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Tonic activation of norepinephrine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753906/os-02-06-physiological-regulation-of-vasomotion-by-intracellular-atp-mediated-system-in-human-artery
#1
Young Chul Kim, Dae Hoon Kim, Sang Eok Lee, Chan Hyung Kim, Woong Choi, Sang Jin Lee, Hyo-Yung Yun
OBJECTIVE: Spontaneous oscillation of tone of blood vessel called vasomotion cause vessel to flow blood which is an oscillation of flow into an organ. Microcirculation is sensitive to hypoxic condition and metabolism but mechanism of vasomotion is still poorly understood. DESIGN AND METHOD: Purpose: We studied involvement of metabolism-mediated regulation by intracellular ATP level of vasomotion in human gastric artery. METHODS: Conventional contractile measuring system and Western blot were used...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643252/os-02-06-physiological-regulation-of-vasomotion-by-intracellular-atp-mediated-system-in-human-artery
#2
Young Chul Kim, Dae Hoon Kim, Sang Eok Lee, Chan Hyung Kim, Woong Choi, Sang Jin Lee, Hyo-Yung Yun
OBJECTIVE: Spontaneous oscillation of tone of blood vessel called vasomotion cause vessel to flow blood which is an oscillation of flow into an organ. Microcirculation is sensitive to hypoxic condition and metabolism but mechanism of vasomotion is still poorly understood. DESIGN AND METHOD: HASH(0x447f6a0) PURPOSE: We studied involvement of metabolism-mediated regulation by intracellular ATP level of vasomotion in human gastric artery. METHODS: Conventional contractile measuring system and Western blot were used...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616990/locus-ceruleus-norepinephrine-release-a-central-regulator-of-cns-spatio-temporal-activation
#3
Marco Atzori, Roberto Cuevas-Olguin, Eric Esquivel-Rendon, Francisco Garcia-Oscos, Roberto C Salgado-Delgado, Nadia Saderi, Marcela Miranda-Morales, Mario Treviño, Juan C Pineda, Humberto Salgado
Norepinephrine (NE) is synthesized in the Locus Coeruleus (LC) of the brainstem, from where it is released by axonal varicosities throughout the brain via volume transmission. A wealth of data from clinics and from animal models indicates that this catecholamine coordinates the activity of the central nervous system (CNS) and of the whole organism by modulating cell function in a vast number of brain areas in a coordinated manner. The ubiquity of NE receptors, the daunting number of cerebral areas regulated by the catecholamine, as well as the variety of cellular effects and of their timescales have contributed so far to defeat the attempts to integrate central adrenergic function into a unitary and coherent framework...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27371683/endogenous-nitric-oxide-derived-from-nos-i-or-ii-in-thoracic-spinal-cord-exerts-opposing-tonic-modulation-on-sympathetic-vasomotor-tone-via-disparate-mechanisms-in-anesthetized-rats
#4
Yan-Yuen Poon, Ching-Yi Tsai, Chung-Dar Cheng, Alice Y W Chang, Samuel H H Chan
The sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) in the thoracic spinal cord regulate vasomotor tone via norepinephrine released from sympathetic terminals and adrenal medulla. We assessed the hypothesis that nitric oxide synthase I (NOS I)- and NOS II-derived nitric oxide (NO) in the thoracic spinal cord differentially modulate sympathetic outflow and that the adrenal medulla may be involved in those modulatory actions. In Sprague-Dawley rats, NOS I immunoreactivity was distributed primarily in the perikaryon, proximal dendrites, or axons of SPN, and small clusters of NOS II immunoreactivity impinged mainly on the circumference of SPN...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27141430/striatal-dopamine-neurotransmission-regulation-of-release-and-uptake
#5
David Sulzer, Stephanie J Cragg, Margaret E Rice
Dopamine (DA) transmission is governed by processes that regulate release from axonal boutons in the forebrain and the somatodendritic compartment in midbrain, and by clearance by the DA transporter, diffusion, and extracellular metabolism. We review how axonal DA release is regulated by neuronal activity and by autoreceptors and heteroreceptors, and address how quantal release events are regulated in size and frequency. In brain regions densely innervated by DA axons, DA clearance is due predominantly to uptake by the DA transporter, whereas in cortex, midbrain, and other regions with relatively sparse DA inputs, the norepinephrine transporter and diffusion are involved...
