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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031142/protective-effects-of-schisandrin-b-on-cigarette-smoke-induced-airway-injury-in-mice-through-nrf2-pathway
#1
Ruichun Jia, Haogang Zhang, Zhiping Yang, Hong Zhao, Fei Liu, Hui Wang, Meijuan Miao, Qiushi Wang, Yanhong Liu
Schisandrin B (SchB), a dibenzocyclooctadiene derivative isolated from Schisandra chinensis, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, the protective effects of SchB on cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung inflammation remain unclear. This study was to investigate the effects of SchB on CS-induced lung inflammation in mice. The mice were exposed to CS to develop lung inflammation. SchB was given 1h before CS exposure daily for five consecutive days. The levels of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured in this study...
October 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031048/trends-in-perinatal-health-in-metropolitan-france-from-1995-to-2016-results-from-the-french-national-perinatal-surveys
#2
B Blondel, B Coulm, C Bonnet, F Goffinet, C Le Ray
OBJECTIVE: To study trends in the main indicators of perinatal health, medical practices and risk factors in France since 1995. POPULATION AND METHOD: All live births during one week in 1995 (n=13,318), 2003 (n=14,737), 2010 (n=14,903) and 2016 (n=13,384). Data were from interviews of women in postpartum wards and from medical records and were compared between years. RESULTS: Between 1995 and 2016, maternal age and body mass index increased steadily...
October 9, 2017: Journal of gynecology obstetrics and human reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029330/the-association-between-omega-3-fatty-acid-biomarkers-and-inflammatory-arthritis-in-an-anti-citrullinated-protein-antibody-positive-population
#3
Ryan W Gan, Elizabeth A Bemis, M Kristen Demoruelle, Christopher C Striebich, Stacey Brake, Marie L Feser, LauraKay Moss, Michael Clare-Salzler, V Michael Holers, Kevin D Deane, Jill M Norris
Objectives: Higher circulating omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) are associated with a lower prevalence of anti-CCP antibodies and RF in subjects without RA. We examined whether, in anti-CCP+ subjects, n-3 FAs also play a role in development of inflammatory arthritis (IA). Methods: At Colorado-based health fairs from 2008 to 2014, participants without a previous diagnosis of RA who were anti-CCP3+ (n = 47) were recruited into a follow-up study; symptom assessments and joint examinations were conducted every 6 months for the determination of IA...
October 4, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029103/cardiovascular-disease-prevention-policy-in-hiv-recommendations-from-a-modelling-study
#4
Mikaela Smit, Rosan A van Zoest, Brooke E Nichols, Ilonca Vaartjes, Colette Smit, Marc van der Valk, Ard van Sighem, Ferdinand W Wit, Timothy B Hallett, Peter Reiss
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is expected to contribute a large non-communicable disease burden amongst HIV-positive people. We quantify the impact of prevention interventions on annual CVD burden and costs amongst HIV-positive people in The Netherlands. Methods: We constructed an individual-based model of CVD in HIV-positive people using national ATHENA cohort data on 8,791 patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The model follows patients as they age, develop CVD (by incorporating a CVD risk equation) and start cardiovascular medication...
October 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029021/aetiological-heterogeneity-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinomas-the-role-of-human-papillomavirus-infections-smoking-and-alcohol
#5
Nada J Farsi, Marie-Claude Rousseau, Nicolas Schlecht, Geneviève Castonguay, Paul Allison, Phuc Félix Nguyen-Tan, Denis Soulieres, Francois Coutlée, Michael Hier, Sreenath Madathil, Eduardo L Franco, Belinda Nicolau
Tobacco and alcohol consumption are the main risk factors for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In addition, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection plays a causal role in oropharyngeal cancer (OPC), a subset of HNSCC. We assessed the independent effects of tobacco, alcohol, and HPV infection on OPC risk in the Head and Neck Cancer(HeNCe) Life study, a hospital-based case-control study of HNSCC with frequency-matched controls by age and sex from four Montreal hospitals. Interviewers collected information on socio-demographic and behavioural factors...
September 28, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028977/evolving-understanding-of-the-causes-of-pneumonia-in-adults-with-special-attention-to-the-role-of-pneumococcus
#6
Daniel M Musher, Michael S Abers, John G Bartlett
Before 1945, Streptococcus pneumoniae caused more than 90% of cases of pneumonia in adults. After 1950, the proportion of pneumonia caused by pneumococcus began to decline. Pneumococcus has continued to decline; at present, this organism is identified in fewer than fewer10%-15% of cases. This proportion is higher in Europe, a finding likely related to differences in vaccination practices and smoking. Gram-negative bacilli, Staphylococcus aureus, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, and Legionella are each identified in 2%-5% of patients with pneumonia who require hospitalization...
