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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032426/transgenerational-stress-adaption-an-opportunity-for-ecological-epigenetics
#1
Arne Weinhold
In the recent years, there has been considerable interest to investigate the adaptive transgenerational plasticity of plants and how a "stress memory" can be transmitted to the following generation. Although, increasing evidence suggests that transgenerational adaptive responses have widespread ecological relevance, the underlying epigenetic processes have rarely been elucidated. On the other hand, model plant species have been deeply investigated in their genome-wide methylation landscape without connecting this to the ecological reality of the plant...
October 14, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024256/transgenerational-plasticity-and-climate-change-experiments-where-do-we-go-from-here
#2
REVIEW
Jennifer M Donelson, Santiago Salinas, Philip L Munday, Lisa N S Shama
Phenotypic plasticity, both within and across generations, is an important mechanism that organisms use to cope with rapid climate change. While an increasing number of studies show that plasticity across generations (transgenerational plasticity or TGP) may occur, we have limited understanding of key aspects of TGP, such as the environmental conditions that may promote it, its relationship to within-generation plasticity (WGP) and its role in evolutionary potential. In this review, we consider how the detection of TGP in climate change experiments is affected by the predictability of environmental variation, as well as the timing and magnitude of environmental change cues applied...
October 12, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018118/transgenerational-diapause-as-an-avoidance-strategy-against-bacterial-pathogens-in-caenorhabditis%C3%A2-elegans
#3
M Fernanda Palominos, Lidia Verdugo, Carolaing Gabaldon, Bernardo Pollak, Javiera Ortíz-Severín, Macarena A Varas, Francisco P Chávez, Andrea Calixto
The dynamic response of organisms exposed to environmental pathogens determines their survival or demise, and the outcome of this interaction depends on the host's susceptibility and pathogen-dependent virulence factors. The transmission of acquired information about the nature of a pathogen to progeny may ensure effective defensive strategies for the progeny's survival in adverse environments. Environmental RNA interference (RNAi) is a systemic and heritable mechanism and has recently been linked to antibacterial and antifungal defenses in both plants and animals...
October 10, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993758/experimental-models-of-maternal-obesity-and-neuroendocrine-programming-of-metabolic-disorders-in-offspring
#4
REVIEW
Clare M Reynolds, Stephanie A Segovia, Mark H Vickers
Evidence from epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have clearly shown that disease risk in later life is increased following a poor early life environment, a process preferentially termed developmental programming. In particular, this work clearly highlights the importance of the nutritional environment during early development with alterations in maternal nutrition, including both under- and overnutrition, increasing the risk for a range of cardiometabolic and neurobehavioral disorders in adult offspring characterized by both adipokine resistance and obesity...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986422/the-arabidopsis-dna-methylome-is-stable-under-transgenerational-drought-stress
#5
Diep Ganguly, Peter Alexander Crisp, Steven R Eichten, Barry J Pogson
Improving the responsiveness, acclimation, and memory of plants to abiotic stress holds substantive potential for improving agriculture. An unresolved question is the involvement of chromatin marks in the memory of agriculturally-relevant stresses. Such potential has spurred numerous investigations yielding both promising and conflicting results. Consequently, it remains unclear to what extent robust stress-induced DNA methylation variation can underpin stress memory. Using a slow onset water deprivation treatment in Arabidopsis we investigated the malleability of the DNA methylome to drought stress within a generation and under repeated drought stress over five successive generations...
October 6, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983410/paternal-pachytene-pirnas-are-not-required-for-fertilization-embryonic-development-and-sperm-mediated-epigenetic-inheritance-in-mice
#6
Shuiqiao Yuan, Chong Tang, Andrew Schuster, Ying Zhang, Huili Zheng, Wei Yan
Pachytene piRNAs are MIWI-/MILI-bound small RNAs abundantly expressed in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids in adult mouse testes. Miwi knockout (KO) male mice are sterile due to spermiogenic arrest. In Caenorhabditis elegans, sperm-borne piRNAs appear to have an epigenetic role during fertilization and development because progeny of individuals with piRNA-deficient gametes display a progressive loss of fertility after several generations. In mice, it remains unknown whether pachytene piRNA-deficient round spermatids can produce offspring, and whether the progeny of Miwi mutants also exhibits transgenerational, progressive fertility loss...
December 2016: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982377/environmental-epigenetics-in-zebrafish
#7
REVIEW
Vincenzo Cavalieri, Giovanni Spinelli
It is widely accepted that the epigenome can act as the link between environmental cues, both external and internal, to the organism and phenotype by converting the environmental stimuli to phenotypic responses through changes in gene transcription outcomes. Environmental stress endured by individual organisms can also enforce epigenetic variations in offspring that had never experienced it directly, which is termed transgenerational inheritance. To date, research in the environmental epigenetics discipline has used a wide range of both model and non-model organisms to elucidate the various epigenetic mechanisms underlying the adaptive response to environmental stimuli...