August 2016: Basal Ganglia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26691963/descending-nociceptive-inhibition-is-modulated-in-a-time-dependent-manner-in-a-double-hit-model-of-chronic-tonic-pain
#6
A J Parent, P Tétreault, M Roux, K Belleville, J-M Longpré, N Beaudet, P Goffaux, P Sarret
Clinical evidences suggest that an imbalance between descending inhibition and facilitation drives the development of chronic pain. However, potential mechanisms promoting the establishment of a persistent pain state and the increased pain vulnerability remain unknown. This preclinical study was designed to evaluate temporal changes in descending pain modulation at specific experimental endpoints (12, 28, 90 and 168 days) using a novel double-hit model of chronic/tonic pain (first hit: chronic constriction injury (CCI) model; second hit: tonic formalin pain in the contralateral hindpaw)...
February 19, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26655475/interdependent-adrenergic-receptor-regulation-of-arc-and-zif268-mrna-in-cerebral-cortex
#7
Norah Essali, Jeff Sanders
Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter that signals by stimulating the α1, α2 and β adrenergic receptor (AR). We determined the role of these receptors in regulating the immediate early genes, Activity Regulated Cytoskeleton Associated Protein (Arc) and Zif268 in the rat cerebral cortex. RX821002, an α2-AR antagonist, produced Arc and Zif268 elevations across cortical layers. Next we examined the effects of delivering RX821002 with an α1-AR antagonist, prazosin, and a β-AR antagonist, propranolol. RX821002 given with a prazosin and propranolol cocktail, or with each of these antagonists individually, decreased Arc and Zif268 to saline-treated control levels in most cortical layers...
January 26, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26542628/anticonvulsant-mechanisms-of-piperine-a-piperidine-alkaloid
#8
Awanish Mishra, Jasmine Kaur Punia, Chris Bladen, Gerald W Zamponi, Rajesh Kumar Goel
Piperine, a natural compound isolated from the fruits of Piper, is known to modulate several neurotransmitter systems such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and GABA, all of which have been linked to the development of convulsions. Fruits of Piper species have been suggested as means for managing seizure disorders. The present study was designed to elucidate the anticonvulsant effect of piperine and its mechanisms of action using in-silico, in-vivo and in-vitro techniques.PASS software was used to determine its possible activity and mechanisms...
2015: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26495739/-role-of-thromboxane-and-leukotrienes-in-mechanisms-of-contractile-reactions-of-portal-vein-induced-by-acetylchline-and-phenylephrine
#9
O O Vinogradova, P I Yanchuk, O M Pasichnichenko
Effects of picotamide and zileuton on tonic contractile activity of the rat portal vein preparations, induced by acetylcholine (2.10(-5) mol/1) and phenylephrine (5.10(-7) mol/1) were investigated. Conversion of arachidonic acid products (prostaglandins, leukotrienes) synthesized by endothelial cells, plays an important role in the local regulation of vascular tone. The compounds formed in a cascade of enzymatic transformations can modulate the effect of other vasoactive factors. Picotamide (6,5.10(-5) mol/1) - thromboxane receptor and thromboxane -synthase blocker - depress acetylcholine-induction tonic contraction of isolated segments of portal vein with intact endothelium by 29% and norepinephrine-induction reduction of 45% relative to the control values...
