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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427944/creating-a-global-acute-care-surgery-fellowship-to-meet-international-need
#1
Amina I Merchant, Camila B Walters, Julie Valenzuela, Kelly A McQueen, Addison K May
INTRODUCTION: Existing Acute Care Surgery (ACS) fellowships are positioned to develop well-trained surgeons with specific skills to facilitate improvements in care delivery in Global ACS. Many resident and fellowship programs offer clinical electives that expose trainees to operative experiences, exposing trainees to the needs in resource-challenged settings. However, most lack a focus on long-term development and research designed to enhance the country's local skills, capability, and capacity...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427511/role-of-hypoxia-inducible-factors-hif-in-the-maintenance-of-stemness-and-malignancy-of-colorectal-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Ramakrishna Vadde, Sarojamma Vemula, Rajeswari Jinka, Neha Merchant, Pallaval Veera Bramhachari, Ganji Purnachandra Nagaraju
Hypoxia is a condition of insufficient tissue oxygenation, which is observed during normal development as well as tumorigenesis and its response at the cellular level is primarily mediated through hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs). HIFs have a significant role in the maintenance of stemness in both stem cells as well as in cancer stem cells (CSC) by acting as transcription factors. The CSCs are proposed to be the driving force of colon tumorigenesis and malignancy. These HIFs play a significant role in a wide range of diseases including colon cancer...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424520/decarboxylative-alkenylation
#3
Jacob T Edwards, Rohan R Merchant, Kyle S McClymont, Kyle W Knouse, Tian Qin, Lara R Malins, Benjamin Vokits, Scott A Shaw, Deng-Hui Bao, Fu-Liang Wei, Ting Zhou, Martin D Eastgate, Phil S Baran
Olefin chemistry, through pericyclic reactions, polymerizations, oxidations, or reductions, has an essential role in the manipulation of organic matter. Despite its importance, olefin synthesis still relies largely on chemistry introduced more than three decades ago, with metathesis being the most recent addition. Here we describe a simple method of accessing olefins with any substitution pattern or geometry from one of the most ubiquitous and variegated building blocks of chemistry: alkyl carboxylic acids...
April 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412275/achieving-the-bptruth-emergency-department-hypertension-screening-and-the-centers-for-medicare-medicaid-services-quality-measure
#4
Elizabeth M Goldberg, Taneisha Wilson, Cory Saucier, Aaron M Brody, Phillip D Levy, Charles B Eaton, Roland C Merchant
In 2012, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) instituted a Physician Quality Reporting System measure for screening and referring patients with elevated blood pressure (BP). The aims of this study were to (1) assess the reliability of ED triage BP as a metric to establish when the CMS threshold (≥120/80 mm Hg), and other clinically relevant BP thresholds (≥140/90 and ≥160/100 mm Hg) have been met, using BP measured with a highly accurate device (BpTRU) in the emergency department as the gold standard; and (2) determine whether correct identification varies by gender, race, or triage acuity...
March 30, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399454/detection-of-a-synthetic-sex-steroid-in-the-american-crocodile-crocodylus-acutus-evidence-for-a-novel-environmental-androgen
#5
Christopher M Murray, Mark Merchant, Michael Easter, Sergio Padilla, Davinia B Garrigós, Mahmood Sasa Marin, Craig Guyer
Endocrine-disrupting contaminants (EDC's) are well known to alter sexual differentiation among vertebrates via estrogenic effects during development, particularly in organisms characterized by temperature-dependent sex determination. However, substances producing androgenic effects typically lack potency when tested in laboratory settings and are virtually unstudied in field settings. Here, we assay levels of a synthetic androgen, 17α-methyltestosterone (MT), in a heavily male-biased population of American crocodiles in the Tempisque River Basin of Costa Rica based on the recent hypothesis that this chemical is an EDC in developing crocodilian embryos...
April 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391335/biomarkers-of-lupus-nephritis-histology-and-flare-deciphering-the-relevant-amidst-the-noise
#6
Daniel J Birmingham, Michael Merchant, Sushrut S Waikar, Haikady Nagaraja, Jon B Klein, Brad H Rovin
Biomarker development in lupus nephritis (LN) has traditionally relied on comparing the characteristics of candidate markers to clinical findings in patients and controls from cross-sectional cohorts. In this work, two additional strategies for LN biomarker development that are gaining ground will be discussed. One approach compares analytes directly to kidney histology. The second strategy utilizes longitudinal measurements of biomarker levels at regular intervals as patients move from disease quiescence to disease flare...
January 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388878/medium-term-water-deficit-elicits-distinct-transcriptome-responses-in-eucalyptus-species-of-contrasting-environmental-origin
#7
Antanas V Spokevicius, Josquin Tibbits, Philippe Rigault, Marc-Alexandre Nolin, Caroline Müller, Andrew Merchant
BACKGROUND: Climatic and edaphic conditions over geological timescales have generated enormous diversity of adaptive traits and high speciation within the genus Eucalyptus (L. Hér.). Eucalypt species occur from high rainfall to semi-arid zones and from the tropics to latitudes as high as 43°S. Despite several morphological and metabolomic characterizations, little is known regarding gene expression differences that underpin differences in tolerance to environmental change. Using species of contrasting taxonomy, morphology and physiology (E...