September 27, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028944/identification-and-replication-of-the-interplay-of-four-genetic-high-risk-variants-for-urinary-bladder-cancer
#7
Silvia Selinski, Meinolf Blaszkewicz, Katja Ickstadt, Holger Gerullis, Thomas Otto, Emanuel Roth, Frank Volkert, Daniel Ovsiannikov, Oliver Moormann, Gergely Banfi, Peter Nyirady, Sita H Vermeulen, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Jonine D Figueroa, Alison Johnson, Margaret R Karagas, Manolis Kogevinas, Nuria Malats, Molly Schwenn, Debra T Silverman, Stella Koutros, Nathaniel Rothman, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Jan G Hengstler, Klaus Golka
Little is known whether genetic variants identified in genome-wide association studies interact to increase bladder cancer risk. Recently, we identified two- and three-variant combinations associated with a particular increase of bladder cancer risk in a urinary bladder cancer case-control series (IfADo, 1501 cases, 1565 controls). In an independent case-control series (Nijmegen Bladder Cancer Study, NBCS, 1468 cases, 1720 controls) we confirmed these two- and three-variant combinations. Pooled analysis of the two studies as discovery group (IfADo-NBCS) resulted in sufficient statistical power to test up to four-variant combinations by a logistic regression approach...
September 27, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028914/trajectory-of-total-cholesterol-in-the-last-years-of-life-over-age-80-years-cohort-study-of-99-758-participants
#8
Judith Charlton, Rathi Ravindrarajah, Shota Hamada, Stephen H Jackson, Martin C Gulliford
Background: Epidemiological studies suggest that lower total cholesterol (TC) may be associated with higher mortality. This study aimed to evaluate whether a decline in total cholesterol before death might account for the association of TC with mortality over age 80 years. Methods: Cohort study using primary care electronic health records of 99,758 participants aged 80 to 105 years from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality were adjusted for age, gender, frailty, comorbidity, blood pressure and smoking...
September 27, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028829/sodium-excretion-is-higher-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-than-in-matched-controls
#9
Sarah Marouen, Guilhem du Cailar, Rachel Audo, Cedric Lukas, Gaelle Vial, Anne Tournadre, Emmanuel Barrat, Jean Ribstein, Bernard Combe, Jacques Morel, Claire I Daien
OBJECTIVE: It was shown that sodium can promote auto-immunity through the activation of the Th17 pathway. We aimed to compare sodium intake in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) vs. matched controls. METHODS: This case-control study included 24 patients with RA at diagnosis and 24 controls matched by age, gender and body mass index. Sodium intake was evaluated by 24-hr urinary sodium excretion. RESULTS: Sodium excretion was greater for patients with early RA (2,849±1,350 vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028674/urinary-bisphenol-a-concentration-and-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-in-chinese-women
#10
Xia Wang, Xu Wang, Qian Chen, Zhong-Cheng Luo, Shasha Zhao, Weiye Wang, Hui-Juan Zhang, Jun Zhang, Fengxiu Ouyang
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) has been associated with variable metabolic effects in animal models. It is unknown whether BPA exposure affects glucose tolerance in pregnancy. We aimed to investigate whether maternal urinary BPA concentration is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: This study included 620 pregnant women from Shanghai, China 2012-2013. Maternal urinary BPA concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS)...
October 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028240/tobacco-still-a-major-killer-will-we-achieve-the-end-game
#11
Luis Saboga-Nunes, Diane Levin-Zamir, Vance Rabius
The game of tobacco use began in Europe in 1560 when the first tobacco seeds were sent from Lisbon to the king of France, by Jean Nicot. From kings' and nobles' exclusive use, it gradually and progressively became popular among the public, as a new player. Eighty-eight years ago (1929), Fritz Linkint, an extraordinary researcher in Germany, while reviewing existing evidence regarding a wide range of cancers potentially caused by smoking, indicated that smoking was a cause of respiratory disease. Despite the overwhelming accumulated evidence of the negative effects of nicotine intake, the prevalence of tobacco use is not expected to decline in the near future...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028239/nordic-paradox-southern-miracle-eastern-disaster-persistence-of-inequalities-in-mortality-in-europe
#12
Johan P Mackenbach
The persistence of socioeconomic inequalities in health, despite all that has been done to reduce social and economic inequalities in many European countries, is one of the great disappointments of public health. In this paper, I summarize the results of a series of studies into the explanation of variations and trends in inequalities in mortality in three European regions: the Nordic countries with their puzzlingly large inequalities in mortality, Southern European countries with their miraculously small inequalities in mortality and Central & Eastern European countries in which inequalities in mortality have disastrously exploded since the early 1990 s...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027939/nicotine-component-of-cigarette-smoke-extract-cse-decreases-the-cytotoxicity-of-cse-in-beas-2b-cells-stably-expressing-human-cytochrome-p450-2a13
#13
Minghui Ji, Yudong Zhang, Na Li, Chao Wang, Rong Xia, Zhan Zhang, Shou-Lin Wang
Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13), an extrahepatic enzyme mainly expressed in the human respiratory system, has been reported to mediate the metabolism and toxicity of cigarette smoke. We previously found that nicotine inhibited 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) metabolism by CYP2A13, but its influence on other components of cigarette smoke remains unclear. The nicotine component of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) was separated, purified, and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), splitting CSE into a nicotine section (CSE-N) and nicotine-free section (CSE-O)...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027843/the-impact-of-vascular-risk-factors-on-brain-volume-and-lesion-load-in-patients-with-early-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Alexander Pichler, Michael Khalil, Christian Langkammer, Daniela Pinter, Stefan Ropele, Siegrid Fuchs, Gerhard Bachmaier, Christian Enzinger, Franz Fazekas
BACKGROUND: Vascular risk factors (VRF) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been associated with lower brain volumes. It is currently unknown if this association already exists in early MS and how it develops over time. METHODS: We identified 82 patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) ( n = 61) or with early relapsing-remitting MS ( n = 21) and assessed their VRF including arterial hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus and smoking. We analysed T2-lesion load, normalized brain volume (NBV), cortical grey (cGMV) and white matter volumes (WMV), thalamic and basal ganglia volumes at baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and assessed the percentage of brain volume change (PBVC) using SIENA...
