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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721049/the-potential-role-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-hiv-associated-depression-a-review-of-literature
#1
REVIEW
William C Nicholson, Mirjam-Colette Kempf, Linda Moneyham, David E Vance
Depression is the most common comorbidity and neuropsychiatric complication in HIV. Estimates suggest that the prevalence rate for depression among HIV-infected individuals is three times that of the general population. The association between HIV and clinical depression is complex; however, chronic activation of inflammatory mechanisms, which disrupt central nervous system (CNS) function, may contribute to this association. Disruptions in CNS function can result in cognitive disorders, social withdrawal, fatigue, apathy, psychomotor impairment, and sleep disturbances, which are common manifestations in depression and HIV alike...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721014/determining-optimal-dosing-regimen-of-oral-administration-of-dicloxacillin-using-monte-carlo-simulation
#2
Wei Yu, Jinru Ji, Tingting Xiao, Chaoqun Ying, Jiaheng Fang, Ping Shen, Yonghong Xiao
BACKGROUND: Dicloxacillin, a semisynthetic isoxazolyl penicillin, exhibits antimicrobial activity against a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria, as well as stability against penicillinases and low level of toxicity. The objective of this study was to obtain optimal dosing regimen of oral administration of dicloxacillin by analyzing the pharmacokinetic (PK) index in healthy volunteers and in vitro antibacterial activity by using Monte Carlo simulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 867 clinical isolates from community-onset infections were collected from 31 secondary hospitals in People's Republic of China...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719951/neuronal-apoptosis-pathological-basis-of-behavioral-dysfunctions-induced-by-angiostrongylus-cantonensis-in-rodents-model
#3
Shiqi Luo, Lisi OuYang, Jie Wei, Feng Wu, Zhongdao Wu, Wanlong Lei, Dongjuan Yuan
Angiostrongylus cantonensis invades the central nervous system (CNS) of humans to induce eosinophilic meningitis and meningoencephalitis and leads to persistent headache, cognitive dysfunction, and ataxic gait. Infected mice (nonpermissive host), admittedly, suffer more serious pathological injuries than rats (permissive host). However, the pathological basis of these manifestations is incompletely elucidated. In this study, the behavioral test, histological and immunohistochemical techniques, and analysis of apoptotic gene expression, especially caspase-3, were conducted...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718257/risk-factors-for-heat-related-deaths-during-the-june-2015-heat-wave-in-karachi-pakistan
#4
Syed Ghazanfar Saleem, Tehreem Ansari, Ashraf Shamshad Ali, Sara Fatima, Mariam Hassan Rizvi, Muhammad Abdul Samad
BACKGROUND: Mortality as a consequence of heat related illness is a public health concern. Emergency department (ED) experiences increased patients' flow and decreased survival as a consequence of heat stroke during the episodes of heat wave. The present study was conducted to identify the risk factors for mortality among victims of heat wave (17th - 23rd June), 2015 evaluated in the Emergency Department of The Indus Hospital (TIH), Karachi. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study data was retrospectively collected...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717763/burkitt-s-lymphoma-and-b-cell-lymphoma-unclassifiable-with-features-intermediate-between-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-and-burkitt-s-lymphoma-in-patients-with-hiv-outcomes-in-a-south-african-public-hospital
#5
Gerhard Sissolak, Matthew Seftel, Thomas S Uldrick, Tonya M Esterhuizen, Nooroudien Mohamed, Danie Kotze
PURPOSE: Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is a common HIV-associated lymphoma in South Africa. B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt's lymphoma (BL/DLBCL) also occurs in HIV infection. Outcomes of HIV-infected patients with BL or BL/DLBCL in a resource-constrained setting are not defined. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of HIV-positive patients with BL or BL/DLBCL treated from 2004 to 2012 with curative intent at a publically funded academic medical center in South Africa...
June 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714865/microglia-in-prion-diseases
#6
Adriano Aguzzi, Caihong Zhu
Prion diseases are a group of progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterized by deposition of scrapie prion protein (PrPSc) in the CNS. This deposition is accompanied by neuronal loss, spongiform change, astrogliosis, and conspicuous microglial activation. Here, we argue that microglia play an overall neuroprotective role in prion pathogenesis. Several microglia-related molecules, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the complement system, cytokines, chemokines, inflammatory regulators, and phagocytosis mediators, are involved in prion pathogenesis...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711535/infection-or-glioma-the-false-dilemma-of-primary-cns-histiocytic-sarcoma
#7
William Clifton, Oluwaseun Akinduro, Sebastian Lopez-Chiriboga, Dale Alan Whitaker, Ronald Reimer
Primary CNS histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an extremely rare lymphoproliferative disorder which affects the central nervous system and behaves aggressively. There have been only twenty-seven reported cases of primary CNS HS. The paucity of literature on this entity has made diagnosis and treatment difficult both for the surgeon and pathologist. This is a case of primary CNS HS in a middle-aged female who presented with a supposed cerebellar abscess from an outside institution. The intraoperative frozen pathology was initially interpreted as a high grade glioma, however the final pathology was demonstrated to be histiocytic sarcoma...