2015: Fiziolohichnyĭ Zhurnal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26362359/long-term-administration-of-the-antidepressant-vilazodone-modulates-rat-brain-monoaminergic-systems
#10
Mostafa El Mansari, Agnes Crnic, Chris Oosterhof, Pierre Blier
Vilazodone has high affinity for the human 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (h5-HT1A) receptor and for the serotonin transporter (5-HTT). A previous in vivo microdialysis experiment showed that a single administration of vilazodone, dose-dependently increases extracellular 5-HT but not norepinephrine (NE) or dopamine (DA) levels in rat medial prefrontal cortex and ventral hippocampus. The effects of vilazodone on monoaminergic systems were assessed using single-unit extracellular recordings and microiontophoresis in the rat brain...
December 2015: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26361057/adolescent-social-stress-produces-an-enduring-activation-of-the-rat-locus-coeruleus-and-alters-its-coherence-with-the-prefrontal-cortex
#11
Gerard A Zitnik, Andrè L Curtis, Susan K Wood, Jay Arner, Rita J Valentino
Early life stress is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders. Because the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is a major stress-response system that is implicated in psychopathology, developmental differences in the response of this system to stress may contribute to increased vulnerability. Here LC single unit and network activity were compared between adult and adolescent rats during resident-intruder stress. In some rats, LC and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) coherence was quantified...
April 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26247856/norepinephrine-and-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-partners-in-the-neural-circuits-that-underpin-stress-and-anxiety
#12
COMMENT
Yajie Sun, Sarah Hunt, Pankaj Sah
Norepinephrine and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) have long been implicated in the response to stress. In this issue of Neuron, McCall et al. (2015) show that CRH projections from the central amygdala drive tonic locus coeruleus activity that evokes acute anxiety responses and place aversion.
August 5, 2015: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25921737/inquiries-into-the-biological-significance-of-transmembrane-ampa-receptor-regulatory-protein-tarp-%C3%AE-8-through-investigations-of-tarp-%C3%AE-8-null-mice%C3%A2
#13
Scott D Gleason, Akihiko Kato, Hai H Bui, Linda K Thompson, Sabrina N Valli, Patrick V Stutz, Ming-Shang Kuo, Julie F Falcone, Wesley H Anderson, Xia Li, Jeffrey M Witkin
Transmembrane AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptor regulatory protein (TARP) γ-8 is an auxiliary protein associated with some AMPA receptors. Most strikingly, AMPA receptors associated with this TARP have a relatively high localization in the hippocampus. TARP γ-8 also modifies the pharmacology and trafficking of AMPA receptors. However, to date there is little understanding of the biological significance of this auxiliary protein. In the present set of studies we provide a characterization of the differential pharmacology and behavioral consequences of deletion of TARP γ-8 by comparing the wild type (WT) and γ-8 -/- (knock-out, KO) mouse...
2015: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25522394/restoration-of-serotonin-neuronal-firing-following-long-term-administration-of-bupropion-but-not-paroxetine-in-olfactory-bulbectomized-rats
#14
Mostafa El Mansari, Stella Manta, Chris Oosterhof, Kareem S El Iskandrani, Franck Chenu, Stacey Shim, Pierre Blier
BACKGROUND: Olfactory bulbectomized rats generally manifest many of the neurochemical, physiological, and behavioral features of major depressive disorder in humans. Another interesting feature of this model is that it responds to chronic but not acute antidepressant treatments, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The purpose of the present study was first to characterize the firing activity of dorsal raphe serotonin neurons in olfactory bulbectomized rats and then examine the effects of 2 antidepressants, bupropion and paroxetine...
October 31, 2014: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25339222/recent-advances-in-research-on-nitrergic-nerve-mediated-vasodilatation
#15
REVIEW
Noboru Toda, Tomio Okamura
Cerebral vascular resistance and blood flow were widely considered to be regulated solely by tonic innervation of vasoconstrictor adrenergic nerves. However, pieces of evidence suggesting that parasympathetic nitrergic nerve activation elicits vasodilatation in dog and monkey cerebral arteries were found in 1990. Nitric oxide (NO) as a neurotransmitter liberated from parasympathetic postganglionic neurons decreases cerebral vascular tone and resistance and increases cerebral blood flow, which overcome vasoconstrictor responses to norepinephrine liberated from adrenergic nerves...
