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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161351/echoes-of-affective-stimulation-in-brain-connectivity-networks
#1
Viola Borchardt, Yan Fan, Marie Dietz, Ana Lucia Herrera Melendez, Malek Bajbouj, Matti Gärtner, Meng Li, Martin Walter, Simone Grimm
Affective experience has effects on subjective feelings, physiological indices, entails immediate activity changes in the brain, and even influences brain networks in a protracted manner. However, it is still unclear, how the functional connectivity (FC) interplay between major intrinsic connectivity networks upon affective stimulation depends on affective valence, and whether this is specific for affective experience, i.e., can be distinguished from cognitive task execution. Our study included fMRI scans during and after affective stimulation with sad and neutral movies and a working memory task complemented with measures of cardiovascular activity and mood...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159045/identifying-functional-network-changing-patterns-in-individuals-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-and-patients-with-early-illness-schizophrenia-a-group-ica-study
#2
Yuhui Du, Susanna L Fryer, Dongdong Lin, Jing Sui, Qingbao Yu, Jiayu Chen, Barbara Stuart, Rachel L Loewy, Vince D Calhoun, Daniel H Mathalon
Although individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis exhibit a psychosis-risk syndrome involving attenuated forms of the positive symptoms typical of schizophrenia (SZ), it remains unclear whether their resting-state brain intrinsic functional networks (INs) show attenuated or qualitatively distinct patterns of functional dysconnectivity relative to SZ patients. Based on resting-state functional magnetic imaging data from 70 healthy controls (HCs), 53 CHR individuals (among which 41 subjects were antipsychotic medication-naive), and 58 early illness SZ (ESZ) patients (among which 53 patients took antipsychotic medication) within five years of illness onset, we estimated subject-specific INs using a novel group information guided independent component analysis (GIG-ICA) and investigated group differences in INs...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159039/disruption-of-default-mode-network-dynamics-in-acute-and-chronic-pain-states
#3
Z Alshelh, K K Marciszewski, R Akhter, F Di Pietro, E P Mills, E R Vickers, C C Peck, G M Murray, L A Henderson
It has been proposed that pain competes with other attention-demanding stimuli for cognitive resources, and many chronic pain patients display significant attention and mental flexibility deficits. These alterations may result from disruptions in the functioning of the default mode network (DMN) which plays a critical role in attention, memory, prospection and self-processing, and recent investigations have found alterations in DMN function in multiple chronic pain conditions. Whilst it has been proposed that these DMN alterations are a characteristic of pain that is chronic in nature, we recently reported altered oscillatory activity in the DMN during an acute, 5  minute noxious stimulus in healthy control subjects...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158202/dynamic-effective-connectivity-in-resting-state-fmri
#4
REVIEW
Hae-Jeong Park, Karl Friston, Chongwon Pae, Bumhee Park, Adeel Razi
Context-sensitive and activity-dependent fluctuations in connectivity underlie functional integration in the brain and have been studied widely in terms of synaptic plasticity, learning and condition-specific (e.g., attentional) modulations of synaptic efficacy. This dynamic aspect of brain connectivity has recently attracted a lot of attention in the resting state fMRI community. To explain dynamic functional connectivity in terms of directed effective connectivity among brain regions, we introduce a novel method to identify dynamic effective connectivity using spectral dynamic causal modelling (spDCM)...
November 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157847/functional-mr-imaging-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-and-resting-state-techniques-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
REVIEW
Scott Rosenthal, Matthew Gray, Hudaisa Fatima, Haris I Sair, Christopher T Whitlow
This article discusses mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)-associated effects on brain functional connectivity assessed via resting-state functional MR (fMR) imaging. Several studies have reported acute post-injury default mode network hyperconnectivity, followed by a period of decreased connectivity before later connectivity normalization in some patients. Other studies have reported mTBI associated effects on connectivity that remain evident for up to 5-years or more. Discordance in the published literature regarding the direction of network connectivity changes (eg, increased versus decreased connectivity) may reflect differences in timing of data collection post-injury, as well as the need to standardize MR imaging acquisition protocols and processing methods...
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154939/hypothesis-for-cognitive-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-externally-and-internally-directed-cognition
#6
REVIEW
Pamela M Greenwood, Eric J Blumberg, Melissa R Scheldrup
A comprehensive explanation is lacking for the broad array of cognitive effects modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We advanced the testable hypothesis that tDCS to the default mode network (DMN) increases processing of goals and stored information at the expense of external events. We further hypothesized that tDCS to the dorsal attention network (DAN) increases processing of external events at the expense of goals and stored information. A literature search (PsychINFO) identified 42 empirical studies and 3 meta-analyses examining effects of prefrontal and/or parietal tDCS on tasks that selectively required external and/or internal processing...
