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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432773/transition-of-the-functional-brain-network-related-to-increasing-cognitive-demands
#1
Karolina Finc, Kamil Bonna, Monika Lewandowska, Tomasz Wolak, Jan Nikadon, Joanna Dreszer, Włodzisław Duch, Simone Kühn
Network neuroscience provides tools that can easily be used to verify main assumptions of the global workspace theory (GWT), such as the existence of highly segregated information processing during effortless tasks performance, engagement of multiple distributed networks during effortful tasks and the critical role of long-range connections in workspace formation. A number of studies support the assumptions of GWT by showing the reorganization of the whole-brain functional network during cognitive task performance; however, the involvement of specific large scale networks in the formation of workspace is still not well-understood...
April 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429067/neuronal-oscillations-and-synchronicity-associated-with-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-during-resting-state-in-healthy-male-volunteers
#2
Robin von Rotz, Michael Kometer, Dario Dornbierer, Jürg Gertsch, M Salomé Gachet, Franz X Vollenweider, Erich Seifritz, Oliver G Bosch, Boris B Quednow
RATIONALE: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a putative neurotransmitter, a drug of abuse, an anesthetic agent, and a treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders. In previous electroencephalography (EEG) studies, GHB was shown to induce an electrophysiological pattern of "paradoxical EEG-behavioral dissociation" characterized by increased delta and theta oscillations usually associated with sleep during awake states. However, no detailed source localization of these alterations and no connectivity analyses have been performed yet...
April 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428146/the-correlation-between-mood-states-and-functional-connectivity-within-the-default-mode-network-can-differentiate-internet-gaming-disorder-from-healthy-controls
#3
Guangheng Dong, Hui Li, Lingxiao Wang, Marc N Potenza
The default-mode network (DMN) has been suggested to support a baseline state of brain activity. However, whether connectivity within the DMN is associated with mood states remains incompletely understood. The current study examined the correlation between mood state and the functional connectivity (FC) among DMN regions, and examined if the FC can differentiate Internet gaming disorder (IGD) from healthy controls (HC). Resting state data were collected within 108 college students (IGD,41; HC,67). Negative correlations were observed between measures of: (1) Depression and FCs among ventral DMN regions; (2) Anger and FCs among dorsal DMN regions; and, (3) Anger and Depression and FCs of both the ventral and dorsal DMN...
April 18, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425563/differences-in-interregional-brain-connectivity-in-children-with-unilateral-hearing-loss
#4
Matthew E Jung, Miranda Colletta, Rebecca Coalson, Bradley L Schlaggar, Judith E C Lieu
OBJECTIVES: To identify functional network architecture differences in the brains of children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) using resting-state functional-connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study. METHODS: Children (7 to 17 years of age) with severe to profound hearing loss in one ear, along with their normal hearing (NH) siblings, were recruited and imaged using rs-fcMRI. Eleven children had right UHL; nine had left UHL; and 13 had normal hearing...
April 20, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424430/exploring-non-stationarity-patterns-in-schizophrenia-neural-reorganization-abnormalities-in-the-alpha-band
#5
Pablo Núñez, Jesus Poza, Alejandro Bachiller, Javier Gomez-Pilar, Alba Lubeiro, Vicente Molina, Roberto Hornero
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to characterize brain non-stationarity during an auditory oddball task in schizophrenia (SCH). The level of non-stationarity was measured in the baseline and response windows of relevant tones in SCH patients and healthy controls. APPROACH: Event-related potentials were recorded from 28 SCH patients and 51 controls. Non-stationarity was estimated in the conventional electroencephalography frequency bands by means of Kullback-Leibler divergence (KLD)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424396/-the-center-of-sadness-pain-and-recognition
#6
Richi Niida, Masaru Mimura
The posterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann area, BA 23) is the hub of the default mode network (DMN). Moreover, its network connectivity decreases early in Alzheimer disease. The anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24) is connected to networks such as the DMN, working memory network (WMN), and salience network (SN) and plays a role in network coordination. The subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) on the rostral region of the anterior cingulated cortex is suggested to be associated with depression.
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422373/longitudinal-recovery-of-local-neuronal-activity-and-consciousness-level-in-acquired-brain-injury
#7
Qihong Zou, Xuehai Wu, Jin Hu, Weijun Tang, Ying Mao, Jianhong Zhu, Lu Lu, Yao Zhang, Jia-Hong Gao
Decreased brain activity in the default mode network, particularly in the precuneus (PCU), has been consistently shown in acquired brain injury (ABI) patients. However, it is unclear whether resting-state brain activity recovers longitudinally in ABI patients and whether functional activity restoration is associated with improvements in consciousness level. Here, resting-state fMRI data were acquired from 23 ABI patients and 30 age- and gender-matched controls with two longitudinal observations for each participant...
