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Synuclein alzheimers

Tianfang Jiang, Qian Sun, Shengdi Chen
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the overproduction and incorporation of free radicals and the dynamic ability of a biosystem to detoxify reactive intermediates. Free radicals produced by oxidative stress are one of the common features in several experimental models of diseases. Free radicals affect both the structure and function of neural cells, and contribute to a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Although the precise mechanisms that result in the degeneration of neurons and the relevant pathological changes remain unclear, the crucial role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases is associated with several proteins (such as α-synuclein, DJ-1, Amyloid β and tau protein) and some signaling pathways (such as extracellular regulated protein kinases, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Protein Kinase B pathway and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2) that are tightly associated with the neural damage...
October 18, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
Rui Gao, Guangjian Zhang, Xueqi Chen, Aimin Yang, Gwenn Smith, Dean F Wong, Yun Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, such as α-synuclein (α-syn), amyloid beta peptide 1-42 (Aβ1-42), phosphorylated tau (181P) (p-tau), and total tau (t-tau), have long been associated with the development of Parkinson disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. In this investigation, we reported the assessment of CSF biomarkers and their correlations with vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) bindings measured with 18F-9-fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine (18F-AV133) that is being developed as a biomarker for PD...
2016: PloS One
Graham Fairfoul, Lynne I McGuire, Suvankar Pal, James W Ironside, Juliane Neumann, Sharon Christie, Catherine Joachim, Margaret Esiri, Samuel G Evetts, Michal Rolinski, Fahd Baig, Claudio Ruffmann, Richard Wade-Martins, Michele T M Hu, Laura Parkkinen, Alison J E Green
We have developed a novel real-time quaking-induced conversion RT-QuIC-based assay to detect alpha-synuclein aggregation in brain and cerebrospinal fluid from dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease patients. This assay can detect alpha-synuclein aggregation in Dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease cerebrospinal fluid with sensitivities of 92% and 95%, respectively, and with an overall specificity of 100% when compared to Alzheimer and control cerebrospinal fluid. Patients with neuropathologically confirmed tauopathies (progressive supranuclear palsy; corticobasal degeneration) gave negative results...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Keqiang Chen, Ruoxi Yuan, Shuo Geng, Yao Zhang, Taojing Ran, Elizabeth Kowalski, Jingze Liu, Liwu Li
The excessive accumulation of specific cellular proteins or autophagic vacuoles (AVs) within neurons is a pathologic hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases. Constitutive autophagy in neurons prevents abnormal intracellular protein aggregation and is critical for maintaining cell survival. Since our previous study showed that Toll-interacting protein (Tollip)-deficient macrophages had constitutive disruption of endosome-lysosome fusion, we hypothesize that Tollip deficiency may also promote neuron death via blockage of autophagy completion...
October 5, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Yoshihide Takeshita, Nobuto Shibata, Koji Kasanuki, Tomoyuki Nagata, Shunichiro Shinagawa, Nobuyuki Kobayashi, Tohru Ohnuma, Ayako Suzuki, Eri Kawai, Toshiki Takayama, Kenya Nishioka, Yumiko Motoi, Nobutaka Hattori, Kazuhiko Nakayama, Hisashi Yamada, Heii Arai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Interaction of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) with amyloid-β increases amplification of oxidative stress and plays pathological roles in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Oxidative stress leads to α-synuclein aggregation and is also a major contributing factor in the pathogenesis of Lewy body dementias (LBDs). Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether RAGE gene polymorphisms were associated with AD and LBDs. METHODS: Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)-rs1800624, rs1800625, rs184003, and rs2070600-of the gene were analyzed using a case-control study design comprising 288 AD patients, 76 LBDs patients, and 105 age-matched controls...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Ruth Hornedo-Ortega, María Antonia Álvarez-Fernández, Ana Belén Cerezo, Tristan Richard, Ana Marı A Troncoso, Marı A Carmen Garcia-Parrilla
Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is the major metabolite of the anthocyanin known as cyanidin 3-glucoside. It is found in plasma and tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and kidneys, following consumption of a rich source of this flavonoid. The abnormal pathological assembly of amyloid-β (Aβ) and α-synuclein (αS) is an underlying mechanism involved in the formation of amyloid plaques and Lewy bodies in the brain, which are responsible for neuropathology symptoms in Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's diseases (PD), respectively...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
X T Li, D F Cai
Parkinson's disease(PD)was the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease. Incidence of PD was ascending year by year. The etiology of PD is poorly understood, involving aging, genetic and environmental factors. Recently, environmental compound had attracted more and more research interest. Studies and extrapolation from epidemiology, animal experiments and cell culture suggested that environmental compound had involved in the molecular mechanisms including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, microglia activation, abnormal aggregation of α-synuclein and autophagy damage ,which seemed to increase PD risk...