October 5, 2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974783/environmental-perturbation-of-the-circadian-clock-during-pregnancy-leads-to-transgenerational-mood-disorder-like-behaviors-in-mice
#8
Peng Zhang, Guang Li, Hui Li, XiaoQiu Tan, Hai-Ying Mary Cheng
It remains unknown whether chronic circadian disturbance (CCD) during pregnancy can lead to mood disorders in the offspring. Here we show that pregnant mice in the F0 generation that were exposed to CCD stress displayed depression-like behaviors, and produced offspring in the F1 and F2 generations that also exhibited mood-associated behavioral phenotypes despite the lack of direct stressful experiences during their postnatal or adult period. Prenatal CCD stress was correlated with the elevation of plasma corticosterone levels in F1 mice...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966088/retrotransposons-mimic-germ-plasm-determinants-to-promote-transgenerational-inheritance
#9
Bhavana Tiwari, Paula Kurtz, Amanda E Jones, Annika Wylie, James F Amatruda, Devi Prasad Boggupalli, Graydon B Gonsalvez, John M Abrams
Retrotransposons are a pervasive class of mobile elements present in the genomes of virtually all forms of life [1, 2]. In metazoans, these are preferentially active in the germline, which, in turn, mounts defenses that restrain their activity [3, 4]. Here we report that certain classes of retrotransposons ensure transgenerational inheritance by invading presumptive germ cells before they are formed. Using sensitized Drosophila and zebrafish models, we found that diverse classes of retrotransposons migrate to the germ plasm, a specialized region of the oocyte that prefigures germ cells and specifies the germline of descendants in the fertilized egg...
October 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963514/transgenerational-selection-driven-by-divergent-ecological-impacts-of-hybridizing-lineages
#10
Rebecca J Best, Jaime M Anaya-Rojas, Miguel C Leal, Dominik W Schmid, Ole Seehausen, Blake Matthews
Dynamic interactions between ecological conditions and the phenotypic composition of populations likely play an important role in evolution, but the direction and strength of these feedbacks remain difficult to characterize. We investigated these dynamics across two generations of threespine sticklebacks from two evolutionary lineages undergoing secondary contact and hybridization. Independently manipulating the density and lineage of adults in experimental mesocosms led to contrasting ecosystem conditions with strong effects on total survival in a subsequent generation of juveniles...
September 18, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959243/rnase-h-as-gene-modifier-driver-of-evolution-and-antiviral-defense
#11
REVIEW
Karin Moelling, Felix Broecker, Giancarlo Russo, Shinichi Sunagawa
Retroviral infections are 'mini-symbiotic' events supplying recipient cells with sequences for viral replication, including the reverse transcriptase (RT) and ribonuclease H (RNase H). These proteins and other viral or cellular sequences can provide novel cellular functions including immune defense mechanisms. Their high error rate renders RT-RNases H drivers of evolutionary innovation. Integrated retroviruses and the related transposable elements (TEs) have existed for at least 150 million years, constitute up to 80% of eukaryotic genomes and are also present in prokaryotes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959235/the-responses-of-mouse-preimplantation-embryos-to-leptin-in-vitro-in-a-transgenerational-model-for-obesity
#12
Martina Kšiňanová, Štefan Čikoš, Janka Babel'ová, Zuzana Šefčíková, Alexandra Špirková, Juraj Koppel, Dušan Fabian
The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that leptin can directly mediate the negative effect of maternal obesity on preimplantation embryos. As previously shown, maternal obesity retards early embryonic development in vivo and increases the incidence of apoptosis in blastocysts. When two-cell embryos isolated from control and obese mice were transferred to identical (leptin free) conditions in vitro, no differences in any growth or quality parameters were recorded, including apoptosis incidence in blastocysts...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950428/cigarette-smoking-significantly-alters-sperm-dna-methylation-patterns
#13
T G Jenkins, E R James, D F Alonso, J R Hoidal, P J Murphy, J M Hotaling, B R Cairns, D T Carrell, K I Aston
Numerous health consequences of tobacco smoke exposure have been characterized, and the effects of smoking on traditional measures of male fertility are well described. However, a growing body of data indicates that pre-conception paternal smoking also confers increased risk for a number of morbidities on offspring. The mechanism for this increased risk has not been elucidated, but it is likely mediated, at least in part, through epigenetic modifications transmitted through spermatozoa. In this study, we investigated the impact of cigarette smoke exposure on sperm DNA methylation patterns in 78 men who smoke and 78 never-smokers using the Infinium Human Methylation 450 beadchip...
