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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778845/predictors-of-long-term-mortality-in-status-epilepticus
#1
Somsak Tiamkao, Pawinee Saybungkla, Prapassara Sirikarn, Kittisak Sawanyawisuth
BACKGROUND: There were several studies that have reported on the long-term mortality rate of status epilepticus (SE). However, these studies were conducted mainly in Western countries using small study populations. This study aimed to evaluate predictors for long-term mortality in SE using the Thai national healthcare database. METHODS: This study was conducted using the Thai national Universal Health Coverage (UC) database. The eligibility criteria for this study were that all patients were diagnosed with SE and had been admitted to any hospital between 2005 and 2015...
May 17, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774053/postherpes-simplex-encephalitis-a-case-series-of-viral-triggered-autoimmunity-synaptic-autoantibodies-and-response-to-therapy
#2
Harry Alexopoulos, Sofia Akrivou, Sotiria Mastroyanni, Maria Antonopoulou, Argirios Dinopoulos, Melpo Giorgi, Kostas Konstantinou, Evangelos Kouremenos, Maria Lariou, Dimitrios Naoumis, Efterpi Pavlidou, Evaggelos Pavlou, Konstantinos Voudris, Panayotis Vlachoyiannopoulos, Marinos C Dalakas
Background: Recent evidence suggests that patients with herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis may relapse because of autoimmunity against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). We present a case series of post-HSV relapsing encephalopathy associated with antibodies to central nervous system (CNS) synaptic antigens. Patient/Methods: Sera and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from five patients with HSV encephalitis who relapsed after antiviral therapy were tested for anti-NMDAR, gamma-aminobutyric acid b receptor (GABAbR), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR), Leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1), anti -contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) and dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein-6 (DDPX) antibodies using cell-based assays...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770863/siv-latency-in-macrophages-in-the-cns
#3
Lucio Gama, Celina Abreu, Erin N Shirk, Suzanne E Queen, Sarah E Beck, Kelly A Metcalf Pate, Brandon T Bullock, M Christine Zink, Joseph L Mankowski, Janice E Clements
Lentiviruses infect myeloid cells, leading to acute infection followed by persistent/latent infections not cleared by the host immune system. HIV and SIV are lentiviruses that infect CD4+ lymphocytes in addition to myeloid cells in blood and tissues. HIV infection of myeloid cells in brain, lung, and heart causes tissue-specific diseases that are mostly observed during severe immunosuppression, when the number of circulating CD4+ T cells declines to exceeding low levels. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) controls viral replication but does not successfully eliminate latent virus, which leads to viral rebound once ART is interrupted...
May 17, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769333/microglia-are-critical-in-host-defense-against-prion-disease
#4
James A Carroll, Brent Race, Katie Williams, James Striebel, Bruce Chesebro
Microglial cells in the central nervous system play important roles in neurodevelopment and resistance to infection, yet microglia can become neurotoxic under some conditions. An early event during prion infection is the activation of microglia and astrocytes in the brain prior to damage or death of neurons. Previous prion disease studies using two different strategies to manipulate signaling through the microglial receptor CSF-1R reported contrary effects on survival from prion disease. However, in these studies, reduction of microglial numbers and function were variable, thus confounding interpretation of the results...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768177/expression-of-the-dna-binding-factor-tox-promotes-the-encephalitogenic-potential-of-microbe-induced-autoreactive-cd8-t-cells
#5
Nicolas Page, Bogna Klimek, Mathias De Roo, Karin Steinbach, Hadrien Soldati, Sylvain Lemeille, Ingrid Wagner, Mario Kreutzfeldt, Giovanni Di Liberto, Ilena Vincenti, Thomas Lingner, Gabriela Salinas, Wolfgang Brück, Mikael Simons, Rabih Murr, Jonathan Kaye, Dietmar Zehn, Daniel D Pinschewer, Doron Merkler
Infections are thought to trigger CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses during autoimmunity. However, the transcriptional programs governing the tissue-destructive potential of CTLs remain poorly defined. In a model of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, we found that infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), but not Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), drove autoimmunity. The DNA-binding factor TOX was induced in CTLs during LCMV infection and was essential for their encephalitogenic properties, and its expression was inhibited by interleukin-12 during Lm infection...
