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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101726/development-of-timolol-loaded-galactosylated-chitosan-nanoparticles-and-evaluation-of-their-potential-for-ocular-drug-delivery
#1
Ruobing Zhao, Jing Li, Jingyi Wang, Zhenya Yin, Yongtao Zhu, Wei Liu
This study was conducted to develop timolol maleate (TM)-loaded galactosylated chitosan (GC) nanoparticles (NPs) (TM-GC-NPs) followed by optimization via a four-level and three-factor Box-Behnken statistical experimental design. The optimized nanoparticles showed a particle size of 213.3 ± 6.83 nm with entrapment efficiency of 38.58 ± 1.31% and drug loading of 17.72 ± 0.28%. The NPs were characterized with respect to zeta potential, pH, surface morphology, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)...
January 18, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101654/cell-viability-and-shock-wave-amplitudes-in-the-endothelium-of-porcine-cornea-exposed-to-ultrashort-laser-pulses
#2
Syed Asad Hussain, Carles Milián, Caroline Crotti, Laura Kowalczuk, Fatima Alahyane, Zacaria Essaïdi, Arnaud Couairon, Marie-Claire Schanne-Klein, Karsten Plamann
PURPOSE: Some forms of keratoplasty assisted by ultrashort-pulse lasers require performing laser cuts close to the endothelium, which requires the knowledge of "safe" values concerning incision depth and pulse energy preserving endothelial cell viability. Our study aims to determine the thresholds for cell death in porcine corneas exposed to ultrashort laser pulses, in terms of laser pulse energy and nearness of the impacts to the endothelium. METHODS: Using a laboratory laser set-up, lamellar cuts were induced while varying pulse energies and distances from the endothelium...
January 18, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101431/non-invasive-terahertz-imaging-of-tissue-water-content-for-flap-viability-assessment
#3
Neha Bajwa, Joshua Au, Reza Jarrahy, Shijun Sung, Michael C Fishbein, David Riopelle, Daniel B Ennis, Tara Aghaloo, Maie A St John, Warren S Grundfest, Zachary D Taylor
Accurate and early prediction of tissue viability is the most significant determinant of tissue flap survival in reconstructive surgery. Perturbation in tissue water content (TWC) is a generic component of the tissue response to such surgeries, and, therefore, may be an important diagnostic target for assessing the extent of flap viability in vivo. We have previously shown that reflective terahertz (THz) imaging, a non-ionizing technique, can generate spatially resolved maps of TWC in superficial soft tissues, such as cornea and wounds, on the order of minutes...
January 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101423/assessing-the-effects-of-riboflavin-uv-a-crosslinking-on-porcine-corneal-mechanical-anisotropy-with-optical-coherence-elastography
#4
Manmohan Singh, Jiasong Li, Zhaolong Han, Raksha Raghunathan, Achuth Nair, Chen Wu, Chih-Hao Liu, Salavat Aglyamov, Michael D Twa, Kirill V Larin
In this work we utilize optical coherence elastography (OCE) to assess the effects of UV-A/riboflavin corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) on the mechanical anisotropy of in situ porcine corneas at various intraocular pressures (IOP). There was a distinct meridian of increased Young's modulus in all samples, and the mechanical anisotropy increased as a function of IOP and also after CXL. The presented noncontact OCE technique was able to quantify the Young's modulus and elastic anisotropy of the cornea and their changes as a function of IOP and CXL, opening new avenues of research for evaluating the effects of CXL on corneal biomechanical properties...
January 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101421/structural-and-functional-human-retinal-imaging-with-a-fiber-based-visible-light-oct-ophthalmoscope
#5
Shau Poh Chong, Marcel Bernucci, Harsha Radhakrishnan, Vivek J Srinivasan
The design of a multi-functional fiber-based Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) system for human retinal imaging with < 2 micron axial resolution in tissue is described. A detailed noise characterization of two supercontinuum light sources with different pulse repetition rates is presented. The higher repetition rate and lower noise source is found to enable a sensitivity of 96 dB with 0.15 mW light power at the cornea and a 98 microsecond exposure time. Using a broadband (560 ± 50 nm), 90/10, fused single-mode fiber coupler designed for visible wavelengths, the sample arm is integrated into an ophthalmoscope platform, similar to current clinical OCT systems...
