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Haruki Odaka, Naoki Adachi, Tadahiro Numakawa
Neurogenesis is currently an area of great interest in neuroscience. It is closely linked to brain diseases, including mental disorders and neurodevelopmental disease. Both embryonic and adult neurogeneses are influenced by glucocorticoids secreted from the adrenal glands in response to a variety of stressors. Moreover, proliferation/differentiation of the neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) is affected by glucocorticoids through intracellular signaling pathways such as phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, hedgehog, and Wnt...
July 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
Li-Shan Wang, Joo Eun Chung, Peggy Pui-Yik Chan, Motoichi Kurisawa
We report an injectable hydrogel scaffold system with tunable stiffness for controlling the proliferation rate and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in a three-dimensional (3D) context in normal growth media. The hydrogels composed of gelatin-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (Gtn-HPA) conjugate were formed using the oxidative coupling of HPA moieties catalyzed by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The stiffness of the hydrogels was readily tuned by varying the H(2)O(2) concentration without changing the concentration of polymer precursor...
February 2010: Biomaterials
Stefania Corti, Federica Locatelli, Dimitra Papadimitriou, Chiara Donadoni, Roberto Del Bo, Marco Crimi, Andreina Bordoni, Francesco Fortunato, Sandra Strazzer, Giorgia Menozzi, Sabrina Salani, Nereo Bresolin, Giacomo P Comi
Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1) is an infantile autosomal-recessive motor neuron disease caused by mutations in the immunoglobulin micro-binding protein 2. We investigated the potential of a spinal cord neural stem cell population isolated on the basis of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity to modify disease progression of nmd mice, an animal model of SMARD1. ALDH(hi)SSC(lo) stem cells are self-renewing and multipotent and when intrathecally transplanted in nmd mice generate motor neurons properly localized in the spinal cord ventral horns...
January 15, 2006: Human Molecular Genetics
Anna Kowalczyk, Robert K Filipkowski, Marcin Rylski, Grzegorz M Wilczynski, Filip A Konopacki, Jacek Jaworski, Maria A Ciemerych, Piotr Sicinski, Leszek Kaczmarek
Adult neurogenesis (i.e., proliferation and differentiation of neuronal precursors in the adult brain) is responsible for adding new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and in the olfactory bulb. We describe herein that adult mice mutated in the cell cycle regulatory gene Ccnd2, encoding cyclin D2, lack newly born neurons in both of these brain structures. In contrast, genetic ablation of cyclin D1 does not affect adult neurogenesis. Furthermore, we show that cyclin D2 is the only D-type cyclin (out of D1, D2, and D3) expressed in dividing cells derived from neuronal precursors present in the adult hippocampus...
October 25, 2004: Journal of Cell Biology
S G Whittaker, J B Siegfried
Low amplitude high frequency wavelets have been demonstrated to be ubiquitous in the visual system of animals and are observed in the ERG of man. Wavelets have also been observed superimposed upon large slow waves obtained from electrodes on occipital scalp. Presently, the rather stereotypic wavelet repetition rate permitted the use of active analog filters tuned to 100 Hz, with a 60-200 Hz bandpass which produced no measurable distortion at 100 Hz. With this method we recorded a series of wavelets in 15 of 16 subjects that usually began from 35 to 40 msec following the onset of a 10(4) troland, 25 degrees visual angle 100 msec flash...
January 1983: Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology
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