April 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387551/evaluation-of-nintendo-wii-balance-board-as-a-tool-for-measuring-postural-stability-after-sport-related-concussion
#8
Kian Merchant-Borna, Courtney Marie Cora Jones, Mattia Janigro, Erin B Wasserman, Ross A Clark, Jeffrey J Bazarian
CONTEXT: Recent changes to postconcussion guidelines indicate that postural-stability assessment may augment traditional neurocognitive testing when making return-to-participation decisions. The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) has been proposed as 1 measure of balance assessment. A new, freely available software program to accompany the Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB) system has recently been developed but has not been tested in concussed patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of using the WBB to assess postural stability across 3 time points (baseline and postconcussion days 3 and 7) and to assess concurrent and convergent validity of the WBB with other traditional measures (BESS and Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test [ImPACT] battery) of assessing concussion recovery...
March 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382719/ancient-mitochondrial-dna-and-ancestry-of-paquim%C3%A3-inhabitants-casas-grandes-a-d-1200-1450
#9
Ana Y Morales-Arce, Meradeth H Snow, Jane H Kelley, M Anne Katzenberg
OBJECTIVES: The Casas Grandes (Paquimé) culture, located in the Northwest of Chihuahua, Mexico reached its apogee during the Medio Period (A.D. 1200-1450). Paquimé was abandoned by the end of the Medio Period (A.D. 1450), and the ancestry of its inhabitants remains unsolved. Some authors suggest that waves of Mesoamerican immigrants, possibly merchants, stimulated Paquimé's development during the Medio Period. Archaeological evidence suggests possible ties to groups that inhabited the Southwestern US cultures...
April 6, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382379/posttreatment-dsc-mri-is-predictive-of-early-treatment-failure-in-children-with-supratentorial-high-grade-glioma-treated-with-erlotinib
#10
John T Lucas, Brendan J Knapp, Jinsoo Uh, Chia-Ho Hua, Thomas E Merchant, Scott N Hwang, Zoltan Patay, Alberto Broniscer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The role of perfusion imaging in the management of pediatric high grade glioma is unclear. We evaluated the ability of dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) to determine grade, evaluate post-treatment response and predict treatment failure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study 22 patients with high-grade glioma underwent biopsy and were treated with concurrent and sequential radiotherapy and erlotinib as part of a phase I/II clinical trial (NCT00124657)...
April 5, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367614/ophthalmic-evaluation-in-beta-thalassemia
#11
Rashid H Merchant, Hrishikesh Punde, Neepa Thacker, Deepak Bhatt
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association of ocular manifestations in beta-thalassemia with the patient's age, blood transfusion requirements, average serum ferritin and dose and duration of iron chelation therapy. METHODS: Sixty multi-transfused beta thalassemia patients of 12 to 18 y of age on chelation therapy were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Structural and functional evaluation of the retina was done using Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Electroretinography (ERG), including flash ERG and Pattern ERG (PERG)...
April 3, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364174/primate-beta-oscillations-and-rhythmic-behaviors
#12
REVIEW
Hugo Merchant, Ramón Bartolo
The study of non-human primates in complex behaviors such as rhythm perception and entrainment is critical to understand the neurophysiological basis of human cognition. Next to reviewing the role of beta oscillations in human beat perception, here we discuss the role of primate putaminal oscillatory activity in the control of rhythmic movements that are guided by a sensory metronome or internally gated. The analysis of the local field potentials of the behaving macaques showed that gamma-oscillations reflect local computations associated with stimulus processing of the metronome, whereas beta-activity involves the entrainment of large putaminal circuits, probably in conjunction with other elements of cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit, during internally driven rhythmic tapping...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360255/public-health-surveillance-of-automated-external-defibrillators-in-the-usa-protocol-for-the-dynamic-automated-external-defibrillator-registry-study
#13
JoAnn Broeckel Elrod, Raina Merchant, Mohamud Daya, Scott Youngquist, David Salcido, Terence Valenzuela, Graham Nichol
INTRODUCTION: Lay use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) before the arrival of emergency medical services (EMS) providers on scene increases survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). AEDs have been placed in public locations may be not ready for use when needed. We describe a protocol for AED surveillance that tracks these devices through time and space to improve public health, and survival as well as facilitate research. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Included AEDs are installed in public locations for use by laypersons to treat patients with OHCA before the arrival of EMS providers on scene...
March 29, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359394/preferences-for-oral-fluid-rapid-hiv-self-testing-among-social-media-using-young-black-hispanic-and-white-men-who-have-sex-with-men-ymsm-implications-for-future-interventions
#14
R C Merchant, M A Clark, T Liu, J G Rosenberger, J Romanoff, J Bauermeister, K H Mayer
OBJECTIVES: We assessed preferences of social media-using young black, Hispanic and white men-who-have-sex-with-men (YMSM) for oral fluid rapid HIV self-testing, as compared to other currently available HIV testing options. We also identified aspects of the oral fluid rapid HIV self-test that might influence preferences for using this test instead of other HIV testing options and determined if consideration of HIV testing costs and the potential future availability of fingerstick rapid HIV self-testing change HIV testing preferences...
