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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920756/salmonella-typhimurium-and-multidirectional-communication-in-the-gut
#1
REVIEW
Elena V Gart, Jan S Suchodolski, Thomas H Welsh, Robert C Alaniz, Ronald D Randel, Sara D Lawhon
The mammalian digestive tract is home to trillions of microbes, including bacteria, archaea, protozoa, fungi, and viruses. In monogastric mammals the stomach and small intestine harbor diverse bacterial populations but are typically less populated than the colon. The gut bacterial community (microbiota hereafter) varies widely among different host species and individuals within a species. It is influenced by season of the year, age of the host, stress and disease. Ideally, the host and microbiota benefit each other...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916690/acyl-homoserine-lactone-changes-the-abundance-of-proteins-and-the-levels-of-organic-acids-associated-with-stationary-phase-in-salmonella-enteritidis
#2
Felipe Alves de Almeida, Natan de Jesus Pimentel Filho, Lanna Clícia Carrijo, Cláudia Braga Pereira Bento, Maria Cristina Baracat-Pereira, Uelinton Manoel Pinto, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira, Maria Cristina Dantas Vanetti
Quorum sensing (QS) is cell-cell communication mechanism mediated by signaling molecules known as autoinducers (AIs) that lead to differential gene expression. Salmonella is unable to synthesize the AI-1 acyl homoserine lactone (AHL), but is able to recognize AHLs produced by other microorganisms through SdiA protein. Our study aimed to evaluate the influence of AI-1 on the abundance of proteins and the levels of organic acids of Salmonella Enteritidis. The presence of N-dodecyl-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL) did not interfere on the growth or the total amount of extracted proteins of Salmonella...
December 1, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910884/the-hha-tomb-toxin-antitoxin-system-shows-conditional-toxicity-and-promotes-persister-cell-formation-by-inhibiting-apoptosis-like-death-in-s-typhimurium
#3
Sangeeta Jaiswal, Prajita Paul, Chandrashekhar Padhi, Shilpa Ray, Daniel Ryan, Shantoshini Dash, Mrutyunjay Suar
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are two component "addictive" genetic elements found on either plasmid or bacterial chromosome, sometimes on both. TA systems perform a wide range of functions like biofilm formation, persistence, programmed cell death, phage abortive infection etc. Salmonella has been reported to contain several such TA systems. However, the hemolysin expression modulating protein (Hha) and its adjacent uncharacterized hypothetical protein TomB (previously known as YbaJ), have not been listed as a TA module in Salmonella...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899116/the-correlation-between-antimutagenic-activity-and-total-phenolic-content-of-extracts-of-31-plant-species-with-high-antioxidant-activity
#4
Tshepiso Jan Makhafola, Esameldin Elzein Elgorashi, Lyndy Joy McGaw, Luc Verschaeve, Jacobus Nicolaas Eloff
BACKGROUND: Antimutagenic activity of plant extracts is important in the discovery of new, effective cancer preventing agents. There is increasing evidence that cancer and other mutation-related diseases can be prevented by intake of DNA protective agents. The identification of antimutagenic agents present in plants presents an effective strategy to inhibit pathogenic processes resulting from exposure to mutagenic and/or carcinogenic substances present in the environment. There are no reports on the antimutagenic activities of the plant species investigated in this study...
November 29, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889173/variability-in-the-adaptive-acid-tolerance-response-phenotype-of-salmonella-enterica-strains
#5
Alexandra Lianou, George-John E Nychas, Konstantinos P Koutsoumanis
The objective of this study was the assessment of the stationary-phase, low-pH-inducible acid tolerance response (ATR) of different Salmonella enterica strains. For this purpose, 30 strains of the pathogen were grown in tryptone soy broth in the absence (non-adapted cultures) and presence (1% w/v; acid-adapted cultures) of glucose, and then subjected to 4-h acid challenge trials at pH 3.0. Surviving populations of each strain were determined at 1-h intervals, and the Weibull model was fitted to the derived microbiological data...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884771/rapid-detection-of-salmonella-in-raw-chicken-breast-using-real-time-pcr-combined-with-immunomagnetic-separation-and-whole-genome-amplification
#6
Ji-Yeon Hyeon, Xiangyu Deng
We presented the first attempt to combine immunomagnetic separation (IMS), whole genome amplification by multiple displacement amplification (MDA) and real-time PCR for detecting a bacterial pathogen in a food sample. This method was effective in enabling real-time PCR detection of low levels of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis (SE) (∼10 CFU/g) in raw chicken breast without culture enrichment. In addition, it was able to detect refrigeration-stressed SE cells at lower concentrations (∼0.1 CFU/g) in raw chicken breast after a 4-h culture enrichment, shortening the detection process from days to hours and displaying no statistical difference in detection rate in comparison with a culture-based detection method...
