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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929154/the-effectiveness-of-cytisine-versus-nicotine-replacement-treatment-for-smoking-cessation-in-the-russian-federation
#1
João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Silvia S Martins, Natalie Walker
BACKGROUND: There is just one study comparing the effectiveness of cytisine and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for smoking cessation. In the Russian Federation, both products are widely available as over-the-counter medications. Data on the real-world use of these medications among the general population would be informative. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from a nationally representative household survey of adults aged ≥ 15 years from the Russian Federation (part of the Global Tobacco Surveillance System Data)...
June 18, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929126/-how-do-you-know-those-particles-are-from-cigarettes-an-algorithm-to-help-differentiate-second-hand-tobacco-smoke-from-background-sources-of-household-fine-particulate-matter
#2
Ruaraidh Dobson, Sean Semple
BACKGROUND: Second-hand smoke (SHS) at home is a target for public health interventions, such as air quality feedback interventions using low-cost particle monitors. However, these monitors also detect fine particles generated from non-SHS sources. The Dylos DC1700 reports particle counts in the coarse and fine size ranges. As tobacco smoke produces far more fine particles than coarse ones, and tobacco is generally the greatest source of particulate pollution in a smoking home, the ratio of coarse to fine particles may provide a useful method to identify the presence of SHS in homes...
June 18, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928982/heterogeneity-and-the-origins-of-asthma
#3
REVIEW
Rebecca Scherzer, Mitchell H Grayson
OBJECTIVE: It is a well-known fact that there is significant heterogeneity in the origins of asthma in adults and children. This article examines the roots of asthma across the ages including atopy, the role of the microbiome and viral infections, along with comorbidities/confounders such as obesity, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), neutrophilic asthma, cigarette smoking and the possibility of an asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome. DATA SOURCES: Data was taken from various scientific search engines including PubMed and Science Direct databases...
June 18, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928933/investigation-and-comparison-of-the-transfer-of-tsna-from-tobacco-to-cigarette-mainstream-smoke-and-to-the-aerosol-of-a-heated-tobacco-product-ths2-2
#4
Guy Jaccard, Athanasios Kondylis, Irfan Gunduz, Johannes Pijnenburg, Maxim Belushkin
Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) levels in tobacco cut filler and cigarette smoke were measured in more than 1000 commercially available cigarettes sampled between 2008 and 2014. Relative contributions to their transfer from tobacco to the mainstream smoke in terms of direct transfer by distillation, pyrorelease, and pyrosynthesis were evaluated on the basis of the comparison with the transfer of nicotine from tobacco to smoke. N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) was transferred essentially by distillation, while N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-bipyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosoanabasine (NAB) were transferred by pyrorelease or pyrosynthesis as well...
June 18, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928919/the-psychoactive-substance-of-cannabis-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-negatively-regulates-cftr-in-airway-cells
#5
Sheng-Wei Chang, Jack Wellmerling, Xiaoli Zhang, Rachael E Rayner, Wissam Osman, Sara Mertz, Amal O Amer, Mark E Peeples, Prosper N Boyaka, Estelle Cormet-Boyaka
BACKGROUND: Marijuana consumption is on the rise in the US but the health benefits of cannabis smoking are controversial and the impact of cannabis components on lung homeostasis is not well-understood. Lung function requires a fine regulation of the ion channel CFTR, which is responsible for fluid homeostasis and mucocilliary clearance. The goal of this study was to assess the effect that exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive substance present in marijuana, has on CFTR expression and function...
June 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928899/carnosic-acid-attenuates-acrylamide-induced-retinal-toxicity-in-zebrafish-embryos
#6
Aishah Albalawi, Reem Hasaballah A Alhasani, Lincoln Biswas, James Reilly, Saeed Akhtar, Xinhua Shu
Acrylamide (ACR) is a water-soluble chemical used widely in industry, which can be formed in tobacco smoke and in starchy foods cooked at high temperatures. ACR is considered to be a neurotoxin, genotoxin and carcinotoxin. Previous studies reported that ACR-exposed workers and experimental animals exhibited visual function defects, although the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. In this study, we found that zebrafish embryos exposed to 1 mM and 2 mM ACR showed significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreased expression of the antioxidant genes Sod1, Sod2, Catalase, Gpx1 and Nrf2, reduced activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and elevated malondialdehyde (MDA), compared with control embryos...