May 15, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766473/mr-imaging-findings-in-some-rare-neurological-complications-of-paediatric-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Tetsuhiko Okabe, Taiki Nozaki, Noriko Aida, Jay Starkey, Mikako Enokizono, Tetsu Niwa, Atsuhiko Handa, Yuji Numaguchi, Yasuyuki Kurihara
Neurological complications of paediatric cancers are a substantial problem. Complications can be primary from central nervous system (CNS) spread or secondary from indirect or remote effects of cancer, as well as cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In this review, we present the clinical and imaging findings of rare but important neurological complications in paediatric patients with cancer. Neurological complications are classified into three phases: pre-treatment, treatment and post-remission...
May 15, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765441/suspected-unexpected-and-other-adverse-reactions-to-antiretroviral-drugs-used-as-post-exposure-prophylaxis-of-hiv-infection-five-year-experience-from-clinical-practice
#7
Justyna D Kowalska, Ewa Pietraszkiewicz, Ewa Firląg-Burkacka, Andrzej Horban
Introduction: With increased use of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in HIV uninfected persons, proper reporting on suspected unexpected serious adverse reactions (SUSARs) and continued insight into adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are needed for adequate information on safety of ARVs in such populations. Material and methods: Medical documentation of persons receiving ARVs after non-occupational HIV exposure (non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis - nPEP) during 5 successive years (2009-2013) was evaluated by two HIV physicians...
April 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764273/the-association-between-sequential-organ-failure-assessment-scores-and-mortality-in-patients-with-sepsis-during-the-first-week-the-jseptic-dic-study
#8
Tsuyoshi Nakashima, Kyohei Miyamoto, Toshio Shimokawa, Seiya Kato, Mineji Hayakawa
OBJECTIVE: Predicting prognosis is a complex process, particularly in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores for individual organs during the first week of admission and the in-hospital mortality in patients with sepsis. METHODS: This study was a post hoc evaluation of the Japan Septic Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation study and included patients admitted to 42 intensive care units in Japan for severe sepsis or septic shock, between January 2011 and December 2013...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761763/in-southern-nigeria-loa-loa-blood-microfilaria-density-is-very-low-even-in-areas-with-high-prevalence-of-loiasis-results-of-a-survey-using-the-new-loascope-technology
#9
Emmanuel Emukah, Lindsay J Rakers, Barminas Kahansim, Emmanuel S Miri, Bertram E B Nwoke, Emily Griswold, Yisa Saka, Ifeoma Anagbogu, Emmanuel Davies, Cephas Ityonzughul, Michael D'Ambrosio, Matthew Bakalar, Daniel A Fletcher, Thomas Nutman, Joseph Kamgno, Frank O Richards
Ivermectin treatment can cause central nervous system adverse events (CNS-AEs) in persons with very high-density Loa loa microfilaremia (≥ 30,000 mf/mL blood). Hypoendemic onchocerciasis areas where L. loa is endemic have been excluded from ivermectin mass drug administration programs (MDA) because of the concern for CNS AEs. The rapid assessment procedure for L. loa (RAPLOA) is a questionnaire survey to assess history of eye worm. If ≥ 40% of respondents report eye worm, this correlates with ≥ 2% prevalence of very high-density loiasis microfilaremia, posing an unacceptable risk of CNS-AEs after MDA...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760190/tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-nonstructural-protein-ns5-induces-rantes-expression-dependent-on-the-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-activity
#10
Zifeng Zheng, Jieyu Yang, Xuan Jiang, Yalan Liu, Xiaowei Zhang, Mei Li, Mudan Zhang, Ming Fu, Kai Hu, Hanzhong Wang, Min-Hua Luo, Peng Gong, Qinxue Hu
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the flaviviruses that targets the CNS and causes encephalitis in humans. The mechanism of TBEV that causes CNS destruction remains unclear. It has been reported that RANTES-mediated migration of human blood monocytes and T lymphocytes is specifically induced in the brain of mice infected with TBEV, which causes ensuing neuroinflammation and may contribute to brain destruction. However, the viral components responsible for RANTES induction and the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully addressed...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760177/epigenetic-promoter-dna-methylation-of-mir-124-promotes-hiv-1-tat-mediated-microglial-activation-via-mecp2-stat3-axis
#11
Palsamy Periyasamy, Annadurai Thangaraj, Ming-Lei Guo, Guoku Hu, Shannon Callen, Shilpa Buch
