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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932434/rapidly-progressing-dual-infection-with-aspergillus-and-rhizopus-when-soil-inhabitants-become-deadly-invaders
#1
Milind Bhagat, Alwyn Rapose
We present a case report of a 61-year-old patient with acute pulmonary and cerebral infections with Aspergillus and Rhizopus. The only risk factor for invasive fungal disease was high-dose corticosteroids used to treat her chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation. She had rapid progression and succumbed to her infections within 2 weeks of diagnosis in spite of aggressive antifungal therapy and surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of rapidly fatal dual infection with Aspergillus and Rhizopus Our case highlights the role of high-dose corticosteroids as a risk factor for invasive fungal disease in patients without traditional risk factors like haematological malignancies, solid organ transplantation or uncontrolled diabetes...
December 8, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932152/successful-second-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-from-a-sibling-donor-for-relapse-of-myelodysplastic-syndrome-in-a-recipient-of-a-renal-transplant-from-his-mother-case-report
#2
M Ikeda, N Tsukada, H Chikai, M Tasaki, K Saito, Y Nakagawa, K Takahashi, K Suzuki
There have been few reports on allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients who have previously undergone solid organ transplantation. The clinical course of such patients is not yet well recognized. Therefore, appropriate immunosuppressive prophylaxis for the rejection of a solid organ graft or for graft-versus-host disease has not yet been established. We present the case of a successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation in a patient who relapsed after a first allogeneic stem cell transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome and who had previously undergone renal transplantation...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932144/inhibition-of-jak3-and-pkc-via-immunosuppressive-drugs-tofacitinib-and-sotrastaurin-inhibits-proliferation-of-human-b-lymphocytes-in%C3%A2-vitro
#3
M N Martina, M J Ramirez Bajo, E Bañon-Maneus, D Moya Rull, N Hierro-Garcia, I Revuelta, J M Campistol, J Rovira, F Diekmann
BACKGROUND: Antibody-mediated response in solid organ transplantation is critical for graft dysfunction and loss. The use of immunosuppressive agents partially inhibits the B-lymphocyte response leading to a risk of acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection. This study evaluated the impact of JAK3 and PKC inhibitors tofacitinib (Tofa) and sotrastaurin (STN), respectively, on B-cell proliferation, apoptosis, and activation in vitro. METHODS: Human B cells isolated from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers were cocultured with CD40 ligand-transfected fibroblasts as feeder cells in the presence of interleukin (IL) 2, IL-10, and IL-21...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932108/donor-specific-antibodies-after-starting-hemodialysis-in-nonrenal-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-role-of-th17
#4
M L Agüera, A R Hurtarte, M A Álvarez de Lara, M D Aumente, A Carmona, J Carracedo, P Aljama, A Rodríguez Benot
BACKGROUND: Nonrenal transplantation could cause a progressive deterioration in renal function until need dialysis. It is important to know if these patients increased their risk to develop de novo donor-specific anti-HLA antibody (DSA) after starting hemodialysis (HD) and if so, try to find the mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this double-phase study, we first analyzed the incidence of development DSA in nonrenal transplant recipients after starting HD by a retrospective study...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931083/the-therapeutic-potential-of-t-cell-metabolism
#5
Ali Zarrinpar, Steven J Bensinger
Transplant rejection mediated by the adaptive immune system remains a major barrier to achieving long-term tolerance and graft survival. Emerging evidence indicates that lymphocytes rapidly shift their metabolic programs in response to activation, co-stimulatory, and cytokine signals to support required effector cell differentiation and function. These observations have led to the hypothesis that manipulating the metabolic programs of immune cells could serve as a powerful therapeutic strategy for attenuating deleterious immune responses and facilitating durable tolerance in the setting of allogeneic solid organ or bone marrow transplant...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929758/determinants-of-influenza-vaccination-among-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-attending-sicilian-reference-centre
#6
Vincenzo Restivo, Giovanni Vizzini, Alessandra Mularoni, Cinzia Di Benedetto, Santi Mauro Gioè, Francesco Vitale
In solid organ transplant recipients, influenza infection is commonly associated with higher morbidity and mortality than immunocompetent hosts. Therefore, in these subjects influenza vaccination is of paramount importance. The main objective of the study was to assess compliance to vaccination and analyze factors associated with influenza vaccination of solid organ transplant recipients admitted to the Sicilian solid organ transplant Reference Center IRCCS-ISMETT in Palermo during 2014-2015 influenza season...
