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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879442/salmonella-enterica-serovar-pomona-infection-in-farmed-juvenile-american-alligators-alligator-mississippiensis
#1
K Sakaguchi, J G Nevarez, F Del Piero
A fatal epizootic of salmonellosis occurred in farmed juvenile American alligators in Louisiana. Six animals were examined. Gross lesions included severe fibrinonecrotizing enterocolitis, necrotizing splenitis, coelomic effusion, and perivisceral and pulmonary edema. Microscopic examination revealed severe necrotizing enterocolitis and splenitis with intralesional bacteria and pneumocyte necrosis with fibrin thrombi. Salmonella enterica serovar Pomona was isolated from intestine and lung. Clinical salmonellosis is a rare finding in reptiles and salmonellosis caused by S...
November 22, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872325/the-molecular-circuit-regulating-tooth-development-in-crocodilians
#2
S Tsai, A Abdelhamid, M K Khan, A Elkarargy, R B Widelitz, C M Chuong, P Wu
Alligators have robust regenerative potential for tooth renewal. In contrast, extant mammals can either renew their teeth once (diphyodont dentition, as found in humans) or not at all (monophyodont dentition, present in mice). Previously, the authors used multiple mitotic labeling to map putative stem cells in alligator dental laminae, which contain quiescent odontogenic progenitors. The authors demonstrated that alligator tooth cycle initiation is related to β-catenin/Wnt pathway activity in the dental lamina bulge...
December 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824401/comparison-of-different-biopsy-forceps-models-for-tissue-sampling-in-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#3
Christian Bussmann, Alain M Schoepfer, Ekaterina Safroneeva, Nadine Haas, Sébastien Godat, Christine Sempoux, Hans-Uwe Simon, Alex Straumann
Background and aims: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a mixed inflammatory and fibrostenotic disease. Unlike superficial inflammatory changes, subepithelial fibrosis is not routinely sampled in esophageal biopsies. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of deep esophageal sampling with four different types of biopsy forceps. Patients and methods: In this cross-sectional study, esophageal biopsies were taken in 30 adult patients by one expert endoscopist. Biopsies sampled from distal esophagus using a static jaw forceps (Olympus, FB-11K-1) were compared with proximal biopsies sampled with static jaw (Olympus, FB-45Q-1), alligator jaw (Olympus, FB-210K), and large-capacity forceps (Boston Scientific, Radial Jaw 4)...
December 2016: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816416/a-comparative-study-of-piscine-defense-the-scales-of-arapaima-gigas-latimeria-chalumnae-and-atractosteus-spatula
#4
Vincent R Sherman, Haocheng Quan, Wen Yang, Robert O Ritchie, Marc A Meyers
We compare the characteristics of the armored scales of three large fish, namely the Arapaima gigas (arapaima), Latimeria chalumnae (coelacanth), and Atractosteus spatula (alligator gar), with specific focus on their unique structure-mechanical property relationships and their specialized ability to provide protection from predatory pressures, with the ultimate goal of providing bio-inspiration for manmade materials. The arapaima has flexible and overlapping cycloid scales which consist of a tough Bouligand-type arrangement of collagen layers in the base and a hard external mineralized surface, protecting it from piranha, a predator with extremely sharp teeth...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807618/molecular-and-morphological-characterization-of-a-haemogregarine-in-the-alligator-snapping-turtle-macrochelys-temminckii-testudines-chelydridae
#5
Amer Rasool Alhaboubi, Dana A Pollard, Patricia J Holman
A severely underweight alligator snapping turtle Macrochelys temminckii Troost in Harlan, 1835, was found near Tyler, Texas, and taken to the Caldwell Zoo. Blood films were submitted to Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, for morphological and molecular identification of haemogregarine-like inclusions in the red blood cells. Intraerythrocytic Haemogregarina sp. forms were found on microscopic examination at a parasitemia of <1 %. The morphology and morphometric data for the forms indicate similarity to Haemogregarina macrochelysi n...
