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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212751/stable-heritable-germline-silencing-directs-somatic-silencing-at-an-endogenous-locus
#1
Olga Minkina, Craig P Hunter
The importance of transgenerationally inherited epigenetic states to organismal fitness remains unknown as well-documented examples are often not amenable to mechanistic analysis or rely on artificial reporter loci. Here we describe an induced silenced state at an endogenous locus that persists, at 100% transmission without selection, for up to 13 generations. This unusually persistent silencing enables a detailed molecular genetic analysis of an inherited epigenetic state. We find that silencing is dependent on germline nuclear RNAi factors and post-transcriptional mechanisms...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204520/transgenerational-response-and-life-history-theory-a-response-to-peeter-h%C3%A3%C2%B5rak
#2
Denny Vågerö, Kristiina Rajaleid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202685/high-protein-paternal-diet-confers-an-advantage-to-sons-in-sperm-competition
#3
Felix Zajitschek, Susanne Zajitschek, Mollie Manier
Parental environment can widely influence offspring phenotype, but paternal effects in the absence of parental care remain poorly understood. We asked if protein content in the larval diet of fathers affected paternity success and gene expression in their sons. We found that males reared on high-protein diet had sons that fared better during sperm competition, suggesting that postcopulatory sexual selection is subject to transgenerational paternal effects. Moreover, immune response genes were downregulated in sons of low-protein fathers, while genes involved in metabolic and reproductive processes were upregulated...
February 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202385/long-term-consequences-of-disrupting-adenosine-signaling-during-embryonic-development
#4
REVIEW
Scott A Rivkees, Christopher C Wendler
There is growing evidence that disruption in the prenatal environment can have long-lasting effects on an individual's health in adulthood. Research on the fetal programming of adult diseases, including cardiovascular disease, focuses on epi-mutations, which alter the normal pattern of epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation, miRNA expression, or chromatin modification, rather than traditional genetic alteration. Thus, understanding how in utero chemical exposures alter epigenetics and lead to adult disease is of considerable public health concern...
February 12, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202230/intergenerational-transmission-of-enhanced-seizure-susceptibility-after-febrile-seizures
#5
Dengchang Wu, Bo Feng, Yunjian Dai, Xiaohua Wu, Bin Chen, Cenglin Xu, Yangshun Tang, Kang Wang, Shihong Zhang, Shuang Wang, Benyan Luo, Zhong Chen
Environmental exposure early in development plays a role in susceptibility to disease in later life. Here, we demonstrate that prolonged febrile seizures induced by exposure of rat pups to a hyperthermic environment enhance seizure susceptibility not only in these hyperthermia-treated rats but also in their future offspring, even if the offspring never experience febrile seizures. This transgenerational transmission was intensity-dependent and was mainly from mothers to their offspring. The transmission was associated with DNA methylation...
February 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201756/commentary-transgenerational-effects-of-parental-death-a-life-history-perspective
#6
Peeter Hõrak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199414/direct-and-transgenerational-effects-of-low-doses-of-perinatal-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-dehp-on-social-behaviors-in-mice
#7
Kayla M Quinnies, Erin P Harris, Rodney W Snyder, Susan S Sumner, Emilie F Rissman
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is an endocrine disrupting chemical commonly used as a plasticizer in medical equipment, food packaging, flooring, and children's toys. DEHP exposure during early development has been associated with adverse neurobehavioral outcomes in children. In animal models, early exposure to DEHP results in abnormal development of the reproductive system as well as altered behavior and neurodevelopment. Based on these data, we hypothesized that developmental exposure to DEHP would decrease social interactions and increase anxiety-like behaviors in mice in a dose-dependent manner, and that the effects would persist over generations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196348/investigation-of-implicit-avoidance-of-displacement-related-stimuli-in-offspring-of-trauma-exposed-forcibly-displaced-individuals
#8
Charlotte E Wittekind, Christoph Muhtz, Steffen Moritz, Lena Jelinek
There is an ongoing debate as to whether traumatization also affects the close relatives of trauma survivors who have symptoms of PTSD. Although many studies provide evidence favoring a transgenerational transmission, other studies have not found evidence to support this idea. The present study examined whether adult offspring of individuals exposed to trauma during forced displacement with (n=22) and without PTSD (n=24) exhibit an implicit avoidance of stimuli related to the parental trauma compared to children of non-trauma exposed control participants (n=23) using an Approach-Avoidance task (AAT)...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193737/exogenous-transposable-elements-circumvent-identity-based-silencing-permitting-the-dissection-of-expression-dependent-silencing
#9
Dalen Fultz, R Keith Slotkin
The propagation of epigenetic marks has received a great deal of attention, yet the initiation of epigenetic silencing of a new transgene, virus, or transposable element (TE) remains enigmatic. The overlapping and simultaneous function of multiple silencing mechanisms has obscured this area of investigation. Here, we have revealed two broad mechanisms that can initiate silencing independently: identity-based and expression-dependent silencing. We found that identity-based silencing is targeted by 21-22 or 24 nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) generated from previously silenced regions of the genome...
