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milk thistle

Valencia Fernandes, Dilip Sharma, Kiran Kalia, Vinod Tiwari
Astrogliosis is a key contributor for many neurological disorders involving apoptosis, neuroinflammation and subsequent neuronal death. Silibinin, a polyphenol isolated from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), has been shown to suppress the astrocyte activation in various neurodegenerative disorders and also exhibit a neuroprotective role in neuroinflammation-driven oxidative damage. In the present study, we found that treatment with silibinin significantly attenuates LPS- oxidative-nitrosative stress in C6 astrocytoma cells...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Hayder Gaeed Oufi
The use of herbal drugs for disease treatment has increased worldwide. Flavonolignan silibinin, the major biologically active component of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), has various biological effects. This study is designed to evaluate the cytogenetic effects of flavonolignan silibinin in mouse bone marrow cells alone and in combination with methotrexate. In this study, the cytogenetic effects of flavonolignan silibinin were observed in mouse bone marrow cells after five days of treatment with a single intraperitoneal (IP) dose of either 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg body weight of silibinin hemisuccinate (SHS), alone or in combination with a single dose of 20 mg/kg methotrexate (MTX)...
February 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Xiaoyu Song, Bo Liu, Lingyu Cui, Biao Zhou, Lu Liu, Weiwei Liu, Guodong Yao, Mingyu Xia, Toshihiko Hayashi, Shunji Hattori, Yuko Ushiki-Kaku, Shin-Ichi Tashiro, Takashi Ikejima
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by a cascade of pathologic changes. A widely discussed theory indicates that amyloid β (Aβ) peptides are the causative agents of AD. Silibinin, a flavonoid derived from milk thistle, is well known for its hepato-protective activities and we have reported the neuroprotective effects of silibinin. In this study, we investigated the role of estrogen receptors (ERs) in silibinin's neuroprotective effect on Aβ1-42-injected rats...
February 3, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Enas Hussein Ali, Fatemeh Sharifpanah, Maria Wartenberg, Heinrich Sauer
Silibinin, the bioactive compound of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), exerts tissue protective and regenerative effects that may include stem cell differentiation toward vascular cells. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether silibinin stimulates blood vessel formation from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and to unravel the underlying signaling cascade. Vascular branching points were assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and computer-assisted image analysis of CD31-positive cell structures...
January 12, 2018: Planta Medica
Wen-Yi Li, Guo Yu, Renee M Hogan, Rajesh Mohandas, Reginald F Frye, Eric Gumpricht, John S Markowitz
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the bioavailability between 2 milk thistle-containing dietary supplements, Product B and IsaGenesis, in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Bioavailability between Product B, originally formulated as a powdered capsule, and IsaGenesis, reformulated as a soft gel, were compared by measuring silybin A and silybin B as surrogate pharmacokinetic markers for differences in absorption and bioavailability. For this randomized, open-label, crossover pharmacokinetic study, 12 healthy volunteers consumed a single-dose serving of each supplement separated by at least a 7-day washout period...
December 19, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
Sheng Zhong, Yuxiang Fan, Qi Yan, Xingyu Fan, Bo Wu, Yujuan Han, Ying Zhang, Yong Chen, Huimao Zhang, Junqi Niu
BACKGROUND: Silymarin (SIL) is an active extraction of the silybum marianum, milk thistle, which is an ancient medicinal plant for treatment of various liver diseases for centuries. This study is to assess the therapeutic effect of SIL in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through meta-analysis. METHODS: Published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included from electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, Web of Science, and so forth)...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Michal Bijak, Ewelina Synowiec, Przemyslaw Sitarek, Tomasz Sliwiński, Joanna Saluk-Bijak
Flavonolignans are the main components of silymarin, which represents 1.5-3% of the dry fruit weight of Milk thistle ( Silybum marianum L. Gaernt.). In ancient Greece and Romania, physicians and herbalists used the Silybum marianum to treat a range of liver diseases. Besides their hepatoprotective action, silymarin flavonolignans have many other healthy properties, such as anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effect of flavonolignans on blood platelets, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and human lung cancer cell line-A549-using different molecular techniques...