November 20, 2016: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879336/beyond-antimicrobial-resistance-evidence-for-a-distinct-role-of-the-acrd-efflux-pump-in-salmonella-biology
#7
Michelle M C Buckner, Jessica M A Blair, Roberto M La Ragione, Jane Newcombe, Daniel J Dwyer, Alasdair Ivens, Laura J V Piddock
: For over 20 years, bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps have been studied because of their impact on resistance to antimicrobials. However, critical questions remain, including why produce efflux pumps under non-antimicrobial treatment conditions, and why have multiple pumps if their only purpose is antimicrobial efflux? Salmonella spp. possess five efflux pump families, including the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) efflux pumps. Notably, the RND efflux pump AcrD has a unique substrate profile, distinct from other Salmonella efflux pumps...
November 22, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869756/a-review-of-temperature-ph-and-other-factors-that-influence-the-survival-of-salmonella-in-mayonnaise-and-other-raw-egg-products
#8
REVIEW
Thilini Piushani Keerthirathne, Kirstin Ross, Howard Fallowfield, Harriet Whiley
Salmonellosis is one of the main causes of foodborne illnesses worldwide, with outbreaks predominately linked to contamination of eggs and raw egg products, such as mayonnaise. This review explores previous studies that have investigated Salmonella control mechanisms utilized in the production of raw egg mayonnaise and other food products. Apart from the use of pasteurized eggs, the main control mechanism identified is the pH of the raw egg products, which plays an important role in the consistency and stability while affecting the survival of Salmonella spp...
November 18, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865271/bacterial-contamination-of-eggs-and-behaviour-of-poultry-flocks-in-the-free-range-environment
#9
Talia Moyle, Kelly Drake, Vaibhav Gole, Kapil Chousalkar, Susan Hazel
The free range production system is becoming more common in Australia and is expected to increase. Free range hens are exposed to more stressors in comparison to hens from barn and cage systems and it is suggested that stress can increase bacterial shedding on eggs. The aims of this study were to examine the level of total bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae populations, as well as the presence of Salmonella and Campylobacter, in eggs collected from two free range flocks on two different farms and to conduct longitudinal observations of the behaviour and welfare of hens in the free range production system...
December 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829584/fe-3-dependent-epistasis-between-the-cpxr-activated-loci-and-the-pmra-activated-lps-modification-loci-in-salmonella-enterica
#10
Akinori Kato, Nami Higashino, Ryutaro Utsumi
Bacteria utilize varying combinations of two-component regulatory systems, many of which respond and adapt closely to stress conditions, thus expanding their niche steadily. While mechanisms of recognition and avoidance of the specific Fe(3+) signal by the PmrA/PmrB system is well understood, those of the CpxR/CpxA system are more complex because they can be induced by various stress conditions, which, in turn, expresses a variety of phenotypes. Here, we highlight another aspect of the CpxR/CpxA system; mutations in degP and yqjA genes, which are under the control of the system, exhibit an iron sensitive phenotype in the mutant background defective in the PmrA-dependent gene products that alter the pyrophosphate status of the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide in Salmonella enterica...
November 8, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782347/natural-product-inspired-aminoepoxybenzoquinones-kill-members-of-the-gram-negative-pathogen-salmonella-by-attenuating-cellular-stress-response
#11
Franziska A Mandl, Volker C Kirsch, Ilke Ugur, Elena Kunold, Jan Vomacka, Christian Fetzer, Sabine Schneider, Klaus Richter, Thilo M Fuchs, Iris Antes, Stephan A Sieber
Gram-negative bacteria represent a challenging task for antibacterial drug discovery owing to their impermeable cell membrane and restricted uptake of small molecules. We herein describe the synthesis of natural-product-derived epoxycyclohexenones and explore their antibiotic activity against several pathogenic bacteria. A compound with activity against Salmonella Typhimurium was identified, and the target enzymes were unraveled by quantitative chemical proteomics. Importantly, two protein hits were linked to bacterial stress response, and corresponding assays revealed an elevated susceptibility to reactive oxygen species upon compound treatment...