September 26, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945943/the-role-of-epigenomics-in-aquatic-toxicology
#14
Susanne M Brander, Adam D Biales, Richard E Connon
Over the past decade, the field of molecular biology has rapidly incorporated epigenetic studies to evaluate organism-environment interactions that can result in chronic effects. Such responses arise from early life stage stress, the utilization of genetic information over an individual's life time, and transgenerational inheritance. Knowledge of epigenetic mechanisms provides the potential for a comprehensive evaluation of multigenerational and heritable effects from environmental stressors, such as contaminants...
October 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931731/paternal-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-status-affects-dna-methylation-in-seeds
#15
Sandra Varga, Carl D Soulsbury
Most land plants grow in association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in their roots and these fungi can cause transgenerational effects on plants' offspring. These may be caused by changes in DNA methylation of the offspring. In this study, we compared the amount of global DNA methylation in seeds of the gynodioecious plant Geranium sylvaticum in relation to the gender and the AMF status of the parents producing the seeds. The amount of DNA methylated was positively related to seed mass. Seeds produced by females had a similar proportion of methylated DNA regardless of the AMF status of the father siring the seed...
September 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931070/atrazine-induced-epigenetic-transgenerational-inheritance-of-disease-lean-phenotype-and-sperm-epimutation-pathology-biomarkers
#16
Margaux McBirney, Stephanie E King, Michelle Pappalardo, Elizabeth Houser, Margaret Unkefer, Eric Nilsson, Ingrid Sadler-Riggleman, Daniel Beck, Paul Winchester, Michael K Skinner
Ancestral environmental exposures to a variety of environmental toxicants and other factors have been shown to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The current study examined the potential transgenerational actions of the herbicide atrazine. Atrazine is one of the most commonly used herbicides in the agricultural industry, in particular with corn and soy crops. Outbred gestating female rats were transiently exposed to a vehicle control or atrazine. The F1 generation offspring were bred to generate the F2 generation and then the F2 generation bred to generate the F3 generation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930553/fetal-nucleic-acids-in-maternal-plasma-from-biology-to-clinical-translation
#17
Neha Bunkar, Arpit Bhargava, Koel Chaudhury, Radhey Shyam Sharma, Nirmal Kumar Lohiya, Pradyumna Kumar Mishra
Exposure to environmental contaminants during the critical window of pregnancy results in deregulation of highly coordinated genetic and epigenetic mechanisms involved in prenatal growth. Such disturbances significantly alter the fetal programming, and lead to various developmental disorders immediately, over the lifetime, or transgenerationally. During the process of placental development, fetal nucleic acids enter maternal plasma as a result of necrotic, apoptotic, and inflammatory mechanisms. These nucleic acids reflect normal or abnormal ongoing cellular changes during prenatal fetal development...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928038/reach-and-effectiveness-of-the-national-diabetes-prevention-program-for-young-women
#18
Natalie D Ritchie, Katherine A Sauder, Stefka Fabbri
INTRODUCTION: Reducing obesity and diabetes risks among women of child-bearing age is urgently needed to halt the transgenerational cycle of disease. Interventions among pregnant women have largely been ineffective and may be initiated too late to improve maternal and child health. The National Diabetes Prevention Program is a widely disseminated lifestyle intervention that may help mitigate risks before pregnancy. However, the program has targeted relatively older adults, and effectiveness among women of child-bearing age remains largely unknown...
September 16, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924262/prenatal-glucocorticoid-exposure-modifies-endocrine-function-and-behaviour-for-3-generations-following-maternal-and-paternal-transmission
#19
Vasilis G Moisiadis, Andrea Constantinof, Alisa Kostaki, Moshe Szyf, Stephen G Matthews
Fetal exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids programs long-term changes in the physiologic stress response and behaviours. However, it is not known whether effects manifest in subsequent generations of offspring following maternal (MT) or paternal (PT) transmission. We treated pregnant guinea pigs with three courses of saline or synthetic glucocorticoid (sGC) at a clinically relevant dose. Altered cortisol response to stress and behaviours transmitted to juvenile female and male F2 and F3 offspring from both parental lines...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922932/racial-disparities-in-the-transgenerational-transmission-of-low-birthweight-risk
#20
Collette N Ncube, Daniel A Enquobahrie, Jessica G Burke, Feifei Ye, John Marx, Steven M Albert
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of maternal low birthweight (LBW) with infant LBW and infant LBW subgroups (i.e. moderate and very LBW), overall and among non-Hispanic (NH) white and NH black mothers. DESIGN: We conducted a population-based cohort study in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, using linked birth record data of NH white and NH black mother-infant pairs (N = 6,633) born in 1979-1998 and 2009-2011, respectively. The exposure of interest was maternal LBW (birthweight <2500 grams) while the outcomes were infant LBW and LBW subgroups - moderate LBW (1,500-2,499 grams) or very LBW (<1,500 grams)...
September 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
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