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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642778/characterization-of-salt-induced-epigenetic-segregation-by-genome-wide-loss-of-heterozygosity-and-its-association-with-salt-tolerance-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#1
Min Li, Wen-Sheng Wang, Yun-Long Pang, Jessica R Domingo, Jauhar Ali, Jian-Long Xu, Bin-Ying Fu, Elec B Venus, Zhi-Kang Li
In a breeding effort to develop salt tolerant (ST) rice varieties by designed QTL pyramiding, large numbers of progenies derived from four crosses between salt- or drought- tolerant BC2F5 IR64 introgression lines, were subjected to severe salt stress, resulting in 422 ST plants. The progeny testing of the selected F3 lines under more severe salt stress resulted in identification of 16 promising homozygous lines with high levels of ST. Genetic characterization of the 422 ST F3 progeny and 318 random F2 plants from the same four crosses using 105 segregating SSR markers lead to three interesting discoveries: (1) salt stress can induce genome-wide epigenetic segregation (ES) characterized by complete loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and nearly complete loss of an allele (LOA) in the F3 progenies of four rice populations in a single generation; (2) ∼25% of the stress-induced ES loci were transgenerational and inherited from their salt- and drought- selected parents; and (3) the salt-induced LOH and LOA loci (regions) appeared to contain genes/alleles associated with ST and/or drought tolerance...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641987/food-deprivation-in-f0-generation-and-hypercaloric-diet-in-f1-generation-reduce-f2-generation-astrogliosis-in-several-brain-areas-after-immune-challenge
#2
T B Ogassawara, A Joaquim, C P Coelho, M M Bernardi, E Teodorov, M F M Martins, T B Kirsten, L V Bonamin, P D Dossa, L B Viebig, E F Bondan
AIMS: The effects of maternal food restriction during gestation in F0 generation followed by hypercaloric diet (HD) during puberty in F1 generation (F1HD) were investigated on astrocyte behavior of F2 generation. Also, the astrocyte behavior, after an immune challenge, was examined by the immunohistochemical expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in several brain areas. METHODS: The body weight gain (BW) during development and in postnatal day (PND) 90-95, the retroperitoneal fat weight (RPF), and the size of larger and smaller adipocytes in the F1 generation were assessed to observe the effects of HD in female rats...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630005/transgenerational-effects-of-proton-beam-irradiation-on-caenorhabditis-elegans-germline-apoptosis
#3
Hyemin Min, Minhee Sung, Miseol Son, Ichiro Kawasaki, Yhong-Hee Shims
When treating cancer using radiation therapy, it is critical to increase patient survival rates and to reduce side effects. In this respect, proton beam radiation treatment performs better than other radiation treatments because of its high target specificity. However, complications still remain after proton beam radiation treatment. Among them, the risk to progeny after irradiation of their parents is a major concern. In this study, we analyzed the transgenerational effects of proton beam irradiation using the model organism Caenorhabditis...
June 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628257/contrasting-gene-expression-programs-correspond-with-predator-induced-phenotypic-plasticity-within-and-across-generations-in-daphnia
#4
Nicole R Hales, Drew R Schield, Audra L Andrew, Daren C Card, Matthew R Walsh, Todd A Castoe
Research has shown that a change in environmental conditions can alter the expression of traits during development (i.e., 'within-generation phenotypic plasticity') as well as induce heritable phenotypic responses that persist for multiple generations (i.e., 'transgenerational plasticity'). It has long been assumed that shifts in gene expression are tightly linked to observed trait responses at the phenotypic level. Yet, the manner in which organisms couple within- and trans-generational plasticity at the molecular level is unclear...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626222/the-role-of-epigenetics-in-renal-ageing
#5
REVIEW
Paul G Shiels, Dagmara McGuinness, Maria Eriksson, Jeroen P Kooman, Peter Stenvinkel
An ability to separate natural ageing processes from processes specific to morbidities is required to understand the heterogeneity of age-related organ dysfunction. Mechanistic insight into how epigenetic factors regulate ageing throughout the life course, linked to a decline in renal function with ageing, is already proving to be of value in the analyses of clinical and epidemiological cohorts. Noncoding RNAs provide epigenetic regulatory circuits within the kidney, which reciprocally interact with DNA methylation processes, histone modification and chromatin...
