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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340483/improving-the-water-solubility-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-silymarin-by-nanoencapsulation
#1
Ji-Soo Lee, Da Young Hong, Eun Suh Kim, Hyeon Gyu Lee
The aims of this study were to improve the water solubility and antimicrobial activity of milk thistle silymarin by nanoencapsulation and to assess the functions of silymarin nanoparticle-containing film as an antimicrobial food-packaging agent. Silymarin nanoparticles were prepared using water-soluble chitosan (WCS) and poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). As the WCS and silymarin concentrations increased, particle size and polydispersity index (PDI) significantly increased. Nanoencapsulation significantly improved the water solubility of silymarin 7...
March 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250272/the-binding-of-silibinin-the-main-constituent-of-silymarin-to-site-i-on-human-serum-albumin
#2
Keishi Yamasaki, Hiroki Sato, Saori Minagoshi, Karin Kyubun, Makoto Anraku, Shigeyuki Miyamura, Hiroshi Watanabe, Kazuaki Taguchi, Hakaru Seo, Toru Maruyama, Masaki Otagiri
Silibinin is the main constituent of silymarin, an extract from the seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Because silibinin has many pharmacological activities, extending its clinical use in the treatment of a wider variety of diseases would be desirable. In this study, we report on the binding of silibinin to plasma proteins, an issue that has not previously been extensively studied. The findings indicated that silibinin mainly binds to human serum albumin (HSA). Mutual displacement experiments using ligands that primarily bind to sites I and II clearly revealed that silibinin binds tightly and selectively to site I (subsites Ia and/or Ic) of HSA, which is located in subdomain IIA...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229968/cytotoxic-and-toxicogenomic-effects-of-silibinin-in-bladder-cancer-cells-with-different-tp53-status
#3
Daiane Teixeira DE Oliveira, Andre Luiz Ventura Savio, Joao Paulo DE Castro Marcondes, Tatiane Martins Barros, Ludmila Correia Barbosa, Daisy Maria Favero Salvadori, Glenda Nicioli DA Silva
Silibinin is a natural phenol found in the seeds of the milk thistle plant. Recent data have shown its effectiveness for preventing/treating bladder tumours. Therefore, in this study we investigated the cytotoxic and toxicogenetic activity of silibinin in bladder cancer cells with different TP53 statuses. Two bladder urothelial carcinoma cell lines were used: RT4 (wild-type TP53 gene) and T24 (mutated TP53 gene). Cell proliferation, clonogenic survival, apoptosis rates, genotoxicity and relative expression profile of FRAP/mTOR, FGFR3, AKT2 and DNMT1 genes and of miR100 and miR203 were evaluated...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216891/effects-of-potassium-sulfate-k2so4-on-the-element-contents-polyphenol-content-antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-milk-thistle-silybum-marianum
#4
Gulsum Yaldiz
BACKGROUND: Silybum marianum L. (Milk thistle) is native to the Mediterranean basin and is now widespread throughout the world. It's sprout is used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of liver disease for centuries. The seeds of milk thistle contain silymarin, an isomeric mixture of flavonolignans [silybin, silychristin, and silydianin]. Silymarin acts as a strong anti-hepatotoxic. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influences of potassium sulfate [K2SO4] fertilizer doses on polyphenol content, some nutrient elements, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of milk thistle at experimental fields of Ordu University in Turkey...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161126/enhancing-silymarin-fractionation-using-the-conductor-like-screening-model-for-real-solvents
#5
Emma C Brace, Abigail S Engelberth
A significant hurdle for discovery of plant-derived products is the numerous trial-and-error experiments required to develop an effective purification strategy. To overcome the experimental burden, a quantum mechanics-based molecular modeling approach - known as the COnductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) - was used to predict a suitable two-phase solvent system to purify six silymarins from an aqueous mixture. Silymarins, a class of flavonolignans found in milk thistle (Silybum marianum L...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137608/silymarin-protects-against-acrylamide-induced-neurotoxicity-via-nrf2-signalling-in-pc12-cells
#6
Liang Li, Hong-Yang Sun, Wei Liu, Hong-Yu Zhao, Mei-Li Shao
Silymarin (SM) is a well-known antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer compound extracted from the milk thistle. Here, we investigated the protective effect of SM against acrylamide (AA)-induced neurotoxicity, mainly caused by oxidative stress, via activation of the nuclear transcription factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signalling pathway in PC12 cells. The MTT reduction assay was used to measure cell viability in various drug-treated groups and demonstrated that SM could increase cell viability in AA-treated PC12 cells...
January 27, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134230/-flavonolignans-compounds-not-only-for-liver-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Michał Bijak
Flavonolignans are the major bioactive components presented in the Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) standarized extract - silymarin. S. marianum is a medicinal plant, which has been using for thousands of years as a remedy for a variety of ailments. Since the 70s of the last century flavonolignans presented in silymarin have been regarded to the official medicine as substances having an hepatoprotective properties. Structurally, flavonolignans are composed of a flavonoid unit (taxifolin) and a phenylpropane unit (coniferyl alcohol), linked together by an oxeran ring...
