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default mode network

Xiao Luo, Kaicheng Li, Y L Jia, Qingze Zeng, Yeerfan Jiaerken, Tiantian Qiu, Peiyu Huang, Xiaojun Xu, Zhujing Shen, Xiaojun Guan, Jiong Zhou, Chao Wang, J J Xu, Minming Zhang
The APOE ε4 allele is associated with impaired intrinsic functional connectivity in neural networks, especially in the default mode network (DMN). However, effective connectivity (EC) reflects the direct causal effects of one brain region to another, which has rarely been investigated. Recently, Granger causality analysis (GCA) proved suitable for the study of directionality in neuronal interactions. Using GCA, we examined the differences in the EC between the anterior medial prefrontal cortex/posterior cingulate cortex (aMPFC/PCC) and the whole brain in 17 ε4 carrying and 32 non-carrying cognitively intact elderly individuals...
March 17, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Maryam Falahpour, Catie Chang, Chi Wah Wong, Thomas T Liu
Changes in vigilance or alertness during a typical resting state fMRI scan are inevitable and have been found to affect measures of functional brain connectivity. Since it is not often feasible to monitor vigilance with EEG during fMRI scans, it would be of great value to have methods for estimating vigilance levels from fMRI data alone. A recent study, conducted in macaque monkeys, proposed a template-based approach for fMRI-based estimation of vigilance fluctuations. Here, we use simultaneously acquired EEG/fMRI data to investigate whether the same template-based approach can be employed to estimate vigilance fluctuations of awake humans across different resting-state conditions...
March 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Liang Shi, Jiangzhou Sun, Zhiting Ren, Qunlin Chen, Dongtao Wei, Wenjing Yang, Jiang Qiu
Creativity is imperative to social development and the promotion of well-being. Here, independent component analysis and functional network connectivity analysis methods were applied to both resting-state and divergent thinking task fMRI data from the same sample to investigate large-scale brain network connectivity underlying creativity. The results showed that the strength of the connectivity between the posterior default mode network (DMN) and right frontal-parietal network (FPN) was significantly greater whereas the right FPN and left FPN connectivity strength was weaker in the creative condition than in the control condition...
March 13, 2018: Biological Psychology
Jeroen Gielen, Wietse Wiels, Jeroen Van Schependom, Jorne Laton, Wim Van Hecke, Paul M Parizel, Marie Beatrice D'hooghe, Guy Nagels
INTRODUCTION: The paced serial addition test (PSAT) is regularly used to assess cognitive deficits in various neuropsychiatric conditions. Being a complex test, it reflects the status of multiple cognitive domains such as working memory, information processing speed and executive functioning. Two versions of the PSAT exist. One uses auditory stimuli through spoken numbers and is known as the PASAT, while the other one presents patients with visual stimuli and is called PVSAT. The PASAT is considered more frustrating by patients, and hence the visual version is usually preferred...
2018: PloS One
Alireza Shahbabaie, Mitra Ebrahimpoor, Ali Hariri, Michael A Nitsche, Javad Hatami, Emad Fatemizadeh, Mohammad Ali Oghabian, Hamed Ekhtiari
Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation tool suited to alter cortical excitability and activity via the application of weak direct electrical currents. An increasing number of studies in the addiction literature suggests that tDCS modulates subjective self-reported craving through stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The major goal of this study was to explore effects of bilateral DLPFC stimulation on resting state networks (RSNs) in association with drug craving modulation...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Martin Lamos, Radek Marecek, Tomáš Slavíček, Michal Mikl, Ivan Rektor, Jiri Jan
Growing interest in the examination of large-scale brain network functional connectivity dynamics is accompanied by an effort to find the electrophysiological correlates. The commonly used constraints applied to spatial and spectral domains during EEG data analysis may leave part of the neural activity unrecognized. We propose an approach that blindly reveals multimodal EEG spectral patterns that are related to the dynamics of the BOLD functional network connectivity.
