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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231382/accurate-measurement-of-transgene-copy-number-in-crop-plants-using-droplet-digital-pcr
#1
Ray Collier, Kasturi Dasgupta, Yan-Ping Xing, Bryan Tarape Hernandez, Min Shao, Dominica Rohozinski, Emma Kovak, Jeanie Lin, Maria Luiza P de Oliveira, Ed Stover, Kent F McCue, Frank G Harmon, Ann Blechl, James G Thomson, Roger Thilmony
Genetic transformation is a powerful means for the improvement of crop plants, but requires labor and resource intensive methods. An efficient method for identifying single copy transgene insertion events from a population of independent transgenic lines is desirable. Currently transgene copy number is estimated by either Southern blot hybridization analyses or quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) experiments. Southern hybridization is a convincing and reliable method, but it also is expensive, time-consuming and often requires a large amount of genomic DNA and radioactively labeled probes...
February 23, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229479/sampling-strategies-for-evaluating-the-rate-of-adventitious-transgene-presence-in-non-genetically-modified-crop-fields
#2
David Makowski, Rémi Bancal, Arnaud Bensadoun, Hervé Monod, Antoine Messéan
According to E.U. regulations, the maximum allowable rate of adventitious transgene presence in non-genetically modified (GM) crops is 0.9%. We compared four sampling methods for the detection of transgenic material in agricultural non-GM maize fields: random sampling, stratified sampling, random sampling + ratio reweighting, random sampling + regression reweighting. Random sampling involves simply sampling maize grains from different locations selected at random from the field concerned. The stratified and reweighting sampling methods make use of an auxiliary variable corresponding to the output of a gene-flow model (a zero-inflated Poisson model) simulating cross-pollination as a function of wind speed, wind direction, and distance to the closest GM maize field...
February 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228849/considerations-and-complications-of-mapping-small-rna-high-throughput-data-to-transposable-elements
#3
Alexandros Bousios, Brandon S Gaut, Nikos Darzentas
BACKGROUND: High-throughput sequencing (HTS) has revolutionized the way in which epigenetic research is conducted. When coupled with fully-sequenced genomes, millions of small RNA (sRNA) reads are mapped to regions of interest and the results scrutinized for clues about epigenetic mechanisms. However, this approach requires careful consideration in regards to experimental design, especially when one investigates repetitive parts of genomes such as transposable elements (TEs), or when such genomes are large, as is often the case in plants...
2017: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228772/responses-of-nitrogen-utilization-and-apparent-nitrogen-loss-to-different-control-measures-in-the-wheat-and-maize-rotation-system
#4
Zhengping Peng, Yanan Liu, Yingchun Li, Yahya Abawi, Yanqun Wang, Mingxin Men, Duc-Anh An-Vo
Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and excessive application rates can decrease crop yield and increase N loss into the environment. Field experiments were carried out to understand the effects of N fertilizers on N utilization, crop yield and net income in wheat and maize rotation system of the North China Plain (NCP). Compared to farmers' N rate (FN), the yield of wheat and maize in reduction N rate by 21-24% based on FN (RN) was improved by 451 kg ha(-1), N uptakes improved by 17 kg ha(-1) and net income increased by 1671 CNY ha(-1), while apparent N loss was reduced by 156 kg ha(-1)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228439/loss-of-pollen-specific-phospholipase-not-like-dad-triggers-gynogenesis-in-maize
#5
Laurine M Gilles, Abdelsabour Khaled, Jean-Baptiste Laffaire, Sandrine Chaignon, Ghislaine Gendrot, Jérôme Laplaige, Hélène Bergès, Genséric Beydon, Vincent Bayle, Pierre Barret, Jordi Comadran, Jean-Pierre Martinant, Peter M Rogowsky, Thomas Widiez
Gynogenesis is an asexual mode of reproduction common to animals and plants, in which stimuli from the sperm cell trigger the development of the unfertilized egg cell into a haploid embryo. Fine mapping restricted a major maize QTL (quantitative trait locus) responsible for the aptitude of inducer lines to trigger gynogenesis to a zone containing a single gene NOT LIKE DAD (NLD) coding for a patatin-like phospholipase A. In all surveyed inducer lines, NLD carries a 4-bp insertion leading to a predicted truncated protein...
