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Ambika Vishnu Kadammattil, Shyama Prasad Sajankila, Suma Prabhu, Bhuvanagiri Nageshwar Rao, Bola Sadashiva Satish Rao
Acceleration in development of metallic nanoparticles for their utility in medical and technological applications due to their unique physicochemical properties has concurrently raised a matter of concern due to their potential toxicity. Of the enormous metallic nanostructures, copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) having optical and electrochemical properties are scrutinized for theranostic applications. Therefore, their safety profile is of a major concern in optimizing a safe dose for its clinical utility...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Gabriel R Fries, Joao Quevedo
This chapter will discuss the potential use of microRNAs, particularly those located in peripherally-isolated exosomes, as biomarkers in neuropsychiatric disorders. These extracellular vesicles are released as a form of cell-to-cell communication and may mediate the soma-to-germline transmission of brain-relevant information, thereby potentially contributing to the inter- or transgenerational transmission of behavioral traits. Recent novel methods allow for the enrichment of peripheral exosomes specifically released by neurons and astrocytes and may provide valuable brain-relevant biosignatures of disease...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Emilie Demoinet, Richard Roy
Acute starvation can have long-term consequences that are mediated through epigenetic change. Some of these changes are affected by the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a master regulator of cellular energy homeostasis. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the absence of AMPK during a period of starvation in an early larval stage results in developmental defects following their recovery on food, while many of them become sterile. Moreover, the loss of AMPK during this quiescent period results in transgenerational phenotypes that can become progressively worse with each successive generation...
February 12, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Liqiang Zhao, Feng Yang, Stefania Milano, Tiankun Han, Eric O Walliser, Bernd R Schöne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lucette Flandroy, Theofilos Poutahidis, Gabriele Berg, Gerard Clarke, Maria-Carlota Dao, Ellen Decaestecker, Eeva Furman, Tari Haahtela, Sébastien Massart, Hubert Plovier, Yolanda Sanz, Graham Rook
Plants, animals and humans, are colonized by microorganisms (microbiota) and transiently exposed to countless others. The microbiota affects the development and function of essentially all organ systems, and contributes to adaptation and evolution, while protecting against pathogenic microorganisms and toxins. Genetics and lifestyle factors, including diet, antibiotics and other drugs, and exposure to the natural environment, affect the composition of the microbiota, which influences host health through modulation of interrelated physiological systems...
February 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Laura Gauer Bermudez, Lauren Parks, Sarah R Meyer, Liberata Muhorakeye, Lindsay Stark
Refugee adolescents face increased vulnerability to child protection risks including abuse, neglect, violence, and exploitation. The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the nature of violence against adolescents in Kiziba Camp, Rwanda, using an ecological framework to analyze the factors that influence protection risks and abuse disclosure across multiple system levels. In order to understand these issues more comprehensively, a transgenerational inquiry sought perceptions from both adolescents and their caregivers...
January 26, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Jack Hearn, Franklin Wang-Ngai Chow, Harriet Barton, Matthew Tung, Phil Wilson, Mark Blaxter, Amy Buck, Tom J Little
Maternal effects, where the performance of offspring is determined by the condition of their mother, are widespread and may in some cases be adaptive. The crustacean Daphnia magna shows strong maternal effects: offspring size at birth and other proxies for fitness are altered when their mothers are older or when mothers have experienced dietary restriction. The mechanisms for this transgenerational transmission of maternal experience are unknown, but could include changes in epigenetic patterning. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of gene expression that have been shown to play roles in intergenerational information transfer, and here we test whether miRNAs are involved in D...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Ying Fan, Chong Tian, Qilin Liu, Xianyue Zhen, Hui Zhang, Liangneng Zhou, Taibiao Li, Yun Zhang, Shibin Ding, Dongliang He, Xin Jin, Jian Liu, Beibei Zhang, Nannan Wu, Anne Manyande, Maoshu Zhu
Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental endocrine-disrupting compound, has drawn a great attention for its adverse effect on behavioral development. Maternal exposure to this compound has been reported to induce anxiety and depression in offspring, but the effect of its paternal exposure is rarely discussed. This study investigated whether preconception paternal BPA exposure can affect the emotions of male rats and their offspring. Eighteen adult male rats (F0) received either a vehicle or 50 μg/kg/day BPA diet for 21 weeks and were then mated with non-exposed females to produce offspring (F1)...
