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Li-Qin Li, Lun Liu, Wei Zhuo, Qian Chen, Sheng Hu, Shuang Peng, Xi-Yao Wang, Yi-Fei Lu, Li-Ming Lu
Physiological and iTRAQ based proteomic analysis provided new insights into potassium deficiency stress response in alligator weed root. Alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides) has a strong ability to adapt to potassium deficiency (LK) stress. Proteomic changes in response to this stress are largely unknown in alligator weed. In this study, we investigated physiological and molecular mechanisms under LK using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation to characterize proteome-level changes in this plant...
May 18, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
P C Faulkner, M L Burleson, L Simonitis, C Marshall, D Hala, L H Petersen
American alligator ( Alligator mississippiensis , Linnaeus) habitats are prone to saltwater intrusion following major storms, hurricanes or droughts. Anthropogenic impacts affecting hydrology of freshwater systems may exacerbate saltwater intrusion into freshwater habitats. The endocrine system of alligators is susceptible to changes in the environment but it is currently not known how the crocodilian physiological system responds to environmental stressors such as salinity. Juvenile alligators were exposed to 12‰ saltwater for 5 weeks to determine effects of chronic exposure to saline environments...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Michael J Malinowski
Obesity, recognized as a disease in the U.S. and at times as a terminal illness due to associated medical complications, is an American epidemic according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ("CDC"), American Heart Association ("AHA"), and other authorities. More than one third of Americans (39.8% of adults and 18.5% of children) are medically obese. This article focuses on cases of "extreme morbid obesity" ("EMO")-situations in which death is imminent without aggressive medical interventions, and bariatric surgery is the only treatment option with a realistic possibility of success...
March 2018: American Journal of Law & Medicine
I König, A Weber, W Weber, S Fischer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2018: Clinical Neuroradiology
Yan-Hong Liu, Dong Jia, Xiao-Fang Yuan, Yuan-Xin Wang, Hsin Chi, Thomas James Ridsdill-Smith, Rui-Yan Ma
The alligator weed flea beetle, Agasicles hygrophila Selman & Vogt (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) has been used very successfully for the biological control of the widely-distributed invasive weed Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb (Caryophyllales: Amaranthaceae). In order to extend the 'shelf life' of natural enemies released in biological control programs, cold storage has proven to be a valuable commercial procedure. To determine a suitable low temperature for storage of A. hygrophila, we conducted short-term cold storage treatments of eggs (4°C for 0...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Brian R Silliman, Brent B Hughes, Lindsay C Gaskins, Qiang He, M Tim Tinker, Andrew Read, James Nifong, Rick Stepp
Humans have decimated populations of large-bodied consumers and their functions in most of the world's ecosystems. It is less clear how human activities have affected the diversity of habitats these consumers occupy. Rebounding populations of some predators after conservation provides an opportunity to begin to investigate this question. Recent research shows that following long-term protection, sea otters along the northeast Pacific coast have expanded into estuarine marshes and seagrasses, and alligators on the southeast US coast have expanded into saltwater ecosystems, habitats presently thought beyond their niche space...
May 7, 2018: Current Biology: CB
John W Finger, Matthew T Hamilton, Meghan D Kelley, Yufeng Zhang, Andreas N Kavazis, Travis C Glenn, Tracey D Tuberville
Selenium (Se) is an essential nutrient which in excess causes toxicity. The disposal of incompletely combusted coal, which often is rich in Se, into aquatic settling basins is increasing the risk of Se exposure worldwide. However, very few studies have looked at the physiological effects of Se exposure on long-lived, top trophic vertebrates, such as the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). During a 7-week period, alligators were fed one of three dietary treatments: mice injected with deionized water or mice injected with water containing 1000 or 2000 ppm selenomethionine (SeMet)...
May 8, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Tobias Wang
Why is the alligator heart so similar to the hearts of birds and mammals?
May 8, 2018: ELife
Ayami Matsushima
Huge numbers of chemicals are released uncontrolled into the environment and some of these chemicals induce unwanted biological effects, both on wildlife and humans. One class of these chemicals are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which are released even though EDCs can affect not only the functions of steroid hormones but also of various signaling molecules, including any ligand-mediated signal transduction pathways. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), a pesticide that is already banned, is one of the best-publicized EDCs and its metabolites have been considered to cause adverse effects on wildlife, even though the exact molecular mechanisms of the abnormalities it causes still remain obscure...
May 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xiao Mei Huang, Long Sun, Xiao Bing Wu
Objective To investigate the molecular clone and structural features of pepsinogen C(PGC) gene in the stomach of Alligator sinensis,explore the phylogenetic relationships and tissue distribution,and analyze the variation of PGC expression in the stomachs of adult Alligator sinensis at different life stages. Methods The full-length cDNA of PGC gene of Alligator sinensis was cloned by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends and then sequenced.The physical and chemical parameters and advanced structures of the PGC protein were predicted by bioinformatics methods and tools...
