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Mohammed Ali Elkabir, Rehab R El-Zehery, Mohamed I Mourad, Omar Soliman, Mohamed E Helal, Ali K Refai, Mohammed E Grawish
AIMS: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of azithromycin (azm) and/or metronidazole (mtz) on the histopathological features of rats' gingival overgrowth (GO) induced by cyclosporine-A (CsA) in an animal model. METHODS: Ninety male albino rats were divided randomly into six equal groups. The rats of group I received corn oil via gastric feeding for 7 weeks. Group II rats were administered CsA for the same period. Groups III, IV, and V rats received CsA for 6 weeks and simultaneously in the 7th week received a monotherapy of placebo gel, azm suspension, mtz gel, respectively...
September 2016: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
Sibghatullah Muhammad Ali Sangi
BACKGROUND: Since long high fat diet (HFD) is being blamed for causing fatty degeneration of liver and formation of atheromatous plaques. At present, no proper pharmacotherapy is available for both the conditions. In this study, different substances containing monounsaturated fatty acids were used to observe their protective effects in the HFD induced damage to liver and coronary vessels. OBJECTIVES: To discover effective therapeutic agents for HFD induced fatty degeneration of liver and atheromatous plaques...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Rebecca A Schmidt-Jeffris, Brian A Nault
Many vegetable insect pests are managed using neonicotinoid and pyrethroid insecticides. Unfortunately, these insecticides are toxic to many bees and natural enemies and no longer control some pests that have developed resistance. Anthranilic diamide insecticides provide systemic control of many herbivorous arthropod pests, but exhibit low toxicity to beneficial arthropods and mammals, and may be a promising alternative to neonicotinoids and pyrethroids. Anthranilic diamides may be delivered to vegetable crops via seed, in-furrow, or foliar treatments; therefore, it would be desirable to identify which application method provides high levels of pest control while minimizing the amount of active ingredient...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Carlo Wilke, Frank Gillardon, Christian Deuschle, Markus A Hobert, Iris E Jansen, Florian G Metzger, Peter Heutink, Thomas Gasser, Walter Maetzler, Cornelis Blauwendraat, Matthis Synofzik
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Reduced progranulin levels are a hallmark of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) caused by loss-of-function (LoF) mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN). However, alterations of central nervous progranulin expression also occur in neurodegenerative disorders unrelated to GRN mutations, such as Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesised that central nervous progranulin levels are also reduced in GRN-negative FTD. METHODS: Progranulin levels were determined in both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum in 75 subjects (37 FTD patients and 38 controls)...
October 20, 2016: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
Koen E Merkus, Menno W J Prins, Cornelis Storm
Tethered particle motion (TPM), the motion of a micro- or nanoparticle tethered to a substrate by a macromolecule, is a system that has proven to be extremely useful for its ability to reveal physical features of the tether, because the thermal motion of the bound particle reports sensitively on parameters like the length, the rigidity, or the folding state of its tether. In this article, we survey the applicability of TPM to probe the kinetics of single secondary bonds, bonds that form and break between the tethered particle and a substrate due, for instance, to receptor/ligand pairs on particle and substrate...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Pei Li, Fei Li, Yongqiang Han, Lang Yang, Xiaolan Liao, Maolin Hou
Plant viruses are mostly transmitted by sucking insects via their piercing behaviors, which may differ due to host plant species and their developmental stages. We characterized the transmission of a fijivirus, southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), by the planthopper vector Sogatella furcifera Horváth (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), between rice and corn plants of varying developmental stages. SRBSDV was transmitted from infected rice to uninfected corn plants as efficiently as its transmission between rice plants, while was acquired by S...
2016: PloS One
Roent Dune A Cayetano, Tae Hyun Kim
Corn stover was treated using low-moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) at controlled ammoniation temperature. Moisturized corn stover (50 % moisture) was contacted with anhydrous ammonia (0.1 g NH3/g-biomass) in a batch reactor at various temperatures (ambient to 150 °C). After ammoniation at elevated and controlled temperature, ammoniated corn stover was pretreated at various temperatures (60-150 °C) for 72-144 h. Change in composition was marginal at low pretreatment temperature but was relatively severe with pretreatment at high temperature (130-150 °C)...
