Read by QxMD icon Read


Rossio Motta-Ochoa, Karine Bertrand, Nelson Arruda, Didier Jutras-Aswad, Élise Roy
BACKGROUND: Cocaine abuse is a major public health issue due to its role in the HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemics in North America. A significant area of concern among people who use cocaine (PWUC), injected or smoked, is their frequent misuse of prescription drugs, particularly psychotropic medication (PM), such as tranquilizers, sedatives, stimulants, and antipsychotics. This paper aims to describe and understand practices of PM use among PWUC in downtown Montreal. METHOD: Ethnographic methods including participant observation and semi-structured interviews were used in an iterative manner...
August 18, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Neal Fann, Breanna Alman, Richard A Broome, Geoffrey G Morgan, Fay H Johnston, George Pouliot, Ana G Rappold
INTRODUCTION: Wildland fires degrade air quality and adversely affect human health. A growing body of epidemiology literature reports increased rates of emergency departments, hospital admissions and premature deaths from wildfire smoke exposure. OBJECTIVE: Our research aimed to characterize excess mortality and morbidity events, and the economic value of these impacts, from wildland fire smoke exposure in the U.S. over a multi-year period; to date no other burden assessment has done this...
August 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Nqobile A Masondo, Manoj G Kulkarni, Jeffrey F Finnie, Johannes Van Staden
Extreme temperatures, drought and salinity stress adversely affect seed germination and seedling growth in crop species. Seed priming has been recognized as an indispensable technique in the production of stress-tolerant plants. Seed priming increases seed water content, improves protein synthesis using mRNA and DNA and repair mitochondria in seeds prior to germination. The current study aimed to determine the role of biostimulants-seed-priming during germination and seedling growth of Ceratotheca triloba (Bernh...
August 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Sandrine Detandt, Ariane Bazan, Elisa Schröder, Giulia Olyff, Hendrik Kajosch, Paul Verbanck, Salvatore Campanella
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment is a major component in addiction. However, research has been inconclusive as to whether this is also the case for smokers. The present study aims at providing electrophysiological clue for altered inhibitory control in smokers and at investigating whether reduced inhibition was more pronounced during exposure to a smoking cue. METHODS: ERPs were recorded during a visual Go-NoGo task performed by 18 smokers and 23 controls, in which either a frequent Go signal (letter "M") or a rare No-Go signal ("letter W") were superimposed on three different long-lasting background contexts: black-neutral, smoking-related and non smoking-related...
August 5, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Paschal Sheeran, Mark Conner
OBJECTIVE: This paper introduces a new construct termed motivational coherence, and tests its influence upon the process of translating intentions into health actions. Motivational coherence was defined as the extent to which predictors of intentions (e.g., attitudes, norms, perceived control) cohere or point in the same direction. The prediction tested was that motivational coherence would stabilize intentions and thereby increase intention-behavior consistency. METHOD: Three studies were conducted that each involved prospective designs...
August 21, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Carla J Berg, Regine Haardörfer, Colleen M McBride, Varun Kilaru, Kerry J Ressler, Aliza P Wingo, Nabil F Saba, Jackelyn B Payne, Alicia Smith
OBJECTIVES: Blacks are disproportionately affected by tobacco-related illnesses as well as traumatic events associated with psychiatric conditions and smoking. We examined the potential protective nature of resilience within this context, hypothesizing resilience differentially moderates the associations of traumatic experiences to depressive symptoms and to biomarkers of health risk among Black ever versus never smokers. METHOD: Measures of resilience, traumatic experiences, depressive symptoms, and biomarkers (interleukin-6 [IL-6], C-reactive protein [CRP], allostatic load) were obtained among 852 Blacks recruited from Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta...
August 21, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
William R Kem, Ann Olincy, Lynn Johnson, Josette Harris, Brandie D Wagner, Robert W Buchanan, Uwe Christians, Robert Freedman
The aim of the trial was to assess whether extending plasma levels of the alpha 7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist 3-(2,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)-anabaseine (DMXB-A) over time enhances its cognitive effects in schizophrenia. Both smoking and non-smoking patients were studied, to determine if effects differ between these two groups. Forty-three smokers and 37 non-smokers who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled 1 month trial. DMXB-A 150 mg was formulated with hypromellose to produce extended release over 4 h and administered four times daily...
