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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340469/characterization-and-expression-patterns-of-key-c4-photosynthetic-pathway-genes-in-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-under-field-conditions
#1
Daoura Goudia Bachir, Iqbal Saeed, Quanhao Song, Tay Zar Linn, Liang Chen, Yin-Gang Hu
Wheat is a C3 plant with relatively low photosynthetic efficiency and is a potential target for C4 photosynthetic pathway engineering. Here we reported the characterization of four key C4 pathway genes and assessed their expression patterns and enzymatic activities at three growth stages in flag leaves of 59 bread wheat genotypes. The C4-like genes homologous to PEPC, NADP-ME, MDH, and PPDK in maize were identified in the A, B, and D sub-genomes of bread wheat, located on the long arms of chromosomes 3 and 5 (TaPEPC), short arms of chromosomes 1 and 3 (TaNADP-ME), long arms of chromosomes 1 and 7 (TaMDH), and long arms of chromosome 1 (TaPPDK), respectively...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340398/proteomics-analysis-of-maize-zea-mays-l-grain-based-on-itraq-reveals-molecular-mechanisms-of-poor-grain-filling-in-inferior-grains
#2
Tao Yu, Geng Li, Peng Liu, Shuting Dong, Jiwang Zhang, Bin Zhao
In maize, inferior grains (IG) located on the upper part of the ear have poor grain filling process compared to superior grains (SG) located on the middle and lower parts of the ear. This difference limits satisfactory yield and quality; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, using the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) technology, the proteomes of IG and SG during early and middle grain filling stages were investigated. In total, 4720 proteins were identified in maize grain and 305 differentially accumulated proteins (DiAPs) were detected between IG and SG...
March 11, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340272/reml-blup-and-sequential-path-analysis-in-estimating-genotypic-values-and-interrelationships-among-simple-maize-grain-yield-related-traits
#3
T Olivoto, M Nardino, I R Carvalho, D N Follmann, M Ferrari, V J Szareski, A J de Pelegrin, V Q de Souza
Methodologies using restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction (REML/BLUP) in combination with sequential path analysis in maize are still limited in the literature. Therefore, the aims of this study were: i) to use REML/BLUP-based procedures in order to estimate variance components, genetic parameters, and genotypic values of simple maize hybrids, and ii) to fit stepwise regressions considering genotypic values to form a path diagram with multi-order predictors and minimum multicollinearity that explains the relationships of cause and effect among grain yield-related traits...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340260/a-study-on-natural-recovery-of-tassel-fertilization-and-doubling-method-in-maize-haploids
#4
L Jiang, X Y Yang, X Y Li, P K Deng, G X Jing, X Q Wang, Z Xing, R G Zhao
Doubling method is the technical barriers in maize haploid breeding. It was very important to establish the independent intellectual property rights for doubling method. In this experiment, the maize haploid inducer, TG15, was used for producing maternal haploids. Also, haploids were obtained from two kinds of maternal genotypes involved in the experiment, including high-oil type and common type. Significant differences were observed among offspring of various genotypes in the recovery of haploid fertilization...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340173/f-box-protein-fbx92-affects-leaf-size-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#5
Joke Baute, Stefanie Polyn, Jolien De Block, Jonas Blomme, Mieke Van Lijsebettens, Dirk Inzé
F-box proteins are part of one of the largest families of regulatory proteins that play important roles in protein degradation. In plants, F-box proteins are functionally very diverse, and only a small subset has been characterized in detail. Here, we identified a novel F-box protein FBX92 as a repressor of leaf growth in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of AtFBX92 resulted in plants with smaller leaves than wild type, whereas plants with reduced levels of AtFBX92 showed in contrast increased leaf growth by stimulating cell proliferation...