April 28, 2018: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
Peter M DiGeronimo, Nicola Di Girolamo, Britton J Grasperge, Beau B Gregory, Peter Jowett, Javier G Nevarez
The alligator snapping turtle ( Macrochelys temminckii) is a freshwater apex predator that has experienced severe population declines throughout its range due to historical overharvesting and habitat degradation. Because of its long lifespan, high trophic level, and limited home range, it is a suitable sentinel species for monitoring environmental contaminants. In Louisiana, a pilot program aims to augment free-ranging populations by releasing captive-reared individuals. Baseline values of potential environmental contaminants were determined as part of an overall health assessment to evaluate captive-reared alligator snapping turtles for release...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
William Joyce, Ruth M Elsey, Tobias Wang, Dane A Crossley Nd
In most vertebrates, increases in cardiac output result from increases in heart rate (fH ) with little or no change in stroke volume (Vs), and maximum cardiac output (Q̇) is typically attained at or close to maximum fH . We therefore tested the hypothesis that increasing maximum fH may increase maximum Q̇. To this end, we investigated the effects of elevating fH with right atrial pacing on Q̇ in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) at rest and whilst swimming. During normal swimming, Q̇ increased entirely by virtue of a tachycardia (29 {plus minus} 1 to 40 {plus minus} 3 beats min-1 ) whilst Vs remained stable...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Casey A Mueller, John Eme, Kevin B Tate, Dane A Crossley
Angiotensin II (ANG II) is a powerful vasoconstrictor of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that plays an important role in cardiovascular regulation in adult and developing vertebrates. Knowledge of ANG II's contribution to developmental cardiovascular function comes from studies in fetal mammals and embryonic chickens. This is the first study to examine the role of ANG II in cardiovascular control in an embryonic reptile, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Using chronic low (~ 5-mg kg embryo-1 ), or high doses (~ 450-mg kg embryo-1 ) of captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, we disrupted the RAS and examined the influence of ANG II in cardiovascular function at 90% of embryonic development...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Fei Peng, Xianxian Chen, Ting Meng, En Li, Yongkang Zhou, Shengzhou Zhang
The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis is an endangered freshwater crocodilian species endemic to China. Hematology and serum biochemistry reference range are useful in the assessment and management of animal health condition. In this study, a total of 74 Chinese Alligators (30 males and 44 females) were examined to establish reference range values of hematology and serum biochemistry parameters during the active and hibernating periods. We measured and analyzed 9 hematology and 21 serum biochemistry parameters including 4 serum electrolyte parameters, and described the morphology of different types of blood cells...
April 2018: Tissue & Cell
William Joyce, Janna Crossley, Ruth M Elsey, Tobias Wang, Dane A Crossley
Ventricular filling may occur directly from the venous circulation during early diastole or via atrial contraction in late diastole. The contribution of atrial contraction to ventricular filling is typically small in mammals (10-40%), but has been suggested to predominate in reptiles. We investigated the importance of atrial contraction in filling of the ventricle in American alligators ( Alligator mississippiensis ) by bypassing both atria (with the use of ligatures to prevent atrial filling) and measuring the resultant effects on cardiac output in anesthetized animals...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Adriana Martínez-Juárez, Marco A López-Luna, Tania J Porras-Gómez, Norma Moreno-Mendoza
The Sox9 gene is important for determining sex in vertebrates, as well as for maintaining testis morphology and fertility during adult life. In the same way, Vasa is an important gene for the maintenance of the germinal lineage and has been highly conserved throughout evolution, as it is expressed in germ cells of both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the particular case of crocodiles, the expression of Sox9 during gonadal morphogenesis and in the testes of 3-month-old Alligator mississippiensis has been studied...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Xifeng Wang, Peng Wang, Renping Wang, Chaolin Wang, Jianhui Bai, Cuncun Ke, Di Yu, Kongpan Li, Yonghe Ma, Haitang Han, Yaofeng Zhao, Xin Zhou, Liming Ren
All jawed vertebrates have four T cell receptor (TCR) chains that are expressed by thymus-derived lymphocytes and play a major role in animal immune defence. However, few studies have investigated the TCR chains of crocodilians compared with those of birds and mammals, despite their key evolutionary position linking amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Here, employing an Alligator sinensis genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and available genome data, we characterized the genomic organization, evolution and expression of TRB and TRG loci in Alligator sinensis...
March 21, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Bjarke Jensen, Bastiaan Jd Boukens, Dane A Crossley, Justin Conner, Rajiv Ahmet Mohan, Karel van Duijvenboden, Alex V Postma, Christopher R Gloschat, Ruth M Elsey, David Sedmera, Igor R Efimov, Vincent M Christoffels
Mammals and birds have a specialized cardiac atrioventricular conduction system enabling rapid activation of both ventricles. This system may have evolved together with high heart rates to support their endothermic state (warm-bloodedness), and is seemingly lacking in ectothermic vertebrates from which first mammals then birds independently evolved. Here, we studied the conduction system in crocodiles ( Alligator mississippiensis ), the only ectothermic vertebrates with a full ventricular septum. We identified homologues of mammalian conduction system markers ( Tbx3-Tbx5, Scn5a, Gja5, Nppa-Nppb ) and show the presence of a functional atrioventricular bundle...
March 22, 2018: ELife
Jorge A Avila, Roseanna M Zanca, Denis Shor, Nicholas Paleologos, Amber A Alliger, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira, Peter A Serrano
Methamphetamine (MA) is an addictive drug with neurotoxic effects on the brain producing cognitive impairment and increasing the risk for neurodegenerative disease. Research has focused largely on examining the neurochemical and behavioral deficits induced by injecting relatively high doses of MA [30 mg/kg of body weight (bw)] identifying the upper limits of MA-induced neurotoxicity. Accordingly, we have developed an appetitive mouse model of voluntary oral MA administration (VOMA) based on the consumption of a palatable sweetened oatmeal mash containing a known amount of MA...
February 2018: Heliyon
Steven D Briscoe, Clifton W Ragsdale
The evolutionary relationships of the mammalian neocortex and avian dorsal telencephalon (DT) nuclei have been debated for more than a century. Despite their central importance to this debate, nonavian reptiles remain underexplored with modern molecular techniques. Reptile studies harbor great potential for understanding the changes in DT organization that occurred in the early evolution of amniotes. They may also help clarify the specializations in the avian DT, which comprises a massive, cell-dense dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR) and a nuclear dorsal-most structure, the Wulst...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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