August 21, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Tiago Jacinto, Andrei Malinovschi, Christer Janson, João Fonseca, Kjell Alving
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking affects both the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and blood eosinophil (B-Eos) count, two clinically useful biomarkers in respiratory disease that represent local and systemic type-2 inflammation, respectively. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the influence of objectively measured smoke exposure on FeNO and B-Eos in a large population of subjects with and without asthma. METHODS: We utilized the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2007-2012 and included 10 669 subjects aged 6-80 years: 9869 controls and 800 asthmatics...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
Kevin Ni, Muhammad Umair Mukhtar Mian, Catherine Meador, Amar Gill, Daria Bawrinska, Danting Cao, Matthew Justice, Di Jiang, Niccolette Schaefer, Kelly Schweitzer, Hong Wei Chu, Keith L March, Irina Petrache
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT), a circulating acute phase reactant anti-protease, is produced and secreted by cells of endodermal epithelial origin, primarily hepatocytes, and by immune cells. Deficiency of A1AT is associated with increased risk of excessive lung inflammation and injury, especially following chronic cigarette smoke exposure (CS). Exogenous administration of mesenchymal progenitor cells, including adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASC) alleviates CS-induced lung injury through paracrine effectors such as growth factors...
August 21, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
Suzanne C Wilkens, Frederique L Vissers, Adam Nazzal, Neal Chen
BACKGROUND: It remains unclear how many patients undergo secondary surgery after initial arthroscopy for trapeziometacarpal (TMC) arthrosis. We studied the factors related to secondary TMC arthroplasty after TMC arthroscopy. We also examined secondary questions of: (1) what percentage of patients underwent secondary TMC arthroplasty; and (2) how much time elapsed from initial arthroscopy to arthroplasty. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we included all adult patients who were treated with arthroscopy of the TMC joint at 2 level I hospitals and affiliates...
August 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
Qiliang Fu, Lilian Medina, Yuanyuan Li, Federico Carosio, Alireza Hajian, Lars A Berglund
Eco-friendly materials need "green" fire retardancy treatments, which offers opportunity for new wood nanotechnologies. Balsa wood (Ochroma pyramidale) was delignified to form a hierarchically structured and nanoporous scaffold mainly composed of cellulose nanofibrils. This nanocellulosic wood scaffold was impregnated with colloidal montmorillonite clay to form a nanostructured wood hybrid of high flame retardancy. The nanoporous scaffold was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and gas adsorption...
August 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kenichiro Kita, Yoichiro Takata, Kosaku Higashino, Kazuta Yamashita, Fumitake Tezuka, Toshinori Sakai, Akihiro Nagamachi, Koichi Sairyo
Background  The major complication of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is epidural leakage of PMMA that damages the spinal cord. Methods  This is a case report. Result  A 77-year-old man presented to our institution with a 6-month history of muscle weakness and an intolerable burning sensation of both lower limbs after PVP with PMMA for thoracic compression fracture at T7 at another hospital. His past medical history was significant for hypertension. He had no history of smoking and alcohol...
January 2017: Surg J (N Y)
Valeria Ludovici, Jens Barthelmes, Matthias P Nägele, Frank Enseleit, Claudio Ferri, Andreas J Flammer, Frank Ruschitzka, Isabella Sudano
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the most common cause of death worldwide. The consumption of natural polyphenol-rich foods, and cocoa in particular, has been related to a reduced risk of CVD, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa exerts a beneficial impact on cardiovascular health, through the reduction of blood pressure (BP), improvement of vascular function, modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, and reduction of platelet aggregation. These potentially beneficial effects have been shown in healthy subjects as well as in patients with risk factors (arterial hypertension, diabetes, and smoking) or established CVD (coronary heart disease or heart failure)...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
Hyeong-Min Lim, WonYang Kang, Won-Ju Park, Keun-Ho Jang, Ji-Sung Ann, Jai-Dong Moon
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between insomnia and hearing impairment among workers exposed to occupational noise. METHODS: This study included 809 male workers exposed to occupational noise. The participants underwent audiometric testing, and their insomnia was examined based on the Insomnia Severity Index test. Hearing impairment was defined as hearing threshold >25 dB hearing level in the range of 1-4 kHz. RESULTS: According to analysis of covariance, it was observed that pure tone audiometry thresholds at 1-2 kHz in the right ear and at 1 kHz in the left ear were significantly higher among workers with insomnia compared to those with no insomnia...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Ágnes Milassin, Anita Sejben, László Tiszlavicz, Zita Reisz, György Lázár, Mónika Szűcs, Renáta Bor, Anita Bálint, Mariann Rutka, Zoltán Szepes, Ferenc Nagy, Klaudia Farkas, Tamás Molnár
AIM: To evaluate the presence of submucosal and myenteric plexitis and its role in predicting postoperative recurrence. METHODS: Data from all patients who underwent Crohn's disease (CD)-related resection at the University of Szeged, Hungary between 2004 and 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Demographic data, smoking habits, previous resection, treatment before and after surgery, resection margins, neural fiber hyperplasia, submucosal and myenteric plexitis were evaluated as possible predictors of postoperative recurrence...