February 13, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186655/chronic-transgenerational-vitamin-b12-deficiency-of-severe-and-moderate-magnitudes-modulates-adiposity-probable-underlying-mechanisms
#10
Shampa Ghosh, Jitendra Kumar Sinha, Bojanapalli Muralikrishna, Uday Kumar Putcha, Manchala Raghunath
We have demonstrated previously that severe but not moderate vitamin B12 deficiency altered body composition and induced adiposity in female C57BL/6 mice. This study aims to elucidate the effects of chronic transgenerational dietary vitamin B12 restriction on body composition and various biochemical parameters in the F1 generation offspring of our mouse models of severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiency established earlier. Female weanling C57BL/6 mice received, ad libitum, for 4 weeks a (i) control diet, (ii) vitamin B12-restricted diet with pectin as dietary fiber (severely deficient diet), or (iii) vitamin B12-restricted diet with cellulose as dietary fiber (moderately deficient diet) and then mated with control males...
February 10, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186187/factors-associated-with-aberrant-imprint-methylation-and-oligozoospermia
#11
Norio Kobayashi, Naoko Miyauchi, Nozomi Tatsuta, Akane Kitamura, Hiroaki Okae, Hitoshi Hiura, Akiko Sato, Takafumi Utsunomiya, Nobuo Yaegashi, Kunihiko Nakai, Takahiro Arima
Disturbingly, the number of patients with oligozoospermia (low sperm count) has been gradually increasing in industrialized countries. Epigenetic alterations are believed to be involved in this condition. Recent studies have clarified that intrinsic and extrinsic factors can induce epigenetic transgenerational phenotypes through apparent reprogramming of the male germ line. Here we examined DNA methylation levels of 22 human imprinted loci in a total of 221 purified sperm samples from infertile couples and found methylation alterations in 24...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183434/multigenerational-cohorts-in-patients-with-asthma-and-allergy
#12
S Hasan Arshad, Wilfried Karmaus, Hongmei Zhang, John W Holloway
Recent observations that disease risk can be transmitted across generations without the need for direct exposure of the child to the index environmental insult has sparked interest in transgenerational inheritance. Epigenetics describes processes that modify gene expression without a change in the nucleotide sequence. Epigenetic processes can be induced in response to environmental exposures, can influence disease risk, and might explain these multigenerational effects. In experimental models a number of epigenetic mechanisms have been identified that could mediate vertical transmission of epigenetic inheritance...
February 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178516/chromatin-states-in-mouse-sperm-correlate-with-embryonic-and-adult-regulatory-landscapes
#13
Yoon Hee Jung, Michael E G Sauria, Xiaowen Lyu, Manjinder S Cheema, Juan Ausio, James Taylor, Victor G Corces
The mammalian sperm genome is thought to lack substantial information for the regulation of future expression after fertilization. Here, we show that most promoters in mouse sperm are flanked by well-positioned nucleosomes marked by active histone modifications. Analysis of these modifications suggests that many enhancers and super-enhancers functional in embryonic and adult tissues are already specified in sperm. The sperm genome is bound by CTCF and cohesin at sites that are also present in round spermatids and embryonic stem cells (ESCs)...
February 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174020/necessity-is-the-mother-of-invention-ciliates-transposons-and-transgenerational-inheritance
#14
REVIEW
Sarah E Allen, Mariusz Nowacki
Ciliates are a fascinating model system for the study of the interaction between eukaryotic germlines and somatic lines, especially with regard to the invasion and defence against transposable elements. They separate their germline and somatic line into two nuclei within the same cell, and they silence transposons and repetitive elements by way of deleting them from their somatic genome. This large-scale deletion event uses a series of intricate sequence targeting pathways involving small RNAs and transposases, part of which consists of a transnuclear comparison between maternal soma and daughter germline...