December 14, 2017: Nutrients
Nahid Khalili, Reza Fereydoonzadeh, Reza Mohtashami, Saeed Mehrzadi, Mojtaba Heydari, Hasan Fallah Huseini
Silybum marianum (L) Gaertn (milk thistle) seeds, Urtica dioica L (nettle) leaves, and Boswellia serrata (olibanum gum) resin are used traditionally by Iranian diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effects of these herbs in an herbal formulation in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Sixty patients diagnosed as type II diabetes mellitus with fasting blood glucose level from 150 to 180 mg/dL, glycosylated hemoglobin level from 7.5% to 8.5%, and on oral antihyperglycemic drugs, were allocated to receive the mix herbal formulation or placebo for 90 days in a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial...
October 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
Ahmed Alhusban, Enaam Alkhazaleh, Tamam El-Elimat
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Additionally, it was found to induce a dysfunctional angiogenic response in the brain that was attributed to oxidative stress. Milk thistle seed extract (silymarin) has potent antioxidant properties, though its potential use in ameliorating diabetes-induced aberrant brain angiogenesis is unknown. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 β is a regulator of angiogenesis that is upregulated by diabetes. Its involvement in diabetes-induced angiogenesis is unknown...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
Wiem Meddeb, Leila Rezig, Manef Abderrabba, Gérard Lizard, Mondher Mejri
In this study, milk thistle seeds growing in different areas in Tunisia were cold pressed and the extracted oils were examined for their chemical and antioxidant properties. The major fatty acids were linoleic acid (C18:2) (57.0%, 60.0%, and 60.3% for the milk thistle seed oils native to Bizerte, Zaghouan and Sousse, respectively) and oleic acid (C18:1) (15.5%, 21.5%, and 22.4% for the milk thistle seed oils originating from Bizerte, Zaghouan and Sousse, respectively). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the richness of the milk thistle seed oils (MTSO) in α-tocopherol...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Roberta DI Caprio, Giuseppe Monfrecola, Franco Gasparri, Raffaella Micillo, Anna Balato, Serena Lembo
BACKGROUND: Natural antioxidants represent an effective option in the prevention and/or improvement of ultraviolet radiations (UVR)-induced/aggravated skin conditions. UVR cause DNA damage in keratinocytes, directly, in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), or indirectly, through oxidative stress production. Failure of the repair system can result in genetic mutations primarily responsible for the initiation of NMSCs. The aim of our study was to evaluate the in vitro protective effect of milk thistle and olive purified extracts on cultured keratinocytes after solar simulator irradiations (SSR)...
November 30, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Mitsuho Imai-Sumida, Takeshi Chiyomaru, Shahana Majid, Sharanjot Saini, Hannah Nip, Rajvir Dahiya, Yuichiro Tanaka, Soichiro Yamamura
Silibinin is the major active constituent of silymarin, an extract of milk thistle seeds. Silibinin has been shown to have significant anti-cancer effects in a variety of malignancies. However, the molecular mechanisms of silibinin action in bladder cancer have not been studied extensively. In the present study, we found that silibinin (10 μM) significantly suppressed proliferation, migration, invasion and induced apoptosis of T24 and UM-UC-3 human bladder cancer cells. Silibinin down-regulated the actin cytoskeleton and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways in these cancer cell lines...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
S W Yeong, Y C Choong
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the knowledge and characteristics of herbal supplement usage of the customers of community pharmacies in a Malaysian population. DESIGN AND SETTING: Self-administered questionnaires (in English, Malay, or Chinese) were provided to customers at three community pharmacies in Malaysia (Ipoh, Perak). Questionnaire validation and translation validation were performed. A pilot study was conducted before actual questionnaire distribution. Informed consent was obtained from all participants...
