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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332318/intraspecific-differences-in-plant-defense-induction-by-fall-armyworm-strains
#1
Flor E Acevedo, Michelle Peiffer, Swayamjit Ray, Robert Meagher, Dawn S Luthe, Gary W Felton
The underlying adaptive mechanisms by which insect strains are associated with specific plants are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of herbivore-induced defenses in the host plant association of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) strains. We tested the expression of herbivore-induced defense-related genes and the activity of plant-defensive proteins in maize and Bermuda grass upon feeding by fall armyworm strains. The rice strain caterpillars induced greater accumulation of proteinase inhibitors in maize than the corn strain caterpillars...
January 14, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331853/mobility-of-heavy-metals-in-sandy-soil-after-application-of-composts-produced-from-maize-straw-sewage-sludge-and-biochar
#2
K Gondek, M Mierzwa-Hersztek, M Kopeć
Studies on the availability of heavy metals in composted organic materials and in soil amended with these materials are of practical significance. They are used in the assessment of the purity of the soil environment and of the biological value of plants intended for human and animal consumption. Composting of organic materials has a significant effect on changes in mobile forms of heavy metals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of the addition of biochar and sewage sludge on (i) the contents of water soluble forms of Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in composts; and (ii) the contents of mobile forms of these elements in sandy soil after the addition of composts...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331834/land-water-food-nexus-and-indications-of-crop-adjustment-for-water-shortage-solution
#3
Dandan Ren, Yonghui Yang, Yanmin Yang, Keith Richards, Xinyao Zhou
While agriculture places the greatest demand on water resources, increasing agricultural production is worsening a global water shortage. Reducing the cultivation of water-consuming crops may be the most effective way to reduce agricultural water use. However, when also taking food demand into consideration, sustaining the balance between regional water and food securities is a growing challenge. This paper addresses this task for regions where water is unsustainable for food production (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region for example) by: (i) assessing the different effects of wheat and maize on water use; (ii) analyzing virtual water and virtual land flows associated with food imports and exports between Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and elsewhere in China; (iii) identifying sub-regions where grain is produced using scarce water resources but exported to other regions; and (iv) analyzing the potentiality for mitigating water shortage via Land-Water-Food Nexus...
January 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330614/effect-of-ancymidol-on-cell-wall-metabolism-in-growing-maize-cells
#4
J Mabel Hernández-Altamirano, Asier Largo-Gosens, Romina Martínez-Rubio, Diego Pereda, Jesús M Álvarez, José L Acebes, Antonio Encina, Penélope García-Angulo
Ancymidol inhibits the incorporation of cellulose into cell walls of maize cell cultures in a gibberellin-independent manner, impairing cell growth; the reduction in the cellulose content is compensated with xylans. Ancymidol is a plant growth retardant which impairs gibberellin biosynthesis. It has been reported to inhibit cellulose synthesis by tobacco cells, based on its cell-malforming effects. To ascertain the putative role of ancymidol as a cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor, we conducted a biochemical study of its effect on cell growth and cell wall metabolism in maize cultured cells...
January 12, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329875/hydrolysers-of-modified-mycotoxins-in-maize-%C3%AE-amylase-and-cellulase-induce-an-underestimation-of-the-total-aflatoxin-content
#5
Arnau Vidal, Sonia Marín, Vicente Sanchis, Sarah De Saeger, Marthe De Boevre
Aflatoxins are the most potent genotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxins. To date, research has only focused on the presence of free aflatoxins in agricultural commodities. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of possible modified aflatoxins in maize. Different hydrolysis methods were applied to convert modified mycotoxins into their free aflatoxins. Eighteen aflatoxin-contaminated maize samples were incubated with potassium hydroxide, trifluoromethanesulfonic acid and several enzymes to induce hydrolysis...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329269/design-synthesis-and-safener-activity-of-novel-methyl-r-n-benzoyl-dichloroacetyl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylates
#6
Li-Xia Zhao, Hao Wu, Yue-Li Zou, Qing-Rui Wang, Ying Fu, Chun-Yan Li, Fei Ye
A series of novel methyl (R)-N-benzoyl/dichloroacetyl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylates were designed by active substructure combination. The title compounds were synthesized using a one-pot route from l-cysteine methyl ester hydrochloride, acyl chloride, and ketones. All compounds were characterized by IR, ¹H NMR, 13C NMR, and HRMS. The structure of 4q was determined by X-ray crystallography. The biological tests showed that the title compounds protected maize from chlorimuron-ethyl injury to some extent. The ALS activity assay showed that the title compounds increased the ALS activity of maize inhibited by chlorimuron-ethyl...