November 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154684/brain-functional-connectivity-in-headache-disorders-a-narrative-review-of-mri-investigations
#7
Catherine D Chong, Todd J Schwedt, Anders Hougaard
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is used to interrogate the functional connectivity and network organization amongst brain regions. Functional connectivity is determined by measuring the extent of synchronization in the spontaneous fluctuations of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal. Here, we review current rs-fMRI studies in headache disorders including migraine, trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, and medication overuse headache. We discuss (1) brain network alterations that are shared amongst the different headache disorders and (2) network abnormalities distinct to each headache disorder...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152994/decreased-connectivity-and-increased-bold-complexity-in-the-default-mode-network-in-individuals-with-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#8
Zack Y Shan, Kevin Finegan, Sandeep Bhuta, Timothy Ireland, Donald R Staines, Sonya M Marshall-Gradisnik, Leighton R Barnden
The chronic fatigue syndrome / myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS) is a debilitating disease with unknown pathophysiology and no diagnostic test. This study investigated the default mode network (DMN) in order to understand the pathophysiology of CFS and to identify potential biomarkers. Using functional MRI (fMRI) collected from 72 subjects (45 CFS and 27 controls) with a temporal resolution of 0.798s, we evaluated the default mode network using static functional connectivity (FC), dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) and DFC complexity, blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation maps and complexity of activity...
November 20, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149191/resting-state-fmri-in-sleeping-infants-more-closely-resembles-adult-sleep-than-adult-wakefulness
#9
Anish Mitra, Abraham Z Snyder, Enzo Tagliazucchi, Helmut Laufs, Jed Elison, Robert W Emerson, Mark D Shen, Jason J Wolff, Kelly N Botteron, Stephen Dager, Annette M Estes, Alan Evans, Guido Gerig, Heather C Hazlett, Sarah J Paterson, Robert T Schultz, Martin A Styner, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Bradley L Schlaggar, Joseph Piven, John R Pruett, Marcus Raichle
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in infants enables important studies of functional brain organization early in human development. However, rs-fMRI in infants has universally been obtained during sleep to reduce participant motion artifact, raising the question of whether differences in functional organization between awake adults and sleeping infants that are commonly attributed to development may instead derive, at least in part, from sleep. This question is especially important as rs-fMRI differences in adult wake vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143911/decreased-interhemispheric-coordination-in-the-posterior-default-mode-network-and-visual-regions-as-trait-alterations-in-first-episode-drug-naive-major-depressive-disorder
#10
Wenbin Guo, Xilong Cui, Feng Liu, Jindong Chen, Guangrong Xie, Renrong Wu, Zhikun Zhang, Huafu Chen, Xiangyang Zhang, Jingping Zhao
Decreased homotopic connectivity has been implicated in the neurophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) with inconsistent findings. A combination of clinical and methodological variabilities may account for the inconsistency, and thus limiting the reproducibility of the findings. The present study aims to examine voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) alterations in two independent samples of patients with first-episode, drug-naive MDD. The samples included 59 patients and 31 controls from Sample 1 and 29 patients and 24 controls from Sample 2...
November 16, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143409/chronnectome-fingerprinting-identifying-individuals-and-predicting-higher-cognitive-functions-using-dynamic-brain-connectivity-patterns
#11
Jin Liu, Xuhong Liao, Mingrui Xia, Yong He
The human brain is a large, interacting dynamic network, and its architecture of coupling among brain regions varies across time (termed the "chronnectome"). However, very little is known about whether and how the dynamic properties of the chronnectome can characterize individual uniqueness, such as identifying individuals as a "fingerprint" of the brain. Here, we employed multiband resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from the Human Connectome Project (N = 105) and a sliding time-window dynamic network analysis approach to systematically examine individual time-varying properties of the chronnectome...
November 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138429/brain-network-correlates-of-emotional-aging
#12
Youngwook Lyoo, Sujung Yoon
Physical and cognitive functions typically decline with aging while emotional stability is relatively conserved. The current proof-of-concept study is the first to report of the brain mechanisms underlying emotional aging from a brain network perspective. Two hundred eighty-six healthy subjects aged 20-65 were classified into three groups of the emotionally young, intermediate-aged, and old (E-young, E-intermediate, and E-old, respectively) based on the cluster analysis of the emotion recognition task data...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137445/altered-resting-state-functional-activity-in-isolated-pontine-infarction-patients-with-pathological-laughing-and-crying
#13
Tao Liu, Jianjun Li, Shixiong Huang, Changqinq Li, Zhongyan Zhao, Guoqiang Wen, Feng Chen
We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the global spontaneous neural activity involved in pathological laughing and crying after stroke. Twelve pathological laughing and crying patients with isolated pontine infarction were included, along with 12 age- and gender-matched acute isolated pontine infarction patients without pathological laughing and crying, and 12 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. We examined both the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation and the regional homogeneity in order to comprehensively evaluate the intrinsic activity in patients with post-stroke pathological laughing and crying...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137413/abnormal-neural-activities-of-directional-brain-networks-in-patients-with-long-term-bilateral-hearing-loss
#14
