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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742995/icaritin-induces-mc3t3-e1-subclone14-cell-differentiation-through-estrogen-receptor-mediated-erk1-2-and-p38-signaling-activation
#1
Zhidi Wu, Ling Ou, Chaopeng Wang, Li Yang, Panpan Wang, Hengrui Liu, Yingquan Xiong, Kehuan Sun, Ronghua Zhang, Xiaofeng Zhu
Icaritin (ICT), a hydrolytic product of icariin from the genus Epimedium, has many indicated pharmacological and biological activities. Several studies have shown that ICT has potential osteoprotective effects, including stimulation of osteoblast differentiation and inhibition of osteoclast differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism for this anabolic action of ICT remains largely unknown. Here, we found that ICT could enhance MC3T3-E1 subclone 14 preosteoblastic cell differentiation associated with increased mRNA levels and protein expression of the differentiation markers alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type 1 collagen (COL1), osteocalcin (OC), osteoponin (OPN) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and improved mineralization, confirmed by bone nodule formation and collagen synthesis...
July 22, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739844/spreading-colon-cancer-can-bypass-lymph-nodes
#2
(no author information available yet)
A new study uses evolutionary analysis to show that some colorectal tumor cells colonize the lymph nodes before metastasizing to the organs. However, the study finds that most metastases descend from subclones in the tumor itself.
July 24, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736295/digital-multiplex-ligation-dependent-probe-amplification-for-detection-of-key-copy-number-alterations-in-t-and-b-cell-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#3
Anne Benard-Slagter, Ilse Zondervan, Karel de Groot, Farzaneh Ghazavi, Virinder Sarhadi, Pieter Van Vlierberghe, Barbara De Moerloose, Claire Schwab, Kim Vettenranta, Christine J Harrison, Sakari Knuutila, Jan Schouten, Tim Lammens, Suvi Savola
Recurrent and clonal genetic alterations are characteristic of different subtypes of T- and B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and several subtypes are strong independent predictors of patient outcome. A next-generation sequencing-based multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification variant (digitalMLPA) has been developed enabling simultaneous detection of copy number alterations (CNAs) of up to 1000 target sequences. This novel digitalMLPA assay was designed and optimized to detect CNAs of 56 key target genes and regions in ALL...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734047/preselection-of-recombinant-gene-integration-sites-enabling-high-transcription-rates-in-cho-cells-using-alternate-start-codons-and-recombinase-mediated-cassette-exchange
#4
Martina Baumann, Elisabeth Gludovacz, Natalie Sealover, Scott Bahr, Henry George, Nan Lin, Kevin Kayser, Nicole Borth
Site-specific Recombinase Mediated Cassette Exchange (RMCE) enables the transfer of the gene of interest (GOI) into pre-selected genomic locations with defined expression properties. For the generation of recombinant production cell lines this has the advantage that screening for high transcription rates at the genome integration site would be required only once, with the possibility to reuse the selected site for new products. Here we describe a strategy that aims at the selection of transcriptionally active genome integration sites in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells by using alternate start codons in the surface reporter protein CD4, in combination with FACS sorting for high expressers...
July 22, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726209/characteristics-of-mel-ibr-melanoma-line-subclone-after-treatment-with-chicken-embryo-extract
#5
N M Suraeva, L F Morozova, O O Ryabaya, Yu A Khochenkova, A V Samoilov, O S Burova, N V Golubtsova, A E Barmashov, M A Baryshnikova
We continue analysis of the phenotype of human melanoma cell Mel Ibr subclone obtained previously by treatment of the parental cell line by chicken embryo extract. The present study is focused on detection of markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition that determine enhanced metastatic and invasive potential of malignant tumors of various locations. Analysis of the expression of E-cadherin and vimentin genes in the subclone and parental cells detected activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the subclone...