June 18, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928831/family-history-of-mi-smoking-and-risk-of-periodontal-disease
#7
Y H Yu, L Doucette-Stamm, J Rogus, K Moss, R Y L Zee, B Steffensen, P M Ridker, J E Buring, S Offenbacher, K Kornman, D I Chasman
Periodontal disease (PD) shares common risk factors with cardiovascular disease. Our hypothesis was that having a family history of myocardial infarction (FamHxMI) may be a novel risk factor for PD. Risk assessment based on FamHxMI, conditional on smoking status, was examined given the strong influence of smoking on PD. Exploratory analysis with inflammatory biomarkers and genetic determinants was conducted to understand potential mechanistic links. The Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS) is a prospective cohort of US female health care professionals who provided blood samples at baseline in the Women's Health Study, a 2 × 2 factorial clinical trial investigating vitamin E and aspirin in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928807/prevalence-and-determinants-of-smoking-and-secondhand-smoke-exposure-in-a-rural-population-of-central-greece-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Chrysovalantis Stafylis, George Rachiotis, Antonis Katsioulis, Varvara A Mouchtouri, Christos Hadjichristodoulou
INTRODUCTION: Smoking is one of the most important risk factors for heart and lung disease and is responsible for many forms of cancer. The resulting morbidity and mortality weigh heavily upon countries with high prevalence, such as Greece. According to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) Greece, 38.2% of Greeks aged ≥15 years, namely 51.2% of men and 25.7% of women, are smokers. Smoking is also common among the young and people of high education. Despite laws prohibiting smoking at indoor places, exposure to environmental tobacco is very high both in private and public places...
June 2018: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928517/nutritional-status-and-muscle-dysfunction-in-chronic-respiratory-diseases-stable-phase-versus-acute-exacerbations
#9
REVIEW
Joaquim Gea, Antoni Sancho-Muñoz, Roberto Chalela
Nutritional abnormalities are frequent in different chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis (CF), interstitial fibrosis and lung cancer, having important clinical consequences. However, nutritional abnormalities often remained underdiagnosed due to the relative lack of awareness of health professionals. Therefore, systematic anthropometry or even better, assessment of body composition, should be performed in all patients with chronic respiratory conditions, especially following exacerbation periods when malnutrition becomes more accentuated...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928422/analyzing-egfr-mutations-and-their-association-with-clinicopathological-characteristics-and-prognosis-of-patients-with-lung-adenocarcinoma
#10
Xiuzhi Zhou, Li Cai, Junjie Liu, Xiaomin Hua, Ying Zhang, Huilin Zhao, Bin Wang, Boqing Li, Pengzhou Gai
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important gene in the development of lung adenocarcinoma. However, there is controversy regarding the association between EGFR mutations and survival time of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. In the present study, tissue specimens and clinical data were collected from 219 patients with lung adenocarcinoma who had not undergone prior radiotherapy or chemotherapy. EGFR mutations were detected using a fluorescence polymerase chain reaction method, and the association between EGFR mutations and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928211/small-cell-carcinoma-transformation-of-pulmonary-adenocarcinoma-after-osimertinib-treatment-a-case-report
#11
Yuri Taniguchi, Hajime Horiuchi, Teppei Morikawa, Kazuhiro Usui
There are various mechanisms underlying the resistance of EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). We herein report a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with EGFR mutation (exon 19 deletion and T790M) that acquired resistance to osimertinib treatment because of transformation into small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). A 67-year-old ex-smoking woman was diagnosed with left upper lobe adenocarcinoma of clinical stage IIIA (cT2bN2M0). She was treated with chemoradiotherapy (cisplatin and vinorelbine plus radiation), gefitinib, cisplatin, and pemetrexed followed by pemetrexed maintenance therapy and erlotinib...
May 2018: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928135/association-between-tobacco-smoking-and-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#12
REVIEW
Ming-Gui Wang, Wei-Wei Huang, Yu Wang, Yun-Xia Zhang, Miao-Miao Zhang, Shou-Quan Wu, Andrew J Sandford, Jian-Qing He
Background: Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for tuberculosis but little is known about the relationship between tobacco smoking and drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association between DR-TB and tobacco smoking. Methods: We searched for relevant studies in the Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WANFANG, and WEIPU data-bases from inception to September 1, 2017...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928126/the-association-between-the-serum-level-of-vitamin-d-and-ischemic-heart-disease-a-study-from-jordan
#13
Mohamad I Jarrah, Nizar M Mhaidat, Karem H Alzoubi, Nasr Alrabadi, Enas Alsatari, Yousef Khader, Moath F Bataineh
Background: Decreased levels of vitamin D were associated with increased risk of multiple diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. However, there seem to be some discrepancies among the results obtained from different studies. The aim of the present study was to explore the importance of having sufficient serum levels of vitamin D in reducing the incidence and the progression of coronary artery stenosis and ischemic heart disease (IHD). Methods: Serum levels of vitamin D were measured using radioimmunoassay in 186 Jordanian patients who underwent investigative coronary catheterization...
