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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103625/multiple-paternity-a-compensation-mechanism-of-the-chinese-alligator-for-inbreeding
#1
Huan Wang, Peng Yan, Shengzhou Zhang, Long Sun, Min Ren, Hui Xue, Fang Zhang, Rong Wu, Xiaobing Wu
The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis is a critically endangered species endemic to China. Knowledge about reproductive strategies of a species contributes to their conservation. Little is, however, known about the reproductive strategies and its impact on the population. In the present study, an easy and non-invasive genetic method was used to improve the understanding of mating system of Chinese alligators and its effect on the population genetic diversity by nine polymorphic microsatellite loci. There was a high incidence of multiple paternity among 50 clutches, with a total 60% of the clutches having multiple paternity and up to three males contributing to single clutches...
October 26, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054410/molecular-cloning-and-3d-structure-of-first-cytochrome-p450-from-cyp3a-subfamily-in-saltwater-crocodile-crocodylus-porosus
#2
Rabia Tabassum
Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) play critical role in oxidative metabolism of numerous xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. The first CYP3A subfamily member in saltwater crocodile has been cloned and modelled for three-dimensional (3D) structure. The full-length cDNA was obtained employing reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) strategy and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA sequence of 1659 nucleotides includes 132 nucleotides from 5' untranslated region (UTR), an open reading frame of 1527 nucleotides encoding 509 amino acids designated as CYP3A163...
October 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017942/as-cath4-and-5-two-vertebrate-derived-natural-host-defense-peptides-enhance-the-immuno-resistance-efficiency-against-bacterial-infections-in-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#3
Zhilai Guo, Xue Qiao, Ruomei Cheng, Nannan Shi, Aili Wang, Tingting Feng, Yan Chen, Fen Zhang, Haining Yu, Yipeng Wang
Host defense peptides (HDPs), a class of conserved components of animal innate immune system, possess direct antimicrobial activities against invading pathogens and broadly participate in boosting and modulating host immune responses. Cathelicidins is an important family of HDPs that has been identified exclusively in vertebrates. Considering the relatively conserved innate immune system between invertebrates and vertebrates, it is speculated that HDPs from vertebrates may also possess modulating functions on invertebrate innate immune system...
October 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958765/feeding-alters-blood-flow-patterns-in-the-american-alligator-alligator-mississippiensis
#4
Anders Findsen, Dane A Crossley, Tobias Wang
The crocodilian cardiovascular design with a four-chambered heart and a left aorta that emerge from the right ventricle allows blood to be shunted away from the lungs, a right-to-left (R-L) shunt. The adaptive significance of this R-L shunt remains both poorly understood and controversial with particular debate on its putative role during digestion. Here we measure blood flow patterns in the right aorta (RAo), left aorta (LAo) and the coeliac artery (CoA) of undisturbed American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) during fasting and throughout most of the digestive period...
September 27, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942280/nitrate-induces-a-type-1-diabetic-profile-in-alligator-hatchlings
#5
Thea M Edwards, Heather J Hamlin, Haley Freymiller, Stephen Green, Jenna Thurman, Louis J Guillette
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects 1 in 300 children by age 18. T1D is caused by inflammation-induced loss of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells, leading to high blood glucose and a host of downstream complications. Although multiple genes are associated with T1D risk, only 5% of genetically susceptible individuals actually develop clinical disease. Moreover, a growing number of T1D cases occur in geographic clusters and among children with low risk genotypes. These observations suggest that environmental factors contribute to T1D etiology...
