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Germán Mendoza, Juan Carlos Méndez, Oswaldo Pérez, Luis Prado, Hugo Merchant
Perceptual categorization depends on the assignment of different stimuli to specific groups based, in principle, on the notion of flexible categorical boundaries. To determine the neural basis of categorical boundaries, we record the activity of pre-SMA neurons of monkeys executing an interval categorization task in which the limit between short and long categories changes between blocks of trials within a session. A large population of cells encodes this boundary by reaching a constant peak of activity close to the corresponding subjective limit...
March 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Shaun K McGovern, Audrey L Blewer, Andrew Murray, Marion Leary, Benjamin S Abella, Raina M Merchant
STUDY A: im Recent investigations have suggested that CPR training rates are low within the U.S and barriers to CPR training are poorly understood. Social media holds great potential for large scale capture of the public's CPR training experiences and may illuminate barriers to CPR training. While studies have examined Twitter data for behaviors associated with cardiovascular health, no investigation has evaluated Twitter data to understand public perception of CPR training. We characterized Tweet content about CPR training and associated sentiment to better understand barriers associated with CPR training...
March 12, 2018: Resuscitation
Nicole R Giuliani, Junaid S Merchant, Danielle Cosme, Elliot T Berkman
Recently, there has been an increase in the number of human neuroimaging studies seeking to predict behavior above and beyond traditional measurements such as self-report. This trend has been particularly notable in the area of food consumption, as the percentage of people categorized as overweight or obese continues to rise. In this review, we argue that there is considerable utility in this form of health neuroscience, modeling the neural bases of eating behavior and dietary change in healthy community populations...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Alberto Canarini, Pierre Mariotte, Lachlan Ingram, Andrew Merchant, Feike A Dijkstra
Drought is predicted to increase in many areas of the world with consequences for soil carbon (C) dynamics. Plant litter, root exudates and microbial biomass can be used as C substrates to form organo-mineral complexes. Drought effects on plants and microbes could potentially compromise these relative stable soil C pools, by reducing plant C inputs and/or microbial activity. We conducted a 2-year drought experiment using rainout shelters in a semi-natural grassland. We measured aboveground biomass and C and nitrogen (N) in particulate organic matter (Pom), the organo-mineral fraction (Omin), and microbial biomass within the first 15 cm of soil...
2018: Ecosystems
Shayna E Thomas-Jardin, Mohammed S Kanchwala, Joan Jacob, Sana Merchant, Rachel K Meade, Nagham M Gahnim, Afshan F Nawas, Chao Xing, Nikki A Delk
BACKGROUND: In immunosurveillance, bone-derived immune cells infiltrate the tumor and secrete inflammatory cytokines to destroy cancer cells. However, cancer cells have evolved mechanisms to usurp inflammatory cytokines to promote tumor progression. In particular, the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1), is elevated in prostate cancer (PCa) patient tissue and serum, and promotes PCa bone metastasis. IL-1 also represses androgen receptor (AR) accumulation and activity in PCa cells, yet the cells remain viable and tumorigenic; suggesting that IL-1 may also contribute to AR-targeted therapy resistance...
March 11, 2018: Prostate
Julie A Gosney, Daniel W Wilkey, Michael L Merchant, Brian P Ceresa
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is an integral component of proliferative signaling. EGFRs on the cell surface become activated upon epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding and have an increased rate of endocytosis. Once in the cytoplasm, the EGF:EGFR complex is trafficked to the lysosome for degradation and signaling is terminated. During trafficking, the EGFR kinase domain remains active and the internalized EGFR can continue signaling to downstream effectors. While effector activity varies based on the EGFR's endocytic location, it is not clear how this occurs...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Sarah J Baker, Mark E Merchant
The innate immune system functions to quickly respond to pathogens and is likely the primary line of defense for ectothermic vertebrates. Snake populations appear to be in widespread decline globally, but despite the threats from emerging pathogens, very little work has been conducted to characterize their basic immune function. We used a wide-ranging snake species, the Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis), to measure effects of snake plasma on the growth of eight bacterial species. Additionally, we quantified bacterial killing ability and kinetics of the immune response...