July 12, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706854/nocardia-beijingensis-brain-abscesses-in-an-hiv-infected-individual
#8
Jolie Guevara Keenan, Sunita Mohapatra
We describe a case of a 50-year-old Hispanic man diagnosed with HIV/AIDS who presented with a generalized tonic clonic seizure and ring enhancing cerebral lesions on imaging. He was initially treated for CNS toxoplasmosis but presented to the hospital with another tonic clonic seizure despite prescribed therapy. Brain biopsy was performed which revealed Nocardia beijingensis. He was treated with intravenous meropenem and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for six weeks followed by long term oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole with radiographic and clinical improvement...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701948/microglial-activation-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
REVIEW
Cornelius K Donat, Gregory Scott, Steve M Gentleman, Magdalena Sastre
Microglia have a variety of functions in the brain, including synaptic pruning, CNS repair and mediating the immune response against peripheral infection. Microglia rapidly become activated in response to CNS damage. Depending on the nature of the stimulus, microglia can take a number of activation states, which correspond to altered microglia morphology, gene expression and function. It has been reported that early microglia activation following traumatic brain injury (TBI) may contribute to the restoration of homeostasis in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697986/temporalis-cysticerci-a-diagnostic-dilemma-and-review-of-literature
#10
Sunita Malik, Gurdarshan Singh, Gagandeep Kaur
Cysticercosis is a systemic parasitic infestation caused by ingesting the eggs of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. The central nervous system (CNS) is the most important primary site of infection and disease can present with solitary or multiple space occupying lesion. Other organs like subcutaneous tissues, muscles, heart, liver, lungs, and peritoneum are more frequently affected but maxillofacial region involvement is rare. The diagnosis of cysticercose is evoked on US examination and CT scan, but confirmation is only possible by FNAC (Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology) or histological examination in case of surgical removal of the oral lesion which can identify the Taenia solium larva...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696309/influenza-infection-triggers-disease-in-a-genetic-model-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#11
Stephen Blackmore, Jessica Hernandez, Michal Juda, Emily Ryder, Gregory G Freund, Rodney W Johnson, Andrew J Steelman
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Most MS patients experience periods of symptom exacerbation (relapses) followed by periods of partial recovery (remission). Interestingly, upper-respiratory viral infections increase the risk for relapse. Here, we used an autoimmune-prone T-cell receptor transgenic mouse (2D2) and a mouse-adapted human influenza virus to test the hypothesis that upper-respiratory viral infection can cause glial activation, promote immune cell trafficking to the CNS, and trigger disease...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693588/cxcl11-production-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-distinguishes-herpes-simplex-meningitis-from-herpes-simplex-encephalitis
#12
Liza Lind, Marie Studahl, Linn Persson Berg, Kristina Eriksson
BACKGROUND: The closely related herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 can cause inflammations of the central nervous system (CNS), where type 1 most often manifest as encephalitis (HSE), and type 2 as meningitis (HSM). HSE is associated with severe neurological complications, while HSM is benign in adults. We proposed that studying the chemokine and cytokine production in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum could indicate why two closely related viruses exhibit different severity of their accompanied CNS inflammation...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692529/cyp2b6-genotypes-and-early-efavirenz-based-hiv-treatment-outcomes-in-botswana
#13
Robert Gross, Scarlett L Bellamy, Bakgaki Ratshaa, Xiaoyan Han, Marijana Vujkovic, Richard Aplenc, Andrew P Steenhoff, Mosepele Mosepele, Ganesh Moorthy, Athena F Zuppa, Brian L Strom, Gregory P Bisson
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between cytochrome p450 2B6 genotypes and efavirenz-based HIV treatment outcomes. DESIGN: Observational cohort study of HIV infected adults initiating efavirenz-based regimens in Botswana. METHODS: The primary endpoint was a composite of death or loss to care or HIV RNA>25 copies/ml at 6 months. CYP2B6 516G>T and 983T>C genotyping was done with Taqman Open Array platform. Adverse experiences were measured using the Subject Experience Questionnaire...
July 7, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690034/interplay-of-inflammatory-gene-expression-in-pericytes-following-japanese-encephalitis-virus-infection
#14
Cheng-Yi Chang, Jian-Ri Li, Yen-Chuan Ou, Shih-Yi Lin, Ya-Yu Wang, Wen-Ying Chen, Yu-Hui Hu, Ching-Yi Lai, Chen-Jung Chang, Chun-Jung Chen
Neuroinflammation is a pathological hallmark and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Japanese encephalitis. Although brain pericytes show regulatory effects on neuroinflammation, their involvement in Japanese encephalitis-associated neuroinflammation is not understood. Here, we demonstrated that brain microvascular pericytes could be an alternative cellular source for the induction and/or amplification of neuroinflammation caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection. Infection of cultured pericytes with JEV caused profound production of IL-6, RANTES, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)...