April 19, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413981/default-mode-network-connectivity-and-related-white-matter-disruption-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-concurrent-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#8
Di Qi, Ailin Wang, Yaojing Chen, Kewei Chen, Sisi Zhang, Junying Zhang, Xin Li, Lin Ai, Zhanjun Zhang
BACKGROUND: As a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) itself causes cognitive impairment and has higher prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the cognition especially the episodic memory difference, the DMN functional connectivity and DMN-related white matter integrity in patients with both T2DM and amnestic MCI (T2DM-MCI) as compared to patients with T2DM only. METHOD: Focusing especially on T2DM population, we investigated the default mode network (DMN) through resting functional magnetic resonance imaging among 22 elderly T2DM-MCI patients and 24 elderly T2DM patients...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410136/directed-connectivity-of-brain-default-networks-in-resting-state-using-gca-and-motif
#9
Zhuqing Jiao, Huan Wang, Kai Ma, Ling Zou, Jianbo Xiang
Nowadays, there is a lot of interest in assessing functional interactions between key brain regions. In this paper, Granger causality analysis (GCA) and motif structure are adopted to study directed connectivity of brain default mode networks (DMNs) in resting state. Firstly, the time series of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in resting state were extracted, and the causal relationship values of the nodes representing related brain regions are analyzed in time domain to construct a default network...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408865/tau-pathology-distribution-in-alzheimer-s-disease-corresponds-differentially-to-cognition-relevant-functional-brain-networks
#10
Oskar Hansson, Michel J Grothe, Tor Olof Strandberg, Tomas Ohlsson, Douglas Hägerström, Jonas Jögi, Ruben Smith, Michael Schöll
Neuropathological studies have shown that the typical neurofibrillary pathology of hyperphosphorylated tau protein in Alzheimer's disease (AD) preferentially affects specific brain regions whereas others remain relatively spared. It has been suggested that the distinct regional distribution profile of tau pathology in AD may be a consequence of the intrinsic network structure of the human brain. The spatially distributed brain regions that are most affected by the spread of tau pathology may hence reflect an interconnected neuronal system...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408626/differences-in-activation-and-deactivation-in-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-compared-with-demographically-matched-controls
#11
B Sun, R C Brown, T G Burns, D Murdaugh, S Palasis, R A Jones
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Declines in both functional activation and functional connectivity have been reported in patients with sickle cell disease. In this study, we derived the functional and default mode responses to a word stem paradigm in age-, ethnicity-, and background-matched subjects with sickle cell disease and control groups, with the aim of testing whether both networks were similarly attenuated and whether the changes were related to physiologic parameters that characterize sickle cell disease...
April 13, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408294/resilience-and-cross-network-connectivity-a-neural-model-for-post-trauma-survival
#12
Marcella Brunetti, Laura Marzetti, Gianna Sepede, Filippo Zappasodi, Vittorio Pizzella, Fabiola Sarchione, Federica Vellante, Giovanni Martinotti, Massimo Di Giannantonio
Literature on the neurobiological bases of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) considers medial Prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a core region of the Default Mode Network (DMN), as a region involved in response regulation to stressors. Disrupted functioning of the DMN has been recognized at the basis of the pathophysiology of a number of mental disorders. Furthermore, in the evaluation of the protective factors to trauma consequence, an important role has been assigned to resilience. Our aim was to investigate the specific relation of resilience and PTSD symptoms severity with resting state brain connectivity in a traumatized population using magnetoencephalography (MEG), a non-invasive imaging technique with high temporal resolution and documented advantages in clinical applications...
April 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402561/the-role-of-the-default-mode-network-in-component-processes-underlying-the-wandering-mind
#13
Giulia L Poerio, Mladen Sormaz, Hao-Ting Wang, Daniel Margulies, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
Experiences such as mind-wandering illustrate that cognition is not always tethered to events in the here-and-now. Although converging evidence emphasises the default mode network (DMN) in mind-wandering, its precise contribution remains unclear. The DMN comprises cortical regions that are maximally distant from primary sensory and motor cortex, a topological location that may support the stimulus-independence of mind-wandering. The DMN is functionally heterogeneous, comprising regions engaged by memory, social cognition, and planning; processes relevant to mind-wandering content...
March 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401522/classic-hallucinogens-and-mystical-experiences-phenomenology-and-neural-correlates
#14
Frederick S Barrett, Roland R Griffiths
This chapter begins with a brief review of descriptions and definitions of mystical-type experiences and the historical connection between classic hallucinogens and mystical experiences. The chapter then explores the empirical literature on experiences with classic hallucinogens in which claims about mystical or religious experiences have been made. A psychometrically validated questionnaire is described for the reliable measurement of mystical-type experiences occasioned by classic hallucinogens. Controlled laboratory studies show that under double-blind conditions that provide significant controls for expectancy bias, psilocybin can occasion complete mystical experiences in the majority of people studied...