March 3, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Minggui Pan, Maqdooda Merchant
Synovial sarcoma is a high-grade soft tissue sarcoma that inflicts mostly children and young adults with high mortality rate; however, the risk factors that impact the outcomes remain incompletely understood. We have identified the synovial sarcoma cases from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California cancer registry between 1981 and 2014. Kaplan-Meier plots were used to display disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS); log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the impact of clinical factors on DFS, OS, and disease-specific survival...
March 6, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Katrien Van Bocxlaer, Eric Gaukel, Deirdre Hauser, Seong Hee Park, Sara Schock, Vanessa Yardley, Ryan Randolph, Jacob J Plattner, Tejal Merchant, Simon L Croft, Robert T Jacobs, Stephen A Wring
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by several species of the protozoan parasite Leishmania - affecting an estimated 10 million people worldwide. Previously reported strategies for the development of topical CL treatments have focussed primarily on drug permeation and formulation optimisation as the means to increase treatment efficacy.Our approach aims to identify compounds with anti-leishmanial activity and properties consistent with topical administration. Of the test compounds, five benzoxaboroles showed potent activity (EC50 < 5 μM) against intracellular amastigotes of at least one Leishmania species and acceptable activity (20 μM< EC50 <30 μM) against two more species...
March 5, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Chih-Yang Hsu, Mike Doubrovin, Chia-Ho Hua, Omar Mohammed, Barry L Shulkin, Sue Kaste, Sara Federico, Monica Metzger, Matthew Krasin, Christopher Tinkle, Thomas E Merchant, John T Lucas
Identification of FDGavid- neoplasms may be obscured by high-uptake normal tissues, thus limiting inferences about the natural history of disease. We introduce a FDG-PET radiomics tissue classifier for differentiating FDGavid- normal tissues from tumor. Thirty-three scans from 15 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and 68 scans from 23 patients with Ewing sarcoma treated on two prospective clinical trials were retrospectively analyzed. Disease volumes were manually segmented on FDG-PET and CT scans. Brain, heart, kidneys and bladder and tumor volumes were automatically segmented on PET images...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Suneet Mittal, Dan L Musat, Michael H Hoskins, Julie B Prillinger, Gregory J Roberts, Yelena Nabutovsky, Faisal M Merchant
PURPOSE: The purpose of the current study is to characterize and quantify the impact of complete atrioventricular block (cAVB) on heart failure hospitalization (HFH) and healthcare utilization in pacemaker (PM) patients. METHODS: Patients ≥ 18 years implanted with a dual-chamber PM from April 2008 to March 2014 were selected from the MarketScan® Commercial and Medicare Supplemental claims databases. Patients with ≤ 1-year continuous MarketScan enrollment prior to and post-implant, and those with prior HF diagnosis were excluded...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
Li Feng Tan, Shu Ee Ng, Reshma Merchant
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Hassan Khan, Setor K Kunutsor, Rainer Rauramaa, Faisal M Merchant, Jari A Laukkanen
The benefits of aerobic fitness in relation to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality is well established; however, the associations of long-term change in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with incident heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) have not been studied before. The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study is a prospective cohort comprising men aged 42 to 60 years from the city of Kuopio and its surroundings, with a baseline examination between 1984 and 1989 (V1), a re-examination at 11 years (V2), and up to 15 years of follow-up from V2...
February 2, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
I Grappasonni, F Petrelli, S Scuri, S S Mahdi, F Sibilio, F Amenta
BACKGROUND: Ships have long been sites for outbreaks of infectious diseases, particularly gastrointestinal diseases. The ship environment has the potential to facilitate the spread of such diseases, infecting susceptible cohorts of embarked passengers and crew. Gastrointestinal disorders among seafarers are fairly common and usually represent the first or second cause of requests for medical assistance aboard ships in international waters. STUDY DESIGN: The purpose of this study was to evaluate food safety and the level of knowledge among food service personnel on board merchant ships, where food handlers could be a cause of health problems for all crew members...
March 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
Anand D Shah, Mike A Morris, David S Hirsh, Megan Warnock, Yijian Huang, Mike Mollerus, Faisal M Merchant, Anshul M Patel, David B Delurgio, Adarsh U Patel, Michael H Hoskins, Mikhael F El Chami, Angel R Leon, Jonathan J Langberg, Michael S Lloyd
BACKGROUND: Recommendations regarding performance of MRI in non-MRI conditional pacemaker and defibrillator recipients are evolving. Previous studies suggest low adverse event rates with MRI in non-conditional CIED recipients, but low power limits optimal characterization of risk. OBJECTIVE: In order to improve power, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to characterize the clinical risk associated with MRI in CIED recipients. METHODS: PUBMED and CINAHL indexed articles from 1990-2017 were queried...