The present study demonstrates HIV-1 Tat-mediated epigenetic downregulation of microglial miR-124 and its association with microglial activation. Exposure of mouse primary microglia isolated from newborn pups of either sex to HIV-1 Tat resulted in decreased expression of primary miR-124-1, primary miR-124-2 as well as the mature miR-124. In parallel, HIV-1 Tat exposure to mouse primary microglial cells resulted in increased expression of DNA methylation enzymes, such as DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B that were also accompanied by increased global DNA methylation...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759135/the-levels-of-soluble-forms-of-cd21-and-cd83-in-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Sajad Karampoor, Hamid Zahednasab, Masoud Etemadifar, Hossein Keyvani
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which immune system plays a crucial role in progression of the disease. An enormous amount of research has been shown that immune mediators such as cytokines and chemokines are the culprits of MS propagation suggesting that modulation of such molecules may pave the path to hinder the disease development. It has been shown that both CD21 and CD83 contribute to the resolution of inflammation occurred in MS. CD21 and CD83 have also been ascribed to Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection (the prime suspect of MS causality) and the levels of vitamin D, respectively...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759080/zika-virus-crosses-an-in-vitro-human-blood-brain-barrier-model
#13
Judie B Alimonti, Maria Ribecco-Lutkiewicz, Caroline Sodja, Anna Jezierski, Danica B Stanimirovic, Qing Liu, Arsalan S Haqqani, Wayne Conlan, Mahmud Bani-Yaghoub
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that is highly neurotropic causing congenital abnormalities and neurological damage to the central nervous systems (CNS). In this study, we used a human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived blood brain barrier (BBB) model to demonstrate that ZIKV can infect brain endothelial cells (i-BECs) without compromising the BBB barrier integrity or permeability. Although no disruption to the BBB was observed post-infection, ZIKV particles were released on the abluminal side of the BBB model and infected underlying iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells (i-NPs)...
May 15, 2018: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754263/genes-and-their-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-involved-in-innate-immune-response-in-central-nervous-system-in-bacterial-meningitis-review-of-literature-data
#14
REVIEW
Ewelina Gowin, Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska
BACKGROUND: There are many studies analysing the effect of SNPs in genes coding proteins which are involved in innate immune response on susceptibility to invasive bacterial disease. Many of them gave inconclusive results. Regarding the complexity of immune response and cooperation between particular elements, number of SNPs may have a cumulative effect on the susceptibility to bacterial meningitis. FINDINGS: In most studies cooccurrence of several SNPs was not analysed...
May 12, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753877/developing-a-decision-support-system-for-patients-with-severe-infection-conditions-in-prehospital-care
#15
Niclas Johansson, Carl Spindler, John Valik, Veronica Vicente
OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a prehospital decision support system (DSS) for the emergency medical services (EMS), enabling identification and steering of patients with critical infectious conditions - severe respiratory tract infections, severe CNS-infections and sepsis - to a specialized emergency department (ED) for infectious diseases. METHODS: The development process has involved four consecutive steps. The first step was gathering data from the electronic Patient Care Record on patients transported by the EMS, to identify retrospectively appropriate patient categories for steering...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753293/risk-assessment-of-in-hospital-mortality-of-patients-with-epilepsy-a-large-cohort-study
#16
Yang Si, Xiaoqiang Xiao, Shunju Xiang, Jing Liu, Qianning Mo, Hongbin Sun
PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the mortality risks of hospitalized patients with epilepsy (PWE). METHODS: Our data source was extracted from discharge abstracts in a hospital medical database. Various clinical variables, including demographical characteristics, natural features of epilepsy, and comprehensive set of comorbidities, were screened to investigate the risk. Comorbidities were defined using a validated ICD-10-based classification. The distributions of comorbid conditions and demographics were presented...