February 22, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228003/electrochemical-formation-of-multilayer-sno2-sb-x-o-y-coating-in-complex-electrolyte
#6
Antonina Maizelis, Boris Bairachniy
The multilayer antimony-doped tin dioxide coating was obtained by cathodic deposition of multilayer metal-hydroxide coating with near 100-nm thickness layers on the alloy underlayer accompanied by the anodic oxidation of this coating. The potential regions of deposition of tin, antimony, tin-antimony alloy, and mixture of this metals and their hydroxides in the pyrophosphate-tartrate electrolyte were revealed by the cyclic voltammetric method. The possibility of oxidation of cathodic deposit consisting of tin and Sn(II) hydroxide compounds to the hydrated tin dioxide in the same electrolyte was demonstrated...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225074/the-wasp-arp2-3-complex-signal-cascade-is-involved-in-actin-dependent-sperm-nuclei-migration-during-double-fertilization-in-tobacco-and-maize
#7
Xiongbo Peng, Tingting Yan, Mengxiang Sun
Sperm nuclear migration during fertilization in Arabidopsis and rice has recently been found to be actin-dependent, but the driving force behind this actin cytoskeleton-dependent motion is unclear. Here, we confirmed that the actin-dependent sperm nuclei migration during fertilization is a conserved mechanism in plants. Using in vitro fertilization systems, we showed that a functional actin is also essential in maize and tobacco for sperm nuclei migration after gamete membrane fusion. Cytoskeleton depolymerization inhibitor treatments supported the view that sperm nuclei migration is actin-dependent but microtubule-independent in both egg cell and central cell during double fertilization...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224224/aminopeptidase-n5-apn5-as-a-putative%C3%A2-functional-receptor-of-cry1ac-toxin-in-the-larvae-of-athetis-lepigone
#8
Li-Yu Wang, Shao-Hua Gu, Zi-Yan Nangong, Ping Song, Qin-Ying Wang
Athetis lepigone was a new lepidopteran pest and caused severe damage to maize crops in China. We have detected that Cry1Ac protoxin and toxin were highly active against the larvae of A. lepigone. However, there is no report about the mode of action of Bt Cry1Ac toxin against this pest until now. A 110 kDa APN5 protein from BBMV of A. lepigone was identified as the binding receptor of Cry1Ac toxin using Ligand blotting. The Cry1Ac receptor APN5 was cloned from A. lepigone larval midgut mRNA and named as AlAPN5 (GenBank accession no...
February 21, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224059/identification-of-downy-mildew-resistance-gene-candidates-by-positional-cloning-in-maize-zea-mays-subsp-mays-poaceae
#9
Jae Yoon Kim, Jun-Cheol Moon, Hyo Chul Kim, Seungho Shin, Kitae Song, Kyung-Hee Kim, Byung-Moo Lee
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Positional cloning in combination with phenotyping is a general approach to identify disease-resistance gene candidates in plants; however, it requires several time-consuming steps including population or fine mapping. Therefore, in the present study, we suggest a new combined strategy to improve the identification of disease-resistance gene candidates. METHODS AND RESULTS: Downy mildew (DM)-resistant maize was selected from five cultivars using a spreader row technique...
