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Anita Somborac-Bačura, Lada Rumora, Ruđer Novak, Dubravka Rašić, Jerka Dumić, Ivana Čepelak, Tihana Žanić-Grubišić
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Cigarette smoking is associated with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in lungs. Our aim was to examine the effect of cigarette smoke on cell death, oxidative damage, expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in A549 alveolar epithelial cells. What is the main finding and its importance? Cigarette smoke induces cytotoxicity and oxidative damage to A549 cells, increases expression of different HSPs and activates MAPK signaling pathways...
September 22, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Evangelia Liakoni, Kathryn C Edwards, Gideon St Helen, Natalie Nardone, Delia A Dempsey, Rachel F Tyndale, Neal L Benowitz
This study investigated the influence of the rate of nicotine metabolism, as indicated by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) on tobacco dependence. We stratified 136 smokers based on saliva NMR as fast (n=65) and slow (n=71) metabolizers. Two "loading cigarettes" were smoked after overnight, and a "reward cigarette" after six hours daytime abstinence. Blood nicotine concentrations, expired carbon monoxide, withdrawal/craving and reward questionnaires were collected before/after smoking and during daytime abstinence...
September 22, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Alireza Eftekhari, Zahra Peivand, Iraj Saadat, Mostafa Saadat
To determine the association between the SOD1 (Ins/Del), SOD2 (rs2758339, rs5746136), and SOD3 (rs2536512) polymorphisms and the risk of gastric cancer the present study performed. This is a case-control study, including 159 patients with gastric cancer and 242 healthy controls. All subjects were Persian Muslims living in Shiraz (south west Iran). Frequency matching by age and gender was performed. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood. Genotypes of the study polymorphism were determined using polymerase chain reaction based methods...
September 21, 2018: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Shanmugappiriya Sivarajah, Andre Isaac, Tim Cooper, Han Zhang, Lakshmi Puttagunta, Jonathan Abele, Vincent Biron, Jeffery Harris, Hadi Seikaly, Daniel A O' Connell
Importance: No guidelines at present describe when fludeoxyglucose F 18-labeled positron emission tomography and computed tomography (FDG PET-CT) should be used in the initial posttreatment period for evaluation of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treatment outcome and recurrence. Objective: To compare accuracies of the initial posttreatment PET-CT between primary treatment groups and to define indicators of false-positive findings. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study identified adults with a new diagnosis of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma who received treatment with curative intent from October 1, 2006, through November 30, 2016, using the Alberta Cancer Registry (n = 380)...
September 13, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Adam J Paulsen, Carla R Schubert, Lauren J Johnson, Yanjun Chen, Dayna S Dalton, Barbara E K Klein, Ronald Klein, Alex Pinto, Karen J Cruickshanks
Importance: Contrast sensitivity (CS) is an important indicator of visual function that affects daily life, including mobility, visually intensive tasks, safety, and autonomy. Understanding the risk factors for CS impairment could prevent decreases in visual function. Objective: To determine the incidence of and factors associated with CS impairment in a large cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Beaver Dam Offspring Study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study of aging involving adults in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin...
September 13, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Yvette van der Eijk, Lisa A Bero, Ruth E Malone
The Foundation for a Smoke-Free World was launched in September 2017 with an announced 12-year funding commitment of $1 billion from Philip Morris International (PMI). The Foundation claims that its governing documents (certificate of incorporation, bylaws and a pledge agreement) ensure that it has an independent research agenda and stringent protections from conflicts of interest. We analysed the text of these governing documents. Their provisions have multiple loopholes, particularly regarding conflicts of interest...
September 21, 2018: Tobacco Control
Annie Penfield-Cyr, Carmen Monthe-Dreze, Marcela C Smid, Sarbattama Sen
PURPOSE: Maternal body mass index (BMI) and systemic fatty acid (FA) concentrations affect inflammatory balance in pregnancy and play a key role in fetal growth and well-being. Little is known about how maternal BMI may affect the association between key FA concentrations and neonatal outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between the maternal omega (n)6:n3 FA ratio and neonatal outcomes according to maternal pre-pregnancy BMI category. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network randomized controlled trial of omega-3 FA supplementation to prevent recurrent preterm birth...