October 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Yu Funahashi, Yuta Yoshino, Kiyohiro Yamazaki, Yoko Mori, Takaaki Mori, Yuki Ozaki, Tomoko Sao, Shinichiro Ochi, Jun-Ichi Iga, Shu-Ichi Ueno
AIM: It is difficult to diagnose dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) because it exhibits clinical and neuropathological overlap with both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The α-synuclein protein is a major component of Lewy bodies, and accumulation of α-synuclein aggregates causes synaptic dysfunction in DLB. Epigenetic changes at the synuclein alpha gene (SNCA) may be involved in DLB pathogenesis. METHODS: We examined DNA methylation rates at 10 CpG sites located in intron 1 of SNCA and SNCA mRNA expression in peripheral leukocytes to compare DLB patients (n = 20; 9 males, 11 females; age = 78...
September 29, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
William A Banks, Andrej Kovac, Petra Majerova, Kristin M Bullock, Min Shi, Jing Zhang
Tauopathies are a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and traumatic brain injuries. It has been demonstrated that amyloid-beta peptides, alpha-synuclein, and prion proteins cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), contributing to their abilities to induce disease. Very little is known about whether tau proteins can cross the BBB. Here we systematically characterized several key forms of tau proteins to cross the BBB, including Tau-441 (2N4R), Tau-410 (2N3R), truncated tau 151-391 (0N4R), and truncated tau 121-227...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Sara D Reis, Brígida R Pinho, Jorge M A Oliveira
Polyglutamine expansion mutations in specific proteins underlie the pathogenesis of a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease, spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy, and several spinocerebellar ataxias. The different mutant proteins share ubiquitous expression and abnormal proteostasis, with misfolding and aggregation, but nevertheless evoke distinct patterns of neurodegeneration. This highlights the relevance of the full protein context where the polyglutamine expansion occurs and suggests different interactions with the cellular proteostasis machinery...
September 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Camelia Quek, Andrew F Hill
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, are small membranous vesicles released from many biotypes, contributing to the disease progression and spreading. These extracellular vesicles provide an important mode of cell-to-cell communication by delivering proteins, lipids and RNA to target cells. Exosomes are found associated with neurodegenerative diseases, which are characterised by progressive degeneration of neurons and often associated with misfolded protein. The common diseases include Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's diseases (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and the prion diseases...
September 19, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Pranay Srivastava, Rajesh Singh Yadav
Neurodegenerative disorders represent clusters of serious diseases that results in progressive deterioration of normal structure and physiology of central nervous system. Pathophysiology of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's or other neurodegenerative disorders involves multifaceted permutation of genetic and environmental factors. Combinations of lifestyle modification linked with environmental factor jointly or alone represent the largest share of cases of these disorders. Etiology of such neuronal degeneration involves manifestation of toxic reaction in the form of functional anomalies leading to dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, activated inflammatory cascade, compromised neuronal survival pathway, mitochondrial dysfunction and finally neuronal apoptosis/necrosis and cell death...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Giuseppe Scesa, Ana Lis Moyano, Ernesto R Bongarzone, Maria I Givogri
The discovery that most cells produce extracellular vesicles (EVs) and release them in the extracellular milieu has spurred the idea that these membranous cargoes spread pathogenic mechanisms. In the brain, EVs may have multifold and important physiological functions, from deregulating synaptic activity to promoting demyelination to changes in microglial activity. The finding that small EVs (exosomes) contain α-synuclein and β-amyloid, among other pathogenic proteins, is an example of this notion, underscoring their potential role in the brains of patients with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases...
November 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Parijat Kabiraj, Jose Eduardo Marin, Armando Varela-Ramirez, Mahesh Narayan
Amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation is generally associated with Alzheimer's onset. Here, we demonstrate that incubation of dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells with an Aβ peptide fragment (an 11-mer composed of residues 25-35; Aβ (25-35)) results in elevated intracellular nitrosative stress and induces chemical mutation of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), an endoplasmic reticulum-resident oxidoreductase chaperone. Furthermore, Aβ (25-35) provokes aggregation of both the minor and major biomarkers of Parkinson's disease, namely, synphilin-1 and α-synuclein, respectively...
