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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549331/does-self-efficacy-causally-influence-initial-smoking-cessation-an-experimental-study
#1
William G Shadel, Steven C Martino, Claude Setodji, Daniel Cervone, Katie Witkiewitz
Self-efficacy has been associated with smoking cessation outcomes in many correlational research studies, but strong causal inferences are lacking. This study tested whether self-efficacy affects initial smoking cessation in a laboratory experiment, which will allow for stronger causal inferences in this domain of inquiry. Participants (n=103 motivated adult smokers) were provided with brief cessation treatment over three days in preparation for quitting on a target quit day (TQD). In addition, participants were randomized to one of two standard self-efficacy manipulations in the form of bogus feedback about their chances of quitting smoking...
May 20, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549278/effects-of-varenicline-and-nicotine-replacement-therapy-on-arterial-elasticity-endothelial-glycocalyx-and-oxidative-stress-during-a-3-month-smoking-cessation-program
#2
Ignatios Ikonomidis, Margarita Marinou, Dimitrios Vlastos, Kallirhoe Kourea, Ioanna Andreadou, Nikolaos Liarakos, Helen Triantafyllidi, George Pavlidis, Elias Tsougos, John Parissis, John Lekakis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The effects of medically-aided smoking cessation on vascular function and oxidative stress are not fully clarified. METHODS: One hundred eighty-eight current smokers were randomized to varenicline or nicotine replacement treatment (NRT) for a 3-month period. We assessed: (a) augmentation index (Aix) and pulse wave velocity (PWV); (b) perfusion boundary region (PBR) of sublingual microvasculature (range:5-25 μm), an index of the endothelial glycocalyx thickness, using Sideview, Darkfield imaging; (c) the exhaled CO; and (d) the malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) plasma levels, as markers of oxidative stress, at baseline and after 3 and 12 months...
May 13, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549179/relationships-between-smoking-behaviors-and-cotinine-levels-among-two-american-indian-populations-with-distinct-smoking-patterns
#3
Julie-Anne Tanner, Jeffrey A Henderson, Dedra Buchwald, Barbara V Howard, Patricia Nez Henderson, Rachel F Tyndale
Introduction: Smoking prevalence, cigarettes per day (CPD), and lung cancer incidence differ between Northern Plains (NP) and Southwestern (SW) American Indian populations. We used cotinine as a biomarker of tobacco smoke exposure to biochemically characterize NP and SW smokers and non-smokers, and to investigate factors associated with variation in tobacco exposure. Methods: American Indians (N=636) were recruited from two different tribal populations (NP and SW) as part of a study conducted as part of the Collaborative to Improve Native Cancer Outcomes P50 project...
May 26, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549167/parental-involvement-and-adolescent-smoking-in-vocational-setting-in-finland
#4
Hanna Aho, Anna-Maija Koivisto, Eija Paavilainen, Katja Joronen
The present study examined whether parental involvement in their adolescents' lives is associated with adolescent smoking in a vocational school setting when controlling for socioeconomic background and parental smoking. The study was conducted in spring 2013 and involved 34 776 Finnish vocational school students (mean age 17.6 years). The data were analyzed using multinomial regression. The results showed that lower parental involvement was significantly associated with adolescent daily smoking in both genders and with occasional smoking in girls...
May 26, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549161/cigarette-smoking-cessation-intervention-for-buprenorphine-treatment-patients
#5
Sharon M Hall, Gary Humfleet, James Gasper, Kevin L Delucchi, David Hersh, Joseph Guydish
Introduction: Patients receiving Medication Assisted Therapy (MAT) for opioid use disorder have high cigarette smoking rates. Cigarette smoking interventions have had limited success. We evaluated an intervention to increase cigarette abstinence rates in patients receiving buprenorphine-assisted therapy. Methods: Cigarette smokers (N=175; 78% male; 69% Caucasian; 20% Hispanic), recruited from a buprenorphine clinic were randomly assigned to either an extended innovative system intervention (E-ISI) or to Standard Treatment Control (STC)...
May 26, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549156/early-subjective-sensory-experiences-with-cigalike-e-cigarettes-among-african-american-menthol-smokers-a-qualitative-study
#6
Sabrina L Smiley, Teresa DeAtley, Leslie F Rubin, Emily Harvey, Elexis C Kierstead, Monica Webb Hooper, Raymond S Niaura, David B Abrams, Jennifer L Pearson
Introduction: Despite smoker interest in e-cigarettes as a harm reduction or cessation aid, many smokers prematurely discontinue vaping after trying a product. This study explored the role of early subjective sensory experience in vaping persistence and desistence. Methods: African American menthol cigarette smokers aged ≥18 years (n=15; M=54.1 years; SD=8.2), motivated to quit smoking, and interested in trying e-cigarettes were recruited in Washington, D.C. Participants were followed for three weeks and provided menthol cigalike e-cigarettes after week one...