January 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100624/azacytidine-treatment-inhibits-the-progression-of-herpes-stromal-keratitis-by-enhancing-regulatory-t-cell-function
#6
Siva Karthik Varanasi, Pradeep B J Reddy, Siddheshvar Bhela, Ujjaldeep Jaggi, Fernanda Gimenez, Barry T Rouse
: Ocular infection with Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) sets off an inflammatory reaction in the cornea which leads to both virus clearance as well as chronic lesions that are orchestrated by CD4 T cells. Approaches that enhance the function of regulatory T cells (Treg) and dampen effector T cells can be effective to limit Stromal Keratitis (SK) lesion severity. In this report, we have explored the novel approach of inhibiting DNA methyltransferase activity using 5-Azacytidine (cytosine analog) to limit HSV-1 induced ocular lesions...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099942/bigh3-silencing-increases-retinoblastoma-tumor-growth-in-the-murine-sv40-tag-rb-model
#7
Nathalie Allaman-Pillet, Anne Oberson, Daniel F Schorderet
BIGH3, a secreted protein of the extracellular matrix interacts with collagen and integrins on the cell surface. BIGH3 can have opposing functions in cancer, acting either as tumor suppressor or promoter by enhancing tumor progression and angiogenesis. In the eye, BIGH3 is expressed in the cornea and the retinal pigment epithelium and could impact on the development of retinoblastoma, the most common paediatric intraocular neoplasm. Retinoblastoma initiation requires the inactivation of both alleles of the RB1 tumor suppressor gene in the developing retina and tumor progression involves additional genomic changes...
January 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099503/3d-functional-corneal-stromal-tissue-equivalent-based-on-corneal-stromal-stem-cells-and-multi-layered-silk-film-architecture
#8
Chiara E Ghezzi, Benedetto Marelli, Fiorenzo G Omenetto, James L Funderburgh, David L Kaplan
The worldwide need for human cornea equivalents continues to grow. Few clinical options are limited to allogenic and synthetic material replacements. We hypothesized that tissue engineered human cornea systems based on mechanically robust, patterned, porous, thin, optically clear silk protein films, in combination with human corneal stromal stem cells (hCSSCs), would generate 3D functional corneal stroma tissue equivalents, in comparison to previously developed 2D approaches. Silk film contact guidance was used to control the alignment and distribution of hCSSCs on RGD-treated single porous silk films, which were then stacked in an orthogonally, multi-layered architecture and cultured for 9 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097917/repeatability-of-whole-cornea-measurements-using-an-anterior-segment-imaging-device-based-on-oct-and-placido-disk
#9
Noelia Martínez-Albert, José J Esteve-Taboada, Robert Montés-Micó
AIM: To evaluate the repeatability of topographic measurements using an integrated Placido disk - OCT device. METHODS: Thirty right eyes of thirty healthy subjects aged between 20 and 30 years were included. The topographic parameters of simulated keratometry, asphericity, minimum pachymetry, white-to-white distance, spherical aberration and corneal elevation were studied. Three measurements were taken by the same observer using the Visante omni device. The coefficient of repeatability (CoR), coefficient of variation (CoV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated to assess the repeatability...