October 18, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Taiye Remi Fasola, Blessing Ukwenya, Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi, Temidayo Olutayo Omobowale, Temitayo Olabisi Ajibade
BACKGROUND: Croton lobatus contains a high amount of antioxidant phytochemicals that probably account for its wide use as food and medicine in the traditional communities of West Africa. METHODS: The study evaluated the modulatory role of methanol extract of Croton lobatus leaf on alloxan-induced diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications. Male rats were randomly selected and assigned to one of six groups (A to F) of eight animals each: A (distilled water); B (corn oil); C (Alloxan); D (Alloxan + 100 mg kg-1 Croton lobatus); E: (Alloxan + 200 mg kg-1 C...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Hanan R Shehata, Cassandra L Ettinger, Jonathan A Eisen, Manish N Raizada
Endophytes are microbes that inhabit internal plant tissues without causing disease. Some endophytes are known to combat pathogens. The corn (maize) landrace Chapalote has been grown continuously by subsistence farmers in the Americas since 1000 BC, without the use of fungicides, and the crop remains highly valued by farmers, in part for its natural tolerance to pests. We hypothesized that the pathogen tolerance of Chapalote may, in part, be due to assistance from its endophytes. We previously identified a bacterial endophyte from Chapalote seeds, Burkholderia gladioli strain 3A12, for its ability to combat a diversity of crop pathogens, including Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, the most important fungal disease of creeping bentgrass, a relative of maize used here as a model system...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Brian Weselowski, Naeem Nathoo, Alexander William Eastman, Jacqueline MacDonald, Ze-Chun Yuan
BACKGROUND: Paenibacillus polymyxa is a plant-growth promoting rhizobacterium that could be exploited as an environmentally friendlier alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Various strains have been isolated that can benefit agriculture through antimicrobial activity, nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, plant hormone production, or lignocellulose degradation. However, no single strain has yet been identified in which all of these advantageous traits have been confirmed...
October 18, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Jessica Bollyn, Mathias Nijsen, Stijn Baken, Iris J Joye, Nadia Waegeneers, Geert Cornelis, Erik Smolders
Iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles (Fe-NPs) are natural vectors of phosphate (PO4) in the environment. Their mobility is determined by colloidal stability, which is affected by surface composition. This might be manipulated in engineered NPs for environmental or agricultural applications. Here, stability of PO4-Fe-NPs (HFO/goethite) was determined across contrasting environmental conditions (pH, Ca) and by using fulvates (FA) and polyphosphates as coatings. The PO4-Fe-NPs are unstable at Ca concentrations above 0...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
S M Sinn, W R Gibbons, M L Brown, J M DeRouchey, C L Levesque
An experimental, microbially enhanced soybean product (MEPRO) was evaluated as a replacement for fishmeal (FM). Assessment of feedstuffs should include estimation of digestibility as well as pig performance and in combination with dietary additives. Digestibility values determined in growing pigs may not apply to nursery pigs; thus, standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in MEPRO and FM were determined using 30±1.6 kg BW ileal-cannulated barrows (n=6) and 9.8±1.2 kg BW barrows (n=37; serial slaughter)...
October 18, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Qunying Lin, Liangkun Long, Liangliang Wu, Fenglun Zhang, Shuling Wu, Weiming Zhang, Xiaoming Sun
BACKGROUND: In commercial production of Cordyceps militaris (a famous Chinese medicine), usually cereal grains were utilized as cultivation substrates. This study is aimed to evaluate the efficiency of agricultural wastes as substitute materials in the low cost production of C. militaris. Cottonseed shells (CS), corn cob particles (CCP), Italian poplar sawdusts (IPS) and substrates spent by Flammulina velutipes (SS) were employed to cultivate C. militaris, using rice medium as control...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Chen Hui, Zhi Shan Hua, Meng Wai Woo, Xiao Dong Chen
Combinations of gelatin (G) and oxidized corn starch (OCS) were explored as a new microcapsule composite for single droplet spray drying. The blending solutions property, gel time, transparency and viscosity of G/CS (corn starch) and G/OCS blend solutions were compared at different ratios (10:0;9:1;8:2;7:3;6:4;5:5) and concentrations(1% wt; 3% wt;5% wt). The drying and dissolution behaviors of composite droplet have been studied using the single droplet drying technique. Possible reaction mechanisms in the composite blend were elucidated by SEM and FTIR techniques...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Francesco Esposito, Evelina Fasano, Gelsomina Scognamiglio, Antonio Nardone, Maria Triassi, Teresa Cirillo
Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species and affecting maize crops. Some analogues of fumonisins are known for their toxic and possible carcinogenic effects on humans and animals. Because of their occurrence in corn-based food, diet is the main source of exposure to these mycotoxins, especially among people affected by celiac disease. Hence, the purpose of this paper was to evaluate the amount of fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 in maize-based products and to assess the exposure of people affected by celiac disease to fumonisins...