March 14, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339488/mutations-in-the-maize-zeta-carotene-desaturase-gene-lead-to-viviparous-kernel
#6
Yan Chen, Jiankun Li, Kaijian Fan, Yicong Du, Zhenjing Ren, Jing Xu, Jun Zheng, Yunjun Liu, Junjie Fu, Dongtao Ren, Guoying Wang
Preharvest sprouting reduces the maize quality and causes a significant yield loss in maize production. vp-wl2 is a Mutator (Mu)-induced viviparous mutant in maize, causing white or pale yellow kernels, dramatically reduced carotenoid and ABA content, and a high level of zeta-carotene accumulation. Here, we reported the cloning of the vp-wl2 gene using a modified digestion-ligation-amplification method (DLA). The results showed that an insertion of Mu9 in the first intron of the zeta-carotene desaturase (ZDS) gene results in the vp-wl2 mutation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335412/ameliorative-effects-of-neutral-electrolyzed-water-on-growth-performance-biochemical-constituents-and-histopathological-changes-in-turkey-poults-during-aflatoxicosis
#7
Denise Gómez-Espinosa, Francisco Javier Cervantes-Aguilar, Juan Carlos Del Río-García, Tania Villarreal-Barajas, Alma Vázquez-Durán, Abraham Méndez-Albores
Different in vitro and in silico approaches from our research group have demonstrated that neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) can be used to detoxify aflatoxins. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the ability of NEW to detoxify B-aflatoxins (AFB₁ and AFB₂) in contaminated maize and to confirm detoxification in an in vivo experimental model. Batches of aflatoxin-contaminated maize were detoxified with NEW and mixed in commercial feed. A total of 240 6-day-old female large white Nicholas-700 turkey poults were randomly divided into four treatments of six replicates each (10 turkeys per replicate), which were fed ad libitum for two weeks with the following dietary treatments: (1) control feed containing aflatoxin-free maize (CONTROL); (2) feed containing the aflatoxin-contaminated maize (AF); (3) feed containing the aflatoxin-contaminated maize detoxified with NEW (AF + NEW); and (4) control feed containing aflatoxin-free maize treated with NEW (NEW)...
March 14, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335096/estimation-of-methane-emissions-from-local-and-crossbreed-beef-cattle-in-dak-lak-province-of-vietnam
#8
Carlos Alberto Ramírez-Restrepo, Dung Van Tien, Ngoan Le Duc, Mario Herrero, Phung Le Dinh, Dung Dinh Van, Sen Le Thi Hoa, Cuong Vu Chi, Cesar Solano-Patiño, Amy M Lerner, Timothy D Searchinger
Objective: This study was aimed at evaluating effects of cattle breed resources and alternative mixed-feeding practices on meat productivity and emission intensities from household farming systems in Daklak Province, Vietnam. Methods: Records from Local Yellow x Red Sindhi (Bos indicus; Lai Sind) and ½ Limousin, ½ Drought Master and ½ Red Angus cattle during the growth (0 to 21 months) and fattening (22 to 25 months) periods were used to better understand variations on meat productivity and enteric methane emissions...
March 21, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334311/flight-performance-of-ctenoplusia-agnata-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#9
Xiaowei Fu, Shengyuan Zhao, Chao Li, Xiao Wu, Jianglong Guo, Kongming Wu
Ctenoplusia agnata (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a highly destructive polyphagous pest of cotton, maize, soybean, and cruciferous vegetables in East Asia. The effect of various biotic and abiotic factors on the flight performance of C. agnata is crucial for a better understanding of its transregional migration. In this study, the flight performance of C. agnata moths at different ages, temperatures, and relative humidity (RH) levels, was examined by tethering individual moths to computerized flight mills for a 24-h scotophase...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334193/physiological-responses-induced-by-ostrinia-furnacalis-lepidoptera-crambidae-feeding-in-maize-and-their-effects-on-o-furnacalis-performance
#10
Jingfei Guo, Jianqing Guo, Kanglai He, Shuxiong Bai, Tiantao Zhang, Jiuran Zhao, Zhenying Wang
Plants damaged by herbivorous insects often respond by mounting a series of defense responses that can inhibit the insect's fitness. Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a major insect pest in maize throughout much of Asia, Australia, and the western Pacific islands. We examined the effects of O. furnacalis -induced maize defenses on O. furnacalis fitness, and explained the effects from biochemical changes that occur in maize leaves in response to O. furnacalis feeding. The results of the age-stage, two-sex life table showed that significantly longer larval and pupal life spans, and total preoviposition period (TPOP) occurred...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334097/the-potential-effect-of-bt-maize-on-chrysoperla-pudica-neuroptera-chrysopidae