May 26, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549098/high-protein-foods-and-physical-activity-protect-against-age-related-muscle-loss-and-functional-decline
#7
M Loring Bradlee, Jabed Mustafa, Martha R Singer, Lynn L Moore
Background: Some clinical trials suggest that protein supplementation enhances the effects of resistance exercise on skeletal muscle mass (SMM); fewer studies examine the effects of diets rich in protein-source foods on SMM and functional status among community-dwelling adults. Methods: Data from the Framingham Offspring study including diet (three-day records, exams 3 and 5), physical activity (exams 2 and 4), percent SMM (%SMM) (exams 6 and 7), and functional performance (exams 5 through 8) were used to evaluate independent and combined effects of physical activity and high-protein foods on adjusted mean %SMM (using analysis of covariance) and risk of functional decline (using Cox proportional hazard's models)...
May 25, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548907/evaluation-of-thermal-optical-analysis-method-of-elemental-carbon-for-marine-fuel-exhaust
#8
Maija K Lappi, Jyrki P Ristimäki
The awareness of black carbon (BC) as the second largest anthropogenic contributor in global warming and an ice melting enhancer has increased. Due to prospected increase in shipping especially in the Arctic reliability of BC emissions and their invented amounts from ships is gaining more attention. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) is actively working towards estimation of quantities and effects of BC especially in the Arctic. IMO has launched work towards constituting a definition for BC and agreeing appropriate methods for its determination from shipping emission sources...
May 26, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548886/association-of-preventive-maintenance-therapy-compliance-and-peri-implant-diseases-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Alberto Monje, Hom-Lay Wang, José Nart
AIM: This study was aimed at investigating the association between peri-implant maintenance therapy (PIMT) and the frequency of peri-implant diseases, and to further identify the factors that contribute to failure of PIMT compliance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study on healthy partial edentulous patients was conducted. These were grouped in the following categories according to the PIMT compliance: regular compliers (RC) (≥2 PIMT/year), erratic compliers (EC) (<2 PIMT/year), and non-compliers (NC) (0 PIMT/year)...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548877/role-of-osgin1-in-mediating-smoking-induced-autophagy-in-the-human-airway-epithelium
#10
Guoqing Wang, Haixia Zhou, Yael Strulovici-Barel, Mohammed Al-Hijji, Xuemei Ou, Jacqueline Salit, Matthew S Walters, Michelle R Staudt, Robert J Kaner, Ronald G Crystal
Enhanced macroautophagy/autophagy is recognized as a component of the pathogenesis of smoking-induced airway disease. Based on the knowledge that enhanced autophagy is linked to oxidative stress and the DNA damage response, both of which are linked to smoking, we used microarray analysis of the airway epithelium to identify smoking upregulated genes known to respond to oxidative stress and the DNA damage response. This analysis identified OSGIN1 (oxidative stress induced growth inhibitor 1) as significantly upregulated by smoking, in both the large and small airway epithelium, an observation confirmed by an independent small airway microarray cohort, TaqMan PCR of large and small airway samples and RNA-Seq of small airway samples...
May 26, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548610/harnessing-youth-and-young-adult-culture-improving-the-reach-and-engagement-of-the-truth%C3%A2-campaign
#11
Elizabeth Hair, Lindsay Pitzer, Morgane Bennett, Michael Halenar, Jessica Rath, Jennifer Cantrell, Nicole Dorrler, Eric Asche, Donna Vallone
The national youth and young adult tobacco prevention mass media campaign, truth®, relaunched in 2014 with the goal of creating "the generation that ends smoking." The objective of this study was to assess whether the strategy of airing truth ads during popular, culturally relevant televised events was associated with higher ad and brand awareness and increases in social media engagement. Awareness of six truth advertisements that aired during popular television events and self-reported social media engagement were assessed via cross-sectional online surveys of youth and young adults aged 15-21 years...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548579/genetic-variation-of-the-mu-opioid-receptor-oprm1-and-dopamine-d2-receptor-drd2-is-related-to-smoking-differences-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-but-not-bipolar-disorder
#12
Mika Hirasawa-Fujita, Michael J Bly, Vicki L Ellingrod, Gregory W Dalack, Edward F Domino
It is not known why mentally ill persons smoke excessively. Inasmuch as endogenous opioid and dopaminergic systems are involved in smoking reinforcement, it is important to study mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) A118G (rs1799971), dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) Taq1A (rs1800497) genotypes, and sex differences among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Smokers and nonsmokers with schizophrenia (n=177) and bipolar disorder (n=113) were recruited and genotyped. They were classified into three groups: current smoker, former smoker, and never smoker by tobacco smoking status self-report...
2017: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548223/cannabis-smoking-and-cardiovascular-health-it-s-complicated
#13
M R Piano
Many states have legalized cannabis use for treatment of certain medical conditions or have legalized cannabis for recreational use. Consequently, cannabis use prevalence has escalated, giving rise to concerns about potential health effects. Cannabis smoking remains the most prevalent route of administration and is associated with inhalation of chemical toxicants. The aim of this article is to summarize the effects of cannabis smoking on the vasculature and occurrence of cardiovascular (CV) events such as myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke...