October 13, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Lucia Rochi, María José Diéguez, Germán Burguener, Martín Alejandro Darino, María Fernanda Pergolesi, Lorena Romina Ingala, Alba Romina Cuyeu, Adrián Turjanski, Enrique Domingo Kreff, Francisco Sacco
Rust fungi are one of the most devastating pathogens of crop plants. The biotrophic fungus Puccinia sorghi Schwein (Ps) is responsible for maize common rust, an endemic disease of maize (Zea mays L) in Argentina that causes significant yield losses in corn production. In spite of this, the Ps genomic sequence was not available. We used Illumina sequencing to rapidly produce the 99.6 Mb draft genome sequence of Ps race RO10H11247, derived from a single-uredinial isolate from infected maize leaves collected in the Argentine Corn Belt Region during 2010...
October 13, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Nikolas T Weissmueller, Hoang Dung Lu, Amanda Hurley, Robert K Prud'homme
One factor limiting the expansion of nanomedicines has been the high cost of the materials and processes required for their production. We present a continuous, scalable, low cost nano-encapsulation process, Flash Nanoprecipitation (FNP) that enables the production of nanocarriers (NCs) with a narrow size distribution using zein corn proteins. Zein is a low cost, GRAS protein (having the FDA status of "Generally Regarded as Safe") currently used in food applications, which acts as an effective encapsulant for hydrophobic compounds using FNP...
October 16, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Martin Waterstraat, Andreas A Hildebrand, Margit Rosler, Mirko Bunzel
Forage plants of the Poaceae family are grown as pasturage or used for the production of hay, straw, corn stover, etc. Although ferulic acid contents of grasses are generally high, the amount of ingested ferulic acid differs depending on the type of forage resulting in varying contents of ferulic acid and its microbial and hepatic metabolites in milk. Concentrations and patterns of these metabolites may be used as markers to track different forages in livestock feeding. Therefore, we developed a stable isotope dilution assay to quantitate ferulic acid, twelve ferulic acid based metabolites, p coumaric acid, and cinnamic acid in milk...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jan Franko, Qian Shi, Jeffrey P Meyers, Timothy S Maughan, Richard A Adams, Matthew T Seymour, Leonard Saltz, Cornelis J A Punt, Miriam Koopman, Christophe Tournigand, Niall C Tebbutt, Eduardo Diaz-Rubio, John Souglakos, Alfredo Falcone, Benoist Chibaudel, Volker Heinemann, Joseph Moen, Aimery De Gramont, Daniel J Sargent, Axel Grothey
BACKGROUND: Patients with peritoneal metastatic colorectal cancer have reduced overall survival compared with patients with metastatic colorectal cancer without peritoneal involvement. Here we further investigated the effect of the number and location of metastases in patients receiving first-line systemic chemotherapy. METHODS: We analysed individual patient data for previously untreated patients enrolled in 14 phase 3 randomised trials done between 1997 and 2008...
October 12, 2016: Lancet Oncology
Simon P Overeem, Johannes T Boersen, Richte C L Schuurmann, Erik Groot Jebbink, Cornelis H Slump, Michel M P J Reijnen, Jean-Paul P M de Vries
OBJECTIVE: Gutters can be described as the loss of continuous apposition between the main body of the endograft, the chimney stent graft, and the aortic wall. Gutters have been associated with increased risk of type IA endoleaks and are considered to be the Achilles' heel of chimney endovascular aneurysm repair (ch-EVAR). However, there is no classification yet to classify and quantify gutter types after ch-EVAR. METHODS: Different gutter types can be distinguished by their morphologic appearance in two- and three-dimensional views and reconstructed slices perpendicular to the center lumen line...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
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