October 3, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Wei-Li Kuan, Neal Bennett, Xiaoling He, Jeremy N Skepper, Nataly Martynyuk, Ruwani Wijeyekoon, Prabhas V Moghe, Caroline H Williams-Gray, Roger A Barker
Recently it has been shown that there is impaired cerebral endothelial function in many chronic neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease. Such problems have also been reported in Parkinson's disease, in which α-synuclein aggregation is the pathological hallmark. However, little is known about the relationship between misfolded α-synuclein and endothelial function. In the present study, we therefore examined whether α-synuclein preformed fibrils affect endothelial function in vitro...
November 2016: Experimental Neurology
Huayang Xing, Yun-An Lim, Joyce R Chong, Jasinda H Lee, Dag Aarsland, Clive G Ballard, Paul T Francis, Christopher P Chen, Mitchell K P Lai
Collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2) regulates axonal growth cone extension, and increased CRMP2 phosphorylation may lead to axonal degeneration. Axonal and synaptic pathology is an important feature of Lewy body dementias (LBD), but the state of CRMP2 phosphorylation (pCRMP2) as well as its correlations with markers of neurodegeneration have not been studied in these dementias. Hence, we measured CRMP2 phosphorylation at Thr509, Thr514 and Ser522, as well as markers of β-amyloid (Aβ), tau-phosphorylation, α-synuclein and synaptic function in the postmortem neocortex of a longitudinally assessed cohort of LBD patients characterized by low (Parkinson's disease dementia, PDD) and high (dementia with Lewy bodies, DLB) burden of Alzheimer type pathology...
2016: Molecular Brain
Heiko Braak, Kelly Del Tredici
Experimental data indicate that transneuronal propagation of abnormal protein aggregates in neurodegenerative proteinopathies, such as sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), is capable of a self-propagating process that leads to a progression of neurodegeneration and accumulation of prion-like particles. The mechanisms by which misfolded tau and α-synuclein possibly spread from one involved nerve cell to the next in the neuronal chain to induce abnormal aggregation are still unknown...
August 31, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Nadja Bredo Rasmussen, Mikkel Vestergaard Olesen, Tomasz Brudek, Per Plenge, Anders Bue Klein, Jenny E Westin, Karina Fog, Gitta Wörtwein, Susana Aznar
The 5-HT2A receptor is highly involved in aspects of cognition and executive function and seen to be affected in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and related to the disease pathology. Even though Parkinson's disease (PD) is primarily a motor disorder, reports of impaired executive function are also steadily being associated with this disease. Not much is known about the pathophysiology behind this. The aim of this study was thereby twofold: (1) to investigate 5-HT2A receptor binding levels in Parkinson's brains and (2) to investigate whether PD associated pathology, alpha-synuclein (AS) overexpression, could be associated with 5-HT2A alterations...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Li-Na Lu, Zhong-Ming Qian, Ka-Chun Wu, Wing-Ho Yung, Ya Ke
Iron accumulates progressively in the brain with age; however, the cause is unknown. We hypothesized that iron accumulation may be associated with the age-induced changes in the expression of iron metabolism proteins in the brain. Here, we systematically investigated iron content and the expression of two major iron importers, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and divalent metal transporter (DMT1), two iron exporters, ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) and ceruloplasmin (CP), and hepcidin, along with the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's (PD) and Alzheimer's diseases (AD) in the brain of young (3 months), adult (12 months), and aged (24 months) rats...
August 30, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, José Avila-Ramírez, Ana Calderón-Garcidueñas, Tonatiuh González-Heredia, Hilda Acuña-Ayala, Chih-Kai Chao, Charles Thompson, Rubén Ruiz-Ramos, Victor Cortés-González, Luz Martínez-Martínez, Mario Alberto García-Pérez, Jacques Reis, Partha S Mukherjee, Ricardo Torres-Jardón, Ingolf Lachmann
Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above US EPA standards is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk, while Mn toxicity induces parkinsonism. Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children have pre- and postnatal sustained and high exposures to PM2.5, O3, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and metals. Young MCMA residents exhibit frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and amyloid-β (Aβ)1 - 42 diffuse plaques, and aggregated and hyperphosphorylated α-synuclein in olfactory nerves and key brainstem nuclei...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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