July 27, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Xu Gao, Hauke Thomsen, Yan Zhang, Lutz Philipp Breitling, Hermann Brenner
BACKGROUND: Methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTLs) are the genetic variants that may affect the DNA methylation patterns of CpG sites. However, their roles in influencing the disturbances of smoking-related epigenetic changes have not been well established. This study was conducted to address whether mQTLs exist in the vicinity of smoking-related CpG sites (± 50 kb) and to examine their associations with smoking exposure and all-cause mortality in older adults. RESULTS: We obtained DNA methylation profiles in whole blood samples by Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450 BeadChip array of two independent subsamples of the ESTHER study (discovery set, n = 581; validation set, n = 368) and their corresponding genotyping data using the Illumina Infinium OncoArray BeadChip...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
Ville Kytola, Umit Topaloglu, Lance D Miller, Rhonda L Bitting, Michael M Goodman, Ralph B D Agostino, Rodwige J Desnoyers, Carol Albright, George Yacoub, Shadi A Qasem, Barry DeYoung, Vesteinn Thorsson, Ilya Shmulevich, Meng Yang, Anastasia Shcherban, Matthew Pagni, Liang Liu, Matti Nykter, Kexin Chen, Gregory A Hawkins, Stefan C Grant, W Jeffrey Petty, Angela Tatiana Alistar, Edward A Levine, Edgar D Staren, Carl D Langefeld, Vincent Miller, Gaurav Singal, Robin M Petro, Mac Robinson, William Blackstock, Bayard L Powell, Lynne I Wagner, Kristie L Foley, Edward Abraham, Boris Pasche, Wei Zhang
Background: Cancers related to tobacco use and African-American ancestry are under-characterized by genomics. This gap in precision oncology research represents a major challenge in the health disparities in the United States. Methods: The Precision Oncology trial at the Wake Forest Baptist Comprehensive Cancer Center enrolled 431 cancer patients from March 2015 to May 2016. The composition of these patients consists of a high representation of tobacco-related cancers (e.g., lung, colorectal, and bladder) and African-American ancestry (13...
2017: Theranostics
Mashhood Ahmed Sheikh
The life course perspective, the risky families model, and stress-and-coping models provide the rationale for assessing the role of smoking as a mediator in the association between childhood adversity and anxious and depressive symptomatology (ADS) in adulthood. However, no previous study has assessed the independent mediating role of smoking in the association between childhood adversity and ADS in adulthood. Moreover, the importance of mediator-response confounding variables has rarely been demonstrated empirically in social and psychiatric epidemiology...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Onur Baykara, Nejat Dalay, Burak Bakir, Pelin Bulut, Kamil Kaynak, Nur Buyru
Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. The main risk factor is smoking but the risk is also associated with various genetic and epigenetic components in addition to environmental factors. Increases in the gene copy numbers due to chromosomal amplifications constitute a common mechanism for oncogene activation. A gene-dense region on chromosome 11q13 which harbors four core regions that are frequently amplified, has been associated with various types of cancer. The important cell cycle regulatory protein cyclin D1 (CCND1) is an essential driver of the first core region of the Chr11q13 amplicon...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Ewa Jaszczak, Sylwia Narkowicz, Jacek Namieśnik, Żaneta Polkowska
ABSTRACT: Commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes. It naturally occurs in plant seeds as cyanogenic glycosides. Another relatively common mode of cyanide exposure is inhalation of environmental tobacco smoke. This study concerns importance to determine cyanide ion in human biological samples. Urine and saliva samples were collected healthy volunteers exposed to tobacco smoke (active smokers) and environmental tobacco smoke (passive smokers)...
2017: Monatshefte Für Chemie
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"