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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636976/improving-soil-nutrient-availability-increases-carbon-rhizodeposition-under-maize-and-soybean-in-mollisols
#1
Yunfa Qiao, Shujie Miao, Xiaozeng Han, Shuping Yue, Caixian Tang
Rhizodeposited carbon (C) is an important source of soil organic C, and plays an important role in the C cycle in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. However, interactive effects of plant species and soil nutrient availability on C rhizodeposition remain unclear. This experiment examined the effect of soil nutrient availability on C rhizodeposition of C4 maize and C3 soybean with contrasting photosynthetic capacity. The soils (Mollisols) were collected from three treatments of no fertilizer (Control), inorganic fertilizer only (NPK), and NPK plus organic manure (NPKM) in a 24-year fertilization field trial...
June 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636075/molecular-cloning-mrna-expression-and-biological-activity-of-the-pheromone-biosynthesis-activating-neuropeptide-pban-from-the-european-corn-borer-ostrinia-nubilalis
#2
J Fodor, G Köblös, Á Kákai, Z Kárpáti, B P Molnár, T Dankó, G Bozsik, C Bognár, G Szőcs, A Fónagy
Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) is a member of the pyrokinin (FXPRLamide) insect neuropeptides. Here, we report the cloning of the gene Ostnu-PBAN from the E and Z pheromone strains of the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a major pest of maize. The Ostnu-PBAN genomic sequence is > 5 kb in length and consists of six exons. The deduced amino acid sequence revealed a 200-residue precursor protein including a signal peptide, a 24-amino acid (aa) diapause hormone, a 37-aa PBAN and three other FXPRLamide neuropeptides...
June 21, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634228/spatial-mapping-and-profiling-of-metabolite-distributions-during-germination
#3
Adam D Feenstra, Liza E Alexander, Zhihong Song, Andrew R Korte, Marna Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J Nikolau, Young-Jin Lee
Germination is a highly complex process by which seeds begin to develop and establish themselves as viable organisms. In this paper, we utilize a combination of GC-MS, LC-fluorescence, and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) approaches to profile and visualize the metabolic distributions of germinating seeds from two different inbreds of maize seeds, B73 and Mo17. GC and LC analyses demonstrate that the two inbreds are highly differentiated in their metabolite profiles throughout the course of germination, especially with regard to amino acids, sugar alcohols, and small organic acids...
June 20, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631831/spatial-and-temporal-trends-and-flow-dynamics-of-glyphosate-and-other-pesticides-within-an-agricultural-watershed-in-argentina
#4
Débora J Pérez, Elena Okada, Eduardo De Gerónimo, Mirta L Menone, Virginia C Aparicio, José L Costa
In the present study, we evaluated the spatial and temporal trends of current use pesticides in surface water and sediments and to determine its relation with hydrological stream dynamics within the agricultural watershed of El Crespo stream. We sampled two contrasting sites: Site 1 (upstream) surrounded by agricultural lands, and Site 2 (downstream) surrounded by natural grasslands. Most of the applied pesticides (i.e. glyphosate, 2,4-D, atrazine, tebuconazole and imidacloprid) were detected in high frequencies in surface water samples at both sites...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630499/spatio-temporal-analysis-of-coding-and-long-noncoding-transcripts-during-maize-endosperm-development
#5
Eun-Deok Kim, Yuqing Xiong, Youngjae Pyo, Dong-Hwan Kim, Byung-Ho Kang, Sibum Sung
The maize endosperm consists of three major compartmentalized cell types: the starchy endosperm (SE), the basal endosperm transfer cell layer (BETL), and the aleurone cell layer (AL). Differential genetic programs are activated in each cell type to construct functionally and structurally distinct cells. To compare gene expression patterns involved in maize endosperm cell differentiation, we isolated transcripts from cryo-dissected endosperm specimens enriched with BETL, AL, or SE at 8, 12, and 16 days after pollination (DAP)...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627061/glycaemic-and-insulinaemic-responses-of-adult-healthy-warm-blooded-mares-following-feeding-with-jerusalem-artichoke-meal
#6
M Glatter, M Bochnia, F Goetz, J Gottschalk, G Koeller, N Mielenz, D Hillegeist, J M Greef, A Einspanier, A Zeyner
This study aimed to investigate the impact of the supplementation of a pre-biotic compound [Jerusalem artichoke meal (JAM)] on the glycaemic and insulinaemic response in healthy, non-obese warm-blooded horses. Six adult mares [mean body weight (bwt) 529 ± 38.7 kg; body condition score 5.1 ± 0.49/9] were used. In two equal meals per day, the horses received crushed oat grains (1 g starch/kg bwt per day) and meadow hay (2 kg/100 kg bwt per day) which together were likely to meet the energy recommendation for light work (GfE, )...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627019/identification-of-differentially-regulated-maize-proteins-conditioning-sugarcane-mosaic-virus-systemic-infection
#7
Hui Chen, Yanyong Cao, Yiqing Li, Zihao Xia, Jipeng Xie, John P Carr, Boming Wu, Zaifeng Fan, Tao Zhou
Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) is the most important cause of maize dwarf mosaic disease. To identify maize genes responsive to SCMV infection and that may be involved in pathogenesis, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed using the first and second systemically infected leaves (termed 1 SL and 2 SL, respectively). Seventy-one differentially expressed proteins were identified in 1 SL and 2 SL upon SCMV infection. Among them, eight proteins showed the same changing patterns in both 1 SL and 2 SL. Functional annotations of regulated proteins and measurement of photosynthetic activity revealed that photosynthesis was more inhibited and defensive gene expression more pronounced in 1 SL than in 2 SL...
