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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642099/developmental-cardiovascular-physiology-of-the-olive-ridley-sea-turtle-lepidochelys-olivacea
#1
Dane Alan Crossley, Janna Lee Crossley, Camilla Smith, Martha Harfush, Hermilo Sánchez-Sánchez, Mónica Vanessa Garduño-Paz, José Fernando Méndez-Sánchez
Our understanding of reptilian cardiovascular development and regulation has increased substantially for two species the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) during the past two decades. However, what we know about cardiovascular maturation in many other species remains poorly understood or unknown. Embryonic sea turtles have been studied to understand the maturation of metabolic function, but these studies have not addressed the cardiovascular system...
June 19, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637530/characterization-of-the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-ortleppascaris-sinensis-nematoda-heterocheilidae-and-comparative-mitogenomic-analysis-of-eighteen-ascaridida-nematodes
#2
J H Zhao, G J Tu, X B Wu, C P Li
Ortleppascaris sinensis (Nematoda: Ascaridida) is a dominant intestinal nematode of the captive Chinese alligator. However, the epidemiology, molecular ecology and population genetics of this parasite remain largely unexplored. In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of O. sinensis was first determined using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based primer-walking strategy, and this is also the first sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome of a member of the genus Ortleppascaris...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637293/conserved-non-exonic-elements-a-novel-class-of-marker-for-phylogenomics
#3
Scott V Edwards, Alison Cloutier, Allan J Baker
Noncoding markers have a particular appeal as tools for phylogenomic analysis because, at least in vertebrates, they appear less subject to strong variation in GC content among lineages. Thus far, ultraconserved elements (UCEs) and introns have been the most widely used noncoding markers. Here we analyze and study the evolutionary properties of a new type of noncoding marker, conserved non-exonic elements (CNEEs), which consists of noncoding elements that are estimated to evolve slower than the neutral rate across a set of species...
June 16, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630932/differential-intron-retention-in-jumonji-chromatin-modifier-genes-is-implicated-in-reptile-temperature-dependent-sex-determination
#4
Ira W Deveson, Clare E Holleley, James Blackburn, Jennifer A Marshall Graves, John S Mattick, Paul D Waters, Arthur Georges
In many vertebrates, sex of offspring is determined by external environmental cues rather than by sex chromosomes. In reptiles, for instance, temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is common. Despite decades of work, the mechanism by which temperature is converted into a sex-determining signal remains mysterious. This is partly because it is difficult to distinguish the primary molecular events of TSD from the confounding downstream signatures of sexual differentiation. We use the Australian central bearded dragon, in which chromosomal sex determination is overridden at high temperatures to produce sex-reversed female offspring, as a unique model to identify TSD-specific features of the transcriptome...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599906/affordable-microsurgical-training-system-for-a-beginning-neurosurgeon-how-to-realize-the-self-laboratory
#5
Sang-Bong Chung, Jiwook Ryu, Yeongu Chung, Sung Ho Lee, Seok Keun Choi
OBJECTIVE: Based on our experience, this report provides detailed information about how to realize a self-laboratory including cost-effective microsurgical instruments especially for the novice trainee. METHODS: Our training model was designed to allow microsurgical practice to be performed in a cost-effective way. A used stereoscopic microscope was prepared for microsurgical training. A sufficient working distance for microsurgical practice was obtained by attaching an auxiliary objective lens...
June 6, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533820/medip-seq-and-ncpg-analyses-illuminate-sexually-dimorphic-methylation-of-gonadal-development-genes-with-high-historic-methylation-in-turtle-hatchlings-with-temperature-dependent-sex-determination
#6
Srihari Radhakrishnan, Robert Literman, Beatriz Mizoguchi, Nicole Valenzuela
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation alters gene expression but not DNA sequence and mediates some cases of phenotypic plasticity. Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) epitomizes phenotypic plasticity where environmental temperature drives embryonic sexual fate, as occurs commonly in turtles. Importantly, the temperature-specific transcription of two genes underlying gonadal differentiation is known to be induced by differential methylation in TSD fish, turtle and alligator. Yet, how extensive is the link between DNA methylation and TSD remains unclear...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500350/formants-provide-honest-acoustic-cues-to-body-size-in-american-alligators
#7
Stephan A Reber, Judith Janisch, Kevin Torregrosa, Jim Darlington, Kent A Vliet, W Tecumseh Fitch
In many vertebrates, acoustic cues to body size are encoded in resonance frequencies of the vocal tract ("formants"), rather than in the rate of tissue vibration in the sound source ("pitch"). Anatomical constraints on the vocal tract's size render formants honest cues to size in many bird and mammal species, but it is not clear whether this correlation evolved convergently in these two clades, or whether it is widespread among amniotes (mammals, birds, and non-avian reptiles). We investigated the potential for honest acoustic cues in the bellows of adult American alligators and found that formant spacing provided highly reliable cues to body size, while presumed correlates of the source signal did not...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456036/trace-element-biodistribution-in-the-american-alligator-alligator-mississippiensis
#8
Frances M Nilsen, Brittany L Kassim, J Patrick Delaney, Ted R Lange, Arnold M Brunell, Louis J Guillette, Stephen E Long, Tracey B Schock
Routine monitoring of contaminant levels in wildlife is important for understanding chemical exposure and ultimately the link to ecosystem and human health. This is particularly important when the monitored species is recreationally hunted for human consumption. In the southeastern United States, recreational alligator harvesting takes place annually and in locations that are known to be contaminated with environmental pollutants. In this study, we investigated the biodistribution of trace elements in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) from five sites in Florida, USA...
