Dong Gun Lee
Candida albicans is a common yeast that resides in the human body, but can occasionally cause systemic fungal infection, namely candidiasis. As this infection rate is gradually increasing, it is becoming a major problem to public health. Accordingly, we for the first time investigated the antifungal activity and mode of action of silibinin, a natural product extracted from Silybum marianum (milk thistle), against C. albicans. On treatment with 100μM silibinin, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from mitochondria, which can cause yeast apoptosis via oxidative stress, was increased by 24...
September 14, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Lennart Poppe, Maike Petersen
Mature fruits collected from different milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) plants, grown in various habitats in Europe, were analysed for silymarin content and variation in component composition. Two different German and Polish cultivars each, as well as fruits from Hungary and Bulgaria have been compared with respect to their ratio of flavonolignan regioisomers. Besides differences in total silymarin content (0.8%-4.9%), three distinct chemotypical variations in fruit flavonolignan regioisomer composition in the cultivars have been observed...
November 2016: Phytochemistry
C Farmer, J Lapointe, I Cormier
Silymarin is an extract from the plant milk thistle that was shown to have antioxidant and hyperprolactinemic properties. Taking into account the essential role of prolactin for lactating sows and the systemic oxidative stress occurring during lactation, it is of interest to investigate the potential beneficial effects of silymarin on lactating sows. A study was therefore carried out to determine the effects of providing either 1 or 8 g/day of the plant extract silymarin to lactating sows. Sows in first, second or third parity were fed conventional diets during gestation and, at farrowing, were assigned as controls (CTL, n=33), or were fed 1 g/day (SYL1, n=33) or 8 g/day (SYL8, n=33) of silymarin...
September 13, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Sepideh Elyasi, Sare Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Niazi Moghadam, Seyed Amir Aledavood, Gholamreza Karimi
Mucositis is a frequent severe complication of radiation therapy in patient with head and neck cancer. Silymarin is a polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the milk thistle that exhibits strong antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. In this study, we evaluate silymarin efficacy in prevention of radiotherapy induced mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer, as the first human study. During this pilot, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, the effect of oral silymarin 420 mg daily in three divided doses starting at the first day of radiotherapy for 6 weeks, on oral mucositis occurrence was assessed...
August 23, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Olga M Palomino, Neire M Gouveia, Sonia Ramos, M Angeles Martín, Luis Goya
Silybum marianum Gaertn. (Milk thistle) has been used since ancient times for the relief of liver diseases characterized by intense oxidative stress such as inflammatory liver disease and cirrhosis. As oxidative stress by hyperglycemia is involved in micro- and macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes, our aim was to assess the protective effect of milk thistle seed extract against oxidative stress induced by a high glucose concentration on endothelial cells (EA.hy926 cells). High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis shows flavonolignans silychristin and silibinin A and B as major components...
August 15, 2016: Planta Medica
Navaneethakrishnan Polachi, Guirong Bai, Tingyang Li, Yang Chu, Xiangyang Wang, Shuming Li, Ning Gu, Jiang Wu, Wei Li, Yanjun Zhang, Shuiping Zhou, He Sun, Changxiao Liu
Silibinin, a natural flavanone, derived from the milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum), was illustrated for several medicinal uses such as liver-protective, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammation and many other. However, silibinin has poor absorbance and bioavailability due to low water solubility, thereby limiting its clinical applications and therapeutic efficiency. To overcome this problem, the combination of silibinin with phosphatidylcholine (PC) as a formulation was used to enhance the solubility and bioavailability...
