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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209182/mesenchymal-stem-cells-alleviate-japanese-encephalitis-virus-induced-neuroinflammation-and-mortality
#1
Peiyu Bian, Chuantao Ye, Xuyang Zheng, Jing Yang, Wei Ye, Yuan Wang, Yun Zhou, Hongwei Ma, Peijun Han, Hai Zhang, Ying Zhang, Fanglin Zhang, Yingfeng Lei, Zhansheng Jia
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. Japanese encephalitis (JE) caused by JEV is characterized by extensive inflammatory cytokine secretion, microglia activation, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, and neuronal death, all of which contribute to the vicious cycle of inflammatory damage. There are currently no effective treatments for JE. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to have a therapeutic effect on many central nervous system (CNS) diseases by regulating inflammation and other mechanisms...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207570/international-survey-of-critically-ill-children-with-acute-neurologic-insults-the-prevalence-of-acute-critical-neurological-disease-in-children-a-global-epidemiological-assessment-study
#2
Ericka L Fink, Patrick M Kochanek, Robert C Tasker, John Beca, Michael J Bell, Robert S B Clark, Jamie Hutchison, Monica S Vavilala, Anthony Fabio, Derek C Angus, R Scott Watson
OBJECTIVE: The international scope of critical neurologic insults in children is unknown. Our objective was to assess the prevalence and outcomes of children admitted to PICUs with acute neurologic insults. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Multicenter (n = 107 PICUs) and multinational (23 countries, 79% in North America and Europe). PATIENTS: Children 7 days to 17 years old admitted to the ICU with new traumatic brain injury, stroke, cardiac arrest, CNS infection or inflammation, status epilepticus, spinal cord injury, hydrocephalus, or brain mass...
February 15, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206670/altered-expression-of-cxcr3-and-ccr6-and-their-ligands-in-htlv-1-carriers-and-ham-tsp-patients
#3
Houshang Rafatpanah, Mehdi Felegari, Mahmoud Reza Azarpazhooh, Rosita Vakili, Taraneh Rajaei, Ian Hampson, Golmahossein Hassanshahi, Narges Valizadeh, Sina Gerayli, Hamid Farjifard, Shadi Zamanian, Farzad MollaHosseini, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee
Recruitment of leukocytes by chemokines and chemokine receptors to CNS plays a crucial role in the induction of inflammatory response in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). In the present study, chemokine and chemokine receptors involved in trafficking of lymphocytes to the CNS were measured in HAM/TSP patients, HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (ACs), and healthy controls. The PVL, CCR6 and CXCR3 mRNA expression, and CXCL9 and CXCL10 protein levels were measured in all subjects...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202084/aprepitant-limits-in-vivo-neuroinflammatory-responses-in-a-rhesus-model-of-lyme-neuroborreliosis
#4
Alejandra N Martinez, Amanda R Burmeister, Geeta Ramesh, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Ian Marriott, Mario T Philipp
BACKGROUND: Substance P (SP) is produced at high levels in the central nervous system (CNS), and its target receptor, neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R), is expressed by glia and leukocytes. This tachykinin functions to exacerbate inflammatory responses at peripheral sites. Moreover, SP/NK-1R interactions have recently been associated with severe neuroinflammation and neuronal damage. We have previously demonstrated that NK-1R antagonists can limit neuroinflammatory damage in a mouse model of bacterial meningitis...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202068/the-dna-damage-response-promotes-polyomavirus-jc-infection-by-nucleus-to-cytoplasm-nf-kappab-activation
#5
Martyn K White, Anna Bellizzi, Gabriele Ibba, Valeria Pietropaolo, Anna T Palamara, Hassen S Wollebo
BACKGROUND: Infection of glial cells by human neurotropic polyomavirus JC (JCV), the causative agent of the CNS demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), rapidly inflicts damage to cellular DNA. This activates DNA damage response (DDR) signaling including induction of expression of DNA repair factor Rad51. We previously reported that Rad51 co-operates with the transcription factor NF-κB p65 to activate JCV early transcription. Thus Rad51 induction by JCV infection may provide positive feedback for viral activation early in JCV infection...