July 18, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719907/tumor-heterogeneity-in-lymphomas-a-different-breed
#6
Christian M Schürch, Birgit Federmann, Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez, Falko Fend
The facts that cancer represents tissues consisting of heterogeneous neoplastic, as well as reactive, cell populations and that cancers of the same histotype may show profound differences in clinical behavior have long been recognized. With the advent of new technologies and the demands of precision medicine, the investigation of tumor heterogeneity has gained much interest. An understanding of intertumoral heterogeneity in patients with the same disease entity is necessary to optimally guide personalized treatment...
July 19, 2017: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718446/cancer-an-insurgency-of-clones
#7
David Gisselsson, Robert Egnell
Oncological therapy resembles a military force that eliminates the central power of a country (dominant clone of a cancer) to create a vacuum where insurgents (subclones) thrive and instigate rebellion (relapse). We suggest that military counterinsurgency doctrine can inspire a discussion of cancer that uniquely embraces both cancer cell evolution and tumour microenvironment.
February 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714990/an-approach-to-suppress-the-evolution-of-resistance-in-braf-v600e-mutant-cancer
#8
Yaohua Xue, Luciano Martelotto, Timour Baslan, Alberto Vides, Martha Solomon, Trang Thi Mai, Neelam Chaudhary, Greg J Riely, Bob T Li, Kerry Scott, Fabiola Cechhi, Ulrika Stierner, Kalyani Chadalavada, Elisa de Stanchina, Sarit Schwartz, Todd Hembrough, Gouri Nanjangud, Michael F Berger, Jonas Nilsson, Scott W Lowe, Jorge S Reis-Filho, Neal Rosen, Piro Lito
The principles that govern the evolution of tumors exposed to targeted therapy are poorly understood. Here we modeled the selection and propagation of an amplification in the BRAF oncogene (BRAF(amp)) in patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDXs) that were treated with a direct inhibitor of the kinase ERK, either alone or in combination with other ERK signaling inhibitors. Single-cell sequencing and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses mapped the emergence of extra-chromosomal amplification in parallel evolutionary trajectories that arose in the same tumor shortly after treatment...
July 17, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713777/a-novel-chimeric-endolysin-with-antibacterial-activity-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#9
Hamed Haddad Kashani, Hossein Fahimi, Yasaman Dasteh Goli, Rezvan Moniri
Cysteine/histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) and amidase are known as catalytic domains of the bacteriophage-derived endolysin LysK and were previously reported to show lytic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In the current study, the in silico design and analysis of chimeric CHAP-amidase model was applied to enhance the stability and solubility of protein, which was achieved through improving the properties of primary, secondary and tertiary structures. The coding gene sequence of the chimeric CHAP-amidase was synthesized and subcloned into the pET-22(+) expression vector, and the recombinant protein was expressed in E...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712776/clonal-evolution-in-paired-endometrial-intraepithelial-neoplasia-atypical-hyperplasia-and-endometrioid-adenocarcinoma
#10
Mariano Russo, James Broach, Kathryn Sheldon, Kenneth R Houser, Dajiang J Liu, Joshua Kesterson, Rebecca Phaeton, Carrie Hossler, Nadine Hempel, Maria Baker, Jordan M Newell, Richard Zaino, Joshua I Warrick
Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) and atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AH) are histomorphologically-defined precursors to endometrioid adenocarcinoma, which are unified as EIN/AH by the World Health Organization. EIN/AH harbors a constellation of molecular alterations similar those found in endometrioid adenocarcinoma. However, the process of clonal evolution from EIN/AH to carcinoma is poorly characterized. To investigate, we performed next generation sequencing, copy number alteration (CNA) analysis, and immunohistochemistry for mismatch repair protein expression on EIN/AH and endometrioid adenocarcinoma samples from 6 hysterectomy cases with spatially distinct EIN/AH and carcinoma...