January 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327510/zmstk1-and-zmstk2-encoding-receptor-like-cytoplasmic-kinase-are-involved-in-maize-pollen-development-with-additive-effect
#7
Mingxia Fan, Chunyu Zhang, Lei Shi, Chen Liu, Wenjuan Ma, Meiming Chen, Kuichen Liu, Fengchun Cai, Guohong Wang, Zhengyi Wei, Min Jiang, Zaochang Liu, Ansar Javeed, Feng Lin
Pollen germination and pollen tube growth are important physiological processes of sexual reproduction of plants, and also are involved in signal transduction. Our previous study reveals that ZmSTK1 and ZmSTK2 are two receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCK) homologs in Zea mays as members of receptor-like protein kinase (RLK) subfamily, sharing 86% identity at the amino acid level. Here, we report that ZmSTK1 and ZmSTK2, expressed at late stages of pollen development, regulate maize pollen development with additive effect...
January 11, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327440/a-maize-phytochrome-interacting-factors-protein-zmpif1-enhances-drought-tolerance-by-inducing-stomatal-closure-and-improves-grain-yield-in-oryza-sativa
#8
Yong Gao, Meiqin Wu, Mengjiao Zhang, Wei Jiang, Xiaoyun Ren, Enxing Liang, Dongping Zhang, Changquan Zhang, Ning Xiao, Yan Li, Yi Dai, Jianmin Chen
Phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs) play major roles in regulating plant growth and development, but their roles in drought stress remain elusive. Here, we cloned and characterized a maize (Zea mays) PIF transcription factor, ZmPIF1. The expression level of ZmPIF1 was significantly induced by independent drought and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. The ZmPIF1 transgenic rice and Arabidopsis displayed water-saving and drought-resistance, which were associated with reduced a stomatal aperture and transpiration rate...
January 11, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327333/streptomyces-flavalbus-sp-nov-an-actinobacterium-isolated-from-rhizosphere-of-maize-zea-mays-l
#9
Tingting Cao, Yibo Shen, Junwei Zhao, Chongxi Liu, Xueli Zhao, Liying Jin, Yanjie Li, Xiangjing Wang, Wensheng Xiang
A novel actinobacterium, designated strain NEAU-QY24T, was isolated from the rhizosphere of corn (Zea mays L.). A polyphasic approach was employed to determine the taxonomic status of strain NEAU-QY24T. The isolate was found to have chemical and morphological properties of the genus Streptomyces, with high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Streptomyces lanatus JCM 4332T (98.3%) and clustered phylogenetically with Streptomyces lannensis JCM 16578T (98.2%). The cell wall was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid and the whole cell sugars were identified as glucose and ribose...