September 18, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Janett Barbaresko, Johanna Rienks, Ute Nöthlings
CONTEXT: Several studies investigated lifestyle indices to account for interrelations between lifestyle behaviors and cardiovascular disease risk. So far, no systematic review has been conducted. Thus, the aim is to summarize the evidence of associations between lifestyle indices and cardiovascular disease risk in observational prospective studies. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic literature search was conducted in two databases in February 2018. Multivariable-adjusted risk estimates were combined using random effects models comparing the highest with the lowest healthy lifestyle score...
October 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Lei Zhang, Stephen Babb, Michelle Johns, Nathan Mann, Jesse Thompson, Asma Shaikh, Rene Lavinghouze, Robert Rodes, Ann Malarcher
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of disease and death among U.S. Hispanics. Tobacco-cessation quitlines have been shown to increase quitting among Hispanics. However, the use of quitlines by this population remains low, especially among Spanish-speaking Hispanics. This study evaluates the promotion of 1-855-DÉJELO-YA (a quitline portal that routes callers to state-specific Spanish-language services) implemented as part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's national Tips From Former Smokers® (Tips® ) campaign...
October 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Stefan Cano, Christelle Chrea, Thomas Salzberger, Thomas Alfieri, Gerard Emilien, Nelly Mainy, Antonio Ramazzotti, Frank Lüdicke, Rolf Weitkunat
BACKGROUND: Making tobacco products associated with lower risks available to smokers who would otherwise continue smoking is recognized as an important strategy towards addressing smoking-related harm. Predicting use behavior is an important major component of product risk assessment. In this context, risk perception is a possible factor driving tobacco product uptake and use. As prior to market launch real-world actual product use cannot be observed, assessing risk perception can provide predictive information...
September 21, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Bruce J Kirenga, Levicatus Mugenyi, Corina de Jong, J Lucian Davis, Winceslaus Katagira, Thys van der Molen, Moses R Kamya, Marike Boezen
BACKGROUND: HIV and asthma are highly prevalent diseases in Africa but few studies have assessed the impact of HIV on asthma prevalence in high HIV burden settings. The objective of this analysis was to compare the prevalence of asthma among persons living with HIV (PLHIV) and those without HIV participating in the Uganda National Asthma Survey (UNAS). METHODS: UNAS was a population-based survey of persons aged ≥12 years. Asthma was diagnosed based on either self-reported current wheeze concurrently or within the prior 12 months; physician diagnosis; or use of asthma medication...
September 21, 2018: Respiratory Research
Oksoo Kim, Hee Jung Jang, Sue Kim, Hea-Young Lee, Eunyoung Cho, Jung Eun Lee, Heeja Jung, Jiyoung Kim
BACKGROUND: Recently, the number of patients diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has increased in Korea. Risk factors of GERD include age, sex, medication use, lack of physical exercise, increased psychological stress, low or high body mass index (BMI), unhealthy eating habits, increased alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking. However, few studies examined the major factors affecting GERD in women of childbearing age. Therefore, this study assessed the risk factors of GERD among 20,613 female nurses of reproductive age using data from the Korea Nurses' Health Study...
September 21, 2018: BMC Public Health
Akatsuki Kokaze, Mamoru Ishikawa, Naomi Matsunaga, Kanae Karita, Masao Yoshida, Hirotaka Ochiai, Takako Shirasawa, Takahiko Yoshimoto, Akira Minoura, Kosuke Oikawa, Masao Satoh, Hiromi Hoshino, Yutaka Takashima
BACKGROUND: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit-2 237 leucine/methionine (ND2-237 Leu/Met) polymorphism has been shown to modify the association of coffee consumption with the risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and abnormal glucose tolerance, and low serum chloride levels have been shown to be associated with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether ND2-237 Leu/Met polymorphism influences the association of coffee consumption with serum chloride levels in male Japanese health checkup examinees...
