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Tam T Tran, Lizanne Janssens, Khuong V Dinh, Robby Stoks
While transgenerational plasticity may buffer ectotherms to warming and pesticides separately, it remains unknown how combined exposure to warming and pesticides in the parental generation shapes the vulnerability to these stressors in the offspring. We studied the transgenerational effects of single and combined exposure to warming (4°C increase) and the pesticide chlorpyrifos on life-history traits of the vector mosquito Culex pipiens . Parental exposure to a single stressor, either warming or the pesticide, had negative effects on the offspring: parental exposure to both warming and the pesticide resulted in an overall lower offspring survival, and a delayed offspring metamorphosis...
July 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Ruby Yu, Xiaoyi Wang, Danesh Moazed
Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) are associated with epigenetic states that form the basis for cell-type-specific gene expression1,2 . Once established, histone PTMs can be maintained by positive feedback involving enzymes that recognize a pre-existing histone modification and catalyse the same modification on newly deposited histones. Recent studies suggest that in wild-type cells, histone PTM-based positive feedback is too weak to mediate epigenetic inheritance in the absence of other inputs3-7 ...
June 20, 2018: Nature
Douglas L Chalker
RNAs have been attractive candidates to transmit epigenetic information over multiple generations. In Tetrahymena, a new study demonstrates that the selective degradation of small RNAs that occurs by interaction with the parental genome can communicate altered patterns of heterochromatin formation and DNA elimination in offspring.
June 18, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Olivia Roth, Anne Beemelmanns, Seth M Barribeau, Ben M Sadd
Parental experience with parasites and pathogens can lead to increased offspring resistance to infection, through a process known as transgenerational immune priming (TGIP). Broadly defined, TGIP occurs across a wide range of taxa, and can be viewed as a type of phenotypic plasticity, with hosts responding to the pressures of relevant local infection risk by altering their offspring's immune defenses. There are ever increasing examples of both invertebrate and vertebrate TGIP, which go beyond classical examples of maternal antibody transfer...
June 18, 2018: Heredity
Shuntaro Ando, Atsushi Nishida, Satoshi Usami, Shinsuke Koike, Syudo Yamasaki, Sho Kanata, Shinya Fujikawa, Toshiaki A Furukawa, Masato Fukuda, Susan M Sawyer, Mariko Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Kiyoto Kasai
BACKGROUND: Seeking help from others is an essential behavioural intention for humans to adapt to the social environment. Transgenerational and gender-related mechanisms of how this intention is shaped is an important but unresolved question in adolescent development. This study aimed to comprehensively examine the factors promoting or inhibiting intention to seek help for depression in 10-year-olds, including transgenerational factors, and to investigate the sex differences in the effect of these factors...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Sandra Bouwhuis, Simon Verhulst, Christina Bauch, Oscar Vedder
Evidence for transgenerational effects of senescence, whereby offspring from older parents have a reduced lifetime reproductive success, is increasing. Such effects could arise from compromised germline maintenance in old parents, potentially reflected in reduced telomere length in their offspring. We test the relationship between parental age and offspring early-life telomere length in a natural population of common terns and find a significant negative correlation between paternal age and offspring telomere length...
June 2018: Biology Letters
Melissa T Manners, Nicole L Yohn, Nicholas F Lahens, Gregory R Grant, Marisa S Bartolomei, Julie A Blendy
Adolescent stress can impact health and well-being not only during adulthood of the exposed individual but even in future generations. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying these long-term effects, we exposed adolescent males to stress and measured anxiety behaviors and gene expression in the amygdala - a critical region in the control of emotional states - in their progeny for two generations, offspring and grandoffspring. Male C57BL/6 mice underwent chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) for two-weeks during adolescence and were used to produce two generations of offspring...