July 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688623/neuropsychiatric-debut-as-a-presentation-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-an-atypical-clinical-case-and-literature-review
#15
Dinesh Sangroula, Richard Durrance, Shirshak Bhattarai, Thambirajah Nandakumar
INTRODUCTION: Guillain Barré Syndrome (GBS) is an acute immune-mediated polyneuropathy most frequently presenting two to four weeks after an acute mild-moderately severe infection as progressive muscular weakness of the lower limbs extending proximally with dysreflexia and autonomic dysfunction. While GBS is typically believed to be isolated to the Peripheral Nervous System, Central Nervous System (CNS) and psychiatric manifestations as a sequela of the disease have been described in different imaging and clinical studies...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687688/contribution-of-arterial-spin-labelling-mri-in-a-case-with-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#16
Noriaki Wada, Tomoyuki Noguchi, Takahiro Aoki, Tsuyoshi Tajima
Central nervous system immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (CNS-IRIS), which occurs most often in HIV-infected patients, is an exacerbation of inflammatory reactions related to opportunistic infections as well as primary CNS malignancies both of which mostly occur in HIV-infected patients. However, differential diagnoses are challenging both clinically and radiologically. We describe a patient with CNS-IRIS due to toxoplasmosis whose (11)C-methionine uptake suggested lymphoma but whose arterial spin-labelling MRI led to the correct diagnosis...
July 6, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681808/genotypic-characterisation-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-tuberculous-meningitis-patients-at-a-tertiary-neurocare-centre-in-southern-india
#17
Akepati Chandramuki, Neelam Khanna, Elena Shashkina, Natalia Kurepina, Barun Mathema, Barry N Kreiswirth, Manjunatha M Venkataswamy
AIMS: Specific genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) have been reported to cause outbreaks of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in geographical areas that are endemic to TB. However, since there is little epidemiological evidence on the association of particular genotypes that cause tuberculous meningitis (TBM), we sought to investigate the association of specific MTB strains with infection of the central nervous system (CNS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out a genetic characterisation of 89 MTB isolates from TBM patients at a Southern Indian tertiary neurocare centre and compared the genotypes with strains of pulmonary TB isolated from Indian immigrants in New York City...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680971/hendra-and-nipah-virus-infection-in-cultured-human-olfactory-epithelial-cells
#18
Viktoriya Borisevich, Mehmet Hakan Ozdener, Bilal Malik, Barry Rockx
Henipaviruses are emerging zoonotic viruses and causative agents of encephalitis in humans. However, the mechanisms of entry into the central nervous system (CNS) in humans are not known. Here, we evaluated the possible role of olfactory epithelium in virus entry into the CNS. We characterized Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) infection of primary human olfactory epithelial cultures. We show that henipaviruses can infect mature olfactory sensory neurons. Henipaviruses replicated efficiently, resulting in cytopathic effect and limited induction of host responses...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680853/behavior-of-neutrophil-granulocytes-during-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-the-central-nervous-system
#19
Aindrila Biswas, Timothy French, Henning P Düsedau, Nancy Mueller, Monika Riek-Burchardt, Anne Dudeck, Ute Bank, Thomas Schüler, Ildiko Rita Dunay
Cerebral toxoplasmosis is characterized by activation of brain resident cells and recruitment of specific immune cell subsets from the periphery to the central nervous system (CNS). Our studies revealed that the rapidly invaded Ly6G(+) neutrophil granulocytes are an early non-lymphoid source of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), the cytokine known to be the major mediator of host resistance to Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). Upon selective depletion of Ly6G(+) neutrophils, we detected reduced IFN-γ production and increased parasite burden in the CNS...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680095/osteopontin-facilitates-west-nile-virus-neuroinvasion-via-neutrophil-trojan-horse-transport
#20
Amber M Paul, Dhiraj Acharya, Laurel Duty, E Ashley Thompson, Linda Le, Dobrivoje S Stokic, A Arturo Leis, Fengwei Bai
West Nile virus (WNV) can cause severe human neurological diseases including encephalitis and meningitis. The mechanisms by which WNV enters the central nervous system (CNS) and host-factors that are involved in WNV neuroinvasion are not completely understood. The proinflammatory chemokine osteopontin (OPN) is induced in multiple neuroinflammatory diseases and is responsible for leukocyte recruitment to sites of its expression. In this study, we found that WNV infection induced OPN expression in both human and mouse cells...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
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