 Approach. The blind decomposition of EEG spectrogram by Parallel Factor Analysis has been shown to be a useful technique for uncovering patterns of neural activity...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Liping Fu, Linwen Liu, Jinming Zhang, Baixuan Xu, Yong Fan, Jiahe Tian
The aim of this study was to identify the brain networks from early-phase11 C-PIB (perfusion PIB, pPIB) data and to compare the brain networks of patients with differentiating Alzheimer's disease (AD) with cognitively normal subjects (CN) and of mild cognitively impaired patients (MCI) with CN. Forty participants (14 CN, 12 MCI, and 14 AD) underwent11 C-PIB and18 F-FDG PET/CT scans. Parallel independent component analysis (pICA) was used to identify correlated brain networks from the11 C-pPIB and18 F-FDG data, and a two-sample t -test was used to evaluate group differences in the corrected brain networks between AD and CN, and between MCI and CN...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Vittorio Iacovella, Luca Faes, Uri Hasson
Neuroimaging research has shown that different cognitive tasks induce relatively specific activation patterns, as well as less task-specific deactivation patterns. Here we examined whether individual differences in Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) activity during task performance correlate with the magnitude of task-induced deactivation. In an fMRI study, participants performed a continuous mental arithmetic task in a task/rest block design, while undergoing combined fMRI and heart / respiration rate acquisitions using photoplethysmograph and respiration belt...
March 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
John R Fedota, Xiaoyu Ding, Allison L Matous, Betty Jo Salmeron, Michael R McKenna, Hong Gu, Thomas J Ross, Elliot A Stein
BACKGROUND: Insular subdivisions show distinct patterns of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with specific brain regions, each with different functional significance. Seeds in these subdivisions are employed to characterize the effects of acute nicotine abstinence on rsFC between insula subdivisions and brain networks implicated in addiction and attentional control. METHODS: In a within-subjects design, resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent data were collected from treatment-seeking smokers (N= 20) following smoking satiety and again following 48 hours of nicotine abstinence...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Katherine H Karlsgodt, Angelica A Bato, Toshikazu Ikuta, Bart D Peters, Pamela DeRosse, Philip R Szeszko, Anil K Malhotra
BACKGROUND: Externalizing behaviors are negative behaviors expressed outwardly, including rule breaking, aggression, and risk taking; internalizing behaviors are expressed inwardly, including depression, withdrawal, and anxiety. Such behavior can cause problems in early life and predict difficulties across the lifespan. There is evidence for a relationship between executive function and both externalizing and internalizing. However, although these behaviors occur along a spectrum, there is little neuroimaging research on this relationship in typically developing youth...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Elena Makovac, Jonathan Smallwood, David R Watson, Frances Meeten, Hugo D Critchley, Cristina Ottaviani
Background: The Cognitive Avoidance Theory of Worry argues that worry is a cognitive strategy adopted to control the physiological arousal associated with anxiety. According to this theory, pathological worry, as in Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), is verbal in nature, negative and abstract, rather than concrete. Neuroimaging studies link the expression of worry to characteristic modes of brain functional connectivity, especially in relation to the amygdala. However, the distinctive features of worry (verbal, abstract, negative), and their relationship to physiological arousal, have not so far been mapped to brain function...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
María Díez-Cirarda, Antonio P Strafella, Jinhee Kim, Javier Peña, Natalia Ojeda, Alberto Cabrera-Zubizarreta, Naroa Ibarretxe-Bilbao
The objective was to assess dynamic functional connectivity (FC) and local/global connectivity in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and with normal cognition (PD-NC). The sample included 35 PD patients and 26 healthy controls (HC). Cognitive assessment followed an extensive neuropsychological battery. For resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) analysis, independent component analysis (ICA) was performed and components were located in 7 networks: Subcortical (SC), Auditory (AUD), Somatomotor (SM), visual (VI), cognitive-control (CC), default-mode (DMN), and cerebellar (CB)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Ryu-Ichiro Hashimoto, Takashi Itahashi, Rieko Okada, Sayaka Hasegawa, Masayuki Tani, Nobumasa Kato, Masaru Mimura
Abnormalities in functional brain networks in schizophrenia have been studied by examining intrinsic and extrinsic brain activity under various experimental paradigms. However, the identified patterns of abnormal functional connectivity (FC) vary depending on the adopted paradigms. Thus, it is unclear whether and how these patterns are inter-related. In order to assess relationships between abnormal patterns of FC during intrinsic activity and those during extrinsic activity, we adopted a data-fusion approach and applied partial least square (PLS) analyses to FC datasets from 25 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 25 age- and sex-matched normal controls...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Zheng Zhang, Delong Zhang, Zengjian Wang, Junchao Li, Yuting Lin, Song Chang, Ruiwang Huang, Ming Liu
Previous studies have reported the essence of the sensory-based properties of human brain function, in which mental imagery is of great importance. In this study, we explored the association between the activities of two special regions, i.e., the primary visual area (PVA), which is the classically dominant sensory region, and the default mode network (DMN), which is the classical supra-sensory region, with a focus on their linkage in visual mental imagery. For this purpose, we collected fMRI data from 30 healthy participants (15 males; 22...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience
Oliver G Bosch, Fabrizio Esposito, Dario Dornbierer, Michael M Havranek, Robin von Rotz, Michael Kometer, Philipp Staempfli, Boris B Quednow, Erich Seifritz
According to the triple network hypothesis the brain is equipped with three core neurocognitive networks: the default mode (DMN), the salience (SN), and the central executive (CEN) network. Moreover, the so called dorsal nexus, has met growing interest as it is a hub region connecting these three networks. Assessment of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of these networks enables the elucidation of drug-induced brain alterations. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB/GABA-B receptor agonist that induces a paradoxical state of mixed stimulation and sedation at moderate doses, which makes it a valuable tool to investigate neural signatures of subjective drug effects...