June 13, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Paulina López, Andrea Castro, Martha Flórez, Karen Miranda, Pilar Aranda, Cristina Sánchez-González, Juan Llopis, Miguel Arredondo
Obesity is characterized by mild chronic inflammation that is linked with impaired iron homeostasis. Studies in human and murine show that there is a transgenerational epigenetic inheritance via the gametes in obesity; however, there is little information on changes in the expression of microRNAs related to inflammation and iron homeostasis in spermatozoa from obese subjects. The present study investigated the expression of microRNAs related to inflammation (miR-21 y miR-155) and iron nutrition (miR-122 and miR-200b) in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and spermatozoa from normozoospermic controls (Cn; n = 17; BMI: 24...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Katherine C Crocker, Mark D Hunter
An animal's phenotype may be shaped by its genes, but also reflects its own environment and often that of its parents. Nongenetic parental effects are often mediated by steroid hormones, and operate between parents and offspring through mechanisms that are well described in vertebrate and model systems. However, less is understood about the strength and frequency of hormone mediated nongenetic parental effects across more than one generation of descendants, and in nonmodel systems. Here we show that the concentration of active ecdysteroid hormones provided by a female house cricket (Acheta domesticus) affects the growth rate of her offspring...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Tomoko Noto, Kazufumi Mochizuki
Epigenetic inheritance of acquired traits is widespread among eukaryotes, but how and to what extent such information is transgenerationally inherited is still unclear. The patterns of programmed DNA elimination in ciliates are epigenetically and transgenerationally inherited, and it has been proposed that small RNAs, which shuttle between the germline and the soma, regulate this epigenetic inheritance. In this study, we test the existence and role of such small-RNA-mediated communication by epigenetically disturbing the pattern of DNA elimination in Tetrahymena...
May 25, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Shayna D Hibbs, Kristin M Rankin, Carla DeSisto, James W Collins
Few studies have examined contributions of paternal factors to birth outcomes. Weathering is a pattern of increasing rates of adverse birth outcome with increasing maternal age. This study evaluates for an association between paternal involvement and weathering in the context of preterm birth (PTB, <37 weeks) among non-Hispanic African-American and non-Hispanic White women with and without lifelong exposure to neighborhood poverty. Using the Illinois transgenerational dataset with appended US census income information of infants (1989-1991) and their mothers (1956-1976), we compared infants of women by degree of paternal involvement: married, unmarried with father named on birth certificate, and unnamed father...
May 30, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
J T Paiva, M D V de Resende, R T Resende, H R de Oliveira, H T Silva, G C Caetano, P S Lopes, F F Silva
We aimed to estimate transgenerational epigenetic variance for body weight using genealogical and phenotypic information in meat quails. Animals were individually weighted from 1 week after hatching, with weight records at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age (BW7, BW14, BW21, BW28, BW35 and BW42, respectively). Single-trait genetic analyses were performed using mixed models with random epigenetic effects. Variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method. A grid search for values of autorecursive parameter (λ) ranging from 0 to 0...
June 2018: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
Mathieu Giraudeau, Ann-Kathrin Ziegler, Kevin J Mcgraw, Monika Okuliarová, Michal Zeman, Barbara Tschirren
Mothers can influence prenatal conditions by varying the amount of nutrients, hormones or antioxidants they provide to their developing young. Some of these substances even affect the transfer of these compounds in the next generation, but it is less clear how different maternally transmitted compounds interact with each other to shape reproductive resource allocation in their offspring. Here, we found that female Japanese quails ( Coturnix japonica ) that were exposed to high carotenoid levels during embryonic development transferred lower concentrations of yolk antioxidants to their own eggs later in life...