July 13, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703698/recovery-of-the-zika-virus-through-an-in-vitro-ligation-approach
#11
Cheng-Lin Deng, Qiu-Yan Zhang, Dong-Dong Chen, Si-Qing Liu, Cheng-Feng Qin, Bo Zhang, Han-Qing Ye
In this study, an in vitro ligation method was developed to assemble a full-length infectious cDNA clone of the Zika virus (ZIKV). Four contiguous cDNA subclones covering the complete ZIKV genome were constructed with unique BglI restriction sites at the ends of each fragment. The BglI restriction sites only allow in vitro ligation to happen between interconnecting restriction sites from adjacent cDNA fragments, resulting in an intact full-length cDNA of ZIKV. RNA transcripts derived from the full-length cDNA were infectious...
July 13, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695376/heterozygous-carriers-of-succinyl-coa-3-oxoacid-coa-transferase-deficiency-can-develop-severe-ketoacidosis
#12
Hideo Sasai, Yuka Aoyama, Hiroki Otsuka, Elsayed Abdelkreem, Yasuhiro Naiki, Mitsuru Kubota, Yuji Sekine, Masatsune Itoh, Mina Nakama, Hidenori Ohnishi, Ryoji Fujiki, Osamu Ohara, Toshiyuki Fukao
Succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT, gene symbol OXCT1) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder in ketone body utilization that results in severe recurrent ketoacidotic episodes in infancy, including neonatal periods. More than 30 patients with this disorder have been reported and to our knowledge, their heterozygous parents and siblings have had no apparent ketoacidotic episodes. Over 5 years (2008-2012), we investigated several patients that presented with severe ketoacidosis and identified a heterozygous OXCT1 mutation in four of these cases (Case1 p...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693327/in-situ-examination-of-osteoblast-biomineralization-on-sulfonated-polystyrene-modified-substrates-using-fourier-transform-infrared-microspectroscopy
#13
Yizhi Meng, Meghan E Faillace, Kathryn Dorst, Samantha J Palmaccio, Lisa M Miller, Yi-Xian Qin
Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder that is characterized by the loss of bone mineral density (BMD) resulting in increased risk of fracture. However, it has been shown that BMD is not the only indicator of fracture risk, as the strength of bone depends on a number of factors, including bone mass, architecture and material properties. Physiological mineral deposition requires the formation of a properly developed extracellular matrix (ECM), which recruits calcium and phosphate ions into the synthesis of apatite crystals...
July 10, 2017: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690182/functional-characterization-of-a-soluble-nadph-cytochrome-p450-reductase-from-fusarium-graminearum
#14
Thomas Etzerodt, Karl Wetterhorn, Giuseppe Dionisio, Ivan Rayment
Fusarium head blight is a devastating disease in wheat caused by some fungal pathogens of the Fusarium genus mainly F. graminearum, due to accumulation of toxic trichothecenes. Most of the trichothecene biosynthetic pathway has been mapped, although some proteins of the pathway remain uncharacterized, including an NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. We subcloned a F. graminearum cytochrome P450 reductase that might be involved in the trichothecene biosynthesis. It was expressed heterologously in E. coli as N-terminal truncated form with an octahistidine tag for purification...
July 6, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688230/mutation-landscape-and-intra-tumor-heterogeneity-of-two-manecs-of-the-esophagus-revealed-by-multi-region-sequencing
#15
Wenqing Yuan, Zhen Liu, Wanjun Lei, Li Sun, Haijun Yang, Yu Wang, Shweta Ramdas, Xiao Dong, Ruiping Xu, Hong Cai, Jun Z Li, Yang Ke
Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) in the esophagus is an infrequent but highly malignant cancer with few known genomic alterations. We conducted whole-exome sequencing and whole-genome SNP genotyping for 4-6 tumor subregions and 5-6 adjacent normal tissue sites and 1-3 lymph node metastases in two esophageal MANECs to detect somatic mutations and copy number alterations, and to explore their spatial heterogeneity and underlying clonal structure. TP53 mutation, RB1 deletion or LOH, and PIK3CA, PTEN, KRAS, SOX2, DVL3, TP63 amplification appeared in all regions in both tumors...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684519/origins-of-lymphatic-and-distant-metastases-in-human-colorectal-cancer
#16
Kamila Naxerova, Johannes G Reiter, Elena Brachtel, Jochen K Lennerz, Marc van de Wetering, Andrew Rowan, Tianxi Cai, Hans Clevers, Charles Swanton, Martin A Nowak, Stephen J Elledge, Rakesh K Jain
The spread of cancer cells from primary tumors to regional lymph nodes is often associated with reduced survival. One prevailing model to explain this association posits that fatal, distant metastases are seeded by lymph node metastases. This view provides a mechanistic basis for the TNM staging system and is the rationale for surgical resection of tumor-draining lymph nodes. Here we examine the evolutionary relationship between primary tumor, lymph node, and distant metastases in human colorectal cancer. Studying 213 archival biopsy samples from 17 patients, we used somatic variants in hypermutable DNA regions to reconstruct high-confidence phylogenetic trees...