February 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223998/rna-seq-analysis-of-cold-and-drought-responsive-transcriptomes-of-zea-mays-ssp-mexicana-l
#10
Xiang Lu, Xuan Zhou, Yu Cao, Meixue Zhou, David McNeil, Shan Liang, Chengwei Yang
The annual Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is a member of teosinte, a wild relative of the Zea mays spp. mays L. This subspecies has strong growth and regeneration ability, high tiller numbers, high protein and lysine content as well as resistance to many fungal diseases, and it can be effectively used in maize improvement. In this study, we reported a Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. transcriptome by merging data from untreated control (CK), cold (4°C) and drought (PEG2000, 20%) treated plant samples. A total of 251,145 transcripts (N50 = 1,269 bp) and 184,280 unigenes (N50 = 923 bp) were predicted, which code for homologs of near 47% of the published maize proteome...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222742/resistant-starch-lowers-postprandial-glucose-and-leptin-in-overweight-adults-consuming-a-moderate-to-high-fat-diet-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Mindy Patterson Maziarz, Sara Preisendanz, Shanil Juma, Victorine Imrhan, Chandan Prasad, Parakat Vijayagopal
BACKGROUND: High-amylose maize resistant starch type 2 (HAM-RS2) stimulates gut-derived satiety peptides and reduces adiposity in animals. Human studies have not supported these findings despite improvements in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity after HAM-RS2 intake which can lower adiposity-related disease risk. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of HAM-RS2 consumption on blood glucose homeostasis in overweight, healthy adults. We also examined changes in biomarkers of satiety (glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1], peptide YY [PYY], and leptin) and body composition determined by anthropometrics and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, dietary intake, and subjective satiety measured by a visual analogue scale following HAM-RS2 consumption...
February 21, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221960/mycotoxin-contamination-in-stored-maize-and-groundnuts-based-on-storage-practices-and-conditions-in-subhumid-tropical-africa-the-case-of-kilosa-district-tanzania
#12
K S Magembe, M W Mwatawala, D P Mamiro
Experiments were conducted to assess the influence of storage practices on mycotoxin incidences in stored maize and groundnuts in Kilosa District, Eastern Central Tanzania. Factorial experiments were used to test the effects of processing, storage conditions, and protectants at 3-month intervals for 12 weeks. Temperature and relative humidity data were recorded by using data loggers. The differences among the treatment means were compared using Tukey's honestly significant difference test at 5% probability level...
December 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221941/the-hap-complex-governs-fumonisin-biosynthesis-and-maize-kernel-pathogenesis-in-fusarium-verticillioides
#13
John B Ridenour, Jonathon E Smith, Burton H Bluhm
Contamination of maize ( Zea mays ) with fumonisins produced by the fungus Fusarium verticillioides is a global concern for food safety. Fumonisins are a group of polyketide-derived secondary metabolites linked to esophageal cancer and neural tube birth defects in humans and numerous toxicoses in livestock. Despite the importance of fumonisins in global maize production, the regulation of fumonisin biosynthesis during kernel pathogenesis is poorly understood. The HAP complex is a conserved, heterotrimeric transcriptional regulator that binds the consensus sequence CCAAT to modulate gene expression...
September 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221926/evaluation-of-selected-nutrients-and-contaminants-in-distillers-grains-from-ethanol-production-in-texas
#14
Kyung-Min Lee, Timothy J Herrman, Lynn Post
This article contains the results of the evaluation of distillers grain (DG) coproducts from different ethanol plants around the United States and supplemented in animal diets in Texas, based on samples analyzed from 2008 to 2014. The samples were assessed for concentration, occurrence, and prevalence of selected nutrients and contaminants. Protein and sulfur contents of DG were largely different between maize and sorghum coproducts, as well as wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS) and dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), indicating a significant effect of grain feedstock and dry grind process stream on DG composition and quality...
September 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221840/inhibition-of-fusarium-growth-and-mycotoxin-production-in-culture-medium-and-in-maize-kernels-by-natural-phenolic-acids
#15
Elena Ferruz, Susana Loran, Marta Herrera, Isabel Gimenez, Noemi Bervis, Carmen Barcena, Juan Jose Carramiñana, Teresa Juan, Antonio Herrera, Agustin Ariño
The possible role of natural phenolic compounds in inhibiting fungal growth and toxin production has been of recent interest as an alternative strategy to the use of chemical fungicides for the maintenance of food safety. Fusarium is a worldwide fungal genus mainly associated with cereal crops. The most important Fusarium mycotoxins are trichothecenes, zearalenone, and fumonisins. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of four natural phenolic acids (caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, and chlorogenic) for the control of mycelial growth and mycotoxin production by six toxigenic species of Fusarium ...
