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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793181/exogenously-applied-spermidine-alleviates-photosynthetic-inhibition-under-drought-stress-in-maize-zea-mays-l-seedlings-associated-with-changes-in-endogenous-polyamines-and-phytohormones
#1
Lijie Li, Wanrong Gu, Jing Li, Congfeng Li, Tenglong Xie, Danyang Qu, Yao Meng, Caifeng Li, Shi Wei
Drought stress (DS) is a major environmental factor limiting plant growth and crop productivity worldwide. It has been established that exogenous spermidine (Spd) stimulates plant tolerance to DS. The effects of exogenous Spd on plant growth, photosynthetic performance, and chloroplast ultrastructure as well as changes in endogenous polyamines (PAs) and phytohormones were investigate in DS-resistant (Xianyu 335) and DS-sensitive (Fenghe 1) maize seedlings under well-watered and DS treatments. Exogenous Spd alleviated the stress-induced reduction in growth, photosynthetic pigment content, photosynthesis rate (Pn ) and photochemical quenching (qP ) parameters, including the maximum photochemistry efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) (Fv /Fm ), PSII operating efficiency (ФPSII), and qP coefficient...
May 15, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792597/increasing-plant-diversity-with-border-crops-reduces-insecticide-use-and-increases-crop-yield-in-urban-agriculture
#2
Nian-Feng Wan, You-Ming Cai, Yan-Jun Shen, Xiang-Yun Ji, Xiang-Wen Wu, Xiang-Rong Zheng, Wei Cheng, Jun Li, Yao-Pei Jiang, Xin Chen, Jacob Weiner, Jie-Xian Jiang, Ming Nie, Rui-Ting Ju, Tao Yuan, Jian-Jun Tang, Wei-Dong Tian, Hao Zhang, Bo Li
Urban agriculture is making an increasing contribution to food security in large cities around the world. The potential contribution of biodiversity to ecological intensification in urban agricultural systems has not been investigated. We present monitoring data collected from rice fields in 34 community farms in mega-urban Shanghai, China, from 2001 to 2015, and show that the presence of a border crop of soybeans and neighboring crops (maize, eggplant and Chinese cabbage), both without weed control, increased invertebrate predator abundance, decreased the abundance of pests and dependence on insecticides, and increased grain yield and economic profits...
May 24, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792207/metagenomic-analysis-of-viruses-associated-with-maize-lethal-necrosis-in-kenya
#3
Mwathi Jane Wamaitha, Deepti Nigam, Solomon Maina, Francesca Stomeo, Anne Wangai, Joyce Njoki Njuguna, Timothy A Holton, Bramwel W Wanjala, Mark Wamalwa, Tanui Lucas, Appolinaire Djikeng, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Maize lethal necrosis is caused by a synergistic co-infection of Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and a specific member of the Potyviridae, such as Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) or Johnson grass mosaic virus (JGMV). Typical maize lethal necrosis symptoms include severe yellowing and leaf drying from the edges. In Kenya, we detected plants showing typical and atypical symptoms. Both groups of plants often tested negative for SCMV by ELISA...
May 23, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789802/successful-formulation-and-application-of-plant-growth-promoting-kosakonia-radicincitans-in-maize-cultivation
#4
Beatrice Berger, Sascha Patz, Silke Ruppel, Kristin Dietel, Sebastian Faetke, Helmut Junge, Matthias Becker
The global market for biosupplements is expected to grow by 14 percent between 2014 and 2019 as a consequence of the proven benefits of biosupplements on crop yields, soil fertility, and fertilizer efficiency. One important segment of biosupplements is plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB). Although many potential PGPB have been discovered, suitable biotechnological processing and shelf-life stability of the bacteria are challenges to overcome for their successful use as biosupplements. Here, the plant growth-promoting Gram-negative strain Kosakonia radicincitans DSM 16656T (family Enterobacteriaceae) was biotechnologically processed and applied in the field...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787936/dynamic-remobilization-of-leaf-nitrogen-components-in-relation-to-photosynthetic-rate-during-grain-filling-in-maize
#5
Xiaohuan Mu, Qinwu Chen, Fanjun Chen, Lixing Yuan, Guohua Mi
Remobilization of leaf nitrogen (N) contributes greatly to grain N in maize, but leads to low photosynthetic rate (Pn ). Pn is determined by various N components involving in light harvest and CO2 reduction. However, it is less clear which N component is the major contributor for the reduction of photosynthesis in modern stay-green maize hybrids. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between remobilization of different N components and Pn during grain filling stage under low N (no N application) and high N (180 kg N ha-1 ) in a field experiment...