April 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433658/molecular-cloning-of-esr2-and-gene-expression-analysis-of-esr1-and-esr2-in-the-pituitary-gland-of-the-chinese-alligator-alligator-sinensis-during-female-reproductive-cycle
#9
Ruidong Zhang, Yanan Yin, Long Sun, Peng Yan, Yongkang Zhou, Rong Wu, Xiaobing Wu
Estrogens play critical roles in reproductive physiology via estrogen receptors (ESRs) in vertebrates, including reptiles. Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) is an endemic and endangered reptile species in China. In the present study, we cloned ESR2 gene from the ovary using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), investigated the spatial expression of ESRs in various tissues and temporal expression of ESRs in the pituitary glands during the reproductive cycle in Chinese alligators by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)...
August 5, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413748/thiamine-assays-advances-challenges-and-caveats
#10
REVIEW
Katie A Edwards, Nicole Tu-Maung, Krystal Cheng, Binbin Wang, Antje J Baeumner, Clifford E Kraft
Thiamine (vitamin B1) is essential to the health of all living organisms and deficiency has long been associated with diseases in animals such as fish, birds, alligators, and domesticated ruminant mammals. Thiamine is also implicated in several human diseases including Alzheimer's, diabetes, dementia, depression and, most notably, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and Beriberi disease. Yet, highly sensitive and specific detection of thiamine remains an analytical challenge, as pM to nm levels of thiamine need to be detected in environmental and human samples, respectively, various phosphorylated variants need to be discriminated, and rapid on-site detection would be highly desirable...
April 2017: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400249/similarity-of-osmoregulatory-capacity-in-coastal-and-inland-alligator-gar
#11
Peter J Allen, Alf Haukenes, Steve E Lochmann
The alligator gar Atractosteus spatula is a primitive fish species, occupying a wide range of temperature and salinity habitats. Long-distance movements are limited, leading to genetic differentiation between inland and coastal populations. Unknown is whether physiological capacity differs between geographically separated populations, particularly for traits important to osmoregulation in saline environments. Alligator gar from inland and coastal populations were reared in a similar environment and exposed to temperature (10, 30°C) and salinity (0, 20ppt) extremes to determine whether iono- and osmoregulatory ability differed between populations...
July 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363902/ontogeny-of-bite-force-in-a-validated-biomechanical-model-of-the-american-alligator
#12
Kaleb C Sellers, Kevin M Middleton, Julian L Davis, Casey M Holliday
Three-dimensional computational modeling offers tools with which to investigate forces experienced by the skull encountered during feeding and other behaviors. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) generate some of the highest measured bite forces among extant tetrapods. A concomitant increase in bite force accompanies ontogenetic increases in body mass, which has been linked with dietary changes as animals increase in size. Because the flattened skull of crocodylians has substantial mediolaterally-oriented muscles, they are an excellent model taxon in which to explore the role of mediolateral force components experienced by the feeding apparatus...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363062/intramuscular-epinephrine-results-in-reduced-anesthetic-recovery-time-in-american-alligators-alligator-mississippiensis-undergoing-isoflurane-anesthesia
#13
Bonnie J Gatson, Alexandra Goe, Tiffany D Granone, James F X Wellehan
Inhalants are commonly used to anesthetize reptiles, but volatile anesthetics have been associated with prolonged recovery times. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of intramuscular (IM) epinephrine on anesthetic recovery times following isoflurane anesthesia in a population of subadult American alligators ( Alligator mississippiensis ). In this prospective randomized crossover study, five clinically healthy alligators were anesthetized for 90 min with the use of isoflurane. Alligators were randomly assigned into one of two treatment groups: Group E received IM epinephrine (0...