January 11, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323890/hrmas-nmr-and-mri-spectroscopies-distinguish-metabolome-and-structural-properties-of-maize-seeds-from-plants-treated-with-different-fertilizers-and-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi
#10
Pierluigi Mazzei, Vincenza Cozzolino, Alessandro Piccolo
Both High-Resolution Magic-Angle-Spinning (HRMAS) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) NMR spectroscopies were applied here to identify the changes of metabolome, morphology and structural properties induced in seeds (caryopses) of maize plants grown at field level under either mineral or compost fertilization in combination with the inoculation by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF). The metabolome of intact caryopses was examined by HRMAS-NMR, while the morphological aspects, endosperm properties and seed water distribution were investigated by MRI...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323288/impacts-of-simulated-erosion-and-soil-amendments-on-greenhouse-gas-fluxes-and-maize-yield-in-miamian-soil-of-central-ohio
#11
Yanru Liang, Rattan Lal, Shengli Guo, Ruiqiang Liu, Yaxian Hu
Erosion-induced topsoil loss is a threat to sustainable productivity. Topsoil removal from, or added to, the existing surface is an efficient technique to simulate on-site soil erosion and deposition. A 15-year simulated erosion was conducted at Waterman Farm of Ohio State University to assess impacts of topsoil depth on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and maize yield. Three topsoil treatments were investigated: 20 cm topsoil removal, 20 cm topsoil addition, and undisturbed control. Results show that the average global warming potential (GWP) (Mg CO2 Eq ha-1 growing season-1) from the topsoil removal plot (18...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321687/impact-of-biofortified-maize-consumption-on-serum-carotenoid-concentrations-in-zambian-children
#12
Amanda C Palmer, Neal E Craft, Kerry J Schulze, Maxwell Barffour, Justin Chileshe, Ward Siamusantu, Keith P West
Biofortified maize, designed as an intervention strategy to prevent vitamin A deficiency, can provide upwards of 15 μg β-carotene per g dry weight. Some varieties also have elevated concentrations of other carotenoids. We conducted a cluster randomized, controlled feeding trial in rural Zambia to test the impact of daily consumption of biofortified maize over a 6-month period on vitamin A status. Serum concentrations of retinol and carotenoids were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Data on circulating carotenoids by intervention group in 679 children are reported here...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321632/genome-wide-association-study-in-asia-adapted-tropical-maize-reveals-novel-and-explored-genomic-regions-for-sorghum-downy-mildew-resistance
#13
Zerka Rashid, Pradeep Kumar Singh, Hindu Vemuri, Pervez Haider Zaidi, Boddupalli Maruthi Prasanna, Sudha Krishnan Nair
Globally, downy mildews are among the important foliar diseases of maize that cause significant yield losses. We conducted a genome-wide association study for sorghum downy mildew (SDM; Peronosclerospora sorghi) resistance in a panel of 368 inbred lines adapted to the Asian tropics. High density SNPs from Genotyping-by-sequencing were used in GWAS after controlling for population structure and kinship in the panel using a single locus mixed model. The study identified a set of 26 SNPs that were significantly associated with SDM resistance, with Bonferroni corrected P values ≤ 0...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321619/ultraviolet-b-enhances-the-resistance-of-multiple-plant-species-to-lepidopteran-insect-herbivory-through-the-jasmonic-acid-pathway
#14
Jinfeng Qi, Mou Zhang, Chengkai Lu, Christian Hettenhausen, Qing Tan, Guoyan Cao, Xudong Zhu, Guoxing Wu, Jianqiang Wu
Land plants protect themselves from ultraviolet-B (UV-B) by accumulating UV-absorbing metabolites, which may also function as anti-insect toxins. Previous studies have shown that UV-B enhances the resistance of different plant species to pierce-sucking pests; however, whether and how UV-B influences plant defense against chewing caterpillars are not well understood. Here we show that UV-B treatment increased Spodoptera litura herbivory-induced jasmonic acid (JA) production in Arabidopsis and thereby Arabidopsis exhibited elevated resistance to S...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321568/characterization-of-the-cry1ah-resistance-in-asian-corn-borer-and-its-cross-resistance-to-other-bacillus-thuringiensis-toxins
#15
Muhammad Zeeshan Shabbir, Yudong Quan, Zhenying Wang, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón, Kanglai He
Transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins are effective to manage lepidopteran pests. Development of insect-resistance is the major threat to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops such as Cry1Ah-Maize. Laboratory selection with Bt-Cry1Ah toxin incorporated in artificial diet, during 48 generations of Asian corn borer (ACB) Ostrinia furnacalis produced 200-fold resistance. This resistant colony ACB-AhR readily consumed and survived on Cry1Ah-expressing Bt-maize. Cross-resistance analysis showed high cross-resistance to Cry1F (464-fold), moderate cross-resistance to Cry1Ab (28...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319520/changes-in-the-concentration-of-carbonyl-compounds-during-the-alcoholic-fermentation-process-carried-out-with-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-yeast
#16
Grzegorz Kłosowski, Dawid Mikulski, Aleksandra Rolbiecka, Bogusław Czupryński
The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the source material and the applied S. cerevisiae strain on the concentrations of carbonyl fractions in raw spirits. Acetaldehyde was the most common aldehyde found, as it accounted for 88-92% of the total amount of aldehydes. The concentration of acetaldehyde in maize, rye and amaranth mashes was highly correlated with fermentation productivity at a given phase of the process, and reached its highest value of 193.5 mg/l EtOH in the first hours of the fermentation, regardless of the yeast strain applied...
