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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212874/multilocus-phylogeny-of-alligator-lizards-elgaria-anguidae-testing-mtdna-introgression-as-the-source-of-discordant-molecular-phylogenetic-hypotheses
#1
Dean H Leavitt, Angela B Marion, Bradford D Hollingsworth, Tod W Reeder
The increased availability of nuclear DNA sequence data has led to a better appreciation of the role and frequency of introgressive hybridization and subsequent mitochondrial capture in misleading phylogenetic hypotheses based on mtDNA sequence data alone. Relationships among members of the alligator lizard genus Elgaria have been addressed with morphology, allozyme and mtDNA sequence data with discordant results. In this study, we use seven nuclear loci (total of 5.9 kb) and ∼3 kb of mtDNA to infer the phylogenetic relationships among Elgaria species and test whether the discordance among previous phylogenetic hypotheses is due to introgression and mtDNA capture...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210442/a-portable-fiber-optic-raman-spectrometer-concept-for-evaluation-of-mineral-content-within-enamel-tissue
#2
Anna Akkus, Shan Yang, Renato Roperto, Hathem Mustafa, Sorin Teich, Ozan Akkus
BACKGROUND: Measurement of tooth enamel mineralization using a clinically viable method is essential since variation of mineralization may be used to monitor caries risk or in assessing the effectiveness of remineralization therapy. Fiber optic Raman systems are becoming more affordable and popular in context of biomedical applications. However, the applicability of fiber optic Raman systems for measurement of mineral content within enamel tissue has not been elucidated significantly in the prior literature...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193751/-alligators-all-around-and-the-icd-10-code-set
#3
Alan D Legatt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182696/ontogenetic-comparisons-of-standard-metabolism-in-three-species-of-crocodilians
#4
C M Gienger, Matthew L Brien, Christopher R Tracy, S Charlie Manolis, Grahame J W Webb, Roger S Seymour, Keith A Christian
Due in part to their large size, aggressive temperament, and difficulty in handling, there are few physiological studies of adult crocodilians in the literature. As a result, studies comparing individuals across an ontogenetic series and comparisons among species are also lacking. We addressed this gap in knowledge by measuring standard metabolic rates (SMR) of three species of crocodilians (Crocodylus porosus, C. johnsoni, and Alligator mississippiensis), and included individuals that ranged from 0.22 to 114 kg...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165832/comparative-effects-of-alkaloid-extracts-from-aframomum-melegueta-alligator-pepper-and-aframomum-danielli-bastered-melegueta-on-enzymes-relevant-to-erectile-dysfunction
#5
Stephen A Adefegha, Ganiyu Oboh, Bathlomew M Okeke, Sunday I Oyeleye
Aframomum melegueta (alligator pepper (AP)) and Aframomum danielli (bastered melegueta (BM)) seeds have been known to improve sexual function in folkloric medicine. This study investigates the effects of AP and BM seeds' alkaloid extracts on the activities of enzymes (acetylcholinesterase (AChE), angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE), phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5), and arginase) relevant to erectile dysfunction (ED). Alkaloids from the seeds were prepared by the solvent extraction method and their interactions with AChE, ACE, PDE-5, and arginase were assessed...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150020/dietary-selenomethionine-administration-in-the-american-alligator-alligator-mississippiensis-hepatic-and-renal-se-accumulation-and-its-effects-on-growth-and-body-condition
#6
John W Finger, Matthew T Hamilton, Travis C Glenn, Tracey D Tuberville
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient, but in excess, it can induce toxicity. Incomplete combustion of coal produces coal combustion wastes, which are enriched in Se and often disposed of in aquatic basins. While a multitude of studies have investigated Se accumulation in vertebrates, few studies have examined its effects on longer-lived top trophic carnivores, such as the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). In this study, alligators were fed one of three Dietary Treatments: mice injected with water (controls) or water supplemented with 1000 or 2000 ppm selenomethionine (SeMet)...