February 15, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192476/th40-cells-cd4-cd40-tcells-drive-a-more-severe-form-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-than-conventional-cd4-t-cells
#6
Gisela M Vaitaitis, Martin G Yussman, Dan M Waid, David H Wagner
CD40-CD154 interaction is critically involved in autoimmune diseases, and CD4 T cells play a dominant role in the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). CD4 T cells expressing CD40 (Th40) are pathogenic in type I diabetes but have not been evaluated in EAE. We demonstrate here that Th40 cells drive a rapid, more severe EAE disease course than conventional CD4 T cells. Adoptively transferred Th40 cells are present in lesions in the CNS and are associated with wide spread demyelination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191447/reexamining-chronic-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-surprising-activity-for-a-dormant-parasite
#7
Anthony P Sinai, Elizabeth A Watts, Animesh Dhara, Robert D Murphy, Matthew S Gentry, Abhijit Patwardhan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite over a third of the world's population being chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii, little is known about this largely asymptomatic phase of infection. This stage is mediated in vivo by bradyzoites within tissue cysts. The absence of overt symptoms has been attributed to the dormancy of bradyzoites. In this review, we reexamine the conventional view of chronic toxoplasmosis in light of emerging evidence challenging both the nature of dormancy and the consequences of infection in the CNS...
December 2016: Current Clinical Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188174/brain-atrophy-in-picornavirus-infected-fvb-mice-is-dependent-on-the-h-2d-b-class-i-molecule
#8
April M Huseby Kelcher, Pascal A Atanga, Jeffrey D Gamez, Luz M Cumba Garcia, Stephanie J Teclaw, Kevin D Pavelko, Slobodan I Macura, Aaron J Johnson
Brain atrophy is a common feature of numerous neurologic diseases in which the role of neuroinflammation remains ill-defined. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules to brain atrophy in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-infected transgenic FVB mice that express the D(b) class I molecule. FVB/D(b) and wild-type FVB mice were evaluated for changes in neuroinflammation, virus clearance, neuropathology, and development of brain atrophy via T2-weighted MRI and subsequent 3-dimensional volumetric analysis...
February 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187911/what-kaplan-meier-survival-curves-don-t-tell-us-about-cns-disease
#9
Katelyn D Miller, Glenn F Rall
Central nervous system consequences of viral infections are rare, but when they do occur, they are often serious and clinically challenging to manage. Our awareness of the perils of neuroinvasion by viruses is growing: the recently appreciated impact of Ebola and Zika virus infections on CNS integrity, decreases in vaccination coverage for potentially neurotropic viruses such as measles, and increased neurovirulence of some influenza strains collectively highlight the need for a better understanding of the viral-neural interaction...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186476/risk-factors-for-surgical-site-infection-following-nonshunt-pediatric-neurosurgery-a-review-of-9296-procedures-from-a-national-database-and-comparison-with-a-single-center-experience
#10
Brandon A Sherrod, Anastasia A Arynchyna, James M Johnston, Curtis J Rozzelle, Jeffrey P Blount, W Jerry Oakes, Brandon G Rocque
OBJECTIVE Surgical site infection (SSI) following CSF shunt operations has been well studied, yet risk factors for nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery are less well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine SSI rates and risk factors following nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery using a nationwide patient cohort and an institutional data set specifically for better understanding SSI. METHODS The authors reviewed the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (ACS NSQIP-P) database for the years 2012-2014, including all neurosurgical procedures performed on pediatric patients except CSF shunts and hematoma evacuations...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182358/aetiology-and-significance-of-hospital-acquired-infections-in-mexico
#11
REVIEW
Nayelli M Alonso-Aguilar, Sara R Juarez-Enriquez, Graciela Castro-Escarpulli, Gildardo Rivera, Virgilio Bocanegra-Garcia, Xianwu Guo, Julieta Luna-Herrera, M G Aguilera-Arreola
Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are infections that develop in the hospital environment and can be acquired by a patient or hospital staff. They are complications that combine diverse risk factors that make an individual susceptible and are frequently caused by endogenous and exogenous bacterial agents. The most commonly studied etiological agents are bacteria and fungi, with the former representing the most common etiological agents reported to the Hospital Epidemiological Surveillance Network (RHOVE) between 2007 and 2012...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181102/cerebrospinal-fluid-nlrp3-is-increased-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-in-infants-and-children
#12
Jessica S Wallisch, Dennis W Simon, Hülya Bayır, Michael J Bell, Patrick M Kochanek, Robert S B Clark
BACKGROUND: Inflammasome-mediated neuroinflammation may cause secondary injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. The pattern recognition receptors NACHT domain-, Leucine-rich repeat-, and PYD-containing Protein 1 (NLRP1) and NLRP3 are essential components of their respective inflammasome complexes. We sought to investigate whether NLRP1 and/or NLRP3 abundance is altered in children with severe TBI. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from children (n = 34) with severe TBI (Glasgow coma scale score [GCS] ≤8) who had externalized ventricular drains (EVD) placed for routine care was evaluated for NLRP1 and NLRP3 at 0-24, 25-48, 49-72, and >72 h post-TBI and was compared to infection-free controls that underwent lumbar puncture to rule out CNS infection (n = 8)...
February 8, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178524/astrocytes-resist-hiv-1-fusion-but-engulf-infected-macrophage-material
#13
Rebecca A Russell, Jakub Chojnacki, Daniel M Jones, Errin Johnson, Thao Do, Christian Eggeling, Sergi Padilla-Parra, Quentin J Sattentau
HIV-1 disseminates to diverse tissues and establishes long-lived viral reservoirs. These reservoirs include the CNS, in which macrophage-lineage cells, and as suggested by many studies, astrocytes, may be infected. Here, we have investigated astrocyte infection by HIV-1. We confirm that astrocytes trap and internalize HIV-1 particles for subsequent release but find no evidence that these particles infect the cell. Astrocyte infection was not observed by cell-free or cell-to-cell routes using diverse approaches, including luciferase and GFP reporter viruses, fixed and live-cell fusion assays, multispectral flow cytometry, and super-resolution imaging...
February 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177966/high-number-of-activated-cd8-t-cells-targeting-hiv-antigens-are-present-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-acute-hiv-infection
#14
Cari F Kessing, Serena Spudich, Victor Valcour, Pearline Cartwright, Thep Chalermchai, James L K Fletcher, Carmen Nichols, Benjamin J Josey, Bonnie Slike, Shelly J Krebs, Napapon Sailsuta, Sukalaya Lerdlum, Linda Jagodzinski, Somporn Tipsuk, Duanghathai Suttichom, Somprartthana Rattanamanee, Henrik Zetterberg, Joanna Hellmuth, Nittaya Phanuphak, Merlin L Robb, Nelson L Michael, Jintanat Ananworanich, Lydie Trautmann
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infiltration by CD8+ T cells is associated with neuroinflammation in many neurodegenerative diseases, including HIV-associated dementia. However, the role of CD8+ T cells in the CNS during acute HIV infection is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed the phenotype, gene expression, TCR repertoire and HIV-specificity of CD8+ T cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a unique cohort captured during the earliest stages of acute HIV infection (AHI) (n=26), chronic (n=23), and uninfected (n=8)...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174598/review-on-the-role-of-the-human-polyomavirus-jc-in-the-development-of-tumors
#15
REVIEW
Serena Delbue, Manola Comar, Pasquale Ferrante
Almost one fifth of human cancers worldwide are associated with infectious agents, either bacteria or viruses, and this makes the possible association between infections and tumors a relevant research issue. We focused our attention on the human Polyomavirus JC (JCPyV), that is a small, naked DNA virus, belonging to the Polyomaviridae family. It is the recognized etiological agent of the Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal demyelinating disease, occurring in immunosuppressed individuals...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174559/zika-virus-chikungunya-virus-and-dengue-virus-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-from-adults-with-neurological-manifestations-guayaquil-ecuador
