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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681207/effect-of-in-utero-and-lactational-exposure-of-triazophos-on-reproductive-system-functions-in-male-offsprings-rattus-norvegicus
#1
Reetu Bhanot, Gurinder Kaur Sangha
In the present study, Triazophos (TZ) was used at acceptable daily intake (ADI) to investigate the consequence of prenatal and postnatal exposure on reproductive functions in the male offsprings. Pregnant females were divided into three groups, the first group was orally gavaged with olive oil (control), the second group was administered with 0.01 mg kg-1 bw of the ADI of TZ from gestation day (GD) 1 until parturition (designated as P group) and the third group was gavaged with the same dose from GD1 to postnatal day (PND) 21 of lactation (marked as P + L group)...
April 23, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660500/occurrence-and-seasonal-variation-of-equine-estrogens-equilin-and-equilenin-in-the-river-water-of-japan-implication-with-endocrine-disrupting-potentials-to-japanese-medaka-oryzias-latipes
#2
Hiroshi Ishibashi, Masaya Uchida, Keisuke Yoshimoto, Yuta Imamura, Ryoko Yamamoto, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Masahito Kawai, Nobuhiro Ichikawa, Yuji Takao, Nobuaki Tominaga, Yasuhiro Ishibashi, Koji Arizono
In this study, we determined the concentration of equine estrogens, such as equilin (Eq) and equilenin (Eqn), in the river water collected from nine research stations in Hokkaido, Japan. The LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that Eq concentrations were 2.7 ± 6.7, 0.22 ± 0.12, and 1.2 ± 0.64 ng/L in Sep 2015, Feb 2016, and Jul 2016, respectively. Eqn had concentration levels similar to those of Eq. Comparison of the concentrations at nine research stations showed that seasonal variation was observed in the detected Eq and Eqn concentration levels...
April 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657963/hologenomics-systems-level-host-biology
#3
Kevin R Theis
The hologenome concept of evolution is a hypothesis explaining host evolution in the context of the host microbiomes. As a hypothesis, it needs to be evaluated, especially with respect to the extent of fidelity of transgenerational coassociation of host and microbial lineages and the relative fitness consequences of repeated associations within natural holobiont populations. Behavioral ecologists are in a prime position to test these predictions because they typically focus on animal phenotypes that are quantifiable, conduct studies over multiple generations within natural animal populations, and collect metadata on genetic relatedness and relative reproductive success within these populations...
March 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642631/prospects-of-understanding-the-molecular-biology-of-disease-resistance-in-rice
#4
REVIEW
Pankaj Kumar Singh, Akshay Nag, Preeti Arya, Ritu Kapoor, Akshay Singh, Rajdeep Jaswal, Tilak Raj Sharma
Rice is one of the important crops grown worldwide and is considered as an important crop for global food security. Rice is being affected by various fungal, bacterial and viral diseases resulting in huge yield losses every year. Deployment of resistance genes in various crops is one of the important methods of disease management. However, identification, cloning and characterization of disease resistance genes is a very tedious effort. To increase the life span of resistant cultivars, it is important to understand the molecular basis of plant host-pathogen interaction...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626604/transgenerational-effects-of-paternal-dietary-astragalus-polysaccharides-on-spleen-immunity-of-broilers
#5
Yulong Li, Xinyu Lei, Zhenchen Yin, Wei Guo, Shengru Wu, Xiaojun Yang
Our previous study indicated that paternal dietary Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) could induce endotoxin tolerance-like response in jejunum of offspring chickens. There exist positive interaction between intestinal mucosal immunity and systemic immunity. So we studied the transgenerational effect and nutri-epigenetic role of paternal dietary APS on spleen immunity. 64 one-day-old Avein breeder cocks were used in a single-factor design with 0 and 10 g/kg APS, respectively, 4 replicated cages each group, and 8 birds each cage...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622036/the-mosquito-adulticidal-chromobacterium-sp-panama-causes-transgenerational-impacts-on-fitness-parameters-and-elicits-xenobiotic-gene-responses
#6
Sarah M Short, Sarah van Tol, Brendan Smith, Yuemei Dong, George Dimopoulos
BACKGROUND: Vector control is critical in reducing the disease burden caused by mosquitoes, and insecticides are an effective tool to control vector populations. Resistance to common insecticides is now widespread, and novel classes of insecticides are needed. In previous work, we described the mosquitocidal activity of Chromobacterium sp. Panama (C.sp_P), a bacterium found in association with mosquitoes in natural populations. In the current work, we further explored the effects of exposure to the bacterium on mosquito fitness and mosquito physiology...