February 4, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173760/grandparental-immune-priming-in-the-pipefish-syngnathus-typhle
#15
Anne Beemelmanns, Olivia Roth
BACKGROUND: Phenotypic changes in response to environmental influences can persist from one generation into the next. In many systems parental parasite experience influences offspring immune responses, known as transgenerational immune priming (TGIP). TGIP in vertebrates is mainly maternal and short-term, supporting the adaptive immune system of the offspring during its maturation. However, if fathers and offspring have a close physical connection, evolution of additional paternal immune priming can be adaptive...
February 7, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139216/integrated-stress-response-activation-by-sleep-fragmentation-during-late-gestation-in-mice-leads-to-emergence-of-adverse-metabolic-phenotype-in-offspring
#16
Wojciech Trzepizur, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Zhuanhong Qiao, Brian Popko, David Gozal
BACKGROUND: Late gestational sleep fragmentation (SF) is highly prevalent particularly in obese women, and induces metabolic dysfunction in adult offspring mice. SF induces activation of the integrated stress response (ISR), which might be involved in metabolic disorders. We hypothesized that adult offspring of double mutant mice (DM) involving the critical ISR genes CHOP and GADD34 would be protected from developing obesity and insulin resistance following SF. METHODS: Time-pregnant CHOP/GADD34 DM and wild type (WT) mice were randomly assigned to sleep control (SC) or SF conditions during the last 5days of gestation...
January 21, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130550/control-of-demeter-dna-demethylase-gene-transcription-in-male-and-female-gamete-companion-cells-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
Jin-Sup Park, Jennifer M Frost, Kyunghyuk Park, Hyonhwa Ohr, Guen Tae Park, Seohyun Kim, Hyunjoo Eom, Ilha Lee, Janie S Brooks, Robert L Fischer, Yeonhee Choi
The DEMETER (DME) DNA glycosylase initiates active DNA demethylation via the base-excision repair pathway and is vital for reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana DME-mediated DNA demethylation is preferentially targeted to small, AT-rich, and nucleosome-depleted euchromatic transposable elements, influencing expression of adjacent genes and leading to imprinting in the endosperm. In the female gametophyte, DME expression and subsequent genome-wide DNA demethylation are confined to the companion cell of the egg, the central cell...
January 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125975/embryonic-environment-and-transgenerational-effects-in-quail
#18
Sophie Leroux, David Gourichon, Christine Leterrier, Yann Labrune, Vincent Coustham, Sandrine Rivière, Tatiana Zerjal, Jean-Luc Coville, Mireille Morisson, Francis Minvielle, Frédérique Pitel
BACKGROUND: Environmental exposures, for instance to chemicals, are known to impact plant and animal phenotypes on the long term, sometimes across several generations. Such transgenerational phenotypes were shown to be promoted by epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation, an epigenetic mark involved in the regulation of gene expression. However, it is yet unknown whether transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of altered phenotypes exists in birds. The purpose of this study was to develop an avian model to investigate whether changes to the embryonic environment had a transgenerational effect that could alter the phenotypes of third-generation offspring...
January 26, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115992/sex-specific-chromatin-landscapes-in-an-ultra-compact-chordate-genome
#19
Pavla Navratilova, Gemma Barbara Danks, Abby Long, Stephen Butcher, John Robert Manak, Eric M Thompson
BACKGROUND: In multicellular organisms, epigenome dynamics are associated with transitions in the cell cycle, development, germline specification, gametogenesis and inheritance. Evolutionarily, regulatory space has increased in complex metazoans to accommodate these functions. In tunicates, the sister lineage to vertebrates, we examine epigenome adaptations to strong secondary genome compaction, sex chromosome evolution and cell cycle modes. RESULTS: Across the 70 MB Oikopleura dioica genome, we profiled 19 histone modifications, and RNA polymerase II, CTCF and p300 occupancies, to define chromatin states within two homogeneous tissues with distinct cell cycle modes: ovarian endocycling nurse nuclei and mitotically proliferating germ nuclei in testes...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115695/ecdysone-signaling-underlies-the-pea-aphid-transgenerational-wing-polyphenism
#20
Neetha Nanoth Vellichirammal, Purba Gupta, Tannice A Hall, Jennifer A Brisson
The wing polyphenism of pea aphids is a compelling laboratory model with which to study the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity. In this polyphenism, environmental stressors such as high aphid density cause asexual, viviparous adult female aphids to alter the developmental fate of their embryos from wingless to winged morphs. This polyphenism is transgenerational, in that the pea aphid mother experiences the environmental signals, but it is her offspring that are affected. Previous research suggested that the steroid hormone ecdysone may play a role in this polyphenism...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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