January 18, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096651/effects-of-3-diquafosol-sodium-ophthalmic-solution-on-higher-order-aberrations-in-patients-diagnosed-with-dry-eye-after-cataract-surgery
#10
Yasushi Inoue, Shintarou Ochi
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of diquafosol sodium ophthalmic solution 3% (DQS) and artificial tears (AT) on higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in patients with dry eye after cataract surgery. DESIGN: This was a post hoc analysis of a previously conducted randomized clinical study. METHODS: Fifty-nine eyes from 42 patients (17 males and 25 females, aged 72.6±8.0 years) with verified or suspected dry eye at 4 weeks after cataract surgery were evaluated...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096609/studies-on-alterations-of-clinical-and-hemato-biochemical-parameters-before-and-after-treatment-in-calves-naturally-infected-with-theileriosis
#11
J P Kachhawa, Surender Kumar, Ankita Sharma, A P Singh, Anil Ahuja
AIM: The aim was to determine hemato-biochemical alterations and to determine the better treatment of theileriosis in naturally infected calves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 74 Holstein crossbred calves below 6 months of age, of either sex were included for present investigation in Bikaner. Based on the clinical examinations and laboratory results, 20 calves included for hemato-biochemical studies (before and after treatment) and divided into two groups (having 10 calves each)...
December 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095867/effects-of-ablation-depth-and-repair-time-on-the-corneal-elastic-modulus-after-laser-in-situ-keratomileusis
#12
Xiaojun Wang, Xiaona Li, Weiyi Chen, Rui He, Zhipeng Gao, Pengfei Feng
BACKGROUND: The biomechanical properties of the cornea should be taken into account in the refractive procedure in order to perform refractive surgery more accurately. The effects of the ablation depth and repair time on the elastic modulus of the rabbit cornea after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) are still unclear. METHODS: In this study, LASIK was performed on New Zealand rabbits with different ablation depth (only typical LASIK flaps were created; residual stroma bed was 50 or 30% of the whole cornea thickness respectively)...
January 17, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095300/knockdown-of-cxcl14-disrupts-neurovascular-patterning-during-ocular-development
#13
Ana F Ojeda, Ravi P Munjaal, Peter Y Lwigale
The C-X-C motif ligand 14 (CXCL14) is a recently discovered chemokine that is highly conserved in vertebrates and expressed in various embryonic and adult tissues. CXCL14 signaling has been implicated to function as an antiangiogenic and anticancer agent in adults. However, its function during development is unknown. We previously identified novel expression of CXCL14 mRNA in various ocular tissues during development. Here, we show that CXCL14 protein is expressed in the anterior eye at a critical time during neurovascular development and in the retina during neurogenesis...
January 14, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094315/the-usefulness-of-corvisst-tonometry-and-the-ocular-response-analyzer-to-assess-the-progression-of-glaucoma
#14
Masato Matsuura, Kazunori Hirasawa, Hiroshi Murata, Shunsuke Nakakura, Yoshiaki Kiuchi, Ryo Asaoka
Corneal Visualization Scheimpflug Technology (CST) and Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) measurements were carried out in 105 eyes of 69 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. All patients had axial length (AL), central corneal thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP) with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and eight visual fields (VF)s with the Humphrey Field Analyzer. VF progression was summarized using a time trend analysis of mean total deviation (mTD) and the association between mTD progression rate and a number of ocular parameters (including CST and ORA measurements) was assessed using mixed linear regression analysis...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092777/controlling-the-3d-architecture-of-self-lifting-auto-generated-tissue-equivalents-slates-for-optimized-corneal-graft-composition-and-stability
#15
Ricardo M Gouveia, Elena González-Andrades, Juan C Cardona, Carmen González-Gallardo, Ana M Ionescu, Ingrid Garzon, Miguel Alaminos, Miguel González-Andrades, Che J Connon
Ideally, biomaterials designed to play specific physical and physiological roles in vivo should comprise components and microarchitectures analogous to those of the native tissues they intend to replace. For that, implantable biomaterials need to be carefully designed to have the correct structural and compositional properties, which consequently impart their bio-function. In this study, we showed that the control of such properties can be defined from the bottom-up, using smart surface templates to modulate the structure, composition, and bio-mechanics of human transplantable tissues...