February 16, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Rohan R Merchant, Jacob T Edwards, Tian Qin, Monika M Kruszyk, Cheng Bi, Guanda Che, Deng-Hui Bao, Wenhua Qiao, Lijie Sun, Michael R Collins, Olugbeminiyi O Fadeyi, Gary M Gallego, James J Mousseau, Philippe Nuhant, Phil S Baran
Cross-coupling chemistry is widely applied to carbon-carbon bond formation in the synthesis of medicines, agrochemicals, and other functional materials. Recently single-electron-induced variants of this reaction class have proven particularly useful in the formation of C(sp2 )-C(sp3 ) linkages, though certain compound classes have remained a challenge. Here we report the use of sulfones to activate the alkyl coupling partner in nickel-catalyzed radical cross-coupling with aryl zinc reagents. This method's tolerance of fluoroalkyl substituents proved particularly advantageous for the streamlined preparation of pharmaceutically-oriented fluorinated scaffolds that previously required multiple steps, toxic reagents, and non-modular retrosynthetic blueprints...
February 18, 2018: Science
Sanjay Merchant, Emma M Proudfoot, Hafsa N Quadri, Heather J McElroy, William R Wright, Ankur Gupta, Eric M Sarpong
Treating infections of Gram-negative pathogens, in particular Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is a challenge for clinicians in the Asia-Pacific region due to inherent and acquired resistance to antimicrobials. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides updated information of the risk factors for P. aeruginosa infections in Asia-Pacific, and consequences (e.g., mortality, costs) of initial inappropriate antimicrobial therapy (IIAT). EMBASE and MEDLINE databases were searched for Asia-Pacific studies reporting the consequences of IIAT versus initial appropriate antimicrobial therapy (IAAT) in Gram-negative infections, and risk factors for serious P...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Rachel L Graves, Jesse Goldshear, Jeanmarie Perrone, Lyle Ungar, Elissa Klinger, Zachary F Meisel, Raina M Merchant
AIM: To characterize Yelp reviews about pain management and opioids. METHODS: We manually coded and applied natural language processing to 836 Yelp reviews of US hospitals mentioning an opioid medication. RESULTS: Yelp reviews by patients and caregivers describing experiences with pain management and opioids had lower ratings compared with other reviews. Negative descriptions of pain management and opioid-related experiences were more commonly described than positive experiences, and the number of themes they reflected was more diverse...
February 16, 2018: Pain Management
Francesca L Beaudoin, Roee Gutman, Wanting Zhai, Roland C Merchant, Melissa A Clark, Kenneth A Bollen, Phyllis Hendry, Michael C Kurz, Christopher Lewandowski, Claire Pearson, Brian O'Neil, Elizabeth Datner, Patricia Mitchell, Robert Domeier, Samuel A McLean
African-Americans experience a greater burden of acute pain than non-Hispanic white individuals across of variety of acute medical conditions, but it is unknown if this is the case following trauma. We evaluated pain, pain-related characteristics (e.g. peri-traumatic distress), and analgesic treatment in two cohorts of individuals (African-American (n=931) and non-Hispanic white (n=948)) presenting to the emergency department after a motor-vehicle crash (MVC). We performed a propensity-matched analysis (n=796 in each group) to assess racial differences in acute pain in the ED...
February 9, 2018: Pain
Roland C Merchant, Zhongli Zhang, Zihao Zhang, Tao Liu, Janette R Baird
OBJECTIVES: Assess the 12-month efficacy of a brief intervention (BI) on reducing drug use and increasing drug treatment services utilisation among adult emergency department (ED) patients. METHODS: This randomised, controlled trial enrolled 18-64-year-old ED patients needing a drug use intervention. Treatment arm participants received a tailored BI while control arm participants only completed the study questionnaires. Self-reported past 3-month drug use and engagement in drug treatment services were compared by study arm at 3-month intervals over 1 year...
February 2, 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
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