September 20, 2018: Nutrients
Nan Jiang, Lorna Thorpe, Sue Kaplan, Donna Shelley
Background : To assess residents' attitudes towards the United States (U.S.) Department of Housing and Urban Development's new smoke-free public housing policy, perceptions about barriers to policy implementation, and suggestions for optimizing implementation. Methods : In 2017, we conducted 10 focus groups among 91 residents (smokers and nonsmokers) living in New York City public housing. Results : Smokers and nonsmokers expressed skepticism about the public housing authority's capacity to enforce the policy due to widespread violations of the current smoke-free policy in common areas and pervasive use of marijuana in buildings...
September 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Abhishek Shankar, Shubham Roy, Goura Kishor Rath, Abhijit Chakraborty, Vineet Kumar Kamal, Aalekhya Sharma Biswas
PURPOSE: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in India. Our study assessed the level and impact of awareness programs in the adoption of safe practices in prevention and early detection. METHODS: This assessment was part of a Pink Chain Campaign, the mission of which is to fight cancer. During cancer awareness events from 2013 to 2015 at various women's colleges in different parts in India, a pretest related to cervical cancer was followed by an awareness program...
September 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
Vincent DeGennaro, Faiz Jiwani, Elizabeth Patberg, Martin Gibbs, Rachel Libby, Dieudina Gabriel, Coy D Heldermon, Karen Daily, Joseph Bernard
PURPOSE: Little is known about the epidemiology of breast cancer in developing countries, and Haiti has perhaps the least data of any country in the Western Hemisphere. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients enrolled in an ongoing breast cancer treatment program in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, from July 1, 2013, through June 30, 2017. Data were drawn from each patient's electronic medical record, paper chart, and biopsy results. RESULTS: The records of 525 women with breast cancer were reviewed for this study...
September 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
Cherian Verghese, Cristina Redko, Brian Fink
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
Chien-Ying Lee, Chun-Hung Su, Ping-Kun Tsai, Ming-Ling Yang, Yung-Chyuan Ho, Shiuan-Shinn Lee, Chia-Hui Chen, Wen-Ying Chen, Meng-Liang Lin, Chun-Jung Chen, Chen-Yu Chian, Rosa Huang-Liu, Ya-Lan Chang, Yu-Hsiang Kuan
Cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for various diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Cadmium nitrate (Cd(NO3 )2 ) is one of the major products from the cigarette smoke. Up to now, no supporting evidence on Cd(NO3 )2 -induced apoptosis and its related working mechanism in neurons has been found. In present study, the mode of cell death, caspase activities, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and mitochondrial dysfunction in N2a cells, which are neuron-like cells, were assessed by Annexin V-FITC and PI assays, caspase fluorometric assay, DCFH-DA fluorescence assay, and JC-1 fluorescence assay respectively...
September 18, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Lyazzat Dyussenova, Lyudmila Pivina, Yuliya Semenova, Geir Bjørklund, Natalia Glushkova, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Tatyana Belikhina
In this study, we investigated the association between depression, anxiety and medication adherence in patients with arterial hypertension living in East Kazakhstan region. The sample size included 795 patients, of whom 403 patients were exposed to radiation at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site from 1949 to 1989, while 395 patients were unexposed to radiation due to their very remote residence from the Site at the same period. Both exposed and unexposed patients showed no significant differences concerning body mass index, smoking habit, the presence of hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension grade...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Hanneke Coumou, Guus A Westerhof, Selma B de Nijs, Marijke Amelink, Elisabeth H Bel
BACKGROUND: Adult-onset asthma is an important asthma phenotype and, in contrast to childhood asthma, is often associated with specific triggers of onset. It is unknown whether these triggers correspond with specific phenotypic characteristics, or predict a specific asthma outcome. OBJECTIVE: to compare clinical, functional and inflammatory characteristics between patients with different triggers of asthma onset, and relate these triggers to asthma outcome. METHODS: 200 adults with recently diagnosed (<1year) asthma were prospectively followed for 5 years...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
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