April 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358758/idiopathic-sialolithiasis-scalpel-versus-current-trends-in-management
#15
Shandilya Ramanojam, Yash Merchant, Smita Bhardwaj, Ayushee Kesari
Idiopathic sialolithiasis is one of the most common affliction of the salivary glands with the submandibular gland most frequently involved. The article discusses the occurrence and incidence of this condition with a review of different diagnostic and treatment modalities. In light of several advances to diagnose and treat sialolithiasis, a simple sialolithotomy for idiopathic submandibular gland sialolithiasis may prove to be a preferred treatment for selected patients as it remains a cost-effective and simple out-patient department procedure with minimal/no complications and a highly satisfactory outcome...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351846/postural-heart-rate-changes-in-young-patients-with-vasovagal-syncope
#16
Marvin S Medow, Sana Merchant, Melissa Suggs, Courtney Terilli, Breige O'Donnell-Smith, Julian M Stewart
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recurrent postural vasovagal syncope (VVS) is caused by transient cerebral hypoperfusion from episodic hypotension and bradycardia; diagnosis is made by medical history. VVS contrasts with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), defined by chronic daily symptoms of orthostatic intolerance with excessive upright tachycardia without hypotension. POTS has recently been conflated with VVS when excessive tachycardia is succeeded by hypotension during tilt testing. We hypothesize that excessive tachycardia preceding hypotension and bradycardia is part of the vasovagal response during tilt testing of patients with VVS...
March 28, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351069/transition-to-independence-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-mentored-career-development-kl2-scholars-at-clinical-and-translational-science-award-institutions
#17
Carol Sweeney, Lisa S Schwartz, Robert Toto, Carol Merchant, Alecia S Fair, Janice L Gabrilove
PURPOSE: To describe the transition from mentored to independent research funding for clinical and translational scholars supported by institutional KL2 Mentored Career Development programs. METHOD: In 2013, faculty leaders at Clinical and Translational Science Award institutions completed an online survey, reporting characteristics of scholars in their KL2 programs from 2006 to 2013. The primary outcome variable was a report that the scholar had received independent funding as a principal investigator...
April 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348888/the-influence-of-oblique-angle-forced-exercise-in-surgically-destabilized-stifle-joints-is-synergistic-with-bone-but-antagonistic-with-cartilage-in-an-ovine-model-of-osteoarthritis
#18
Rachel J Hill, Holly M Mason, Gavin Yeip, Samer S Merchant, Aaron L Olsen, Rusty D Stott, Arnaud J Van Wettere, Eadric Bressel, Jeffrey B Mason
Large animal models of osteoarthritis are a necessary testing ground for FDA approval of human medicine applications. Sheep models have advantages over other available large animals, but development and progression of osteoarthritis in sheep is exceedingly slow, which handicaps progress in development of potential treatments. We combined oblique angle forced exercise to increase stress on the stifle, with surgical destabilization to hasten the development of osteoarthritis in ewes. Methods for early detection of clinical signs included radiography, urine, and serum biomarker assays and gait analysis and ex vivo we used microcomputed tomography and macroscopic joint analysis...
2017: Arthritis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346663/management-of-stage-iii-colon-cancer-in-the-elderly-practice-patterns-and-outcomes-in-the-general-population
#19
Shaila J Merchant, Sulaiman Nanji, Kelly Brennan, Safiya Karim, Sunil V Patel, James J Biagi, Christopher M Booth
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have established surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) as the standard management for stage III colon cancer; however, the extent to which these results apply to elderly patients in routine practice is unclear. This article describes the management and outcomes of elderly patients with stage III colon cancer. METHODS: All cases of surgically resected colon cancer from 2002 to 2008 were identified with the population-based Ontario Cancer Registry...
March 27, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343957/adult-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-in-philadelphia-from-2008-2012-an-epidemiological-study
#20
David F Gaieski, Anish K Agarwal, Benjamin S Abella, Robert W Neumar, Crawford Mechem, Sarah Wallace Cater, Frances S Shofer, Marion Leary, William P Pajerowski, Lance B Becker, Brendan Carr, Raina Merchant, Roger A Band
BACKGROUND: Wide variation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival has been reported, with low survival in urban settings. We sought to describe the epidemiology of OHCA in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the fifth largest U.S. city, and identify potential areas for targeted interventions to improve survival. METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective chart review of adult, non-traumatic, OHCA occurring in Philadelphia between 2008 and 2012. We determined incidence and epidemiological factors including: demographics, initial cardiac rhythm, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, automated external defibrillator use, return of spontaneous circulation and 30-day survival...
March 24, 2017: Resuscitation
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