May 26, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548211/a-haplotype-block-downstream-of-plasminogen-is-associated-with-chronic-and-aggressive-periodontitis
#14
Matthias Munz, Hong Chen, Yvonne Jockel-Schneider, Knut Adam, Per Hoffman, Klaus Berger, Thomas Kocher, Jörg Meyle, Peter Eickholz, Christof Doerfer, Matthias Laudes, André Uitterlinden, Wolfgang Lieb, Andre Franke, Stefan Schreiber, Steven Offenbacher, Kimon Divaris, Corinna Bruckmann, Bruno G Loos, Soeren Jepsen, Henrik Dommisch, Arne S Schaefer
AIM: The intronic variant rs4252120 in the plasminogen gene (PLG) is known to be associated with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and atherosclerosis. Here, we examined the chromosomal region spanning PLG for associations with both chronic periodontitis (CP) and AgP. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The association of PLG candidate rs4252120 was tested in a German case-control sample of 1,419 CP cases using the genotyping assay hCV11225947 and 4,562 controls, genotyped with HumanOmni BeadChips...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548187/-prevalence-of-smoking-among-colombian-adolescents
#15
Javier Martínez-Torres, Martha Peñuela Epalza
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is considered the most important preventable public health problem in developed countries, especially among adolescents. AIM: To determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking and associated factors in high school adolescents, from a Colombian city. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The self-administered global tobacco youth survey (GTYS) was answered by 831 teenagers aged 14 ± 2 years (54% females). For data analysis, proportions were calculated; for associations, binary and multivariable logistic regression was applied...
March 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548186/-cardiovascular-risk-factors-among-first-and-third-year-university-students
#16
Gladys Morales, Francisco Guillen-Grima, Sergio Muñoz, Carlos Belmar, Ingrid Schifferli, Andrea Muñoz, Alvaro Soto
BACKGROUND: College students are in a critical stage in their life style due to the transition between high school and university and they may be prone to develop cardiovascular diseases. AIM: To compare the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in students from first and third year at the University of La Frontera, Temuco-Chile, according to faculty, gender and socioeconomic status (SES). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study...
March 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548185/-evaluation-the-american-college-of-cardiology-and-american-heart-association-predictive-score-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#17
Mónica Acevedo, Giovanna Valentino, Verónica Kramer, María José Bustamante, Marcela Adasme, Lorena Orellana, Fernando Baraona, Carlos Navarrete
BACKGROUND: Recently, the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) proposed a new cardiovascular risk (CV) score. AIM: To evaluate the new risk score (ACC/AHA 2013) in a Chilean population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 2002 and 2014, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, lipid profile and fasting blood glucose levels were measured and a survey about CV risk factors was responded by 3,284 subjects aged 40 to 79 years (38% females), living in urban Santiago...
March 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547878/mesiotemporal-atrophy-and-hippocampal-diffusivity-distinguish-amnestic-from-non-amnestic-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#18
A A Hosseini, D Meng, R J Simpson, D P Auer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The role of clinical factors, cerebral infarcts and hippocampal damage in vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) subtypes remains unclear. METHODS: Non-demented patients with carotid stenosis and recent transient ischemic attack/stroke had cognitive assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Amnestic VCI was defined as memory impairment; non-amnestic VCI was any other subdomain impairment. Associations of MRI metrics [log-transformed total ischemic lesion load (log TILL), mesiotemporal atrophy (MTA) score, hippocampal mean diffusivity (hipMD)] with cognitive performance were assessed...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547823/asthma-other-atopic-conditions-and-risk-of-infections-in-105-519-general-population-never-and-ever-smokers
#19
Jens Helby, Børge Grønne Nordestgaard, Thomas Benfield, Stig Egil Bojesen
BACKGROUND: Individuals with atopic conditions may have increased susceptibility to infections outside the organs directly affected by their atopic condition. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that atopic conditions overall, and stratified by smoking history, are associated with increased risk of hospitalization for infections. METHODS: We collected information on smoking history and self-reported atopic conditions from 105,519 individuals from the general population and followed them for up to 23 years for infectious disease hospitalizations and deaths...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547646/risk-factors-for-vitamin-d-deficiency-and-impact-of-repletion-in-a-tertiary-care-inflammatory-bowel-disease-population
#20
Samantha Zullow, Guruprasad Jambaulikar, Ankur Rustgi, Sandra Quezada, Raymond K Cross
INTRODUCTION: Many patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are vitamin D deficient. The purpose of our study was to identify risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in IBD and to assess the impact of vitamin D repletion on disease activity and quality of life (QOL). METHODS: Patients with at least one 25-OH vitamin D level measured between 2004 and 2011 were included. Patients with a level <30 ng/ml at baseline were followed until the time of repletion...
May 25, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
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