February 1, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144181/herpetofauna-of-the-northwest-amazon-forest-in-the-state-of-maranh%C3%A3-o-brazil-with-remarks-on-the-gurupi-biological-reserve
#7
Marco Antonio de Freitas, Ruhan Saldanha Vieira, Omar Machado Entiauspe-Neto, Samantha Oliveira E Sousa, Tayse Farias, Alanna Grazieli Sousa, Geraldo Jorge Barbosa de Moura
Understanding the biodiversity of an area is the first step for establishing effective interventions for conservation, especially when it comes to herpetofauna, since 4.1% and 9.2%, respectively, of Brazilian amphibians and reptiles are endangered. The aim of this study is to identify the composition of the herpetofauna occurring in the Northwest Amazonian state of Maranhão, with a focus on the Gurupi Biological Reserve and surrounding areas. Samples were collected between May 2012 and October 2013 (18 months), through pitfall traps, time constrained active search, and opportunistic encounters, and these records were supplemented by specimens collected by third parties and by bibliographic records...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137821/improved-genome-assembly-of-american-alligator-genome-reveals-conserved-architecture-of-estrogen-signaling
#8
Edward Stallknecht Rice, Satomi Kohno, John St John, Son Pham, Jonathan Howard, Liana Lareau, Brendan L O'Connell, Glenn Hickey, Joel Armstrong, Alden Deran, Ian Fiddes, Roy N Platt, Cathy Gresham, Fiona McCarthy, Colin Kern, David Haan, Tan Phan, Carl Schmidt, Jeremy R Sanford, David A Ray, Benedict Paten, Louis J Guillette, Richard E Green
The American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, like all crocodilians, has temperature-dependent sex determination, in which the sex of an embryo is determined by the incubation temperature of the egg during a critical period of development. The lack of genetic differences between male and female alligators leaves open the question of how the genes responsible for sex determination and differentiation are regulated. One insight into this question comes from the fact that exposing an embryo incubated at male-producing temperature to estrogen causes it to develop ovaries...
January 30, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089718/cathelicidin-antimicrobial-peptide-from-alligator-mississippiensis-has-antibacterial-activity-against-multi-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumanii-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#9
Stephanie M Barksdale, Evelyn J Hrifko, Monique L van Hoek
Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator), a member of order Crocodilia, lives in bacteria-laden environments but is not often known to succumb to bacterial infections. Their serum has been shown to have antibacterial activity beyond that of human serum, and it is believed that this activity is partially due to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs). CAMPs are produced by many organisms as part of the innate immune system. CAMPs are attractive possible therapies against multi-drug resistant bacteria, such as those found in biofilm-infected war wounds, because they seldom cause genetic resistance in bacteria and are effective against antibiotic resistant bacteria...
January 13, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070542/characterization-of-mineral-coatings-associated-with-a-pleistocene-holocene-rock-art-style-the-northern-running-figures-of-the-east-alligator-river-region-western-arnhem-land-australia
#10
Penelope L King, Ulrike Troitzsch, Tristen Jones
This data article contains mineralogic and chemical data from mineral coatings associated with rock art from the East Alligator River region. The coatings were collected adjacent to a rock art style known as the "Northern Running Figures" for the purposes of radiocarbon dating (doi:10.1016/j.jasrep.2016.11.016; (T. Jones, V. Levchenko, P.L. King, U. Troitzsch, D. Wesley, 2017) [1]). This contribution includes raw and processed powder X-ray Diffraction data, Scanning Electron Microscopy energy dispersive spectroscopy data, and Fourier Transform infrared spectral data...
February 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069304/species-diversity-and-environmental-determinants-of-aquatic-and-terrestrial-communities-invaded-by-alternanthera-philoxeroides
#11
Hao Wu, Juli Carrillo, Jianqing Ding
The impact of invasive species on native biodiversity varies across environments, with invasion effects of amphibious plant species across terrestrial and aquatic systems especially poorly understood. In this study, we established 29 terrestrial plots and 23 aquatic plots which were invaded by the alien plant alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides in Southern China. We measured α-species diversity (Shannon-Wiener and Simpson index), species richness and evenness, species cover and the importance value (a comprehensive index of cover, height and abundance) of A...
January 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063742/all-or-nothing-thinking-the-processing-of-emotional-expressions-in-traumatized-post-deployment-soldiers
#12
Claudia Gebhardt, Christina Alliger-Horn, Kristin Mitte, Heide Glaesmer
The exposure to trauma is a dramatic life event with complex consequences among those like changes in information processing. Dysfunctional cognitions like a negative interpretation of information are a risk factor for the development of trauma-related disorders. The aim of the present study was to test whether post-deployment soldiers with trauma differ in their interpretation of emotional expressions from member of a control group. Interpretation of emotional expressions was assessed in a sample of 106 males (n=53 soldiers, n=53 controls) with the Similarity Rating Task (simtask) and analyzed with a multidimensional scaling (MDS) approach...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059505/predicting-plant-invasions-following-china-s-water-diversion-project
#13
Dasheng Liu, Rui Wang, Doria R Gordon, Xihua Sun, Lu Chen, Yanwen Wang
China's South to North Water Diversion (SNWD) project connects portions of the Yangtze River in the south to the Yellow River system in the north, overcoming biogeographic barriers to water movement. The diversion will supply potable water to over 110 million people and provide multiple other socioeconomic benefits. However, an inadvertent negative impact of this connection includes creation of conduits for species invasions. Alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) are the only aquatic plant species on China's shortlists for special control...
January 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931108/caustic-esophageal-injury-by-impaction-of-cell-batteries
#14
Francisco José García Fernández, Rafael León Montañés, Juan Manuel Bozada Garcia
The ingestion of cell batteries can cause serious complications (fistula, perforation or stenosis) at the esophageal level. The damage starts soon after ingestion (approximately 2 hours) and is directly related to the amount of time the battery is lodged in said location, the amount of electrical charge remaining in the battery, and the size of the battery itself. Injury is produced by the combination of electrochemical and chemical mechanisms and pressure necrosis. The ingestion of multiple cells and a size > = 20 mm are related with more severe and clinically significant outcomes...