January 23, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125040/silymarin-silybin-and-chronic-liver-disease-a-marriage-of-many-years
#8
REVIEW
Alessandro Federico, Marcello Dallio, Carmelina Loguercio
Silymarin is the extract of Silybum marianum, or milk thistle, and its major active compound is silybin, which has a remarkable biological effect. It is used in different liver disorders, particularly chronic liver diseases, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic power. Indeed, the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of silymarin is oriented towards the reduction of virus-related liver damages through inflammatory cascade softening and immune system modulation...
January 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115903/assessment-of-the-antioxidant-activity-of-silybum-marianum-seed-extract-and-its-protective-effect-against-dna-oxidation-protein-damage-and-lipid-peroxidation
#9
Aynur Serçe, Bircan Çeken Toptancı, Sevil Emen Tanrıkut, Sevcan Altaş, Göksel Kızıl, Süleyman Kızıl, Murat Kızıl
Antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Silybum marianum (milk thistle) seeds was investigated. We have also investigated the protein damage activated by oxidative Fenton reaction and its prevention by Silybum marianum seed extract. Antioxidant potential of Silybum marianum seed ethanol extract was measured using different in vitro methods, such as lipid peroxidation, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power assays. The extract significantly decreased DNA damage caused by hydroxyl radicals...
December 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106337/in-vivo-metabolomic-interpretation-of-the-anti-obesity-effects-of-hyacinth-bean-dolichos-lablab-l-administration-in-high-fat-diet-mice
#10
Dong Ho Suh, Hye Won Lee, Eun Sung Jung, Digar Singh, Seung-Hyung Kim, Choong Hwan Lee
SCOPE: The esoteric anti-obesity effects of hyacinth bean (Dolichos lablab L) have largely remained unexplored. Herein, we investigated the anti-obesity mechanisms of hyacinth bean compared to milk thistle, a natural herb employed for ameliorating obesity-related diseases, using high fat-diet (HFD) fed mice towards unfolding the perplexing mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice were orally administered hyacinth bean (25 mg/kg/day) and milk thistle (100 mg/kg/day) for 9 weeks along with HFD...
January 20, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066148/inhibition-of-erk1-2-by-silymarin-in-mouse-mesangial-cells
#11
Cha Kyung Youn, Sung Il Cho, Min Young Lee, Young Jin Jeon, Seog Ki Lee
The present study aimed to show that pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-1β] synergistically induce the production of nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse mesangial cells, which play an important role in inflammatory glomerular injury. We also found that co-treatment with cytokines at low doses (TNF-α; 5 ng/ml, IFN-γ; 5 ng/ml, and IL-1β; 1.25 U/ml) synergistically induced NO production, whereas treatment with each cytokine alone did not increase NO production at doses up to 100 ng/ml or 50 U/ml...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042859/a-novel-role-of-silibinin-as-a-putative-epigenetic-modulator-in-human-prostate-carcinoma
#12
Ioannis Anestopoulos, Aristeidis P Sfakianos, Rodrigo Franco, Katerina Chlichlia, Mihalis I Panayiotidis, David J Kroll, Aglaia Pappa
Silibinin, extracted from milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.), has exhibited considerable preclinical activity against prostate carcinoma. Its antitumor and chemopreventive activities have been associated with diverse effects on cell cycle, apoptosis, and receptor-dependent mitogenic signaling pathways. Here we hypothesized that silibinin's pleiotropic effects may reflect its interference with epigenetic mechanisms in human prostate cancer cells. More specifically, we have demonstrated that silibinin reduces gene expression levels of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) members Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2), Suppressor of Zeste Homolog 12 (SUZ12), and Embryonic Ectoderm Development (EED) in DU145 and PC3 human prostate cancer cells, as evidenced by Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR)...
December 31, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025940/a-mini-review-on-the-chemistry-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-silymarin
#13
Kasi Pandima Devi, Dicson Sheeja Malar, Nady Braidy, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Seyed Fazel Nabavi
The plant milk thistle and silymarin has been traditionally used as a natural remedy for the treatment of various ailments including neurological disorders such Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease and cerebral ischemia for over 2000 years. The neuroprotective effects conferred by silymarin include modulation of various antioxidant mechanisms, and several kinases involved in cell signaling pathways, inhibition of the inflammatory response generated during neurodegeneration, neurotropic effects, regulation of neurotransmitters and inhibition of apoptosis...
December 27, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004303/silibinin-ameliorates-a%C3%AE-25-35-induced-memory-deficits-in-rats-by-modulating-autophagy-and-attenuating-neuroinflammation-as-well-as-oxidative-stress
#14
Xiaoyu Song, Biao Zhou, Lingyu Cui, Di Lei, Pingping Zhang, Guodong Yao, Mingyu Xia, Toshihiko Hayashi, Shunji Hattori, Yuko Ushiki-Kaku, Shin-Ichi Tashiro, Satoshi Onodera, Takashi Ikejima
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease. Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammatory response, oxidative stress and autophagy are involved in amyloid β (Aβ)-induced memory deficits. Silibinin (silybin), a flavonoid derived from the herb milk thistle, is well known for its hepatoprotective activities. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of silibinin on Aβ25-35-injected rats. Results demonstrated that silibinin significantly attenuated Aβ25-35-induced memory deficits in Morris water maze and novel object-recognition tests...