May 9, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751846/generation-of-three-dimensional-human-neuronal-cultures-application-to-modeling-cns-viral-infections
#17
Leonardo D'Aiuto, Jennifer Naciri, Nicholas Radio, Sesha Tekur, Dennis Clayton, Gerard Apodaca, Roberto Di Maio, Yun Zhi, Peter Dimitrion, Paolo Piazza, Matthew Demers, Joel Wood, Charleen Chu, Jason Callio, Lora McClain, Robert Yolken, James McNulty, Paul Kinchington, David Bloom, Vishwajit Nimgaonkar
BACKGROUND: A variety of neurological disorders including neurodegenerative diseases and infection by neurotropic viruses can cause structural and functional changes in the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in long-term neurological sequelae. An improved understanding of the pathogenesis of these disorders is important for developing efficacious interventions. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer an extraordinary window for modeling pathogen-CNS interactions, and other cellular interactions, in three-dimensional (3D) neuronal cultures that can recapitulate several aspects of in vivo brain tissue...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751182/central-nervous-system-actinomycosis-a-clinico-radiological-and-histopathological-analysis
#18
Niveditha Ravindra, Nishanth Sadashiva, Anita Mahadevan, Dhananjay I Bhat, Jitender Saini
INTRODUCTION: Actinomycosis is an uncommon chronic suppurative infection that rarely affects the central nervous system(CNS). It is caused by filamentous Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria that is a normal commensal but causes suppurative and granulomatous inflammation following disruption of anatomical barriers. We report the largest series of 17histologically confirmed cases of CNS actinomycosis and review clinical, imaging and histopathological features. METHODS: All histologically confirmed cases of CNS actinomycosis diagnosed between January 2010 and June 2016 were retrieved from the neuropathology records...
May 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749044/mycobacteria-employ-two-different-mechanisms-to-cross-the-blood-brain-barrier
#19
L M van Leeuwen, M Boot, C Kuijl, D I Picavet, G van den Brink, S M A van der Pol, H E de Vries, N N van der Wel, M van der Kuip, A M van Furth, A M van der Sar, W Bitter
Central nervous system (CNS) infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most devastating complications of tuberculosis, in particular in early childhood. In order to induce CNS infection, M. tuberculosis needs to cross specialized barriers protecting the brain. How M. tuberculosis crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and enters the CNS is not well understood. Here, we use transparent zebrafish larvae and the closely related pathogen Mycobacterium marinum to answer this question. We show that in the early stages of development mycobacteria rapidly infect brain tissue, either as free mycobacteria or within circulating macrophages...
May 10, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743394/-cerebrospinal-fluid-findings-in-chronic-active-epstein-barr-virus-infection-with-central-nervous-system-involvement
#20
Mayumi Yoshimori, Ken-Ichi Imadome, Shohei Tomii, Kouhei Yamamoto, Osamu Miura, Ayako Arai
As chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection (CAEBV) progresses, EBV-infected tumor cells invade the central nervous system (CNS). To establish a diagnostic procedure for CNS invasion, we retrospectively analyzed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from eight patients. Two patients presented with consciousness disturbance and were diagnosed with CNS invasion based on scan and autopsy results, respectively. The remaining six patients were diagnosed without CNS invasion by clinical findings and scans. In the two patients with CNS invasion, the number of mononuclear cells and the protein concentration were increased, whereas the CSF to serum glucose ratio and the adenosine deaminase concentration were raised...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
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