December 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879442/salmonella-enterica-serovar-pomona-infection-in-farmed-juvenile-american-alligators-alligator-mississippiensis
#15
K Sakaguchi, J G Nevarez, F Del Piero
A fatal epizootic of salmonellosis occurred in farmed juvenile American alligators in Louisiana. Six animals were examined. Gross lesions included severe fibrinonecrotizing enterocolitis, necrotizing splenitis, coelomic effusion, and perivisceral and pulmonary edema. Microscopic examination revealed severe necrotizing enterocolitis and splenitis with intralesional bacteria and pneumocyte necrosis with fibrin thrombi. Salmonella enterica serovar Pomona was isolated from intestine and lung. Clinical salmonellosis is a rare finding in reptiles and salmonellosis caused by S...
March 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872325/the-molecular-circuit-regulating-tooth-development-in-crocodilians
#16
S Tsai, A Abdelhamid, M K Khan, A Elkarargy, R B Widelitz, C M Chuong, P Wu
Alligators have robust regenerative potential for tooth renewal. In contrast, extant mammals can either renew their teeth once (diphyodont dentition, as found in humans) or not at all (monophyodont dentition, present in mice). Previously, the authors used multiple mitotic labeling to map putative stem cells in alligator dental laminae, which contain quiescent odontogenic progenitors. The authors demonstrated that alligator tooth cycle initiation is related to β-catenin/Wnt pathway activity in the dental lamina bulge...
December 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824401/comparison-of-different-biopsy-forceps-models-for-tissue-sampling-in-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#17
Christian Bussmann, Alain M Schoepfer, Ekaterina Safroneeva, Nadine Haas, Sébastien Godat, Christine Sempoux, Hans-Uwe Simon, Alex Straumann
Background and aims: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a mixed inflammatory and fibrostenotic disease. Unlike superficial inflammatory changes, subepithelial fibrosis is not routinely sampled in esophageal biopsies. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of deep esophageal sampling with four different types of biopsy forceps. Patients and methods: In this cross-sectional study, esophageal biopsies were taken in 30 adult patients by one expert endoscopist. Biopsies sampled from distal esophagus using a static jaw forceps (Olympus, FB-11K-1) were compared with proximal biopsies sampled with static jaw (Olympus, FB-45Q-1), alligator jaw (Olympus, FB-210K), and large-capacity forceps (Boston Scientific, Radial Jaw 4)...
December 2016: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816416/a-comparative-study-of-piscine-defense-the-scales-of-arapaima-gigas-latimeria-chalumnae-and-atractosteus-spatula
#18
Vincent R Sherman, Haocheng Quan, Wen Yang, Robert O Ritchie, Marc A Meyers
We compare the characteristics of the armored scales of three large fish, namely the Arapaima gigas (arapaima), Latimeria chalumnae (coelacanth), and Atractosteus spatula (alligator gar), with specific focus on their unique structure-mechanical property relationships and their specialized ability to provide protection from predatory pressures, with the ultimate goal of providing bio-inspiration for manmade materials. The arapaima has flexible and overlapping cycloid scales which consist of a tough Bouligand-type arrangement of collagen layers in the base and a hard external mineralized surface, protecting it from piranha, a predator with extremely sharp teeth...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807618/molecular-and-morphological-characterization-of-a-haemogregarine-in-the-alligator-snapping-turtle-macrochelys-temminckii-testudines-chelydridae
#19
Amer Rasool Alhaboubi, Dana A Pollard, Patricia J Holman
A severely underweight alligator snapping turtle Macrochelys temminckii Troost in Harlan, 1835, was found near Tyler, Texas, and taken to the Caldwell Zoo. Blood films were submitted to Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, for morphological and molecular identification of haemogregarine-like inclusions in the red blood cells. Intraerythrocytic Haemogregarina sp. forms were found on microscopic examination at a parasitemia of <1 %. The morphology and morphometric data for the forms indicate similarity to Haemogregarina macrochelysi n...
January 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775587/guilt-shame-and-compassionate-imagery-in-war-traumatized-german-soldiers-with-ptsd-a-pilot-study
#20
Christina Alliger-Horn, Peter Lutz Zimmermann, Mervyn Schmucker
BACKGROUND: The consideration of specific trauma-associated emotions poses a challenge for the differential treatment planning in trauma therapy. Soldiers experiencing deployment-related posttraumatic stress disorder often struggle with emotions of guilt and shame as a central component of their PTSD. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which soldiers' PTSD symptoms and their trauma-related guilt and shame may be affected as a function of their ability to develop compassionate imagery between their CURRENT SELF (today) and their TRAUMATIZED SELF (back then)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
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