November 10, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Jacqueline B Henson, Cristal L Brown, Shein-Chung Chow, Andrew J Muir
GOALS: To describe the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in US adults with liver disease. BACKGROUND: The prevalence and patterns of CAM use among US adults with liver disease have not been well characterized. The 2012 National Health Interview Survey is considered the most current and comprehensive source of information on CAM use in US adults. STUDY: Using the results of the 2012 National Health Interview Survey, the prevalence of CAM use, most common modalities used, reasons for CAM use, perceived benefits, perceived helpfulness and importance, and disclosure of CAM to health care providers were compared between adults with and without liver disease...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Komal Raina, Sushil Kumar, Deepanshi Dhar, Rajesh Agarwal
Globally, the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as the incidence of mortality associated with CRC is increasing. Thus, it is imperative that we look at alternative approaches involving intake of non-toxic natural dietary/non-dietary agents, for the prevention of CRC. The ultimate goal of this approach is to reduce the incidence of pre-neoplastic adenomatous polyps and prevent their progression to more advanced forms of CRC, and use these natural agents as a safe intervention strategy during the clinical course of this deadly malignancy...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
Tripti Singh, Ram Prasad, Santosh K Katiyar
Lung cancer and its metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality world-wide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 90% of total lung cancer cases. Despite advancements in therapeutic approaches, only limited improvement has been achieved. Therefore, alternative strategies are required for the management of lung cancer. Here we report the chemotherapeutic effect of silymarin, a phytochemical from milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.), on NSCLC cell migration using metastatic human NSCLC cell lines (A549, H1299 and H460) together with the molecular targets underlying these effects...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
Sang-Hun Kim, Kwang-Youn Kim, Sun-Nyoung Yu, Young-Kyo Seo, Sung-Sik Chun, Hak-Sun Yu, Soon-Cheol Ahn
BACKGROUND: Silibinin, a biologically active compound of milk thistle, has chemopreventive effects on cancer cell lines. Recently it was reported that silibinin inhibited tumor growth through activation of the apoptotic signaling pathway. Although various evidences showed multiple signaling pathways of silibinin in apoptosis, there were no reports to address the clear mechanism of ROS-mediated pathway in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Several studies suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in various signaling cascades, but the primary source of ROS was currently unclear...
2016: BMC Cancer
D Bayram, E S Çetin, M Kara, M Özgöçmen, I A Candan
BACKGROUND: Silibinin is a bioactive flavonolignan extracted from milk thistle, known as Silybum marianum. Silibinin exerts strong antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects. Many studies have shown that silibinin inhibits experimentally induced malignancies of the liver, prostate, skin, and colon as well as promotes inhibition of the proliferation of cancer cell lines in vitro. This study aimed to investigate the effects of silibinin on the human breast carcinoma cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 in monolayer and spheroid cultures...
July 10, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Amanda Montgomery, Temitope Adeyeni, KayKay San, Rita M Heuertz, Uthayashanker R Ezekiel
We studied combinatorial interactions of two phytochemicals, curcumin and silymarin, in their action against cancer cell proliferation. Curcumin is the major component of the spice turmeric. Silymarin is a bioactive component of milk thistle used as a protective supplement against liver disease. We studied antiproliferative effects of curcumin alone, silymarin alone and combinations of curcumin and silymarin using colon cancer cell lines (DLD-1, HCT116, LoVo). Curcumin inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas silymarin showed significant inhibition only at the highest concentrations assessed...
2016: Journal of Cancer
Yu Guo, Suli Wang, Ying Wang, Tiehong Zhu
CONTEXT: Silymarin is the main flavonoid extracted from milk thistle, which has been used to treat liver diseases. OBJECTIVE: The in vivo effect of silymarin on HFD-induced insulin resistance and fatty liver in mice was studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity and insulin resistance and treated with 30, 60 mg/kg silymarin for 18 days. Food intake, body weight and the content/histology of epididymal fat and liver tissue were examined; the content of lipids, AST, ALT and inflammatory cytokines in serum were estimated...
July 8, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Xing-Xing Zhu, Ya-Hui Ding, Yi Wu, Lin-Yan Qian, Hai Zou, Qiang He
INTRODUCTION: Silibinin is mixture of flavonolignans extracted from milk thistle and often has been used in the treatment of acute and chronic liver disorders caused by toxins, drug, alcohol and hepatitis and gall bladder disorders for its antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. AREAS COVERED: However, increasing evidence suggest that silibinin is not solely limited in the treatment of these diseases. Further research suggests that silymarin may function diversely and may serve as a novel therapy for cancer therapy, such as lung cancer, prostatic cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma by regulating cancer cells growth, proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and many other mechanism...
July 18, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Dezső Csupor, Attila Csorba, Judit Hohmann
Extracts of milk thistle (Silybum marianum, Asteraceae) have been recognized for centuries as remedies for liver and gallbladder disorders. The active constituents of milk thistle fruits are flavonolignans, collectively known as silymarin. Flavonolignans in S. marianum are structurally diverse, 23 constituents have been isolated from purple- and white-flowering variants. Flavonolignans have a broad spectrum of bioactivities and silymarin has been the subject of intensive research for its profound pharmacological activities...
May 26, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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