September 27, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319223/zmcol3-a-cct-gene-represses-flowering-in-maize-by-interfering-circadian-clock-and-activating-expression-of-zmcct
#17
Minliang Jin, Xiangguo Liu, Wei Jia, Haijun Liu, Wenqiang Li, Yong Peng, Yanfang Du, Yuebin Wang, Yuejia Yin, Xuehai Zhang, Qing Liu, Min Deng, Nan Li, Xiyan Cui, Dongyun Hao, Jianbing Yan
Flowering time is a trait vital to the adaptation of flowering plants to different environments. Here, we report that CCT domain genes play an important role in flowering in maize (Zea mays L.). Among the 53 CCT family genes we identified in maize, 28 were located in flowering time quantitative trait locus regions and 15 were significantly associated with flowering time based on candidate-gene association mapping analysis. Furthermore, a CCT gene named ZmCOL3 was shown to be a repressor of flowering. Overexpressing ZmCOL3 delayed flowering time by approximately 4 days, in either long-day or short-day conditions...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317538/growth-is-required-for-perception-of-water-availability-to-pattern-root-branches-in-plants
#18
Neil E Robbins, José R Dinneny
Water availability is a potent regulator of plant development and induces root branching through a process termed hydropatterning. Hydropatterning enables roots to position lateral branches toward regions of high water availability, such as wet soil or agar media, while preventing their emergence where water is less available, such as in air. The mechanism by which roots perceive the spatial distribution of water during hydropatterning is unknown. Using primary roots of Zea mays (maize) we reveal that developmental competence for hydropatterning is limited to the growth zone of the root tip...
January 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316727/cloning-and-functional-analysis-of-phosphoethanolamine-methyltransferase-promoter-from-maize-zea-mays-l
#19
Gai-Li Niu, Wei Gou, Xiang-Long Han, Cheng Qin, Li-Xin Zhang, Abd El-Fatah Abomohra, Muhammad Ashraf
Betaine, a non-toxic osmoprotectant, is believed to accumulate considerably in plants under stress conditions to maintain the osmotic pressure and promote a variety of processes involved in growth and development. Phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEAMT), a key enzyme for betaine synthesis, is reported to be regulated by its upstream promoter. In the present investigation, by using the transgenic approach, a 1048 bp long promoter region of ZmPEAMT gene from Zea mays was cloned and functionally characterized in tobacco...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315977/maize-w3-disrupts-homogentisate-solanesyl-transferase%C3%A2-zmhst-and-reveals-a-plastoquinone-9-independent-path-for-phytoene-desaturation-and-tocopherol-accumulation-in-kernels
#20
Charles T Hunter, Jonathan W Saunders, Maria Magallanes-Lundback, Shawn A Christensen, Denis Willett, Philip S Stinard, Qin-Bao Li, Kwanghee Lee, Dean DellaPenna, Karen E Koch
Maize white seedling 3 (w3) has been used to study carotenoid deficiency for almost 100 years, although the molecular basis of the mutation has remained unknown. Here we show that the w3 phenotype is caused by disruption of the maize gene for homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST), which catalyzes the first and committed step in plastoquinone-9 (PQ-9) biosynthesis in the plastid. The resulting PQ-9 deficiency prohibits photosynthetic electron transfer and eliminates PQ-9 as an oxidant in the enzymatic desaturation of phytoene during carotenoid synthesis...
January 8, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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