January 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934323/identification-chromosomal-arrangements-and-expression-analyses-of-the-evolutionarily-conserved-prmt1-gene-in-chicken-in-comparison-with-its-vertebrate-paralogue-prmt8
#6
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Yi-Chun Wang, Chien-Wen Wang, Wen-Chang Lin, Yun-Jung Tsai, Chien-Ping Chang, Yu-Jen Lee, Min-Jon Lin, Chuan Li
Nine protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) are conserved in mammals and fish. Among these, PRMT1 is the major type I PRMT for asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) formation and is the most conserved and widely distributed one. Two chicken prmt1 splicing variants were assembled and confirmed by RT-PCR experiments. However, only two scaffolds containing single separate prmt1 exon with high GC contents are present in the current chicken genome assembly. Besides, prmt1 exons are scattered in separate small scaffolds in most avian species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917711/crocodiles-and-alligators-antiamoebic-and-antitumor-compounds-of-crocodiles
#7
Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Shareni Jeyamogan, Salwa Mansoor Ali, Fatima Abbas, K A Sagathevan, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Crocodiles exist in unsanitary environments, feed on rotten meat, are often exposed to heavy metals such as arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, mercury, nickel, lead, selenium, tolerate high levels of radiation, and are amid the very few species to survive the catastrophic Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event, nonetheless they can live for up to a 100 years. Moreover, as they live in unhygienic conditions, they regularly come across pathogens. Logically, we postulate that crocodiles have established mechanisms to defend themselves from noxious agents as well as protecting themselves from pathogens...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905992/the-vertebrate-heart-an-evolutionary-perspective
#8
REVIEW
Andrea Stephenson, Justin W Adams, Mauro Vaccarezza
Convergence is the tendency of independent species to evolve similarly when subjected to the same environmental conditions. The primitive blueprint for the circulatory system emerged around 700-600 Mya and exhibits diverse physiological adaptations across the radiations of vertebrates (Subphylum Vertebrata, Phylum Chordata). It has evolved from the early chordate circulatory system with a single layered tube in the tunicate (Subphylum Urchordata) or an amphioxus (Subphylum Cephalochordata), to a vertebrate circulatory system with a two-chambered heart made up of one atrium and one ventricle in gnathostome fish (Infraphylum Gnathostomata), to a system with a three-chambered heart made up of two atria which maybe partially divided or completely separated in amphibian tetrapods (Class Amphibia)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894925/alligator-wrestling-morphological-molecular-and-phylogenetic-data-on-odhneriotrema-incommodum-leidy-1856-digenea-clinostomidae-from-alligator-mississippiensis-daudin-1801-in-mississippi-usa
#9
Ethan T Woodyard, Thomas Graham Rosser, Scott A Rush
Based on specimens collected from harvested American alligator Alligator mississippiensis Daudin, 1801 in Mississippi, USA, novel molecular data for both nuclear ribosomal genes (18S, ITS1-5.8S, ITS2, and 28S) and mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1) are provided for Odhneriotrema incommodum (Leidy, 1856), a trematode of the family Clinostomidae Lühe, 1901 infecting A. mississippiensis and the Florida spotted gar Lepisosteus platyrhincus DeKay, 1842...
November 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884191/the-appearance-and-diversification-of-receptors-for-igm-during-vertebrate-evolution
#10
Srinivas Akula, Lars Hellman
Three different receptors that interact with the constant domains of IgM have been identified: the polymeric immunoglobulin (Ig) receptor (PIGR), the dual receptor for IgA/IgM (FcαµR) and the IgM receptor (FcµR). All of them are related in structure and located in the same chromosomal region in mammals. The functions of the PIGRs are to transport IgM and IgA into the intestinal lumen and to saliva and tears, whereas the FcαµRs enhance uptake of immune complexes and antibody coated bacteria and viruses by B220+ B cells and phagocytes, as well as dampening the Ig response to thymus-independent antigens...
September 8, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855323/rib-kinematics-during-lung-ventilation-in-the-american-alligator-alligator-mississippiensis-an-xromm-analysis
#11
Robert J Brocklehurst, Sabine Moritz, Jonathan Codd, William I Sellers, Elizabeth L Brainerd
The current hypothesis regarding the mechanics of breathing in crocodylians is that the double-headed ribs, with both a capitulum and tuberculum, rotate about a constrained axis passing through the two articulations; moreover, this axis shifts in the caudal thoracic ribs, as the vertebral parapophysis moves from the centrum to the transverse process. Additionally, the ventral ribcage in crocodylians is thought to possess additional degrees of freedom through mobile intermediate ribs. In this study, X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM) was used to quantify rib rotation during breathing in American alligators...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837758/natural-development-of-dermal-ectopic-bone-in-the-american-alligator-alligator-mississippiensis-resembles-heterotopic-ossification-disorders-in-humans
#12
Brooke H Dubansky, Benjamin D Dubansky
Heterotopic ossification (HO) occurs when soft tissues are inappropriately converted to bony tissue. Several human diseases result in HO with few reliable treatment options. Animal models that naturally produce dermal ectopic bone (i.e., osteoderms), such as crocodilians, have never been utilized as models for studying these disorders in humans. Here, a histological evaluation and staging criteria for osteoderm development is described for the first time in the American alligator (Alligator mississipiensis)...
August 24, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833901/estradiol-rapidly-increases-glua2-mushroom-spines-and-decreases-glua2-filopodia-spines-in-hippocampus-ca1
#13
Jorge A Avila, Amber A Alliger, Brigett Carvajal, Roseanna M Zanca, Peter A Serrano, Victoria N Luine
Hippocampal dendritic spine density rapidly increases following estradiol (E2 ) treatment, but the types of spines and trafficking of synaptic markers have received little investigation. We assessed rapid effects of E2 over time on the density of four spine types (stubby, filopodial, long thin and mushroom) and trafficking of AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 and PSD95 on tertiary, apical dendrites in CA1. Castrated male rats received 20 μg/kg of E2 or vehicle and were sacrificed 30 or 120 min later. Images of Golgi-Cox impregnated and PSD95/GluA2 stained dendrites were captured under the confocal microscope and quantified with IMARIS-XT...
