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Ari Rosenberg, Devalingam Mahalingam
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Despite multiple advances in targeted and immune therapies, the 5-year survival in advanced PAC remains poor. In this review, we discuss some of the unique aspects of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in PAC that may contribute to its resistance to immune therapies, as well as opportunities to potentially overcome some of these inherent barriers. Furthermore, we discuss strategies to enable immune therapies in PAC such as cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation therapy, cancer vaccines, cytokine based therapy, oncolytic viruses, and adoptive T-cell therapy...
February 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Kerry Johanna Smith, Catriona George, Nuno Ferriera
BACKGROUND: Caring for persons with dementia (PWD) can create "caregiver burden," which is associated with negative outcomes for caregivers and PWD. The ZBI (Zarit Burden Interview) is a widely used unitary measure of caregiver burden. However, recent research has found caregiver burden to be multi-dimensional. The purpose of this study was to explore the factor structure of the ZBI within a sample of UK caregivers. A secondary aim was to identify variables that predicted burden dimensions found...
March 22, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Dong An, Chengchen Guo, Yanan Chen
Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and water sources is a key part of environmental chemistry research, since most PAHs are well known to be associated with negative health impacts on humans. This study explores an approach for analyzing PAH mixtures with advanced nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques including high-resolution one-dimensional (1D) NMR spectroscopy and diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY NMR). With this method, different kinds of PAHs can be detected and differentiated from a mixture with high resolution...
March 21, 2018: Materials
Liyu Chen, Xiumeng Hua, Jiangping Song, Liqing Wang
BACKGROUND: Stroke is severe complication of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) which may be associated with clamp strategy, there are 2 strategies to clamp aorta including single aortic clamp (SAC) and partial aortic clamp (PAC). It is controversial that which clamping strategy is better to reduce the postoperative stroke and death, so this study aims to investigate which is better for reducing postoperative stroke and death within 30 days. METHODS: We collected 469 patients who had on-pump CABG in Fuwai Hospital during January 2014 to July 2015...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Feng-Hang Chang, Pengsheng Ni, Hung-Yi Chiou, Wen-Hsuan Hou, Alan M Jette
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the cultural and semantic equivalence of the Activity Measure Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC) outpatient short forms after they were translated from American English to Mandarin Chinese. METHOD: This study was conducted with a composite sample of a group of 483 American adults (mean age 63.1 years, 42.4% males) and 553 Taiwanese adults (mean age 60.6 years, 47.2% males) who were undergoing home care or outpatient rehabilitation services...
March 21, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Catarina S H Jesus, Pedro Fernandes Cruz, Luis G Arnaut, Rui M M Brito, Carlos Serpa
The understanding of fast folding dynamics of single α-helices comes mostly from studies on rationally designed peptides displaying sequences with high helical propensity. The folding/unfolding dynamics and energetics of α-helix conformations in naturally occurring peptides remains largely unexplored. Here we report the study of a protein fragment analogue of the C-peptide from bovine pancreatic ribonuclease-A, RN80, a 13-amino acid residue peptide that adopts a highly populated helical conformation in aqueous solution...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Emily C Cook, Orianna Duncan, Mary Ellen Fernandez, Bryan Mercier, Jason Windrow, Laura R Stroud
Few laboratory paradigms exist that expose adolescents to conflict that might commonly be experienced in parent-adolescent relationships. Given the continued importance of parent-adolescent relationships on adolescent development, as well as the changing expectations in these relationships, we examined the effect of a novel parent-adolescent conflict paradigm on physiological and affective response in a sample of 52 adolescents. The parent-adolescent conflict stressor (PACS) involved adolescent participants (50% girls; M = 14...
March 20, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Jason Hostetter, Nishanth Khanna, Jacob C Mandell
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to integrate web-based forms with a zero-footprint cloud-based Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) to create a tool of potential benefit to radiology research and education. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Web-based forms were created with a front-end and back-end architecture utilizing common programming languages including Vue.js, Node.js and MongoDB, and integrated into an existing zero-footprint cloud-based PACS...
March 16, 2018: Academic Radiology
Corey Joseph, Marie Garrubba, Julian A Smith, Angela Melder
Pulmonary artery catheters (PACs) were introduced in 1970. Since then, their use has steadily increased. However, there have been questions raised regarding their efficacy for multiple clinical scenarios. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the safety and effectiveness of routine use of PACs post cardiac surgery on mortality, complications, days in intensive care unit, days in hospital, and costs in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, or patients who end up in an intensive care unit. METHODS: Medline, All EBM, Embase and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases were searched using predetermined search terms...
February 21, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Adrian L Lopresti, Hemant Gupta, Stephen J Smith
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a poly-herbal formulation, Herbagut, for the treatment of gastrointestinal symptoms and its effect on quality of life parameters in patients presenting with self-reported, unsatisfactory bowel habits. METHODS: This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Fifty adults with self-reported unsatisfactory bowel habits, primarily characterised by chronic constipation were randomly allocated to take Herbagut or a matching placebo for 28 days...
March 20, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Carolien J Aantjes, Andrew Gilmoor, Elena V Syurina, Tamaryn L Crankshaw
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the status of post-abortion care (PAC) provision in Eastern and Southern Africa with particular reference to reach, quality and costs of these services. STUDY DESIGN: We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, Science Direct, POPLINE and Web of Science for articles published between 2000 and October 2017 presenting primary or secondary data from one or more countries in the region. RESULTS: Seventy articles representing data from fourteen countries were abstracted and included in the review...