December 8, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929334/the-interactive-effect-of-parent-personality-and-medication-knowledge-on-adherence-in-children-awaiting-solid-organ-transplantation
#7
Jennifer L Lee, Cyd K Eaton, Kristin Loiselle Rich, Bonney Reed-Knight, Rochelle S Liverman, Laura L Mee, Ana M Gutierrez-Colina, Rene Romero, Ronald L Blount
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to examine parent personality factors as predictors of parent medication knowledge and parent-report of child medication adherence. METHOD: Seventy-eight parents (Mage = 37.68, 87.2% female) of children (Mage = 8.89, range: 0-20 years) undergoing evaluation for a solid organ transplant were recruited. Parents completed questionnaires about their personality, knowledge of their child's medications, and their child's level of medication adherence...
December 8, 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918349/soft-palate-ulcer-an-unusual-presentation-of-a-posttransplant-lymphoproliferative-disorder
#8
Maryam Bahmanyar, Nader Shakibazad, Mohammad Hadi Imanieh, Seyed Mohsen Dehghani
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication of solid organ transplantation. It has several clinical manifestations, including infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome, lymphadenopathy, and other organ involvement. Soft palate ulcer is a rare manifestation of PTLD. The aim of this study is to present a 17-year-old girl with liver transplantation due to metastatic liver disease. After transplantation, she presented with a painful whitish ulcerative lesion accompanied by central necrosis in the right soft palate area measuring about 3 cm×3...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915968/peripheral-t-cell-lymphoma-a-posttransplant-lymphoproliferative-disorder-presenting-as-a-jejunal-mass-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient
#9
Aanchal Kakkar, Immanuel Pradeep, Geetika Singh, Amit Dinda, Sanjay K Agarwal
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders are a spectrum of lymphoproliferative disorders seen in recipients of solid-organ, bone marrow, and stem cell allografts. They include polyclonal early lesions mimicking infectious mononucleosis and monoclonal proliferations of B and T cells, indistinguishable from lymphomas occurring in immunocompetent individuals. Although most posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders are B-cell neoplasms, T-cell posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders are very rare. Among solid-organ transplants, renal allografts have low risk for development of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders...
December 2, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913812/association-between-cytokines-and-their-receptor-antagonist-gene-polymorphisms-and-clinical-risk-factors-and-acute-rejection-following-renal-transplantation
#10
SIqing Ding, Jianfei Xie, Qiquan Wan
BACKGROUND Acute rejection (AR) after renal transplantation affects both patient and graft survival. There is growing evidence of the genetic association between cytokine or its receptor antagonist and AR in solid organ transplantation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the role of recipient TNF β, IL-10, IL-1β, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (ra) gene polymorphism, as well as traditional clinical variables such as panel-reactive antibody (PRA) levels, donor type, and HLA mismatches in AR following renal transplantation...
December 3, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913515/cellular-immune-responses-in-red-blood-cell-alloimmunization
#11
James C Zimring, Krystalyn E Hudson
In excess of 340 blood group antigens have now been described that vary between individuals. Thus, any unit of blood that is nonautologous represents a significant dose of alloantigen. Most blood group antigens are proteins, which differ by a single amino acid between donors and recipients. Approximately 1 out of every 70 individuals are transfused each year (in the United States alone), which leads to antibody responses to red blood cell (RBC) alloantigens in some transfusion recipients. When alloantibodies are formed, in many cases, RBCs expressing the antigen in question can no longer be safely transfused...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913128/the-impact-of-solid-organ-transplant-history-on-inpatient-complications-mortality-length-of-stay-and-cost-for-primary-total-hip-arthroplasty-admissions-in-the-united-states
#12
Suparna M Navale, Caleb R Szubski, Alison K Klika, Nicholas K Schiltz, Pratik P Desai, Wael K Barsoum
BACKGROUND: As the prevalence of and life expectancy after solid organ transplantation increases, some of these patients will require total hip arthroplasty (THA). Immunosuppressive therapy, metabolic disorders, and post-transplant medications may place transplant patients at higher risk of adverse events following surgery. The objective of this study was to compare inpatient complications, mortality, length of stay (LOS), and costs for THA patients with and without solid organ transplant history...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911112/treatment-of-alpha-and-beta-herpesvirus-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#13
C L Abad, R R Razonable
Human herpesviruses frequently cause infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Areas covered: We provide an overview of the clinical impact of alpha and beta herpesviruses and highlight the mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical indications, and adverse effects of antiviral drugs for the management of herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus and cytomegalovirus. We comprehensively evaluated key clinical trials that led to drug approval, and served as the foundation for management guidelines...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909648/fc%C3%AE-receptors-in-solid-organ-transplantation
#14
REVIEW
Tomas Castro-Dopico, Menna R Clatworthy
In the current era, one of the major factors limiting graft survival is chronic antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR), whilst patient survival is impacted by the effects of immunosuppression on susceptibility to infection, malignancy and atherosclerosis. IgG antibodies play a role in all of these processes, and many of their cellular effects are mediated by Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs). These surface receptors are expressed by most immune cells, including B cells, natural killer cells, dendritic cells and macrophages...