2018: PloS One
Juliet M Wong, Kevin M Johnson, Morgan W Kelly, Gretchen E Hofmann
Understanding the mechanisms with which organisms can respond to a rapidly changing ocean is an important research priority in marine sciences, especially in light of recent predictions regarding the pace of ocean change in the coming decades. Transgenerational effects, in which the experience of the parental generation can shape the phenotype of their offspring, may serve as such a mechanism. In this study, adult purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, were conditioned to regionally and ecologically relevant pCO2 levels and temperatures representative of upwelling (low temperature, high pCO2 ) and non-upwelling (average temperature, low pCO2 ) conditions typical of coastal upwelling regions in the California Current System...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Xiaocui Dong, Lemeng Zhang, Meng Chen, Zhibin Yang, Zhenghong Zuo, Chonggang Wang
Difenoconazole (DFZ) is a triazole fungicide which has been detected in the aquatic environment, including estuaries and embayments. However, few studies addressing the reproductive toxicity and transgenerational effects of DFZ on marine fishes are available. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of DFZ on male marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma). After exposure of the embryo to 1, 10, 100 and 1000ng/L DFZ for 180days, the gonadosomatic index was significantly decreased in the 1000ng/L treatment...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Kiyotaka Kawai, Tatsuya Harada, Tomonori Ishikawa, Rikikazu Sugiyama, Toshihiro Kawamura, Atsumi Yoshida, Osamu Tsutsumi, Fumitoshi Ishino, Toshiro Kubota, Takashi Kohda
The epigenetic status of the genome changes dynamically from fertilization to implantation. In addition, the physiological environment during the process of gametogenesis, including parental age, may affect the epigenome of the embryo after fertilization. It is important to clarify the influence of parental age on gene expression in the embryo in terms of transgenerational epigenetics to improve the techniques currently used in assisted reproductive medicine. Here, we performed single-embryo RNA-seq analysis on human blastocysts fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection, including from relatively elderly mothers, to elucidate the effects of parental age on the embryonic gene expression profile...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ryan J Gleason, Amit Anand, Toshie Kai, Xin Chen
Gametogenesis represents the most dramatic cellular differentiation pathways in both female and male flies. At the genome level, meiosis ensures that diploid germ cells become haploid gametes. At the epigenome level, extensive changes are required to turn on and shut off gene expression in a precise spatiotemporally controlled manner. Research applying conventional molecular genetics and cell biology, in combination with rapidly advancing genomic tools have helped us to investigate (1) how germ cells maintain lineage specificity throughout their adult reproductive lifetime; (2) what molecular mechanisms ensure proper oogenesis and spermatogenesis, as well as protect genome integrity of the germline; (3) how signaling pathways contribute to germline-soma communication; and (4) if such communication is important...
February 2018: Genetics
Feng Lv, Yang Wan, Yunxi Chen, Linguo Pei, Daji Luo, Guanlan Fan, Mengcheng Luo, Dan Xu, Hui Wang
Prenatal dexamethasone exposure (PDE) induces multi-organ developmental toxicities in offspring. Here we verified the transgenerational inheritance effect of ovarian developmental toxicity by PDE and explored its intrauterine programming mechanism. Pregnant rats subcutaneously received 0.2 mg/kg·d dexamethasone from gestational day (GD) 9 to GD20. A subgroup was sacrificed for fetuses on GD20, and the other group went on to spontaneous labor to produce F1 offspring. The adult F1 females were mated with normal males to produce the F2 and F3 generations...
January 23, 2018: Endocrinology
B B Castro, A R Freches, M Rodrigues, B Nunes, S C Antunes
The assessment of transgenerational effects should be incorporated in standard chronic toxicity protocols for the sake of a realistic extrapolation of contaminant effects to the population level. We propose a simple add-on to the standard 21-day chronic Daphnia magna assay, allowing the assessment of the reproductive performance of the offspring (F1 generation) born from the first clutch of the parental (F0) generation. The extended generational assay was performed simultaneously with the standard reproduction assay...