June 2015: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25326452/gabab-receptor-mediated-tonic-inhibition-regulates-the-spontaneous-firing-of-locus-coeruleus-neurons-in-developing-rats-and-in-citalopram-treated-rats
#16
Han-Ying Wang, Zhao-Chen Kuo, Yu-Show Fu, Ruei-Feng Chen, Ming-Yuan Min, Hsiu-Wen Yang
Norepinephrine (NE)-releasing neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) provide NE to the forebrain. Their activity is believed to be a key factor regulating the wakefulness/arousal level of the brain. In this study, we found that the activity of NE-releasing neurons in the LC (LC neurons) was subject to γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) tonic inhibition through GABAB receptors (GABABRs), but not GABAA receptors. The intensity of GABABR tonic inhibition was found to depend on ambient GABA levels, as it was dramatically increased by blockade of GABA reuptake...
October 17, 2014: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25109891/repeated-social-stress-increases-reward-salience-and-impairs-encoding-of-prediction-by-rat-locus-coeruleus-neurons
#17
Nayla N Chaijale, Kevin Snyder, Jay Arner, Andre L Curtis, Rita J Valentino
Stress is implicated in psychopathology characterized by cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive responses to stress are regulated by the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system. As social stress is a prevalent human stressor, this study determined the impact of repeated social stress on the relationship between LC neuronal activity and behavior during the performance of cognitive tasks. Social stress-exposed rats performed better at intradimensional set shifting (IDS) and made fewer perseverative errors during reversal learning (REV)...
January 2015: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24746052/sleep-wake-control-of-the-upper-airway-by-noradrenergic-neurons-with-and-without-intermittent-hypoxia
#18
Leszek Kubin
Hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons innervate muscles of the tongue whose tonic and inspiratory modulated activity protects the upper airway from collapse in patients affected by the obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome. Both norepinephrine and serotonin provide wakefulness-related excitatory drives that maintain activity in XII motoneurons, with the noradrenergic system playing a particularly prominent role in rats. When noradrenergic and serotonergic drives are antagonized, no further decline of XII nerve activity occurs during pharmacologically induced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep-like state...
2014: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24713310/tapentadol-potentiates-descending-pain-inhibition-in-chronic-pain-patients-with-diabetic-polyneuropathy
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
M Niesters, P L Proto, L Aarts, E Y Sarton, A M Drewes, A Dahan
BACKGROUND: Tapentadol is an analgesic agent for treatment of acute and chronic pain that activates the µ-opioid receptor combined with inhibition of neuronal norepinephrine reuptake. Both mechanisms are implicated in activation of descending inhibitory pain pathways. In this study, we investigated the influence of tapentadol on conditioned pain modulation (CPM, an experimental measure of endogenous pain inhibition that gates incoming pain signals as a consequence of a preceding tonic painful stimulus) and offset analgesia (OA, a test in which a disproportionally large amount of analgesia becomes apparent upon a slight decrease in noxious heat stimulation)...
July 2014: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24618591/your-eyes-give-you-away-prestimulus-changes-in-pupil-diameter-correlate-with-poststimulus-task-related-eeg-dynamics
#20
Linbi Hong, Jennifer M Walz, Paul Sajda
Pupillary measures have been linked to arousal and attention as well as activity in the brainstem's locus coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE) system. Similarly, there is evidence that evoked EEG responses, such as the P3, might have LC-NE activity as their basis. Since it is not feasible to record electrophysiological data directly from the LC in humans due to its location in the brainstem, an open question has been whether pupillary measures and EEG variability can be linked in a meaningful way to shed light on the nature of the LC-NE role in attention and arousal...
2014: PloS One
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