October 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027811/prevention-of-human-papillomavirus-hpv-related-tumors-in-people-living-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv
#15
Mario Poljak, Anja Šterbenc, Maja M Lunar
In comparison to their HIV-negative counterparts, people living with HIV (PLWH) have a higher prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in various anatomical sites coupled with increased HPV persistence, higher risk of HPV-related tumors, and faster disease progression. Areas covered: Gender-neutral prevention strategies for HPV-related cancers in PLWH discussed: ABC approach, HPV vaccination, antiretroviral treatment (ART), anal cancer screening, and smoking cessation. Gender specific strategies: cervical cancer screening reduces the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer and circumcision might reduce the risk of HPV infections in men...
October 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027680/determination-of-thiocyanate-as-a-biomarker-of-tobacco-smoke-constituents-in-selected-biological-materials-of-human-origin
#16
Sylwia Narkowicz, Ewa Jaszczak, Żaneta Polkowska, Bogumiła Kiełbratowska, Alicja Kotłowska, Jacek Namieśnik
In order to protect human health, it is necessary to biomonitor toxic substances originating from tobacco smoke in biological materials sampled from the persons with different exposures to tobacco smoke constituents. Thiocyanate anion is a biomarker of exposure to tobacco smoke components which is characterized by a relatively long half-life in the human body, i.e. 6 days. In this work, we present the results of thiocyanate determinations performed on the samples of placenta, meconium, saliva, breast milk, sweat and blood...
October 13, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027179/association-of-dnmt3b-283t-c-polymorphism-with-risk-of-lung-and-gastric-cancer-a-case-control-study-and-a-meta-analysis
#17
Xianhong Feng, Jingdong Wang, Xiuli Gu, Jingli Zhang, Xiaolin Li, Zhi Tao, Jiebing Chen, Bifeng Chen
PURPOSE: To investigate the association of DNMT3B -283T>C polymorphism with the risk of lung or gastric cancer, which was followed by a meta-analysis. METHODS: The genotyping of -283T>C was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and was confirmed by sequencing. RESULTS: The results of this case-control study showed that -283T>C was not associated with the risk of lung or gastric cancer, and further stratified analysis according to age, gender, smoking status, and alcohol status confirmed the present finding...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026969/extended-serum-lipid-profile-predicting-long-term-survival-in-patients-treated-for-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#18
Niina Khan, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Jahangir Khan, Ilkka Seppälä, Antti Lehtomäki, Tommi Kuorilehto, Velipekka Suominen, Terho Lehtimäki, Niku Oksala
BACKGROUND: Individuals treated for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are high-risk patients in whom better risk prediction could improve survival. Contemporary serum lipid parameters, such as apolipoproteins and lipoprotein subfractions, may improve or complement the prognostic value of traditional serum lipids. The aim of this study was to ascertain the extended serum lipid profiles, long-term prognosis and their association in AAA patients. METHODS: Altogether 498 patients treated for AAAs and with available serum lipid values were retrospectively analysed...
October 12, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026833/primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-older-adults-in-china
#19
REVIEW
Jian Yong, Dong Lin, Xue-Rui Tan
Over the past two decades, the percentage of Chinese who is 60 years or older has increased from 5.2% in 1995 to 10.5% in 2015. Approximately 16% of the population in China was 60 years old and above in 2015. Since 1990, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of death in China. Cardiovascular medications of older adults are usually more complicated than younger age groups due to polypharmacy, the presence of comorbidities and more susceptible to treatment-related adverse outcomes. Therefore, effective primary prevention of CVD for older adults is important in sustaining the health of older adults and reducing the burden of the healthcare system...
September 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026756/gynecological-complaints-and-their-associated-factors-among-women-in-a-family-health-care-clinic
#20
Mateus de Paula von Glehn, Linconl Uchôa Sidon, Eleuza Rodrigues Machado
AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the most common gynecological complaints and possible associated factors among women of reproductive age attended at a family health-care clinic. METHODOLOGY: A transversal study conducted with a sample of an outpatient population consisting of women of reproductive age. Pregnant women and minors were excluded. The final sample consisted of women between 18 and 49 years of age. The participants answered a questionnaire in which the complaints of the last 4 weeks were registered...
January 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
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