June 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620168/dynamics-of-maternally-transferred-trace-elements-in-oyster-larvae-and-latent-growth-effects
#6
Nanyan Weng, Wen-Xiong Wang
Understanding the maternal transfer of contaminants and their potential effects has great implications for a valid ecological assessment of environmental pollution. However, relevant studies on marine bivalves are very limited. Here, we examined the maternal transfer of trace metals in populations of oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis with contrasting metal exposure histories. Elevated accumulation of trace metals was observed in eggs and larvae from contaminated sites, suggesting maternal transfer of multi-metals in natural oyster populations...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610748/transgenerational-seasonal-timer-for-suppression-of-sexual-morph-production-in-the-pea-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum
#7
Naoki Matsuda, Takashi Kanbe, Shin-Ichi Akimoto, Hideharu Numata
Many aphid species switch reproductive modes seasonally, with the sexual generations appearing in autumn. Sexual generations are induced by short days. It has been reported that the appearance of sexual morphs is suppressed by a transgenerational factor (a seasonal timer) over several generations after hatching from overwintered eggs. The present study examined whether the seasonal timer measures the number of days from hatching or the number of generations from hatching using the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Homoptera: Aphididae)...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590553/transgenerational-effects-of-mild-heat-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-show-strong-genotype-specificity-that-is-explained-by-climate-at-origin
#8
Maartje P Groot, Alexander Kubisch, N Joop Ouborg, Jörn Pagel, Karl J Schmid, Philippine Vergeer, Christian Lampei
Transgenerational environmental effects can trigger strong phenotypic variation. However, it is unclear how cues from different preceding generations interact. Also, little is known about the genetic variation for these life history traits. Here, we present the effects of grandparental and parental mild heat, and their combination, on four traits of the third-generation phenotype of 14 Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes. We tested for correlations of these effects with climate and constructed a conceptual model to identify the environmental conditions that favour the parental effect on flowering time...
June 7, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587668/alterations-of-hair-cortisol-and-dehydroepiandrosterone-in-mother-infant-dyads-with-maternal-childhood-maltreatment
#9
K Schury, A M Koenig, D Isele, A L Hulbert, S Krause, M Umlauft, S Kolassa, U Ziegenhain, A Karabatsiakis, F Reister, H Guendel, J M Fegert, I-T Kolassa
BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment (CM) has severe effects on psychological and physical health. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the major stress system of the body, is dysregulated after CM. The analysis of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in scalp hair presents a new and promising methodological approach to assess chronic HPA axis activity. This study investigated the effects of CM on HPA axis activity in the last trimester of pregnancy by measuring the two important signaling molecules, cortisol and DHEA in hair, shortly after parturition...
June 6, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583304/transgenerational-inheritance-of-neurobehavioral-and-physiological-deficits-from-developmental-exposure-to-benzo-a-pyrene-in-zebrafish
#10
Andrea L Knecht, Lisa Truong, Skylar W Marvel, David M Reif, Abraham Garcia, Catherine Lu, Michael T Simonich, Justin G Teeguarden, Robert L Tanguay
Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a well-known genotoxic polycylic aromatic compound whose toxicity is dependent on signaling via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). It is unclear to what extent detrimental effects of B[a]P exposures might impact future generations and whether transgenerational effects might be AHR-dependent. This study examined the effects of developmental B[a]P exposure on 3 generations of zebrafish. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6 to 120h post fertilization (hpf) to 5 and 10μM B[a]P and raised in chemical-free water until adulthood (F0)...
June 3, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576881/assessing-elements-of-an-extended-evolutionary-synthesis-for-plant-domestication-and-agricultural-origin-research
#11
Dolores R Piperno
The development of agricultural societies, one of the most transformative events in human and ecological history, was made possible by plant and animal domestication. Plant domestication began 12,000-10,000 y ago in a number of major world areas, including the New World tropics, Southwest Asia, and China, during a period of profound global environmental perturbations as the Pleistocene epoch ended and transitioned into the Holocene. Domestication is at its heart an evolutionary process, and for many prehistorians evolutionary theory has been foundational in investigating agricultural origins...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571876/experience-induced-transgenerational-re-programming-of-neuronal-structure-and-functions-impact-of-stress-prior-and-during-pregnancy
#12
REVIEW
Katharina Braun, Jörg Bock, Tamar Wainstock, Emmanuel Matas, Inna Gaisler-Salomon, Jörg Fegert, Ute Ziegenhain, Menahem Segal
This review focuses on the inter- and transgenerational effects of stress experience prior to and during gestation. We provide an overview of findings from studies in humans as well as in animal models on brain structural and physiological functions and on the development of cognitive and executive functions. We also discuss the concept of stress-induced (re-)programming in more detail by highlighting epigenetic mechanisms and particularly those affecting the development of monoaminergic transmitter systems, which constitute the braińs reward system...
May 29, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557547/readiness-to-use-psychoactive-substances-among-second-generation-adolescent-immigrants-and-perceptions-of-parental-immigration-related-trauma
#13
Yael Aviad-Wilchek, Inna Levy, Sarah Ben-David
OBJECTIVES: This research explores the relationship between parental immigration-related trauma and second-generation adolescent substance abuse. To examine this relationship, we focused on Ethiopian adolescents in Israel who are at risk for substance abuse. Many immigrants from Ethiopia experienced severe immigration trauma and research indicates the existence of transgenerational trauma transmission. The current research focuses on the connection between Ethiopian adolescents' perceptions of their parents' immigration trauma and their readiness to use psychoactive substances...