June 19, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626466/identification-characterization-and-functional-validation-of-drought-responsive-micrornas-in-subtropical-maize-inbreds
#8
Jayaraman Aravind, Sharma Rinku, Banduni Pooja, Mittal Shikha, Shiriga Kaliyugam, Mallana Gowdra Mallikarjuna, Arun Kumar, Atmakuri Ramakrishna Rao, Thirunavukkarasu Nepolean
MicroRNA-mediated gene regulation plays a crucial role in controlling drought tolerance. In the present investigation, 13 drought-associated miRNA families consisting of 65 members and regulating 42 unique target mRNAs were identified from drought-associated microarray expression data in maize and were subjected to structural and functional characterization. The largest number of members (14) was found in the zma-miR166 and zma-miR395 families, with several targets. However, zma-miR160, zma-miR390, zma-miR393, and zma-miR2275 each showed a single target...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626463/cereal-crop-proteomics-systemic-analysis-of-crop-drought-stress-responses-towards-marker-assisted-selection-breeding
#9
REVIEW
Arindam Ghatak, Palak Chaturvedi, Wolfram Weckwerth
Sustainable crop production is the major challenge in the current global climate change scenario. Drought stress is one of the most critical abiotic factors which negatively impact crop productivity. In recent years, knowledge about molecular regulation has been generated to understand drought stress responses. For example, information obtained by transcriptome analysis has enhanced our knowledge and facilitated the identification of candidate genes which can be utilized for plant breeding. On the other hand, it becomes more and more evident that the translational and post-translational machinery plays a major role in stress adaptation, especially for immediate molecular processes during stress adaptation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626277/linking-crop-yield-anomalies-to-large-scale-atmospheric-circulation-in-europe
#10
Andrej Ceglar, Marco Turco, Andrea Toreti, Francisco J Doblas-Reyes
Understanding the effects of climate variability and extremes on crop growth and development represents a necessary step to assess the resilience of agricultural systems to changing climate conditions. This study investigates the links between the large-scale atmospheric circulation and crop yields in Europe, providing the basis to develop seasonal crop yield forecasting and thus enabling a more effective and dynamic adaptation to climate variability and change. Four dominant modes of large-scale atmospheric variability have been used: North Atlantic Oscillation, Eastern Atlantic, Scandinavian and Eastern Atlantic-Western Russia patterns...
June 15, 2017: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624629/zinc-oxide-nanoparticle-exposure-triggers-different-gene-expression-patterns-in-maize-shoots-and-roots
#11
Hongwei Xun, Xintong Ma, Jing Chen, Zhongzhou Yang, Bao Liu, Xiang Gao, Guo Li, Jiamiao Yu, Li Wang, Jinsong Pang
The potential impacts of environmentally accumulated zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnOs) on plant growth have not been well studied. A transcriptome profile analysis of maize exposed to nZnOs showed that the genes in the shoots and roots responded differently. Although the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the roots was greater than that in the shoots, the number of up- or down-regulated genes in both the shoots and roots was similar. The enrichment of gene ontology (GO) terms was also significantly different in the shoots and roots...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624546/understanding-maize-biology-for-better-crop-improvement
#12
REVIEW
Peijin Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624283/effect-of-pasture-versus-indoor-feeding-systems-on-quality-characteristics-nutritional-composition-and-sensory-and-volatile-properties-of-full-fat-cheddar-cheese
#13
Tom F O'Callaghan, David T Mannion, Deirdre Hennessy, Stephen McAuliffe, Maurice G O'Sullivan, Natasha Leeuwendaal, Tom P Beresford, Pat Dillon, Kieran N Kilcawley, Jeremiah J Sheehan, R Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pasture-based versus indoor total mixed ration (TMR) feeding systems on the chemical composition, quality characteristics, and sensory properties of full fat Cheddar cheeses. Fifty-four multiparous and primiparous Friesian cows were divided into 3 groups (n = 18) for an entire lactation. Group 1 was housed indoors and fed a TMR diet of grass silage, maize silage, and concentrates; group 2 was maintained outdoors on perennial ryegrass only pasture (GRS); and group 3 was maintained outdoors on perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture (CLV)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623591/predicting-transcription-factor-binding-sites-and-their-cognate-transcription-factors-using-gene-expression-data
#14
Chun-Ping Yu, Wen-Hsiung Li
A transcription factor (TF) is a DNA binding protein that targets specific binding-sites (TFBSs) to regulate the transcript levels of its downstream genes. Thus, identifying the TF-TFBS pairs is a pivotal step in understanding the function of TFs and the regulatory network in an organism. Here, we describe two methods for predicting the TFBS of a given TF and for predicting the cognate TF of a given TFBS from a set of strongly co-expressed genes, using time-course transcriptome data of maize developing leaves...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623019/exogenous-addition-of-h2-for-an-in-situ-biogas-upgrading-through-biological-reduction-of-carbon-dioxide-into-methane
#15
Daniel Girma Mulat, Freya Mosbæk, Alastair James Ward, Daniela Polag, Markus Greule, Frank Keppler, Jeppe Lund Nielsen, Anders Feilberg
Biological reduction of CO2 into CH4 by exogenous addition of H2 is a promising technology for upgrading biogas into higher CH4 content. The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of exogenous H2 addition for an in situ biogas upgrading through biological conversion of the biogas CO2 into CH4. Moreover, this study employed systematic study with isotope analysis for providing comprehensive evidence on the underlying pathways of CH4 production and upstream processes. Batch reactors were inoculated with digestate originating from a full-scale biogas plant and fed once with maize leaf substrate...