December 23, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092397/update-on-orthokeratology-in-managing-progressive-myopia-in-children-efficacy-mechanisms-and-concerns
#16
Xintong Li, Ilana B Friedman, Norman B Medow, Cheng Zhang
Myopia is an important public health issue, and high myopia may lead to severe complications if left untreated. Orthokeratology lenses, worn overnight to reshape the cornea, are one of many recent modalities used to slow down the progression of myopia in children. This treatment has been proven successful, as evidenced by decreased spherical refractive error and axial length relative to the control at interval follow-up ranging from 6 months to 5 years. In this systematic review, the authors collected published controlled studies that analyzed the efficacy of orthokeratology lens wear and calculated longitudinal relative changes in axial length, revealing a weighted average of -45...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089285/thick-keratoconic-cornea-associated-with-posterior-polymorphous-corneal-dystrophy
#17
K Zaarour, E Slim, J Antoun, N Waked
INTRODUCTION: We herein report a case of bilateral unusually thick non-edematous keratoconic corneas with associated endothelial features of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD). CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 27-year-old myopic woman who presented for refractive surgery. Slit lamp exam showed bilateral corneal protrusion with diffuse deep stromal and endothelial vesicular opacities and small paracentral bands. Topography showed generalized advanced corneal steepening in both eyes with increased anterior and posterior central corneal elevations in comparison to the best fit sphere...
January 12, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088933/new-classification-of-ocular-foreign-bodies
#18
Bhartendu Shukla
Foreign bodies (FBs) in the eye are usually classified as intraocular (IOFB) or extraocular (EOFB). In IOFB the FB is within the eye ball and in EOFB it is outside. This classification seems oversimplified. Hence a new classification is proposed on the basis of FB locations, in which adnexal FBs (in orbit, lids, con- junctiva and lacrimal apparatus) are also included. These are further classified according to their exact location. FBs can also be classified in many other ways. Besides IOFB and EOFB, another condition IMFB (intramural foreign body) is also described...
December 1, 2016: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081172/influence-of-corneal-opacity-on-intraocular-pressure-assessment-in-patients-with-lysosomal-storage-diseases
#19
Joanna Wasielica-Poslednik, Giuseppe Politino, Irene Schmidtmann, Katrin Lorenz, Katharina Bell, Norbert Pfeiffer, Susanne Pitz
AIMS: To investigate an influence of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS)- and Morbus Fabry-associated corneal opacities on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements and to evaluate the concordance of the different tonometry methods. METHODS: 25 MPS patients with or without corneal clouding, 25 Fabry patients with cornea verticillata ≥ grade 2 and 25 healthy age matched controls were prospectively included into this study. Outcome measures: Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT); palpatory assessment of IOP; Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg), corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc), corneal resistance factor (CRF) and corneal hysteresis (CH) assessed by Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA); central corneal thickness (CCT) and density assessed with Pentacam...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079689/scanning-electron-microscope-analysis-of-stromal-surface-regularity-in-dsaek-using-manual-or-automated-microkeratomes-or-dmek
#20
Alberto Villarrubia, Enrique García, Antonio Cano-Ortiz, Alberto Membrillo, Antoni Sabala, Javier Celis, Antoni Salvador, Jorge Solana, Alexandra Arango, Irene Sassot
PURPOSE: To analyze differences in the stromal bed according to the method used to obtain the disc for endothelial transplant with 1) an automated microkeratome for Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK), 2) homogeneous dissection of Descemet membrane (Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty [DMEK]), or 3) a manual microkeratome used for DSAEK. METHODS: We analyzed the stromal bed of 25 consecutive corneas used for endothelial transplantation, divided into 3 groups: 1) 11 samples cut with an automated microkeratome, 2) 5 samples used for DMEK, 3) 9 samples cut with a manual microkeratome...
January 11, 2017: Cornea
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