May 16, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787766/structure-and-functional-characterization-of-human-histidine-triad-nucleotide-binding-protein-1-mutations-associated-with-inherited-axonal-neuropathy-with-neuromyotonia
#6
Rachit M Shah, Kimberly M Maize, Harrison T West, Alexander M Strom, Barry C Finzel, Carston R Wagner
Inherited peripheral neuropathies are a group of neurodegenerative disorders that clinically affect 1 in 2500 individuals. Recently, genetic mutations in Human Histidine Nucleotide Binding Protein 1 (hHint1) have been strongly and most frequently associated with patients suffering from axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia. However, the correlation between the impact of these mutations on the hHint1 structure, enzymatic activity and in vivo function has remained ambiguous. Here, we provide detailed biochemical characterization of a set of these hHint1 mutations...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786674/choline-supplementation-prevents-a-hallmark-disturbance-of-kwashiorkor-in-weanling-mice-fed-a-maize-vegetable-diet-hepatic-steatosis-of-undernutrition
#7
Thaddaeus May, Kevin C Klatt, Jacob Smith, Eumenia Castro, Mark Manary, Marie A Caudill, Farook Jahoor, Marta L Fiorotto
Hepatic steatosis is a hallmark feature of kwashiorkor malnutrition. However, the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis in kwashiorkor is uncertain. Our objective was to develop a mouse model of childhood undernutrition in order to test the hypothesis that feeding a maize vegetable diet (MVD), like that consumed by children at risk for kwashiorkor, will cause hepatic steatosis which is prevented by supplementation with choline. A MVD was developed with locally sourced organic ingredients, and fed to weanling mice ( n = 9) for 6 or 13 days...
May 22, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785948/-genetics-of-fertility-restoration-in-the-isocytoplasm-allonuclear-c-group-of-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-in-maize
#8
Zhuo Fan Zhao, Ling Huang, Yong Ming Liu, Peng Zhang, Gui Wei, Mo Ju Cao
Maize is one of the first crops to produce hybrids using cytoplasmic male sterile lines. The C-type cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS-C) line is vital for hybrid seed production, and the fertility-restoration reaction along with its stability has a direct bearing on its applications. However, fertility restoration mechanism of CMS-C is complex and is still not clear so far. To further explore the factors affecting the fertility restoration of maize CMS, a series of test crosses were carried out by pollinating the isocytoplasm allonuclear CMS-C lines C48-2, Chuangzaosi and C478 with the test lines 18 bai, zi 330, 5022 and the restorer line A619, respectively...