December 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Michal Bijak
Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is a medicinal plant that has been used for thousands of years as a remedy for a variety of ailments. The main component of S. marianum fruit extract (silymarin) is a flavonolignan called silybin, which is not only the major silymarin element but is also the most active ingredient of this extract, which has been confirmed in various studies. This compound belongs to the flavonoid group known as flavonolignans. Silybin's structure consists in two main units. The first is based on a taxifolin, the second a phenyllpropanoid unit, which in this case is conyferil alcohol...
November 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sehwan Kim, Un Ju Jung, Yong-Seok Oh, Min-Tae Jeon, Hyung-Jun Kim, Won-Ho Shin, Jungwan Hong, Sang Ryong Kim
Silibinin, an active constituent of silymarin extracted from milk thistle, has been previously reported to confer protection to the adult brain against neurodegeneration. However, its effects against epileptic seizures have not been examined yet. In order to investigate the effects of silibinin against epileptic seizures, we used a relevant mouse model in which seizures are manifested as status epilepticus, induced by kainic acid (KA) treatment. Silibinin was injected intraperitoneally, starting 1 day before an intrahippocampal KA injection and continued daily until analysis of each experiment...
October 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
C Miethe, H Nix, R Martin, A R Hernandez, R S Price
Obesity is associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Obesity and metabolic abnormalities resulting in low-grade inflammation can increase the risk of developing NASH and HCC. NASH, a risk factor for HCC, is characterized by increased inflammation, lipid accumulation, and liver injury. Obesogenic proteins modulate signaling pathways that induce physiological changes including lipogenesis, ROS, and inflammation. Silibinin, a polyphenol in milk thistle seed, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties...
November 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
Luke E Grzeskowiak, Majella Hill, Debra S Kennedy
Galactagogues represent substances used to enhance breast milk production. Between 2001 and 2014 we identified 2034 phone calls regarding the use of galactagogues made to MotherSafe. The majority involved discussion of domperidone (n = 1884; 92.6%), with the remainder relating to metoclopramide (n = 153; 7.5%) or other herbal galactagogues (eg fenugreek, milk thistle; n = 262; 12.9%). A 50% decrease in total calls occurred from 2011 to 2014, while the percentage of calls regarding herbal galactagogues increased from 0% in 2001 to 23% in 2014...
October 23, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Yongkun Lv, Song Gao, Sha Xu, Guocheng Du, Jingwen Zhou, Jian Chen
Silymarin is a collection of compounds extracted from the medicinal herb milk thistle, among which silybin is the major flavonolignan. However, the biosynthesis pathway of silybin remains unclear. In this study, biomimetic reactions demonstrated that silybin can be synthesized from coniferyl alcohol and taxifolin by the action of peroxidase. The concentration profiles of silybin and its precursors and RNA-Seq analysis of gene expression revealed that the amount of taxifolin and the activity of peroxidase serve as the limiting factors in silybin biosynthesis...
December 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Giulia Vecchione, Elena Grasselli, Federica Cioffi, Francesca Baldini, Paulo J Oliveira, Vilma A Sardão, Katia Cortese, Antonia Lanni, Adriana Voci, Piero Portincasa, Laura Vergani
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), are major consequences of hepatic lipid overload, which can contribute to progression of NAFLD to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Also, mitochondria are involved in the NAFLD pathogenesis for their role in hepatic lipid metabolism. Definitive treatments for NAFLD/NASH are lacking so far. Silybin, the extract of the milk thistle seeds, has previously shown beneficial effects in NAFLD...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
Christopher Steven Chambers, Veronika Holečková, Lucie Petrásková, David Biedermann, Kateřina Valentová, Martin Buchta, Vladimír Křen
The extract from milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (Asteraceae)), known as silymarin, contains a variety of flavonolignans and displays antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective properties. As silybin is the main component of silymarin, the literature mainly focuses on this compound, ignoring all other components. This leads to problems in reproducibility of scientific results, as the exact composition of silymarin is often unknown and can vary to a certain degree depending on the processing, chemo-variety of the plant used and climatic conditions during the plant growth...
October 2017: Food Research International
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