2018: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928074/a-breast-prosthesis-infection-update-two-year-incidence-risk-factors-and-management-at-single-institution
#14
Ashley Nadia Boustany, Shady Elmaraghi, Nneamaka Agochukwu, Benjamin Cloyd, Adam J Dugan, Brian Rinker
Background: Infection following augmentation and prosthetic-based breast reconstruction can cause significant physical and psychological distress for patients. It may delay adjuvant therapies and compromise aesthetic outcomes. The aim of this study is to identify modifiable risk factors for infection and identify common bacterial isolates to achieve optimal outcomes for patients. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed for patients undergoing implant-based breast reconstruction over a 2-year period...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928034/use-of-dietary-and-performance-enhancing-supplements-among-male-fitness-center-members-in-riyadh-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Yazed AlRuthia, Bander Balkhi, Marwan Alrasheed, Ahmed Altuwaijri, Mohammad Alarifi, Huda Alzahrani, Wael Mansy
This study aimed to explore the health beliefs and patterns of dietary supplement usage among fitness center members. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four large indoor fitness centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This study involved male fitness center members aged ≥18 years with no speech or hearing disabilities. In-person interviews were conducted with fitness center members who agreed to participate using a newly developed questionnaire. Information on participants' sociodemographics (e.g., age and education), smoking status, health status, exercise frequency, average time spent exercising, different supplements used, used supplements sources, and health beliefs regarding dietary supplements were obtained...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927904/smoke-free-and-tobacco-free-policies-in-colleges-and-universities-united-states-and-territories-2017
#16
Teresa W Wang, Michael A Tynan, Cynthia Hallett, Laura Walpert, Maggie Hopkins, Darryl Konter, Brian A King
Each year in the United States, cigarette smoking causes an estimated 480,000 deaths, including approximately 41,000 deaths from secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking adults (1). Smoke-free policies protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke exposure, reduce the social acceptability of smoking, help in preventing youth and young adult smoking initiation, and increase smokers' efforts to quit smoking (1,2). Given that 99% of adult cigarette smokers first start smoking before age 26 years and many smokers transition to regular, daily use during young adulthood (2),* colleges and universities represent an important venue for protecting students, faculty, staff members, and guests from secondhand smoke exposure through tobacco control policies (3)...
June 22, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927903/expression-of-the-marburg-i-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-mi-snp-and-the-marburg-ii-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-mii-snp-of-the-factor-vii-activating-protease-fsap-gene-and-risk-of-coronary-artery-disease-cad-a-pilot-study-in-a-single-population
#17
Mariana S Parahuleva, Bernhard Schieffer, Michael Klassen, Michael Worsch, Behnoush Parviz, Hans Hölschermann
BACKGROUND Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) has a role in vascular inflammation and may have a role coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between two naturally occurring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FSAP gene and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). MATERIAL AND METHODS Of 733 patients, 173 patients had symptoms of angina, and 560 patients had CAD confirmed by coronary angiography. All patients were genotyped for SNPs of the FSAP gene, Marburg I (MI-SNP) and Marburg II (MII-SNP), using 5' exonuclease TaqMan assays...
June 21, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927841/association-between-sex-hormones-and-ambulatory-blood-pressure
#18
Monik C Jiménez, Lu Wang, Julie E Burnig, JoAnn E Manson, John P Forman, Howard D Sesso
INTRODUCTION: Higher levels of total testosterone and lower levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) have been associated with increased blood pressure (BP) in women with an inverse association between total testosterone and BP among men. Fewer studies have examined associations with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP), blunted nocturnal BP decline or the role of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), a precursor to androgens. METHODS: Baseline blood samples were assayed for 229 normotensive men (≥50 years) and women (≥55 years) participating in the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927696/pregnancy-as-a-window-to-racial-disparities-in-hypertension
#19
Claire E Margerison, Janet Catov, Claudia Holzman
BACKGROUND: The black-white disparity in hypertension (HTN) among U.S. women persists after accounting for known risk factors. Pregnancy complications may reveal increased risks for later HTN. We examined the contribution of HTN risk factors measured at both midlife and pregnancy to black-white disparities in midlife HTN. METHODS: Data came from a Michigan-based longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy. At 7-15 years postpregnancy (n = 615, mean age = 37), women were assessed for cardiovascular health, including blood pressure, and categorized as hypertensive (n = 126), prehypertensive (n = 149), and normotensive (n = 340)...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927657/subsidized-housing-and-adult-asthma-in-boston-2010-2015
#20
Amar J Mehta, Daniel P Dooley, John Kane, Margaret Reid, Snehal N Shah
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether subsidized housing, specifically public housing and rental assistance, is associated with asthma in the Boston, Massachusetts, adult population. METHODS: We analyzed a pooled cross-sectional sample of 9554 adults taking part in 3 Boston Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys from 2010 to 2015. We estimated odds ratios for current asthma in association with housing status (public housing development [PHD] resident, rental assistance [RA] renter, non-RA renter, nonrenter nonowner, homeowner as reference) in logistic regression analyses adjusting for year, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
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