August 17, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809034/microct-imaging-on-living-alligator-teeth-reveals-natural-tooth-cycling
#14
Randall B Widelitz, Alaa Abdelhamid, M Khalil Khan, Amr Elkarargy, Cheng-Ming Chuong, Ping Wu
To study tooth cycling in polyphyodont animals, we chose to work on alligators. Alligators have teeth in three phases of development at each tooth location. This assembly of three teeth is called a tooth family unit. As part of the study, in order to study tooth cycling in alligators, we wanted to know the configuration of the tooth family unit in every tooth position. From the surface of the mouth, this is difficult to assess. Therefore, we decided to use MicroCT which can image X-ray dense materials providing a three-dimensional view...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798159/as-cath1-6-novel-cathelicidins-with-potent-antimicrobial-and-immunomodulatory-properties-from-alligator-sinensis-play-pivotal-roles-in-host-antimicrobial-immune-responses
#15
Yan Chen, Shasha Cai, Xue Qiao, Mali Wu, Zhilai Guo, Renping Wang, Yi-Qun Kuang, Haining Yu, Yipeng Wang
Crocodilians are regarded as possessing a powerful immune system. However, the composition and action of the crocodilian immune system have remained unclear until now. Cathelicidins, the principal family of host defense peptides, play pivotal roles in vertebrate immune defense against microbial invasions. However, cathelicidins from crocodilians have not been extensively studied to date. In the present study, six novel cathelicidins (As-CATH1-6) were identified and characterized from the endangered Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis)...
August 10, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796906/physiology-at-near-critical-temperatures-but-not-critical-limits-varies-between-two-lizard-species-that-partition-the-thermal-environment
#16
Rory S Telemeco, Eric J Gangloff, Gerardo A Cordero, Rebecca L Polich, Anne M Bronikowski, Fredric J Janzen
The mechanisms that mediate the interaction between the thermal environment and species ranges are generally uncertain. Thermal environments may directly restrict species when environments exceed tolerance limits (i.e. the fundamental niche). However, thermal environments might also differentially affect relative performance among species prior to fundamental tolerances being met (i.e. the realized niche). We examined stress physiology (plasma glucose and corticosterone), mitochondrial performance and the muscle metabolome of congeneric lizards that naturally partition the thermal niche, Elgaria multicarinata (southern alligator lizards; SALs) and Elgaria coerulea (northern alligator lizards; NALs), in response to a thermal challenge to quantify variation in physiological performance and tolerance...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776670/archosauriform-endocranial-morphology-and-osteological-evidence-for-semiaquatic-sensory-adaptations-in-phytosaurs
#17
Emily J Lessner, Michelle R Stocker
The examination of endocranial data of archosauriforms has led to advances on the evolution of body size, nerve pathways, and sensory abilities. However, much of that research has focused on bird-line archosaurs, resulting in a skewed view of Archosauria. Phytosauria, a hypothesized sister taxon to or early-branching member of Archosauria, provides a potential outgroup condition. Most previous phytosaur endocranial studies were executed without the use of modern technology and focused on derived members of Phytosauria...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769634/a-new-species-of-leech-of-the-genus-placobdella-hirudinida-glossiphoniidae-from-the-american-alligator-alligator-mississippiensis-in-mississippi-usa
#18
Dennis J Richardson, William E Moser, Charlotte I Hammond, Eric A Lazo-Wasem, Chris T McAllister, Eric E Pulis
To date, the only species of leech reported from the American Alligator, Alligator mississippiensis is Placobdella multilineata. Seven specimens of a previously undescribed species of Placobdella were collected from the feet and lower jaw of a single female alligator from the Pascagoula River Wildlife Management Area, George County, Mississippi. The new species was named Placobdella siddalli Richardson & Moser, sp. n., in honor of the contributions of Dr. Mark Siddall to our understanding of the biology of leeches...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764121/ahr-and-cyp1a-expression-link-historical-contamination-events-to-modern-day-developmental-effects-in-the-american-alligator
#19
Matthew D Hale, Thomas M Galligan, Thomas R Rainwater, Brandon C Moore, Philip M Wilkinson, Louis J Guillette, Benjamin B Parrott
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that initiates a transcriptional pathway responsible for the expression of CYP1A subfamily members, key to the metabolism of xenobiotic compounds. Toxic planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, including dioxin and PCBs, are capable of activating the AHR, and while dioxin and PCB inputs into the environment have been dramatically curbed following strict regulatory efforts in the United States, they persist in the environment and exposures remain relevant today...
November 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760718/crocodylian-nuclear-factor-kappa-b
#20
REVIEW
Mark Merchant, Vasileios Morkotinis, Amber Hale, Mary White, Chris Moran
We deduced the amino acid (aa) sequence of the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) protein from genomic data for the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), the estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), and the Indian gharial (Gavialis gangeticus). A 105kDa protein, NFκB1 exhibits complex post-translational processing, multiple mechanisms of activation, and acts as precursor for a p50, a Rel homology transcription factor which influences the expression of key genes for developmental processes, apoptosis, and immune function...
November 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
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