April 5, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617657/transgenerational-sterility-of-piwi-mutants-represents-a-dynamic-form-of-adult-reproductive-diapause
#7
Bree Heestand, Matt Simon, Stephen Frenk, Denis Titov, Shawn Ahmed
Environmental stress can induce adult reproductive diapause, a state of developmental arrest that temporarily suspends reproduction. Deficiency for C. elegans Piwi protein PRG-1 results in strains that reproduce for many generations but then become sterile. We found that sterile-generation prg-1/Piwi mutants typically displayed pronounced germ cell atrophy as L4 larvae matured into 1-day-old adults. Atrophied germlines spontaneously reproliferated across the first days of adulthood, and this was accompanied by fertility for day 2-4 adults...
April 3, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614954/bs-seeker3-ultrafast-pipeline-for-bisulfite-sequencing
#8
Kevin Yu Yuan Huang, Yan-Jiun Huang, Pao-Yang Chen
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification critical in regulation and transgenerational inheritance. The methylation level can be estimated at single-nucleotide resolution by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq; WGBS). Current bisulfite aligners provide pipelines for processing the reads by WGBS; however, few are able to analyze the BS-seqs in a reasonable timeframe that meets the needs of the rapid expansion of epigenome sequencing in biomedical research...
April 3, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613831/maternal-thyroid-hormones-an-unexplored-mechanism-underlying-maternal-effects-in-an-ecological-framework
#9
Suvi Ruuskanen, Bin-Yan Hsu
Maternal effects are currently acknowledged as important causes of transgenerational phenotypic variation and a potential mechanism to adapt offspring to predicted environments, thus having a pivotal role in ecology and evolution. Research in hormonal mechanism underlying maternal effects has focused heavily on steroid hormones. Other hormones, such as thyroid hormones (THs; thyroxine and triiodothyronine), have been largely ignored in ecological research until recently. We summarize the recent findings, identify knowledge gaps, and provide future research directions investigating the role of TH-mediated maternal effects in ecological context across taxa...
May 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610555/effect-of-prenatal-administration-of-low-dose-antibiotics-on-gut-microbiota-and-body-fat-composition-of-newborn-mice
#10
Ayumi Yoshimoto, Takashi Uebanso, Mutsumi Nakahashi, Takaaki Shimohata, Kazuaki Mawatari, Akira Takahashi
Several environmental factors during the prenatal period transgenerationally affect the health of newborns in later life. Because low-dose antibiotics have been used for promoting the growth of crops and livestock in agriculture, humans may have ingested residual antibiotics for several decades. However, the effect of prenatal administration of low-dose antibiotics on newborns' health in later life is unclear. In the present study, we found that prenatal treatment of murine mothers with low-dose antibiotics increased the abundance of bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes and the genera Clostridium IV and XIVa in feces from pups...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609831/birth-defects-in-children-of-men-exposed-in-utero-to-diethylstilbestrol-des
#11
Michel Tournaire, Emmanuel Devouche, Sylvie Epelboin, Anne Cabau, Annabel Dunbavand, Anne Levadou
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is associated with adverse effects, including genital anomalies and cancers in men and women. Animal studies showed birth defects and tumors in the offspring of mice prenatally exposed to DES. In humans, birth defects, such as hypospadias were observed in children of prenatally exposed women. The aim of this research was to assess the birth defects in children of prenatally exposed men. METHODS: In a retrospective study conceived by a patients' association (Réseau DES France), the reports of men prenatally exposed to DES on adverse health effects in their children were compared with those of unexposed controls and general population...
March 3, 2018: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609558/epigenetics-and-early-domestication-differences-in-hypothalamic-dna-methylation-between-red-junglefowl-divergently-selected-for-high-or-low-fear-of-humans
#12
Johan Bélteky, Beatrix Agnvall, Lejla Bektic, Andrey Höglund, Per Jensen, Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna
BACKGROUND: Domestication of animals leads to large phenotypic alterations within a short evolutionary time-period. Such alterations are caused by genomic variations, yet the prevalence of modified traits is higher than expected if they were caused only by classical genetics and mutations. Epigenetic mechanisms may also be important in driving domesticated phenotypes such as behavior traits. Gene expression can be modulated epigenetically by mechanisms such as DNA methylation, resulting in modifications that are not only variable and susceptible to environmental stimuli, but also sometimes transgenerationally stable...
April 2, 2018: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608128/prenatal-and-postnatal-mother-to-child-transmission-of-acculturation-s-health-effects-in-hispanic-americans
#13
Molly Fox, Zaneta M Thayer, Isabel F Ramos, Sarah J Meskal, Pathik D Wadhwa
BACKGROUND: Hispanic Americans consistently exhibit an intergenerational increase in the prevalence of many noncommunicable chronic physical and mental disorders. METHODS: We review and synthesize evidence suggesting that a constellation of prenatal and postnatal factors may play crucial roles in explaining this trend. We draw from relevant literature across several disciplines, including epidemiology, anthropology, psychology, medicine (obstetrics, neonatology), and developmental biology...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593303/epigenetic-transgenerational-inheritance-of-altered-sperm-histone-retention-sites
#14
Millissia Ben Maamar, Ingrid Sadler-Riggleman, Daniel Beck, Michael K Skinner
A variety of environmental toxicants and factors have been shown to induce the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation. Epigenetic alterations in the germline (sperm or egg) are required to transmit transgenerational phenotypes. The current study was designed to investigate the potential role of histones in sperm to help mediate the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance. The agricultural fungicide vinclozolin and the pesticide DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) were independently used to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease...