June 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621827/maize-zea-mays-consumption-in-the-southern-andes-30%C3%A2-31%C3%A2-s-lat-stable-isotope-evidence-2000-bce-1540-ce
#16
Marta Alfonso-Durruty, Andrés Troncoso, Pablo Larach, Cristian Becker, Nicole Misarti
OBJECTIVES: The timing and dietary role of maize agriculture is central to archaeological discussions in the Andean region. In the semi-arid region of northern Chile (SARNC), archaeological models propose that maize was adopted during the Early Ceramic period in tandem with pottery and sedentism. Through stable isotope (SI) analyses, of bone collagen and apatite, this study assesses the timing of maize introduction, diachronic changes (2,000 BCE to 1,540 CE.), and synchronic dietary variability in the prehistoric SARNC...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620404/oral-administration-of-a-seed-based-bivalent-rotavirus-vaccine-containing-vp6-and-nsp4-induces-specific-immune-responses-in-mice
#17
Hao Feng, Xin Li, Weibin Song, Mei Duan, Hong Chen, Tao Wang, Jiangli Dong
Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrheal disease among newborns. Plant-based rotavirus vaccines have been developed in recent years and have been proven to be effective in animal models. In the present study, we report a bivalent vaccine candidate expressing rotavirus subunits VP6 and NSP4 fused with the adjuvant subunit B of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB) in maize seeds. The RT-PCR and Western blot results showed that VP6 and LTB-NSP4 antigens were expressed and accumulated in maize seeds...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619584/application-of-c8-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-the-analysis-of-enniatins-and-bassianolides
#18
Justin B Renaud, Megan J Kelman, David R McMullin, Ken K-C Yeung, Mark W Sumarah
Several moderately pathogenic Fusarium species produce enniatins, a family of cyclohexadepsipeptides with insecticidal and phytotoxic activities. A semi-targeted LC-MS/MS approach utilizing reversed-phase C8 UHPLC column chromatography that combines both product ion and neutral loss filtering was developed to detect enniatins and structurally-related compounds in a sample. Using this methodology, resolution of all major enniatins was achieved with a 6-min LC run. From extracts of F. avenaceum, F. acuminatum and F...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619030/integrative-analysis-of-dna-methylation-mrnas-and-small-rnas-during-maize-embryo-dedifferentiation
#19
Hongjun Liu, Langlang Ma, Xuerong Yang, Lin Zhang, Xing Zeng, Shupeng Xie, Huanwei Peng, Shibin Gao, Haijian Lin, Guangtang Pan, Yongrui Wu, Yaou Shen
BACKGROUND: Maize (Zea mays) is an important model crop for transgenic studies. However, genetic transformation of maize requires embryonic calli derived from immature embryo, and the impact of utilizing tissue culture methods on the maize epigenome is poorly understood. Here, we generated whole-genome MeDIP-seq data examining DNA methylation in dedifferentiated and normal immature maize embryos. RESULTS: We observed that most of the dedifferentiated embryos exhibited a methylation increase compared to normal embryos...
June 15, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618303/transcriptomic-response-of-the-insect-vector-peregrinus-maidis-to-maize-mosaic-rhabdovirus-and-identification-of-conserved-responses-to-propagative-viruses-in-hopper-vectors
#20
Kathleen M Martin, Karen Barandoc-Alviar, Derek J Schneweis, Catherine L Stewart, Dorith Rotenberg, Anna E Whitfield
Maize mosaic virus (MMV) is a plant-pathogenic rhabdovirus that is transmitted by the corn planthopper, Peregrinus maidis, in a propagative manner. P. maidis supports long-term MMV infections with no negative effects on insect performance. To elucidate whole-body transcriptome responses to virus infection, RNA-Seq was used to examine differential gene expression of virus-infected adult insects, and libraries were prepared from replicated groups of virus-exposed insects and non-exposed insects. From the 68,003 de novo-assembled transcripts, 144 were differentially-expressed (DE) during viral infection with comparable numbers up- and down-regulated...
June 12, 2017: Virology
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