Long-Chun Xu, Gang Zhang, Yue Zou, Min-Feng Zhang, Dong-Sheng Zhang, Hua Ma, Wen-Bo Zhao, Guang-Yu Zhang
The objective of the study is to provide some implications for rehabilitation of hearing impairment by investigating changes of neural activities of directional brain networks in patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss. Firstly, we implemented neuropsychological tests of 21 subjects (11 patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss, and 10 subjects with normal hearing), and these tests revealed significant differences between the deaf group and the controls. Then we constructed the individual specific virtual brain based on functional magnetic resonance data of participants by utilizing effective connectivity and multivariate regression methods...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136123/amyloid-network-topology-characterizes-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease-during-the-predementia-stages
#15
Joana B Pereira, Tor Olof Strandberg, Sebastian Palmqvist, Giovanni Volpe, Danielle van Westen, Eric Westman, Oskar Hansson
There is increasing evidence showing that the accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into extracellular plaques is a central event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). These abnormalities can be detected as lowered levels of Aβ42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and are followed by increased amyloid burden on positron emission tomography (PET) several years before the onset of dementia. The aim of this study was to assess amyloid network topology in nondemented individuals with early stage Aβ accumulation, defined as abnormal CSF Aβ42 levels and normal Florbetapir PET (CSF+/PET-), and more advanced Aβ accumulation, defined as both abnormal CSF Aβ42 and Florbetapir PET (CSF+/PET+)...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136110/meta-connectomic-analysis-reveals-commonly-disrupted-functional-architectures-in-network-modules-and-connectors-across-brain-disorders
#16
Zhiqiang Sha, Mingrui Xia, Qixiang Lin, Miao Cao, Yanqing Tang, Ke Xu, Haiqing Song, Zhiqun Wang, Fei Wang, Peter T Fox, Alan C Evans, Yong He
Neuropsychiatric disorders are increasingly conceptualized as disconnection syndromes that are associated with abnormal network integrity in the brain. However, whether different neuropsychiatric disorders show commonly dysfunctional connectivity architectures in large-scale brain networks remains largely unknown. Here, we performed a meta-connectomic study to identify disorder-related functional modules and brain regions by combining meta-analyses of 182 published resting-state functional MRI studies in 11 neuropsychiatric disorders and graph-theoretical analyses of 3 independent resting-state functional MRI datasets with healthy and diseased populations (Alzheimer's disease and major depressive disorder [MDD])...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134612/altered-connectivity-patterns-among-resting-state-networks-in-patients-with-ischemic-white-matter-lesions
#17
Ju-Rong Ding, Xin Ding, Bo Hua, Xingzhong Xiong, Yuqiao Wen, Zhongxiang Ding, Qingsong Wang, Paul Thompson
White matter lesions (WMLs) have been associated with cognitive and motor decline. Resting state networks (RSNs) are spatially coherent patterns in the human brain and their interactions sustain our daily function. Therefore, investigating the altered intra- and inter-network connectivity among the RSNs may help to understand the association of WMLs with impaired cognitive and motor function. Here, we assessed alterations in functional connectivity patterns based on six well-defined RSNs-the default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), frontal-parietal control network (FPCN), auditory network (AN), sensory motor network (SMN) and visual network (VN)-in 15 patients with ischemic WMLs and 15 controls...
November 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134288/task-relevant-brain-networks-identified-with-simultaneous-pet-mr-imaging-of-metabolism-and-connectivity
#18
Andreas Hahn, Gregor Gryglewski, Lukas Nics, Lucas Rischka, Sebastian Ganger, Helen Sigurdardottir, Chrysoula Vraka, Leo Silberbauer, Thomas Vanicek, Alexander Kautzky, Wolfgang Wadsak, Markus Mitterhauser, Markus Hartenbach, Marcus Hacker, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Except for task-specific functional MRI, the vast majority of imaging studies assessed human brain function at resting conditions. However, tracking task-specific neuronal activity yields important insight how the brain responds to stimulation. We specifically investigated changes in glucose metabolism, functional connectivity and white matter microstructure during task performance using several recent methodological advancements. Opening the eyes and right finger tapping had elicited an increased glucose metabolism in primary visual and motor cortices, respectively...
November 13, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131720/dimensions-of-experience-exploring-the-heterogeneity-of-the-wandering-mind
#19
Hao-Ting Wang, Giulia Poerio, Charlotte Murphy, Danilo Bzdok, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
The tendency for the mind to wander to concerns other than the task at hand is a fundamental feature of human cognition, yet the consequences of variations in its experiential content for psychological functioning are not well understood. Here, we adopted multivariate pattern analysis to simultaneously decompose experience-sampling data and neural functional-connectivity data, which revealed dimensions that simultaneously describe individual variation in self-reported experience and default-mode-network connectivity...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131369/photobiomodulation-for-traumatic-brain-injury-and-stroke
#20
REVIEW
Michael R Hamblin
There is a notable lack of therapeutic alternatives for what is fast becoming a global epidemic of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Photobiomodulation (PBM) employs red or near-infrared (NIR) light (600-1100nm) to stimulate healing, protect tissue from dying, increase mitochondrial function, improve blood flow, and tissue oxygenation. PBM can also act to reduce swelling, increase antioxidants, decrease inflammation, protect against apoptosis, and modulate microglial activation state. All these mechanisms of action strongly suggest that PBM delivered to the head should be beneficial in cases of both acute and chronic TBI...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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