November 14, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716594/a-label-free-fluorescent-direct-detection-of-live-salmonella-typhimurium-using-cascade-triple-trigger-sequences-regenerated-strand-displacement-amplification-and-hairpin-template-generated-scaffolded-silver-nanoclusters
#12
Peng Zhang, Hui Liu, Xiaocheng Li, Suzhen Ma, Shuai Men, Heng Wei, Jingjing Cui, Hongning Wang
The harm of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) to public health mainly by the consumption of contaminated agricultural products or water stresses an urgent need for rapid detection methods to help control the spread of S. typhimurium. In this work, an intelligently designed sensor system took creative advantage of triple trigger sequences-regenerated strand displacement amplification and self-protective hairpin template-generated-scaffolded silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) for the first time. In the presence of live S...
September 12, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704705/the-iron-sulfur-cluster-sensor-iscr-is-a-negative-regulator-of-spi1-type-iii-secretion-system-in-salmonella-enterica
#13
Alexandra Vergnes, Julie P M Viala, Rabah Ouadah-Tsabet, Bérengère Pocachard, Laurent Loiseau, Stéphane Méresse, Frédéric Barras, Laurent Aussel
Iron-sulfur (Fe-S)-containing proteins contribute to various biological processes, including redox reactions or regulation of gene expression. Living organisms have evolved by developing distinct biosynthetic pathways to assemble these clusters, including ISC (Iron Sulfur Cluster) and SUF (Sulfur mobilization). Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an intracellular pathogen responsible for a wide range of infections, from gastroenteritis to severe systemic diseases. Salmonella possesses all known prokaryotic systems to assemble Fe-S clusters, including ISC and SUF...
October 5, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698408/biodiversity-of-bacteriophages-morphological-and-biological-properties-of-a-large-group-of-phages-isolated-from-urban-sewage
#14
Agata Jurczak-Kurek, Tomasz Gąsior, Bożena Nejman-Faleńczyk, Sylwia Bloch, Aleksandra Dydecka, Gracja Topka, Agnieszka Necel, Magdalena Jakubowska-Deredas, Magdalena Narajczyk, Malwina Richert, Agata Mieszkowska, Borys Wróbel, Grzegorz Węgrzyn, Alicja Węgrzyn
A large scale analysis presented in this article focuses on biological and physiological variety of bacteriophages. A collection of 83 bacteriophages, isolated from urban sewage and able to propagate in cells of different bacterial hosts, has been obtained (60 infecting Escherichia coli, 10 infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 4 infecting Salmonella enterica, 3 infecting Staphylococcus sciuri, and 6 infecting Enterococcus faecalis). High biological diversity of the collection is indicated by its characteristics, both morphological (electron microscopic analyses) and biological (host range, plaque size and morphology, growth at various temperatures, thermal inactivation, sensitivity to low and high pH, sensitivity to osmotic stress, survivability upon treatment with organic solvents and detergents), and further supported by hierarchical cluster analysis...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694229/phosphinothricin-acetyltransferases-identified-using-in-vivo-in-vitro-and-bioinformatic-analyses
#15
Chelsey M VanDrisse, Kristy L Hentchel, Jorge C Escalante-Semerena
Acetylation of small molecules is widespread in nature, and in some cases, cells use this process to detoxify harmful chemicals. Streptomyces species utilize a Gcn5 N-acetyltransferase (GNAT), known as Bar, to acetylate and detoxify a self-produced toxin, phosphinothricin (PPT), a glutamate analogue. Bar homologues, such as MddA from Salmonella enterica, acetylate methionine analogues such as methionine sulfoximine (MSX) and methionine sulfone (MSO), but not PPT, even though Bar homologues are annotated as PPT acetyltransferases...