November 2, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775587/guilt-shame-and-compassionate-imagery-in-war-traumatized-german-soldiers-with-ptsd-a-pilot-study
#6
Christina Alliger-Horn, Peter Lutz Zimmermann, Mervyn Schmucker
BACKGROUND: The consideration of specific trauma-associated emotions poses a challenge for the differential treatment planning in trauma therapy. Soldiers experiencing deployment-related posttraumatic stress disorder often struggle with emotions of guilt and shame as a central component of their PTSD. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which soldiers' PTSD symptoms and their trauma-related guilt and shame may be affected as a function of their ability to develop compassionate imagery between their CURRENT SELF (today) and their TRAUMATIZED SELF (back then)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763339/evaluation-of-unclogging-aspects-in-horizontal-subsurface-flow-constructed-wetlands
#7
Suymara Toledo Miranda, Antonio Teixeira de Matos, Gheila Corrêa Ferres Baptestini, Alisson Carraro Borges
In horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSF-CWs), the main operational problem is clogging of the porous medium. In this study, the unclogging of HSSF-CWs was evaluated, at rest, by adding a nitrogen-based nutrient solution to the influent. For this, six HSSF-CWs were used, consisting of two uncultivated (CW-C), two cultivated with Tifton 85-grass (Cynodon spp.) (CW-T) and two cultivated with alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (CW-A), which were fully clogged after being used for the treatment of swine wastewater...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722083/sewing-machine-needle-retrieval-from-distal-airways-using-flexible-bronchoscope-under-fluoroscopy
#8
Talha Mahmud, Adnan Shafiq, Abdul Hafeez, Muhammad Saqib, Sidrah Farooq
18-year-old lady was admitted through emergency department after she accidently aspirated a long sewing machine needle into her airways. Upon examination, she was anxious with normal vital signs and without any respiratory distress with SpO2 of 98% on air. Systemic examination was normal except slightly reduced breath sounds intensity on right lower side of chest. Her chest radiograph revealed needle in right lower lobe but it was not visualized on bronchoscopic examination of airways up to sub segmental level...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720597/global-warming-increases-the-interspecific-competitiveness-of-the-invasive-plant-alligator-weed-alternanthera-philoxeroides
#9
Hao Wu, Mohannad Ismail, Jianqing Ding
Global warming could accelerate the spread of invasive species to higher latitudes and intensify their effects on native species. Here, we report results of two years of field surveys along a latitudinal gradient (21°N to 31°N) in southern China, to determine the species structure of the invasive plant Alternanthera philoxeroides community. We also performed a replacement series experiment (mono and mixed) to evaluate the effects of elevated temperature on the competitiveness of A. philoxeroides with the native co-occurring species Digitaria sanguinalis...
October 6, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712940/host-use-and-seasonality-of-culex-melanoconion-iolambdis-diptera-culicidae-from-eastern-florida-usa
#10
Erik M Blosser, Tanise Stenn, Carolina Acevedo, Nathan D Burkett-Cadena
Culex (Melanoconion) iolambdis (Dyar, 1918) is a mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species found throughout much of tropical America, including southern Florida. Relatively few reports are available regarding the ecology of Cx. iolambdis, despite its widespread distribution and putative involvement in transmission of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. To quantify habitat and host utilization, adults of Cx. iolambdis were sampled from resting shelters at a field site in Vero Beach, Florida, over a 12-month period...
October 3, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707718/developmental-plasticity-of-mitochondrial-function-in-american-alligators-alligator-mississippiensis
#11
Gina L J Galli, Janna Crossley, Ruth M Elsey, Edward M Dzialowski, Holly A Shiels, Dane A Crossley
The effect of hypoxia on cellular metabolism is well documented in adult vertebrates, but information is entirely lacking for embryonic organisms. The effect of hypoxia on embryonic physiology is particularly interesting, as metabolic responses during development may have life-long consequences, due to developmental plasticity. To this end, we investigated the effects of chronic developmental hypoxia on cardiac mitochondrial function in embryonic and juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis)...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706023/how-doth-the-little-crocodilian-analyzing-the-influence-of-environmental-viscosity-on-feeding-performance-of-juvenile-alligator-mississippiensis
#12
James R Kerfoot, Emily Easter, Ruth M Elsey
Wetland habitats are used as nursery sites for hatchling and juvenile alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), where they utilize prey from aquatic and terrestrial settings. However, little is known about how viscosity of the medium influences feeding performance. We hypothesized that timing and linear excursion feeding kinematic variables would be different for individuals feeding on prey above the water compared with the same individuals feeding underwater. Individuals were fed immobile fish prey and feeding events were recorded using a high speed video camera...