#11
J Van Den Berg, J F Warren, H Du Plessis
Previous studies into third trophic level exposure of Chrysoperla spp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) to Cry1Ab proteins produced by Bt crops yielded contradicting results. These contradictions were largely ascribed to differences in prey quality and exposure methods. In this study, we used healthy prey to expose lacewing larvae to Cry1Ab protein produced by Bt maize, and also determined the concentration of this protein at different trophic levels. Experiments were conducted in which Chrysoperla pudica (Navás) larvae were fed different diets which included aphids and healthy Bt-resistant Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae feeding on Bt maize tissue...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332071/the-nutritive-value-of-marula-sclerocarya-birrea-seed-cake-for-broiler-chickens-nutritional-composition-performance-carcass-characteristics-and-oxidative-and-mycotoxin-status
#12
Doctor Mziwenkosi Nhlanhla Mthiyane, Bhekumusa Sabelo Mhlanga
This study was aimed at investigating the nutritive value of marula seed cake (MSC) as an alternative protein source for broilers. In a completely randomised design involving six replicate pens of five chickens assigned to each of five treatments, body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and carcass characteristics were measured in an experiment in which 150 28-day-old broilers were fed maize-based diets containing, respectively, 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% MSC at finisher phase. The results showed MSC to be remarkably high in CP (470...
March 22, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331779/reply-to-the-efsa-2016-on-the-relevance-of-recent-publications-hofmann-et-al-2014-2016-on-environmental-risk-assessment-and-management-of-bt-maize-events-mon810-bt11-and-1507
#13
EDITORIAL
Maren Kruse-Plass, Frieder Hofmann, Ulrike Kuhn, Mathias Otto, Ulrich Schlechtriemen, Boris Schröder, Rudolf Vögel, Werner Wosniok
In this commentary, we respond to a report of the EFSA GMO Panel (EFSA EFSA Supp Publ, 1) that criticises the outcomes of two studies published in this journal (Hofmann et al. Environ Sci Eur 26: 24, 2; Environ Sci Eur 28: 14, 3). Both publications relate to the environmental risk assessment and management of Bt-maize, including maize events MON810, Bt11 and maize 1507. The results of Hofmann et al. (Environ Sci Eur 26: 24, 2), using standardised pollen mass filter deposition measurements, indicated that the EFSA Panel model had underestimated pollen deposition and, hence, exposure of non-target organisms to Bt-maize pollen...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331579/an-ssr-based-approach-incorporating-a-novel-algorithm-for-identification-of-rare-maize-genotypes-facilitates-criteria-for-landrace-conservation-in-mexico
#14
Corina Hayano-Kanashiro, Octavio Martínez de la Vega, M Humberto Reyes-Valdés, José-Luis Pons-Hernández, Fernando Hernández-Godinez, Emigdia Alfaro-Laguna, José Luis Herrera-Ayala, Ma Cristina Vega-Sánchez, José Alfredo Carrera-Valtierra, June Simpson
As maize was domesticated in Mexico around 9,000 years ago, local farmers have selected and maintained seed stocks with particular traits and adapted to local conditions. In the present day, many of these landraces are still cultivated; however, increased urbanization and migration from rural areas implies a risk that this invaluable maize germplasm may be lost. In order to implement an efficient mechanism of conservation in situ, the diversity of these landrace populations must be estimated. Development of a method to select the minimum number of samples that would include the maximum number of alleles and identify germplasm harboring rare combinations of particular alleles will also safeguard the efficient ex-situ conservation of this germplasm...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330127/diversity-of-toxic-and-phytopathogenic-fusarium-species-occurring-on-cereals-grown-in-karnataka-state-india
#15
H Nagaraja, G Chennappa, K Poorna Chandra Rao, G Mahadev Prasad, M Y Sreenivasa