December 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679850/compartment-and-signal-specific-codependence-in-the-transcriptional-control-of-salmonella-periplasmic-copper-homeostasis
#16
Alejandro Pezza, Lucas B Pontel, Carolina López, Fernando C Soncini
Copper homeostasis is essential for bacterial pathogen fitness and infection, and has been the focus of a number of recent studies. In Salmonella, envelope protection against copper overload and macrophage survival depends on CueP, a major copper-binding protein in the periplasm. This protein is also required to deliver the metal ion to the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase SodCII. The Salmonella-specific CueP-coding gene was originally identified as part of the Cue regulon under the transcriptional control of the cytoplasmic copper sensor CueR, but its expression differs from the rest of CueR-regulated genes...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648759/chemical-physical-and-morphological-properties-of-bacterial-biofilms-affect-survival-of-encased-campylobacter-jejuni-f38011-under-aerobic-stress
#17
Jinsong Feng, Guillaume Lamour, Rui Xue, Mehr Negar Mirvakliki, Savvas G Hatzikiriakos, Jie Xu, Hongbin Li, Shuo Wang, Xiaonan Lu
Campylobacter jejuni is a microaerophilic pathogen and leading cause of human gastroenteritis. The presence of C. jejuni encased in biofilms found in meat and poultry processing facilities may be the major strategy for its survival and dissemination in aerobic environment. In this study, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa was mixed with C. jejuni F38011 as a culture to form dual-species biofilms. After 4days' exposure to aerobic stress, no viable C. jejuni cells could be detected from mono-species C...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638265/effect-of-high-pressure-processing-of-bovine-colostrum-on-immunoglobulin-g-concentration-pathogens-viscosity-and-transfer-of-passive-immunity-to-calves
#18
Derek M Foster, Keith P Poulsen, Hannah J Sylvester, Megan E Jacob, Kaitlyn E Casulli, Brian E Farkas
This study aimed to determine the effects of high-pressure processing on the immunoglobulin concentration, microbial load, viscosity, and transfer of passive immunity to calves when applied to bovine colostrum as an alternative to thermal pasteurization. A pilot study using Staphylococcus aureus was conducted to determine which pressure-time treatments are most appropriate for use with bovine colostrum, with the goals of maximizing bacterial inactivation while minimizing IgG content and viscosity changes. Following the pilot study, an inoculation study was conducted in which first-milking colostrum samples from Holstein-Friesian cows were inoculated with known concentrations of various bacteria or viruses and pressure processed at either 300 MPa for up to 60 min or at 400 MPa for up to 30 min...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635350/epidemiology-of-salmonella-sp-in-california-cull-dairy-cattle-prevalence-of-fecal-shedding-and-diagnostic-accuracy-of-pooled-enriched-broth-culture-of-fecal-samples
#19
Omran A Abu Aboud, John M Adaska, Deniece R Williams, Paul V Rossitto, John D Champagne, Terry W Lehenbauer, Robert Atwill, Xunde Li, Sharif S Aly
BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the crude, seasonal and cull-reason stratified prevalence of Salmonella fecal shedding in cull dairy cattle on seven California dairies. A secondary objective was to estimate and compare the relative sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) for pools of 5 and 10 enriched broth cultures of fecal samples for Salmonella sp. detection. METHODS: Seven dairy farms located in the San Joaquin Valley of California were identified and enrolled in the study as a convenience sample...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631093/evaluation-of-genotoxic-pressure-along-the-sava-river
#20
Stoimir Kolarević, Mustafa Aborgiba, Margareta Kračun-Kolarević, Jovana Kostić, Predrag Simonović, Vladica Simić, Aleksandra Milošković, Georg Reischer, Andreas Farnleitner, Zoran Gačić, Radmila Milačič, Tea Zuliani, Janja Vidmar, Marija Pergal, Marina Piria, Momir Paunović, Branka Vuković-Gačić
In this study we have performed a comprehensive genotoxicological survey along the 900 rkm of the Sava River. In total, 12 sites were chosen in compliance with the goals of GLOBAQUA project dealing with the effects of multiple stressors on biodiversity and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. The genotoxic potential was assessed using a complex battery of bioassays performed in prokaryotes and aquatic eukaryotes (freshwater fish). Battery comprised evaluation of mutagenicity by SOS/umuC test in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002...
2016: PloS One
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