March 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576035/cortisol-cortisone-and-bdnf-in-amniotic-fluid-in-the-second-trimester-of-pregnancy-effect-of-early-life-and-current-maternal-stress-and-socioeconomic-status
#15
Michael Deuschle, Ferdinand Hendlmeier, Stephanie Witt, Marcella Rietschel, Maria Gilles, Alberto Sánchez-Guijo, Lourdes Fañanas, Sabine Hentze, Stefan A Wudy, Rainer Hellweg
The prenatal environment shapes the offspring's phenotype; moreover, transgenerational stress and stress during pregnancy may play a role. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glucocorticoids influence neurodevelopment during pregnancy, and there is evidence that BDNF in amniotic fluid is mainly of fetal origin, while the source of glucocorticoids is maternal. We tested the hypothesis that maternal early life stress, psychiatric diagnoses, anxiety, perceived stress, and socioeconomic status influence BDNF and glucocorticoid concentrations in amniotic fluid in the second trimester...
March 26, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573427/transgenerational-phenotype-aggravation-in-caf-1-mutants-reveals-parent-of-origin-specific-epigenetic-inheritance
#16
Iva Mozgova, Thomas Wildhaber, Minerva S Trejo-Arellano, Jiri Fajkus, Pawel Roszak, Claudia Köhler, Lars Hennig
Chromatin is assembled by histone chaperones such as chromatin assembly factor CAF-1. We had noticed that vigor of Arabidopsis thaliana CAF-1 mutants decreased over several generations. Because changes in mutant phenotype severity over generations are unusual, we asked how repeated selfing of Arabidopsis CAF-1 mutants affects phenotype severity. CAF-1 mutant plants of various generations were grown, and developmental phenotypes, transcriptomes and DNA cytosine-methylation profiles were compared quantitatively...
March 24, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570927/transgenerational-plasticity-in-silene-vulgaris-in-response-to-three-types-of-stress
#17
Tobias Michael Sandner, Julia Leonore van Braak, Diethart Matthies
The environment experienced by plants can influence the phenotype of their offspring. Such transgenerational plasticity can be adaptive when it results in higher fitness of the offspring under conditions correlated with those experienced by the mother plant. However, it has rarely been tested if such anticipatory parental effects may be induced by different environments. We grew clonal replicates of Silene vulgaris under control conditions and three types of stress (nutrient deficiency, copper addition, and drought) which are known from natural populations of the species...
March 23, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563267/population-cycles-generalities-exceptions-and-remaining-mysteries
#18
REVIEW
Judith H Myers
Population cycles are one of nature's great mysteries. For almost a hundred years, innumerable studies have probed the causes of cyclic dynamics in snowshoe hares, voles and lemmings, forest Lepidoptera and grouse. Even though cyclic species have very different life histories, similarities in mechanisms related to their dynamics are apparent. In addition to high reproductive rates and density-related mortality from predators, pathogens or parasitoids, other characteristics include transgenerational reduced reproduction and dispersal with increasing-peak densities, and genetic similarity among populations...
March 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562866/effects-of-gravity-microgravity-or-microgravity-simulation-on-early-mammalian-development
#19
Douglas Ruden, Alan Bolnick, Awoniyi Awonuga, Mohammed Abdulhasan, Gloria Perez, Elizabeth Ella Puscheck, Daniel A Rappolee
Plant and animal life forms evolved mechanisms for sensing and responding to gravity on Earth where homeo-static needs require responses. The lack of gravity, such as in the International Space Station (ISS), causes acute, intra-generational changes in the quality of life. These include maintaining calcium levels in bone, main-taining muscle tone, and disturbances in the vestibular apparatus in the ears. These problems decrease work efficiency and quality of life of humans not only during microgravity exposures but also after return to higher gravity on Earth or destinations such as Mars or the Moon...
March 21, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553058/japanese-legacy-cohorts-the-life-span-study-atomic-bomb-survivor-cohort-and-survivors-offspring
#20
Kotaro Ozasa, Eric J Grant, Kazunori Kodama
Cohorts of atomic bomb survivors-including those exposed in utero-and children conceived after parental exposure were established to investigate late health effects of atomic bomb radiation and its transgenerational effects by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in the 1950s. ABCC was reorganized to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in 1975, and all work has been continued at RERF. The Life Span Study, the cohort of survivors, consists of about 120,000 subjects and has been followed since 1950...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology
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