June 2018: Biology Letters
Alexandre Champroux, Julie Cocquet, Joëlle Henry-Berger, Joël R Drevet, Ayhan Kocer
The past decade has seen a tremendous increase in interest and progress in the field of sperm epigenetics. Studies have shown that chromatin regulation during male germline development is multiple and complex, and that the spermatozoon possesses a unique epigenome. Its DNA methylation profile, DNA-associated proteins, nucleo-protamine distribution pattern and non-coding RNA set up a unique epigenetic landscape which is delivered, along with its haploid genome, to the oocyte upon fertilization, and therefore can contribute to embryogenesis and to the offspring health...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Jessica F Briffa, Mary E Wlodek, Karen M Moritz
Exposure to a sub-optimal environment in the womb can result in poor fetal growth and impair the normal development of organs. The kidney, specifically the process of nephrogenesis, has been shown to be impacted by many common pregnancy exposures including an inadequate diet, poor placental function, maternal stress as well as maternal smoking and alcohol consumption. This can result in offspring being born with a reduced nephron endowment, which places these individuals at increased risk of hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
May 31, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Umberto Simeoni, Jean-Baptiste Armengaud, Benazir Siddeek, Jean-François Tolsa
Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that the peri-conception period, pregnancy, and infancy are windows of particular sensibility to environmental clues which influence lifelong trajectories across health and disease. Nutrition, stress, and toxins induce epigenetic marks that control long-term gene expression patterns and can be transmitted transgenerationally. Chronic diseases of adulthood such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity thus have early, developmental origins in the perinatal period...
2018: Neonatology
M H Stiasny, F H Mittermayer, G Göttler, C R Bridges, I-B Falk-Petersen, V Puvanendran, A Mortensen, T B H Reusch, C Clemmesen
Ocean acidification (OA), the dissolution of excess anthropogenic carbon dioxide in ocean waters, is a potential stressor to many marine fish species. Whether species have the potential to acclimate and adapt to changes in the seawater carbonate chemistry is still largely unanswered. Simulation experiments across several generations are challenging for large commercially exploited species because of their long generation times. For Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), we present first data on the effects of parental acclimation to elevated aquatic CO2 on larval survival, a fundamental parameter determining population recruitment...
May 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sergei Y Funikov, Dina A Kulikova, George S Krasnov, Alexander P Rezvykh, Lubov N Chuvakova, Natalia G Shostak, Elena S Zelentsova, Justin P Blumenstiel, Michael B Evgen'ev
Syndromes of hybrid dysgenesis (HD) have been critical for our understanding of the transgenerational maintenance of genome stability by piRNA. HD in D. virilis represents a special case of HD since it includes simultaneous mobilization of a set of TEs that belong to different classes. The standard explanation for HD is that eggs of the responder strains lack an abundant pool of piRNAs corresponding to the asymmetric TE families transmitted solely by sperm. However, there are several strains of D. virilis that lack asymmetric TEs, but exhibit a "neutral" cytotype that confers resistance to HD...
May 29, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Susanne R K Zajitschek, Damian K Dowling, Megan L Head, Eduardo Rodriguez-Exposito, Francisco Garcia-Gonzalez
Mating often bears large costs to females, especially in species with high levels of sexual conflict over mating rates. Given the direct costs to females associated with multiple mating, which include reductions in lifespan and lifetime reproductive success, past research focused on identifying potential indirect benefits (through increases in offspring fitness) that females may accrue. Far less attention has, however, been devoted to understanding how costs of sexual interactions to females may extend across generations...
May 25, 2018: Heredity
Jun Ren, Yi Cheng, Zhen-Hua Ming, Xin-Yan Dong, Yu-Zhong Zhou, Guo-Lian Ding, Hai-Yan Pang, Tanzil Ur Rahman, Rubab Akbar, He-Feng Huang, Jian-Zhong Sheng
BACKGROUND: The existing reports about intergenerational or transgenerational effects of intrauterine hyperglycemia have included both intrauterine and postnatal metabolic exposure factors, while the impact of intrauterine hyperglycemia per se has not been assessed alone. A number of studies suggest DNA methylation reprogramming of gametes plays a crucial role in the metabolic inheritance, but it is unclear when and how DNA methylation patterns are altered when exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia...
May 25, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
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