January 24, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Xiaowan Gou, Yao Bian, Ai Zhang, Huakun Zhang, Bin Wang, Ruili Lv, Juzuo Li, Bo Zhu, Lei Gong, Bao Liu
Whereas a distinct karyotype with defined chromosome number and structure characterizes each biological species, it is intrinsically labile. Polyploidy or whole genome duplication (WGD) has played a pervasive and ongoing role in the evolution of all eukaryotes, and is the most dramatic force known to cause rapid karyotypic reconfiguration, especially at the initial stage. However, issues concerning transgenerational propagation of karyotypic heterogeneity and its translation to phenotypic diversity in nascent allopolyploidy, at the population level, have yet to be studied in detail...
January 22, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Katie Bidne, Mackenzie Dickson, Jason W Ross, Lance Baumgard, Aileen Keating
Endotoxemia can be caused by obesity, environmental chemical exposure, abiotic stressors, and bacterial infection. Circumstances that deleteriously impact intestinal barrier integrity can induce endotoxemia and controlled experiments have identified negative impacts of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; an endotoxin mimetic) on folliculogenesis, puberty onset, estrus behavior, ovulation, meiotic competence, luteal function and ovarian steroidogenesis. In addition, neonatal LPS exposures have transgenerational female reproductive impacts, raising concern about early life contacts to this endogenous reproductive toxicant...
January 23, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Ute Schaefer-Graf, Angela Napoli, Christopher J Nolan
Every 10 years, the Diabetic Pregnancy Study Group, a study group of the EASD, conducts an audit meeting to review the achievements of the preceding decade and to set the directions for research and clinical practice improvements for the next decade. The most recent meeting focused on the following areas: improving pregnancy outcomes for women with pregestational type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes; the influence of obesity and gestational diabetes on pregnancy outcomes; the determinants and assessment of fetal growth and development; and public health issues, including consideration of transgenerational consequences and economic burden...
January 22, 2018: Diabetologia
Yulong Li, Xinyu Lei, Wei Guo, Shengru Wu, Yulan Duan, Xin Yang, Xiaojun Yang
To learn the nutri-epigenetics role of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS), we designed and studied the transgenerational effect of paternal dietary APS supplementation in chickens. 160 Avein breeder cocks were randomly allocated into 5 groups and fed with 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 g/kg APS supplement, respectively. Sperm of breeder cocks was collected and used for hatching experiment to get broiler chickens when the cocks at 40-weeks-old. It showed that the paternal dietary 10 g/kg APS could transgenerational promote growth performance and jejunal tissue morphology of chickens...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Chong Zhao, Lisheng Zhang, Dongtao Shi, Jingyun Ding, Donghong Yin, Jiangnan Sun, Baojing Zhang, Lingling Zhang, Yaqing Chang
Transgenerational effects, which involve both selection and plasticity, are important for the evolutionary adaptation of echinoderms in the changing ocean. Here, we investigated the effects of breeding design and water temperature for offspring on fertilization, hatchability, larval survival, size, abnormality and metamorphosis of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius, whose dams and sires were exposed to long-term (~15 months) elevated temperature (~3°C above ambient) or ambient temperature. There was no transgenerational effect on fertilization and metamorphosis of S...
January 17, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Cilia Mejia-Lancheros, John Mehegan, Ricardo Segurado, Celine Murrin, Cecily Kelleher
Exposure to deprived socioeconomic conditions during the peri-conception and early childhood periods can have a negative long-term impact on individuals' health and that of their progeny. We aimed to examine whether relatives' birth period affected index-child (grand-child) birthweight status in the Lifeways Cross-Generation Cohort in the Republic of Ireland. Participants were 943 mothers and offspring, 890 fathers, 938 maternal grandmothers (MGM), 700 maternal grandfathers (MGF) 537 paternal grandmothers (PGM) and 553 paternal grandfathers (PGF)...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
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