May 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785907/the-fatty-acid-composition-of-estonian-and-latvian-retail-milk-implications-for-human-nutrition-compared-with-a-designer-milk
#9
Merike Henno, Tiia Ariko, Tanel Kaart, Sirje Kuusik, Katri Ling, Marko Kass, Hanno Jaakson, Ragnar Leming, D Ian Givens, Vita Sterna, Meelis Ots
The study reported in this Research Communication compared retail milks' FA profiles from two neighbouring countries, estimated the potential contributions of these milks and a designer milk (achieved by changing the diet of the dairy cow) to the recommended human dietary intake of FA, and predicted (based on the milk FA profile) methane emission from dairy cows. Retail milks in Estonia and Latvia were purchased from supermarkets monthly for one year. To compare the FA composition of retail milk with designer milk with an increased PUFA content, the bulk milk FA profile from a separate field trial was used...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785628/gut-associated-bacteria-of-helicoverpa-zea-indirectly-trigger-plant-defenses-in-maize
#10
Jie Wang, Mingyu Yang, Yuanyuan Song, Flor E Acevedo, Kelli Hoover, Rensen Zeng, Gary W Felton
Insect-associated microbes can contribute to the physiological and ecological functions of insects. Despite a few examples in beetles and piercing-sucking insects, the varied mechanisms of how insect-associated bacteria mediate plant-insect interactions are still not fully understood. The polyphagous herbivore Helicoverpa zea is a major agricultural pest that harbors certain microbes in their digestive systems. Enterobacter ludwigii is one of the gut-associated bacteria identified from field-collected caterpillars, and it has been shown to indirectly induce defenses in the dicot plant tomato by triggering the biosynthesis of salivary elicitors, but there are no clear mechanisms to show how gut microbes alter these salivary cues and how a different host plant responds to these inducible elicitors...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784425/a-novel-bioassay-based-on-aptamer-functionalized-magnetic-nanoparticle-for-the-detection-of-zearalenone-using-time-resolved-fluorescence-nayf-4-ce-tb-nanoparticles-as-signal-probe
#11
Sobia Niazi, Xiaole Wang, Imran Pasha, Imran Mahmood Khan, Sen Zhao, Muhammad Shoaib, Shijia Wu, Zhouping Wang
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by fungi on stored grains. The earlier detection methods used for ZEN rely on expensive equipment, time-consuming sample preparation and temperature sensitive antibodies. The current work, proposed a novel strategy based on ZEN aptamer labeled with amine-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle (MNPs) as a capture probe and time-resolved fluorescence (TRFL) nanoparticles labeled with complementary DNA (cDNA) as a signal probe. Under the optimized conditions, TRFL intensity at 544 nm was used to measure ZEN (R2 = 0...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784378/nano-carbon-black-based-screen-printed-sensor-for-carbofuran-isoprocarb-carbaryl-and-fenobucarb-detection-application-to-grain-samples
#12
Flavio Della Pelle, Claudia Angelini, Manuel Sergi, Michele Del Carlo, Alessia Pepe, Dario Compagnone
An electrochemical screening assay for the detection of phenyl carbamates (i.e. carbaryl, carbofuran, isoprocarb and fenobucarb) was developed and applied to grains samples (i.e. durum wheat, soft wheat and maize). Nano carbon black (CB) was strategically employed to realize an effective, reproducible, fouling resistant, low cost, delocalisable screen printed sensor (CB-SPE). CB-SPEs morphology (SEM and FEM) and electrochemical property (CV and EIS) were studied. The final pesticides analysis protocol consist of: (i) extraction of the analyte (just by mixing), (ii) alkaline hydrolysis (10 min R...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784311/hydrothermal-treatment-of-maize-changes-in-physical-chemical-and-functional-properties
#13
Verónica Rocha-Villarreal, Jessica Fernanda Hoffmann, Nathan Levien Vanier, Sergio O Serna-Saldivar, Silverio García-Lara
The objective of this work was to assess the effects of a traditional parboiling treatment on physical, chemical and functional properties of yellow maize kernels. For this, maize kernels were subjected to the three main stages of a traditional parboiling process (soaking, steaming, and drying) at different moisture contents (15%, 25%, or 35%), and different pressure steaming times (0, 15, or 30 min). Kernels were evaluated for physical and chemical changes, while manually generated endosperm fractions were further evaluated for nutritional and functional changes...
October 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783940/small-rna-based-prediction-of-hybrid-performance-in-maize
#14
Felix Seifert, Alexander Thiemann, Tobias A Schrag, Dominika Rybka, Albrecht E Melchinger, Matthias Frisch, Stefan Scholten
BACKGROUND: Small RNA (sRNA) sequences are known to have a broad impact on gene regulation by various mechanisms. Their performance for the prediction of hybrid traits has not yet been analyzed. Our objective was to analyze the relation of parental sRNA expression with the performance of their hybrids, to develop a sRNA-based prediction approach, and to compare it to more common SNP and mRNA transcript based predictions using a factorial mating scheme of a maize hybrid breeding program...