A total of 198 cereal samples (53 maize, 54 sorghum, 37 paddy and 54 wheat) were collected from 11 districts of Karnataka to understand the percent infection (PI), relative density (RD) and their frequency (Fr) caused by Fusarium spp. All samples were screened by agar plating method using MGA 2.5 agar media and incubated at 25 ± 2 °C for 3-5 days. The study revealed the association of 10 different Fusarium species known trichothecene producers such as Fusarium acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. crookwellense, F...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329732/performance-analysis-of-different-rice-based-cropping-systems-in-tropical-region-of-nepal
#16
Anil Pokhrel, Peeyush Soni
Energy inputs, environmental impacts and economic outputs are the main concerns in today's agricultural production systems. The current study investigated the energy, environmental and financial performances of different rice-based cropping systems (CSs). The CSs studied were: Rice-Wheat-Fallow (R-W-F), Rice-Wheat-Maize (R-W-M), Rice-Wheat-Mungbean (R-W-Mu), Rice-Lentil-Maize (R-L-M), Rice-Lentil-Mungbean (R-L-Mu), Rice-Garlic (R-G) and Rice-Onion (R-O). Primary data were collected from 210 randomly selected farms by using structured questionnaire...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328103/characterization-of-maize-chitinase-a-a-tough-allergenic-molecule
#17
Mariateresa Volpicella, Claudia Leoni, Immacolata Fanizza, Marco Distaso, Guido Leoni, Laura Farioli, Todd Naumann, Elide Pastorello, Luigi Ruggiero Ceci
BACKGROUND: Food allergies are recognized as an increasing health concern. They are caused by specific proteins called food allergens. Proteins commonly identified as food allergens tend to have one of about 30 different biochemical activities. This leads to the assumption that food allergens must have specific structural features which causes their allergenicity. But these structural features are not completely understood. Uncovering the structural basis of allergenicity would allow improved diagnosis and therapy of allergies and would provide insights for safer food production...
March 22, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327667/genetic-and-functional-diversity-of-ubiquitous-dna-viruses-in-selected-chinese-agricultural-soils
#18
Li-Li Han, Dan-Ting Yu, Li-Mei Zhang, Ju-Pei Shen, Ji-Zheng He
Viral community structures in complex agricultural soils are largely unknown. Electron microscopy and viromic analyses were conducted on six typical Chinese agricultural soil samples. Tailed bacteriophages, spherical and filamentous viral particles were identified by the morphological analysis. Based on the metagenomic analysis, single-stranded DNA viruses represented the largest viral component in most of the soil habitats, while the double-stranded DNA viruses belonging to the Caudovirales order were predominanted in Jiangxi-maize soils...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326506/influence-of-calcareous-soil-on-cry3bb1-expression-and-efficacy-in-the-field
#19
David S Wangila, Arnubio Valencia J, Haichuan Wang, Blair D Siegfried, Lance J Meinke
Greater than expected injury by western corn rootworm (WCR) (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) to Cry3Bb1 expressing maize hybrids (Zea mays L.) has been reported in southwestern Nebraska. Affected areas of some fields are often associated with high pH calcareous soils where maize growth is poor and iron chlorosis is common. As part of a comprehensive study to understand potential causes of unexpected injury, experiments were conducted during 2013 and 2014 to ascertain whether the calcareous soil conditions and associated poor maize growth negatively affect the expression of Cry3Bb1...
March 22, 2017: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326315/genomewide-expression-and-functional-interactions-of-genes-under-drought-stress-in-maize
#20
Nepolean Thirunavukkarasu, Rinku Sharma, Nidhi Singh, Kaliyugam Shiriga, Sweta Mohan, Swati Mittal, Shikha Mittal, Mallana Gowdra Mallikarjuna, Atmakuri Ramakrishna Rao, Prasanta Kumar Dash, Firoz Hossain, Hari Shanker Gupta
A genomewide transcriptome assay of two subtropical genotypes of maize was used to observe the expression of genes at seedling stage of drought stress. The number of genes expressed differentially was greater in HKI1532 (a drought tolerant genotype) than in PC3 (a drought sensitive genotype), indicating primary differences at the transcriptional level in stress tolerance. The global coexpression networks of the two genotypes differed significantly with respect to the number of modules and the coexpression pattern within the modules...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
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