October 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221787/multiple-pesticides-detoxification-function-of-maize-zea-mays-gst34
#16
Dongzhi Li, Li Xu, Sen Pang, Zhiqian Liu, Weisong Zhao, Chengju Wang
ZmGST34 is a maize tau class GST gene and was found to be differently expressed between two maize cultivars differing in tolerance to herbicide metolachlor. To explore the possible role of ZmGST34 in maize development, the expression pattern and substrate specificity of ZmGST34 were characterized by quantitative RT-PCR and heterologous expression system, respectively. The results indicated that the expression level of ZmGST34 was increased approximately 2 to 5-fold per day during the second-leaf stage of maize seedling...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220874/modeling-contribution-of-shallow-groundwater-to-evapotranspiration-and-yield-of-maize-in-an-arid-area
#17
Xiaoyu Gao, Zailin Huo, Zhongyi Qu, Xu Xu, Guanhua Huang, Tammo S Steenhuis
Capillary rise from shallow groundwater can decrease the need for irrigation water. However, simple techniques do not exist to quantify the contribution of capillary flux to crop water use. In this study we develop the Agricultural Water Productivity Model for Shallow Groundwater (AWPM-SG) for calculating capillary fluxes from shallow groundwater using readily available data. The model combines an analytical solution of upward flux from groundwater with the EPIC crop growth model. AWPM-SG was calibrated and validated with 2-year lysimetric experiment with maize...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220130/drought-induced-changes-in-growth-osmolyte-accumulation-and-antioxidant-metabolism-of-three-maize-hybrids
#18
Shakeel A Anjum, Umair Ashraf, Mohsin Tanveer, Imran Khan, Saddam Hussain, Babar Shahzad, Ali Zohaib, Farhat Abbas, Muhammad F Saleem, Iftikhar Ali, Long C Wang
Consequences of drought stress in crop production systems are perhaps more deleterious than other abiotic stresses under changing climatic scenarios. Regulations of physio-biochemical responses of plants under drought stress can be used as markers for drought stress tolerance in selection and breeding. The present study was conducted to appraise the performance of three different maize hybrids (Dong Dan 80, Wan Dan 13, and Run Nong 35) under well-watered, low, moderate and SD conditions maintained at 100, 80, 60, and 40% of field capacity, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219990/an-outbreak-of-pellagra-in-the-kasese-catchment-area-dowa-malawi
#19
George Matapandeu, Samuel H Dunn, Patti Pagels
Pellagra is a deficiency of niacin or its amino acid precursor, tryptophan, which presents with the classic four Ds: the characteristic dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and eventually death if left untreated. The incidence of pellagra is quite rare presently because of increased awareness and strategies such as vitamin fortification. However, the deficiency is still present in cultures that rely on maize as their primary source of sustenance. We report a recent outbreak in a catchment area in Kasese, Malawi, of 691 cases of pellagra which were successfully treated with niacin supplementation...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219786/the-effect-of-the-source-of-microorganisms-on-adaptation-of-hydrolytic-consortia-dedicated-to-anaerobic-digestion-of-maize-silage
#20
Krzysztof Poszytek, Adam Pyzik, Adam Sobczak, Leszek Lipinski, Aleksandra Sklodowska, Lukasz Drewniak
The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the source of microorganisms on the selection of hydrolytic consortia dedicated to anaerobic digestion of maize silage. The selection process was investigated based on the analysis of changes in the hydrolytic activity and the diversity of microbial communities derived from (i) a hydrolyzer of a commercial agricultural biogas plant, (ii) cattle slurry and (iii) raw sewage sludge, during a series of 10 passages. Following the selection process, the adapted consortia were thoroughly analyzed for their ability to utilize maize silage and augmentation of anaerobic digestion communities...
February 17, 2017: Anaerobe
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