December 22, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973458/silymarin-activates-c-amp-phosphodiesterase-and-stimulates-insulin-secretion-in-a-glucose-dependent-manner-in-hit-t15-cells
#15
Ran Meng, Jana Mahadevan, Elizabeth Oseid, Sara Vallerie, R Paul Robertson
Silymarin (SIL) is a flavonoid extracted from milk thistle seed that has been reported to decrease hyperglycemia in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, it is not known whether SIL has direct secretory effects on β-cells. Using the β-cell line HIT-T15, SIL was shown to decrease intracellular peroxide levels and to augment glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). However, the latter was observed using a concentration range of 25-100 µM, which was too low to affect endogenous peroxide levels. The stimulatory effect of SIL dissipated at higher concentrations (100-200 µM), and mild apoptosis was observed...
December 12, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923566/flavonolignans-inhibit-adp-induced-blood-platelets-activation-and-aggregation-in-whole-blood
#16
Michal Bijak, Rafal Szelenberger, Joanna Saluk, Pawel Nowak
Flavonolignans are a group of active chemical compounds presented in the silymarin - a standardized extract obtained from fruits and seeds of Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaernt.). Since the 70s of the last century, flavonolignans have been regarded to the official medicine as a substances having hepatoprotective properties. However many researches performed in recent years have demonstrated that flavonolignans posses many other healthy properties including modulation of variety cell-signaling pathways...
February 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909727/anti%C3%A2-proliferative-activity-of-epigallocatechin%C3%A2-3%C3%A2-gallate-and-silibinin-on-soft-tissue-sarcoma-cells
#17
Kamran Harati, Björn Behr, Christoph Wallner, Adrien Daigeler, Tobias Hirsch, Frank Jacobsen, Marcus Renner, Ali Harati, Marcus Lehnhardt, Mustafa Becerikli
Disseminated soft tissue sarcomas (STS) present a therapeutic dilemma. The first-line cytostatic doxorubicin demonstrates a response rate of 30% and is not suitable for elderly patients with underlying cardiac disease, due to its cardiotoxicity. Well‑tolerated alternative treatment options, particularly in palliative situations, are rare. Therefore, the present study assessed the anti‑proliferative effects of the natural compounds epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), silibinin and noscapine on STS cells. A total of eight different human STS cell lines were used in the study: Fibrosarcoma (HT1080), liposarcoma (SW872, T778 and MLS‑402), synovial sarcoma (SW982, SYO1 and 1273) and pleomorphic sarcoma (U2197)...
January 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867187/crosstalk-of-ros-rns-and-autophagy-in-silibinin-induced-apoptosis-of-mcf-7-human-breast-cancer-cells-in-vitro
#18
Nan Zheng, Lu Liu, Wei-Wei Liu, Fei Li, Toshihiko Hayashi, Shin-Ichi Tashiro, Satoshi Onodera, Takashi Ikejima
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play important roles in regulating cell survival and death. Silibinin is a natural polyphenolic flavonoid isolated from milk thistle with anti-tumor activities, but it was found to induce cytoprotective ROS/RNS in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, treatment with silibinin down-regulates ERα expression in MCF-7 cells, and inducing both autophagy and apoptosis. In this study we explored the relationship between ER-associated pathways and RNS/ROS in MCF-7 cells...
February 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771919/silymarin-and-its-role-in-chronic-diseases
#19
Neha, Amteshwar S Jaggi, Nirmal Singh
Silymarin is the active constituent of Silybum marianum (milk thistle) which is a C-25 containing flavonolignan. Milk thistle has a lot of traditional values, being used as a vegetable, as salad, as bitter tonic, and as galactogogue in nursing mothers and in various ailments such as liver complications, depression, dyspepsia, spleenic congestions, varicose veins, diabetes, amenorrhea, uterine hemorrhage, and menstrual problems. In this present chapter, a comprehensive attempt has been made to discuss the potential of silymarin in chronic disorders...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733832/silymarin-ameliorates-metabolic-dysfunction-associated-with-diet-induced-obesity-via-activation-of-farnesyl-x-receptor
#20
Ming Gu, Ping Zhao, Jinwen Huang, Yuanyuan Zhao, Yahui Wang, Yin Li, Yifei Li, Shengjie Fan, Yue-Ming Ma, Qingchun Tong, Li Yang, Guang Ji, Cheng Huang
Background and purpose: Silymarin, a standardized extract of the milk thistle seeds, has been widely used to treat chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and other types of toxic liver damage. Despite increasing studies on the action of silymarin and its major active constituent, silybin in their therapeutic properties against insulin resistance, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia in vitro and in vivo, the mechanism underlying silymarin action remains unclear. Experimental approach: C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 months to induce obesity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidaemia, and fatty liver...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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