September 30, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695800/chemical-composition-true-nutrient-digestibility-and-true-metabolizable-energy-of-novel-pet-food-protein-sources-using-the-precision-fed-cecectomized-rooster-assay
#13
P Deng, P L Utterback, C M Parsons, L Hancock, K S Swanson
A wide variety of animal protein-based ingredients is commonly used in the pet food products. The raw ingredients and processing procedures used may greatly affect protein quality. Testing the quality of alternative protein sources is necessary and contributes to the sustainability of pet foods. The objective of this study was to test the chemical composition of 8 protein sources intended for use in dog and cat foods (calamari meal, pork peptone, alligator meal, lamb meal, venison meal, chicken meal, and 2 duck meals), and evaluate their true nutrient digestibility and nitrogen-corrected true ME (TMEn) using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689886/variation-in-perfluoroalkyl-acids-in-the-american-alligator-alligator-mississippiensis-at-merritt-island-national-wildlife-refuge
#14
Jacqueline T Bangma, Jessica L Reiner, Martin Jones, Russell H Lowers, Frances Nilsen, Thomas R Rainwater, Stephen Somerville, Louis J Guillette, John A Bowden
This study aimed to quantify concentrations of fifteen perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the plasma of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) inhabiting wetlands surrounding the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, USA located at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR). Approximately 10 male and 10 female alligators (ntotal = 229) were sampled each month during 2008 and 2009 to determine if seasonal or spatial trends existed with PFAA burden. PFOS represented the highest plasma burden (median 185 ng/g) and PFHxS the second highest (median 7...
January 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677246/vascular-patterns-in-the-heads-of-crocodilians-blood-vessels-and-sites-of-thermal-exchange
#15
William Ruger Porter, Jayc C Sedlmayr, Lawrence M Witmer
Extant crocodilians are a highly apomorphic archosaur clade that is ectothermic, yet often achieve large body sizes that can be subject to higher heat loads. Therefore, the anatomical and physiological roles that blood vessels play in crocodilian thermoregulation need further investigation to better understand how crocodilians establish and maintain cephalic temperatures and regulate neurosensory tissue temperatures during basking and normal activities. The cephalic vascular anatomy of extant crocodilians, particularly American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection technique and high resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT)...
December 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648952/on-the-morphological-description-of-tracheal-and-esophageal-displacement-and-its-phylogenetic-distribution-in-avialae
#16
Jeremy J Klingler
This research examines the evolution and phylogenetic distribution of a peculiar and often overlooked character seen in birds, herein called tracheal and esophageal displacement. Tracheal and esophageal displacement refers to an asymmetrically situated trachea and/or esophagus along the length of the neck. This contrasts with what would be perceived as the "normal" (midsagittal) placement of these organs, wherein the two organs are situated along the ventral midline of the neck with no deviation. A total of forty-two bird species were examined (thirty-six of which came from dissections whereas six came from comments from previous literature or personal observations), as well as turtles, lizards, crocodylians, and mammals...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635329/taxonomic-revision-of-eoalligator-crocodylia-brevirostres-and-the-paleogeographic-origins-of-the-chinese-alligatoroids
#17
Yan-Yin Wang, Corwin Sullivan, Jun Liu
Background. The primarily Neotropical distribution of living alligatoroids raises questions as to when and how the ancestors of Alligator sinensis migrated to China. As phylogeny provides a necessary framework for historical biogeographic issues, determining the phylogenetic positions of the Chinese alligatoroids is a crucial step towards understanding global alligatoroid paleobiogeography. Besides the unnamed alligatoroids from the Eocene of Guangdong Province, three Chinese fossil taxa have been referred to Alligatoroidea: Alligator luicus, Eoalligator chunyii and Eoalligator huiningensis...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616428/a-novel-magnetic-driven-tissue-retraction-device-for-minimally-invasive-surgery
#18
Margherita Brancadoro, Selene Tognarelli, Gastone Ciuti, Arianna Menciassi
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this work is to design and validate an innovative magnetic-based device for tissue retraction for minimally invasive surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An intra-abdominal magnetic module is coupled with an extracorporeal system for establishing a stable attraction and consequently a reliable tissue retraction. Once the retractor has been inserted into the abdomen, tissue retraction is not constrained by a fixed access port, thus guaranteeing a more flexible, safer and less invasive operation...
September 12, 2016: Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technologies: MITAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615412/immunohistochemical-localization-of-somatostatin-in-the-brain-of-chinese-alligator-alligator-sinensis
#19
Huan Wang, Ruidong Zhang, Shengzhou Zhang, Yongkang Zhou, Xiaobing Wu
In this study, the regional distribution and histological localization of somatostatin (SS) immunoreactive (IR) perikarya and fibers was investigated for the first time in the brain of adult Chinese alligator by immunohistochemical method. The results showed SS-IR perikarya and fibers were widely distributed in various parts of the brain except for olfactory bulbs. In the telencephalon, SS-IR perikarya were predominantly located in the cellular layer and deep plexiform layer of dorsomedial and medial cortex, less in the dorsal and lateral cortex, while SS-IR fibers were found in all layers of the cerebral cortex...
September 12, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588947/scale-dependent-habitat-selection-and-size-based-dominance-in-adult-male-american-alligators
#20
Bradley A Strickland, Francisco J Vilella, Jerrold L Belant
Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size...
2016: PloS One
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