#16
Nathalie Acevedo, Jesse Waggoner, Michelle Rodriguez, Lissette Rivera, José Landivar, Benjamin Pinsky, Hector Zambrano
Zika virus (ZIKV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and dengue virus (DENV) have been associated with clinical presentations that involve acute neurological complaints. In the current study, we identified ZIKV, CHIKV, and DENV in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients admitted to the Hospital Luis Vernaza (Guayaquil, Ecuador) to the Emergency Room or the Intensive Care Unit, with neurological symptoms and/or concern for acute arboviral infections. Viral RNA from one or more virus was detected in 12/16 patients...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169858/central-nervous-system-infections-in-immunocompromised-patients
#17
Romain Sonneville, Eric Magalhaes, Geert Meyfroidt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although rare, central nervous system (CNS) infections are increasingly being recognized in immunocompromised patients. The goal of the present review is to provide a practical diagnostic approach for the intensivist, and to briefly discuss some of the most prevalent conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Immunocompromised patients presenting with new neurological symptoms should always be suspected of a CNS infection. These infections carry a poor prognosis, especially if intracranial hypertension, severely altered mental status or seizures are present...
February 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169156/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-associated-with-dose-adjusted-epoch-etoposide-prednisone-vincristine-cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-chemotherapy
#18
Abby E Floeter, Amila Patel, Melinda Tran, Marc C Chamberlain, Paul C Hendrie, Ajay K Gopal, Ryan D Cassaday
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of our study was to identify the key risk factors for the development of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) after administration of the combination chemotherapy regimen, DA-EPOCH (dose-adjusted etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective medical record review of patients receiving DA-EPOCH with or without rituximab (DA-EPOCH ± R) at our institution from July 2012 to September 2014...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166799/toll-like-receptor-3-activation-selectively-reverses-hiv-latency-in-microglial-cells
#19
David Alvarez-Carbonell, Yoelvis Garcia-Mesa, Stephanie Milne, Biswajit Das, Curtis Dobrowolski, Roxana Rojas, Jonathan Karn
BACKGROUND: Multiple toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed in cells of the monocytic lineage, including microglia, which constitute the major reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the brain. We hypothesized that TLR receptor mediated responses to inflammatory conditions by microglial cells in the central nervous system (CNS) are able to induce latent HIV proviruses, and contribute to the etiology of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. RESULTS: Newly developed human microglial cell lines (hµglia), obtained by immortalizing human primary microglia with simian virus-40 (SV40) large T antigen and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase, were used to generate latently infected cells using a single-round HIV virus carrying a green fluorescence protein reporter (hµglia/HIV, clones HC01 and HC69)...
February 6, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161477/sequential-transmigration-of-polymorphonuclear-cells-and-naive-cd3-t-lymphocytes-across-the-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-barrier-in-vitro-following-infection-with-echovirus-30
#20
Tobias Dahm, Franziska Frank, Ortwin Adams, Holger A Lindner, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Christel Weiss, Christian Schwerk, Horst Schroten, Tobias Tenenbaum, Henriette Rudolph
Viral meningitis by non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV) is a major public health burden causing fatal outcomes especially in the younger population. Strong evidence exists that the blood-cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) barrier (BCSFB) serves as an entry point for enterovirus and leucocytes into the central nervous system (CNS). Moreover, analysis of clinical CSF specimens of patients with a NPEV infection revealed a predominance of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) in the early phase and mononuclear cells in the later course of meningitis...
February 1, 2017: Virus Research
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