March 26, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397392/higher-body-mass-index-is-associated-with-reduced-posterior-default-mode-connectivity-in-older-adults
#15
Frauke Beyer, Sharzhad Kharabian Masouleh, Julia M Huntenburg, Leonie Lampe, Tobias Luck, Steffi G Riedel-Heller, Markus Loeffler, Matthias L Schroeter, Michael Stumvoll, Arno Villringer, A Veronica Witte
Obesity is a complex neurobehavioral disorder that has been linked to changes in brain structure and function. However, the impact of obesity on functional connectivity and cognition in aging humans is largely unknown. Therefore, the association of body mass index (BMI), resting-state network connectivity, and cognitive performance in 712 healthy, well-characterized older adults of the Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) cohort (60-80 years old, mean BMI 27.6 kg/m(2)  ± 4.2 SD, main sample: n = 521, replication sample: n = 191) was determined...
April 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396874/frequency-specific-effects-of-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-allele-on-resting-state-networks-in-nondemented-elders
#16
Ying Liang, Zhenzhen Li, Jing Wei, Chunlin Li, Xu Zhang, Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
We applied resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 allele effects on functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network (SN). Considering the frequency specific effects of functional connectivity, we decomposed the brain network time courses into two bands: 0.01-0.027 Hz and 0.027-0.08 Hz. All scans were acquired by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroscience Initiative (ADNI). Thirty-two nondemented subjects were divided into two groups based on the presence (n = 16) or absence (n = 16) of the ApoE ε4 allele...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392711/dynamic-abnormalities-of-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-women-with-primary-dysmenorrhea
#17
Lingmin Jin, Xuejuan Yang, Peng Liu, Jinbo Sun, Fei Chen, Ziliang Xu, Wei Qin, Jie Tian
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the regional spontaneous brain activity changes in primary dysmenorrhea (PD) patients in different phases of the menstrual cycle by regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-three PD patients and 32 healthy controls (HCs) separately received resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging during menstrual phase and follicular phase (non-menstrual phase). Cox retrospective symptom scale (RSS), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were applied to assess related symptoms and emotions...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391039/divergent-functional-connectivity-during-attentional-processing-in-lewy-body-dementia-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Xenia Kobeleva, Michael Firbank, Luis Peraza, Peter Gallagher, Alan Thomas, David J Burn, John O'Brien, John-Paul Taylor
Attention and executive dysfunction are features of Lewy body dementia (LBD) but their neuroanatomical basis is poorly understood. To investigate underlying dysfunctional attention-executive network (EXEC) interactions, we examined functional connectivity (FC) in 30 patients with LBD, 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 21 healthy controls during an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. Participants performed a modified Attention Network Test (ANT), where they were instructed to press a button in response to the majority direction of arrows, which were either all pointing in the same direction or with one pointing in the opposite direction...
March 18, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390824/resting-state-networks-associated-with-cognitive-processing-show-more-age-related-decline-than-those-associated-with-emotional-processing
#19
Kaoru Nashiro, Michiko Sakaki, Meredith N Braskie, Mara Mather
Correlations in activity across disparate brain regions during rest reveal functional networks in the brain. Although previous studies largely agree that there is an age-related decline in the "default mode network," how age affects other resting-state networks, such as emotion-related networks, is still controversial. Here we used a dual-regression approach to investigate age-related alterations in resting-state networks. The results revealed age-related disruptions in functional connectivity in all 5 identified cognitive networks, namely the default mode network, cognitive-auditory, cognitive-speech (or speech-related somatosensory), and right and left frontoparietal networks, whereas such age effects were not observed in the 3 identified emotion networks...
March 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390292/functional-connectivity-of-the-circadian-clock-and-neural-substrates-of-sleep-wake-disturbance-in-delirium
#20
Sunghyon Kyeong, Soo-Hee Choi, Jung Eun Shin, Woo Suk Lee, Kyu Hyun Yang, Tae-Sub Chung, Jae-Jin Kim
A possible mechanism of disrupted circadian rhythms in delirium was identified using resting-state functional connectivity. Thirty-four delirious patients and 38 non-delirious controls were scanned for resting-state functional MRI. Seed-based connectivity of the suprachiasmatic nucleus was compared between the groups. In delirious patients functional connectivity from the circadian clock was increased to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and decreased to the posterior cingulate cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, cerebellum, and thalamus...
April 4, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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