May 30, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554167/elevated-paternal-glucocorticoid-exposure-modifies-memory-retention-in-female-offspring
#14
Shlomo Yeshurun, Jake Rogers, Annabel K Short, Thibault Renoir, Terence Y Pang, Anthony J Hannan
Recent studies have demonstrated that behavioral traits are subject to transgenerational modification by paternal environmental factors. We previously reported on the transgenerational influences of increased paternal stress hormone levels on offspring anxiety and depression-related behaviors. Here, we investigated whether offspring sociability and cognition are also influenced by paternal stress. Adult C57BL/6J male mice were treated with corticosterone (CORT; 25mg/L) for four weeks prior to paired-matings to generate F1 offspring...
May 18, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553610/diabetes-destiny-in-our-hands-achieving-metabolic-karma
#15
Sanjay Kalra, Jignesh Ved, Manash P Baruah
Karma is the ancient Indian philosophy of cause and effect, which implies that an individual's intentions, and actions, both have consequences. None can escape the consequences of one's actions. Applying the principle of karma to medicine and healthcare, the significance of optimal and timely interventions at various stages of disease, may be realized. A holistic approach to metabolic control in diabetes translates into improved clinical outcomes, as evident from the result of STENO-2, EMPA-REG OUTCOME, or LEADER trials...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541174/enhancing-a-person-enhancing-a-civilization-a-research-program-at-the-intersection-of-bioethics-future-studies-and-astrobiology
#16
Milan M Ćirković
There are manifold intriguing issues located within largely unexplored borderlands of bioethics, future studies (including global risk analysis), and astrobiology. Human enhancement has for quite some time been among the foci of bioethical debates, but the same cannot be said about its global, transgenerational, and even cosmological consequences. In recent years, discussions of posthuman and, in general terms, postbiological civilization(s) have slowly gained a measure of academic respect, in parallel with the renewed interest in the entire field of future studies and the great strides made in understanding of the origin and evolution of life and intelligence in their widest, cosmic context...
July 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535388/transgenerational-inheritance-perpetuating-rnai
#17
Kristen C Brown, Taiowa A Montgomery
Reversible changes in gene expression independent of the genetic code can be transmitted from one generation to the next via poorly understood mechanisms. In worms, a histone-modifying enzyme is necessary to keep small RNA-guided transgenerational gene silencing in check.
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535375/morc-1-integrates-nuclear-rnai-and-transgenerational-chromatin-architecture-to-promote-germline-immortality
#18
Natasha E Weiser, Danny X Yang, Suhua Feng, Natallia Kalinava, Kristen C Brown, Jayshree Khanikar, Mallory A Freeberg, Martha J Snyder, Györgyi Csankovszki, Raymond C Chan, Sam G Gu, Taiowa A Montgomery, Steven E Jacobsen, John K Kim
Germline-expressed endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) transmit multigenerational epigenetic information to ensure fertility in subsequent generations. In Caenorhabditis elegans, nuclear RNAi ensures robust inheritance of endo-siRNAs and deposition of repressive H3K9me3 marks at target loci. How target silencing is maintained in subsequent generations is poorly understood. We discovered that morc-1 is essential for transgenerational fertility and acts as an effector of endo-siRNAs. Unexpectedly, morc-1 is dispensable for siRNA inheritance but is required for target silencing and maintenance of siRNA-dependent chromatin organization...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533422/paternal-hyperglycemia-in-rats-exacerbates-the-development-of-obesity-in-offspring
#19
Xiaoqin Shi, Xinyu Li, Yi Hou, Xuemei Cao, Yuyao Zhang, Heng Wang, Hongying Wang, Chuan Peng, Jibin Li, Qifu Li, Chaodong Wu, Xiaoqiu Xiao
Parental history with obesity or diabetes will increase the risk for developing metabolic diseases in offspring. However, literatures as to transgenerational inheritance of metabolic dysfunctions through male lineage are relatively scarce. In current study, we aimed to evaluate influences of paternal hyperglycemia on metabolic phenotypes in offspring. Male SD rats were ip injected with streptozotocin (STZ) or citrate buffer (CB, as control). STZ-injected rats with glucose levels higher than 16 mM were selected to breed with normal female rats...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531178/zebrafish-exposure-to-environmentally-relevant-concentration-of-depleted-uranium-impairs-progeny-development-at-the-molecular-and-histological-levels
#20
Olivier Armant, Kewin Gombeau, Sophia Murat El Houdigui, Magali Floriani, Virginie Camilleri, Isabelle Cavalie, Christelle Adam-Guillermin
Uranium is an actinide naturally found in the environment. Anthropogenic activities lead to the release of increasing amounts of uranium and depleted uranium (DU) in the environment, posing potential risks to aquatic organisms due to radiological and chemical toxicity of this radionucleide. Although environmental contaminations with high levels of uranium have already been observed, chronic exposures of non-human species to levels close to the environmental quality standards remain scarcely characterized. The present study focused on the identification of the molecular pathways impacted by a chronic exposure of zebrafish to 20 μg/L of DU during 10 days...
2017: PloS One
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