March 14, 2018: Contraception
Pamela S Roberts, Manoj Goud, Harriet Udin Aronow, Richard V Riggs
Frailty is a complex and growing phenomenon facing healthcare providers throughout the continuum of care. Frailty is not well understood in post-acute care (PAC) settings. The purpose of this scoping review was to summarize current evidence of frailty impact on outcomes and frailty mitigation initiatives in PAC. Three major publication databases were searched from January 2000-June 2017 that identified 18 articles specifically addressing frailty in PAC. Three themes were identified: scales used to measure frailty; factors that led to an adverse outcome or diagnosis of frailty; and interventions to address frailty in PAC...
March 14, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Charlotte B Winder, Cynthia L Miltenburg, Jan M Sargeant, Stephen J LeBlanc, Derek B Haley, Kerry D Lissemore, M Ann Godkin, Todd F Duffield
Disbudding is a common management procedure performed on dairy farms and, when done without pain mitigation, is viewed as a key welfare issue. Use of pain control has increased in recent years, but full adoption of anesthesia and analgesia by veterinarians or dairy producers has not been achieved. This may in part be due to the lack of a consistent recommendations of treatment protocols between studies examining pain control methods for disbudding. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the effects of these pain control practices for the most common method of disbudding, cautery, on outcomes associated with disbudding pain in calves...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Morad Chughtai, John J Kelly, Jared M Newman, Assem A Sultan, Anton Khlopas, Nipun Sodhi, Anil Bhave, Michael C Kolczun, Michael A Mont
This study evaluated the use of telerehabilitation during the postoperative period for patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). Specifically, this study evaluated the following: (1) patient compliance and adherence to the program, (2) time spent performing physical therapy exercises, (3) the usability of the virtual rehabilitation platform, and (4) clinical outcome scores in a selected primary knee arthroplasty cohort. A total of 157 consecutive patients underwent TKA ( n  = 18) or UKA ( n  = 139)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
Jiantao Zhang, Yanmei Hu, Christopher Foley, Yuanxiang Wang, Rami Musharrafieh, Shuting Xu, Yongtao Zhang, Chunlong Ma, Christopher Hulme, Jun Wang
Influenza viruses are respiratory pathogens that are responsible for seasonal influenza and sporadic influenza pandemic. The therapeutic efficacy of current influenza vaccines and small molecule antiviral drugs is limited due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant influenza viruses. In response to the urgent need for the next generation of influenza antivirals, we utilized a fast-track drug discovery platform by exploring multi-component reaction products for antiviral drug candidates. Specifically, molecular docking was applied to screen a small molecule library derived from the Ugi-azide four-component reaction methodology for inhibitors that target the influenza polymerase PAC -PB1N interactions...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fernando Yepes-Calderon, Marvin D Nelson, J Gordon McComb
The picture archiving and communications system (PACS) is currently the standard platform to manage medical images but lacks analytical capabilities. Staying within PACS, the authors have developed an automatic method to retrieve the medical data and access it at a voxel level, decrypted and uncompressed that allows analytical capabilities while not perturbing the system's daily operation. Additionally, the strategy is secure and vendor independent. Cerebral ventricular volume is important for the diagnosis and treatment of many neurological disorders...
2018: PloS One
Sarah A Amin, Paula J Duquesnay, Catherine M Wright, Kenneth Chui, Christina D Economos, Jennifer M Sacheck
PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES) may impact children's physical activity (PA) behaviors and confidence to participate in PA. We examined how SES modifies the relationship between children's perceived athletic competence (PAC) and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). METHODS: Children (N = 1157; 45% male; grades 3-4) were recruited for the Fueling Learning through Exercise study. Free/reduced price lunch eligibility was used as an indicator of SES. Seven-day accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X+) was used to measure daily MVPA, out-of-school MVPA (O-MVPA), and school-time MVPA...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Adrian P Brady
The job of the diagnostic radiologist is two-fold: identifying and interpreting the information available from diagnostic imaging studies and communicating that interpretation meaningfully to the referring clinician. However skilled our interpretive abilities, our patients are not well served if we fail to convey our conclusions effectively. Despite the central importance of communication skills to the work of radiologists, trainees rarely receive significant formal training in reporting skills, and much of the training given simply reflects the trainer's personal preferences...
March 14, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Wei-Wen Su
Purpose: Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a neurocutaneous disorder characterized by facial cutaneous venous dilatation (port-wine stain), leptomeningeal angioma, and ocular abnormalities. Here we report a case of SWS who experienced acute primary angle-closure in the same side of the nevus flammeus. Observations: A 64-years-old female patient with SWS port wine stain on the left side of her face was referred to our ER for acute primary angle-closure (PAC). The IOP was 64 mmHg in the left eye (12 mmHg in OD) and the visual acuity was 20/100...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Sen Zhang, Yu Yang, Satoshi Takizawa, Li-An Hou
This study investigated the pretreatment effect of ferrihydrite (FH) on the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and membrane fouling control in a hybrid adsorption-ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) was chosen for comparative study, and three surrogates, namely, humic acid (HA), sodium alginate (SA) and bovine serum albumin, were applied in feed water to simulate humic substances, polysaccharides and proteins, respectively. In the hybrid adsorption-membrane system, the impacts of adsorbent cake layers on DOM removal and membrane fouling were systematically investigated...
March 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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