July 7, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679620/integrated-single-cell-genetic-and-transcriptional-analysis-suggests-novel-drivers-of-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#17
Lili Wang, Jean Fan, Joshua M Francis, George Georghiou, Sarah Hergert, Shuqiang Li, Rutendo Gambe, Chensheng W Zhou, Chunxiao Yang, Sheng Xiao, Paola Dal Cin, Michaela Bowden, Dylan Kotliar, Sachet A Shukla, Jennifer R Brown, Donna Neuberg, Dario R Alessi, Cheng-Zhong Zhang, Peter V Kharchenko, Kenneth J Livak, Catherine J Wu
Intra-tumoral genetic heterogeneity has been characterized across cancers by genome sequencing of bulk tumors, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In order to more accurately identify subclones, define phylogenetic relationships, and probe genotype-phenotype relationships, we developed methods for targeted mutation detection in DNA and RNA isolated from thousands of single cells from five CLL samples. By clearly resolving phylogenic relationships, we uncovered mutated LCP1 and WNK1 as novel CLL drivers, supported by functional evidence demonstrating their impact on CLL pathways...
July 5, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677761/expression-and-purification-of-a-major-allergen-pla-a-1-from-platanus-acerifolia-pollen-and-the-preparation-of-its-monoclonal-antibody
#18
Wei-Wei Ni, Wen Huang, De-Qin Wu, Yan-Jun Zhou, Chun-Mei Ji, Meng-Da Cao, Miao Guo, Jin-Lu Sun, Ji-Fu Wei
Platanus acerifolia pollen is considered an important source of airborne allergens in numerous cities. Pla a 1 is a major allergen from P. acerifolia pollen. The present study aimed to express and purify Pla a 1, and to prepare its monoclonal antibody. In the present study, the Pla a 1 gene was subcloned into a pET‑28a vector and transformed into the ArcticExpress™ (DE3) RP Escherichia coli host strain. The purified Pla a 1 was then used to immunize BALB/c mice. When serum detection was positive, spleen cells were isolated from the mice and fused with SP2/0 myeloma cells at a ratio of 10:1...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677085/role-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-tan1-trna-acetyltransferase-in-eukaryotic-initiation-factor-2b-eif2b-mediated-translation-control-and-stress-response
#19
Sonum Sharma, Anuradha Sourirajan, Kamal Dev
Eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) controls the first step of translation by catalyzing guanine nucleotide exchange on eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2). Mutations in the genes encoding eIF2B subunits inhibit the nucleotide exchange and eventually slow down the process of translation, causing vanishing white matter disease. We constructed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomic DNA library in YEp24 vector and screened it for the identification of extragenic suppressors of eIF2B mutations, corresponding to human eIF2B mutations...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674748/platelet-activating-factor-podoplanin-from-discovery-to-drug-development
#20
Ai Takemoto, Kenichi Miyata, Naoya Fujita
Tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation facilitates hematogenous metastasis by promoting tumor embolization, preventing immunological assaults and shear stress, and the platelet-releasing growth factors support tumor growth and invasion. Podoplanin, also known as Aggrus, is a type I transmembrane mucin-like glycoprotein and is expressed on wide range of tumor cells. Podoplanin has a role in platelet aggregation and metastasis formation through the binding to its platelet receptor, C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2)...
July 3, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
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