May 21, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783754/silicon-influences-soil-availability-and-accumulation-of-mineral-nutrients-in-various-plant-species
#15
Maria Greger, Tommy Landberg, Marek Vaculík
Silicon (Si) effects on mineral nutrient status in plants are not well investigated. It is known that Si has a beneficial effect on plants under stressed conditions. The aim was to make a state of the art investigation of the Si influence: (1) on nutrient availability in four different soil types, namely clayish, sandy, alum shale and submerged soil; and (2) on accumulation of various nutrients in maize, lettuce, pea, carrot and wheat growing in hydroponics. Soil was treated with K₂SiO₃ corresponding to 80 and 1000 kg Si ha-1 and the nutrient medium with 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 μM Si...
May 19, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783633/butyrylation-of-maize-and-potato-starches-and-characterization-of-the-products-by-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-and-in-vitro-fermentation
#16
Tina Skau Nielsen, Nuria Canibe, Flemming Hofmann Larsen
Intake of butyrylated starches may increase colonic butyrate supply, which can be of public health and clinical benefit by maintaining colonic health. The objective was to investigate if an organocatalytic method with tartaric acid as a catalyst could be applied to produce butyrylated products from different starch sources and to characterize their chemical structure and fermentation capability by using solid-state 13 C MAS NMR (magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy and an in vitro fermentation model, respectively...
May 18, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782162/water-and-fertilizer-integrated-hydrogel-derived-from-the-polymerization-of-acrylic-acid-and-urea-as-a-slow-release-n-fertilizer-and-water-retention-in-agriculture
#17
Dongdong Cheng, Yan Liu, Guiting Yang, Aiping Zhang
To reduce the preparation cost of superabsorbent and improve the N release rate at the same time, a novel low cost superabsorbent (SA) with the function of N slow release was prepared by chemical synthesis with neutralized acrylic acid (AA), urea, potassium persulfate (KPS) and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA). The influence order of influence factors on water absorbency property was determined by orthogonal L18(3)7 experiment. Based on the optimization results of orthogonal experiment, the effects of single factor on the water absorption were studied, and the highest water absorbency (909 g/g) was obtained on the conditions: 1...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782021/exploring-the-root-microbiome-extracting-bacterial-community-data-from-the-soil-rhizosphere-and-root-endosphere
#18
Tuesday Simmons, Daniel F Caddell, Siwen Deng, Devin Coleman-Derr
The intimate interaction between plant host and associated microorganisms is crucial in determining plant fitness, and can foster improved tolerance to abiotic stresses and diseases. As the plant microbiome can be highly complex, low-cost, high-throughput methods such as amplicon-based sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene are often preferred for characterizing its microbial composition and diversity. However, the selection of appropriate methodology when conducting such experiments is critical for reducing biases that can make analysis and comparisons between samples and studies difficult...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781867/accelerated-onset-of-retinal-toxicity-from-hydroxychloroquine-use-with-concomitant-breast-cancer-therapy
#19
Aman Sharma, Alejandra M Maiz, William R Tucker, Catherine Cukras
PURPOSE: To report a case of accelerated retinal toxicity due to hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) use for treatment of Sjögren syndrome in a patient treated with concomitant chemotherapy for breast cancer. METHODS: Observational case report. RESULTS: A 56-year-old white woman using 400 mg HCQ (7.1 mg/kg real body weight) daily for a total of 2 years and 10 months for treatment of Sjögren syndrome with concomitant use of docetaxel and cyclophosphamide therapy (21-day cycle, 4 cycles) followed by anastrozole for breast cancer, presented with visual complaints and findings of severe HCQ toxicity...
May 16, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780370/rhizosphere-protists-change-metabolite-profiles-in-zea-mays
#20
Anke Kuppardt, Thomas Fester, Claus Härtig, Antonis Chatzinotas
Plant growth and productivity depend on the interactions of the plant with the associated rhizosphere microbes. Rhizosphere protists play a significant role in this respect: considerable efforts have been made in the past to reveal the impact of protist-bacteria interactions on the remobilization of essential nutrients for plant uptake, or the grazing induced changes on plant-growth promoting bacteria and the root-architecture. However, the metabolic responses of plants to the presence of protists or to protist-bacteria interactions in the rhizosphere have not yet been analyzed...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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