2016: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909438/donor-specific-regulatory-t-cells-acquired-from-tolerant-mice-bearing-cardiac-allograft-promote-mixed-chimerism-and-prolong-intestinal-allograft-survival
#15
Xiao-Fei Shen, Jin-Peng Jiang, Jian-Jun Yang, Wei-Zhong Wang, Wen-Xian Guan, Jun-Feng Du
The induction of donor-specific transplant tolerance has always been a central problem for small bowel transplantation (SBT), which is thought to be the best therapy for end-stage bowel failure. With the development of new tolerance-inducing strategies, mixed chimerism induced by co-stimulation blockade has become most potent for tolerance of allografts, such as skin, kidney, and heart. However, a lack of clinically available co-stimulation blockers has hindered efficient application in humans. Furthermore, unlike those for other types of solid organ transplantation, strategies to induce robust mixed chimerism for intestinal allografts have not been fully developed...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906865/management-of-post-transplant-lymphoproliferative-disorders
#16
Gabriela Llaurador, Lauren McLaughlin, Birte Wistinghausen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a major complication of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantation. The incidence of transplantation in childhood has been steadily rising, making PTLD the most common form of lymphoproliferation in childhood. The purpose of this review is to summarize the role of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathophysiology and discuss the management of PTLD. RECENT FINDINGS: More than 90% of pediatric PTLD is EBV-positive...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906530/medicare-program-hospital-outpatient-prospective-payment-and-ambulatory-surgical-center-payment-systems-and-quality-reporting-programs-organ-procurement-organization-reporting-and-communication-transplant-outcome-measures-and-documentation-requirements-electronic
#17
(no author information available yet)
This final rule with comment period revises the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS) and the Medicare ambulatory surgical center (ASC) payment system for CY 2017 to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. In this final rule with comment period, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the payment rates for Medicare services paid under the OPPS and those paid under the ASC payment system...
November 14, 2016: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905900/prevalence-clinical-and-economic-burden-of-mucormycosis-related-hospitalizations-in-the-united-states-a-retrospective-study
#18
Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Hongbo Yang, Jinlin Song, Sneha S Kelkar, Xi Yang, Nkechi Azie, Rachel Harrington, Alan Fan, Edward Lee, James R Spalding
BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is a rare but devastating fungal infection primarily affecting immunocompromised patients such as those with hematological malignancy, bone marrow and solid organ transplantation, and patients with diabetes, and, even more rarely, immunocompetent patients. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and burden, both clinical and economic, of mucormycosis among hospitalized patients in the U.S. METHODS: This is a retrospective study using the Premier Perspective(TM) Comparative Database, with more than 560 participating hospitals covering 104 million patients (January 2005-June 2014)...
December 1, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903025/-antifungal-medication-new-substances-new-experiences
#19
Dieter Buchheidt, Wolf-Karsten Hofmann
The incidence of life threatening invasive fungal infections in patients with hematological malignancies during intensive chemotherapy or after hematopoetic stem cell transplantation, patients after solid organ transplantation, ICU patients and premature infants is rising. Mortality rates of invasive fungal infections, caused by Aspergillus species or mucormycetes, may reach 100%, in spite of considerable progress in diagnosis, antifungal prophylaxis and therapy. Comprehensive, profound knowledge of specific diagnostic and current treatment algorithms is essential to improve the prognosis of patients suffering from systemic fungal infections; this article encompasses recent developments in the field of antifungal treatment...
November 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896857/former-smoking-and-early-and-long-term-graft-outcome-in-renal-transplant-recipients-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#20
Steven Van Laecke, Evi Vanessa Nagler, Patrick Peeters, Francis Verbeke, Wim Van Biesen
Smoking is associated with unfavourable outcome in solid organ transplant recipients. Nicotine may predispose to kidney injury by increasing oxidative stress. We hypothesized that former smoking negatively affects graft outcome in kidney transplant recipients and especially those with delayed graft function (DGF). We included adult recipients of a kidney transplant between January 1(st) 2003 and October 1(st) 2015 at Ghent University Hospital and recorded outcomes until October, 31(st) 2015. We used Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis to examine the relationship between former smoking at the time of transplantation and the incidence of 10-year graft loss with and without censoring for death in 1013 participants...
November 28, 2016: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
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