March 7, 2018: NeuroImage
Takahiro Ezaki, Michiko Sakaki, Takamitsu Watanabe, Naoki Masuda
Executive functions, a set of cognitive processes that enable flexible behavioral control, are known to decay with aging. Because such complex mental functions are considered to rely on the dynamic coordination of functionally different neural systems, the age-related decline in executive functions should be underpinned by alteration of large-scale neural dynamics. However, the effects of age on brain dynamics have not been firmly formulated. Here, we investigate such age-related changes in brain dynamics by applying "energy landscape analysis" to publicly available functional magnetic resonance imaging data from healthy younger and older human adults...
March 9, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Jeremy Hogeveen, Marie K Krug, Matthew V Elliott, Marjorie Solomon
BACKGROUND: Internalizing symptoms like anxiety and depression are common and impairing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we test the hypothesis that aberrant functional connectivity among three brain networks (salience network [SN], default mode network [DMN], and frontoparietal network [FPN]) plays a role in the pathophysiology of internalizing in ASD. METHODS: We examined the association between resting-state functional connectivity and internalizing in 102 adolescents and young adults with ASD (n = 49) or typical development (n = 53)...
January 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Hengyi Cao, Sarah C McEwen, Jennifer K Forsyth, Dylan G Gee, Carrie E Bearden, Jean Addington, Bradley Goodyear, Kristin S Cadenhead, Heline Mirzakhanian, Barbara A Cornblatt, Ricardo E Carrión, Daniel H Mathalon, Thomas H McGlashan, Diana O Perkins, Aysenil Belger, Larry J Seidman, Heidi Thermenos, Ming T Tsuang, Theo G M van Erp, Elaine F Walker, Stephan Hamann, Alan Anticevic, Scott W Woods, Tyrone D Cannon
While graph theoretical modeling has dramatically advanced our understanding of complex brain systems, the feasibility of aggregating connectomic data in large imaging consortia remains unclear. Here, using a battery of cognitive, emotional and resting fMRI paradigms, we investigated the generalizability of functional connectomic measures across sites and sessions. Our results revealed overall fair to excellent reliability for a majority of measures during both rest and tasks, in particular for those quantifying connectivity strength, network segregation and network integration...
March 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Ri-Xing Jing, Shen Li, Xin-Jun Zhang, Jing Long, Tian-Hong Zhou, Chuan-Jun Zhuo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Kwun Kei Ng, Yingwei Qiu, June Chi-Yan Lo, Evelyn Siew-Chuan Koay, Woon-Puay Koh, Michael Wei-Liang Chee, Juan Zhou
We investigated the influence of the apolipoprotein E-ɛ4 allele (APOE-ɛ4) on longitudinal age-related changes in brain functional connectivity (FC) and cognition, in view of mixed cross-sectional findings. One hundred and twenty-two healthy older adults (aged 58-79; 25 APOE-ɛ4 carriers) underwent task-free fMRI scans at baseline. Seventy-eight (16 carriers) had at least one follow-up (every 2 years). Changes in intra- and internetwork FCs among the default mode (DMN), executive control (ECN), and salience (SN) networks, as well as cognition, were quantified using linear mixed models...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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