March 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363051/effects-of-plant-protein-diets-on-the-health-of-farmed-american-alligators-alligator-mississippiensis
#14
Peter M DiGeronimo, Nicola Di Girolamo, Nicholas A Crossland, Fabio Del Piero, Robert C Reigh, Javier G Nevarez
The objective of this prospective, blinded study was to compare plasma biochemical values and gross and histologic evaluation of kidney and liver from American alligators ( Alligator mississippiensis ) fed extruded diets with protein derived from animal or plant sources. Alligators in two treatment groups were fed an extruded diet with protein derived primarily from plant products for 7 (n = 20) or 10 (n = 20) mo prior to harvest. A control group (n = 20) was fed a commercial diet with protein derived from animal products for the duration of the study...
March 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342344/water-hardness-determines-226-ra-uptake-in-the-tropical-freshwater-mussel
#15
Che Doering, Andreas Bollhöfer
Chemical data for freshwater mussels (Velesunio spp.) and water from 15 sampling sites in the Alligator Rivers Region and Rum Jungle uranium provinces in tropical Northern Australia were analysed to develop a predictive model of radium-226 ((226)Ra) bioaccumulation for variable water calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) concentrations. Application of the model as a (226)Ra screening approach for freshwater mussels in tropical waterbodies potentially impacted by operational or remediated uranium mine sites is discussed in relation to Mudginberri Billabong, located approximately 12 km downstream of Ranger uranium mine in the Alligator Rivers Region...
June 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330922/joint-histology-in-alligator-mississippiensis-challenges-the-identification-of-synovial-joints-in-fossil-archosaurs-and-inferences-of-cranial-kinesis
#16
Alida M Bailleul, Casey M Holliday
Archosaurs, like all vertebrates, have different types of joints that allow or restrict cranial kinesis, such as synovial joints and fibrous joints. In general, synovial joints are more kinetic than fibrous joints, because the former possess a fluid-filled cavity and articular cartilage that facilitate movement. Even though there is a considerable lack of data on the microstructure and the structure-function relationships in the joints of extant archosaurs, many functional inferences of cranial kinesis in fossil archosaurs have hinged on the assumption that elongated condylar joints are (i) synovial and/or (ii) kinetic...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323175/a-comparative-study-of-bio-inspired-protective-scales-using-3d-printing-and-mechanical-testing
#17
Roberto Martini, Yanis Balit, Francois Barthelat
Flexible natural armors from fish, alligators or armadillo are attracting an increasing amount of attention for their unique combinations of hardness, flexibility and light weight. The extreme contrast of stiffness between hard scales and surrounding soft tissues gives rise to unusual and attractive mechanisms, which now serve as models for the design of bio-inspired armors. Despite this growing interest, there is little guideline for the choice of materials, optimum thickness, size, shape and arrangement for the protective scales...
March 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296881/transcriptomic-responses-to-environmental-temperature-by-turtles-with-temperature-dependent-and-genotypic-sex-determination-assessed-by-rnaseq-inform-the-genetic-architecture-of-embryonic-gonadal-development
#18
Srihari Radhakrishnan, Robert Literman, Jennifer Neuwald, Andrew Severin, Nicole Valenzuela
Vertebrate sexual fate is decided primarily by the individual's genotype (GSD), by the environmental temperature during development (TSD), or both. Turtles exhibit TSD and GSD, making them ideal to study the evolution of sex determination. Here we analyze temperature-specific gonadal transcriptomes (RNA-sequencing validated by qPCR) of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta TSD) before and during the thermosensitive period, and at equivalent stages in soft-shell turtles (Apalone spinifera-GSD), to test whether TSD's and GSD's transcriptional circuitry is identical but deployed differently between mechanisms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267217/comparison-of-routinely-used-intestinal-biopsy-forceps-in-dogs-an-ex-vivo-histopathological-approach
#19
J Dahan, M O Semin, C Monton, S Amiriantz, D Concordet, I Raymond-Letron, O Dossin
OBJECTIVES: To compare the quality of duodenal and ileal samples obtained with different biopsy forceps. METHODS: Fifteen dogs were included in a prospective ex vivo study. After euthanasia, the duodenum and the ileum were sampled with four different forceps and evaluated according to a standardised scoring system. The biopsy forceps evaluated had alligator jaws or cups with smooth edge with or without a needle. RESULTS: The global quality of the biopsies was better in the ileum that in the duodenum regardless of the biopsy forceps...
March 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262788/vegetative-propagation-capacity-of-invasive-alligator-weed-through-small-stolon-fragments-under-different-treatments
#20
Xuemei Peng, Haiyan Li, Yunfei Yang, Heng Zhi, Chengcheng Li, Jian Guo
The ability to propagate via small diaspores is crucial for the invasion of a clone plant that does not reproduce sexually in its introduced range. We investigated the effects of node and internode adjacent mode, fragment type, burial orientation and position of the node in relation to the soil surface on the sprouting and growth of alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Martius) Griseb.). All the factors had effects and interaction effects on the sprouting rate and growth. As a whole fragment in all treatments, the fragments with basal node buried upward on the soil surface, exhibited the best above-ground growth and root growth...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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