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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646079/identification-of-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-5-fmo5-as-a-regulator-of-glucose-homeostasis-and-a-potential-sensor-of-gut-bacteria
#1
Flora Scott, Sandra G Gonzalez Malagon, Brett A O'Brien, Diede Fennema, Sunil Veeravalli, Clarissa R Coveney, Ian R Phillips, Elizabeth A Shephard
We have previously identified flavin-containing monooxygenase 5 (FMO5) as a regulator of metabolic ageing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of FMO5 in glucose homeostasis and the impact of diet and gut flora on the phenotype of mice in which the Fmo5 gene has been disrupted (Fmo5(-/-) mice). In comparison with wild-type (WT) counterparts, Fmo5(-/-) mice are resistant to age-related changes in glucose homeostasis and maintain the higher glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity characteristic of young animals...
June 23, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637406/socioeconomic-status-the-missing-link-between-obesity-and-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Alexei Volaco, Ana Maria Cavalcanti, Roberto Pecoits Filho, Dalton Bertolim Précoma
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is an epidemic expansion of the obesity rates worldwide. The increasing number of obese individuals associated with the aging of population leads to increasing number of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at the same rate. The traditional factors that link obesity to T2DM are related to genetics, hypercaloric diet, sedentary lifestyle, and stress. Individuals from lower socioeconomic status (SES) have restricted autonomy and opportunities that could lead to more stress and consequently increase in stress hormones, such as cortisol, catecholamines, glucagon, and growth hormone, which might ultimately change fat deposition, increasing visceral fat and increasing the risk of T2DM mellitus development...
June 21, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620678/effect-of-lifestyle-improvement-program-on-the-biomarkers-of-adiposity-inflammation-and-gut-hormones-in-overweight-obese-asian-indians-with-prediabetes
#3
Kuppan Gokulakrishnan, Harish Ranjani, Mary Beth Weber, Gautam Kumar Pandey, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Muthuswamy Balasubramanyam, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Nikhil Tandon, K M Venkat Narayan, Viswanathan Mohan
AIMS: While lifestyle modification is known to offer several metabolic benefits, there is paucity of comprehensive data on changes in biomarkers of adiposity, inflammation as well as gut hormones. We investigated these biomarkers in overweight/obese individuals with prediabetes randomized to either 4 months of a lifestyle improvement program or standard care and followed them up for a year. METHODS: Participants [standard care and intervention arm (n = 75 each)] were randomly selected from the Diabetes Community Lifestyle Improvement Program trial...
June 15, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615966/acute-physiological-and-electrical-accentuation-of-vagal-tone-has-no-effect-on-pain-or-gastrointestinal-motility-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#4
Jacob Juel, Christina Brock, Søren S Olesen, Adnan Madzak, Adam D Farmer, Qasim Aziz, Jens B Frøkjær, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
BACKGROUND: The effective management of pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP) remains a therapeutic challenge. Analgesic drugs, such as opioids, and the underlying pathology can impair gut function. The autonomic nervous system influences hormone secretion and gut motility. In healthy volunteers, electrical (using noninvasive transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation [t-VNS]) and physiological (using deep slow breathing [DSB]) modulation of parasympathetic tone results in pain attenuation and enhanced gut motility...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612549/-precision-medicine-in-obesity-research-and-practice
#5
REVIEW
She-Yu Li, Shuang-Qing Li
Obesity now already becomes a critical health problem in our country and the world. Since the genomic and biochemical technology has developed in the era of precision medicine, great progression has been achieved in the field of obesity research and clinical practice. Obesity is considered to be a series of diseases with high heterogeneity beyond expectations, which brings up the challenges on its diagnosis and classification. Predictive models for obesity remain absent in clinical practice and commercial use...
January 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611686/hypoxia-related-hormonal-appetite-modulation-in-humans-during-rest-and-exercise-mini-review
#6
REVIEW
Tadej Debevec
Obesity is associated with numerous chronic ailments and represents one of the major health and economic issues in the modernized societies. Accordingly, there is an obvious need for novel treatment approaches. Recently, based on the reports of reduced appetite and subsequent weight loss following high-altitude sojourns, exposure to hypoxia has been proposed as a viable weight-reduction strategy. While altitude-related appetite modulation is complex and not entirely clear, hypoxia-induced alterations in hormonal appetite modulation might be among the key underlying mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605280/the-gut-a-key-to-the-pathogenesis-of-type-2-diabetes
#7
Jens Juul Holst, Jens Pedersen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer Albrechtsen, Filip Krag Knop
In this communication we discuss the role of the gut for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Gastric emptying rates importantly determine postprandial glucose excursions and regulate postprandial secretion of the incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). It thereby also determines their powerful, amplifying effect on glucose-induced insulin secretion and thus the ability of the body to regulate glucose disposal. Although disturbances in gastric emptying are not consistent findings in type 2 diabetes, the incretin system is seriously impaired, probably associated with insulin resistance and obesity...
June 12, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593706/does-the-ileal-brake-mechanism-contribute-to-sustained-weight-loss-after-bariatric-surgery
#8
REVIEW
Savio G Barreto, Stijn Soenen, Jacob Chisholm, Ian Chapman, Lilian Kow
Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective strategy for treating morbid obesity. Weight regain following significant weight loss, however, remains a problem, with the outcome proportional to the period of follow-up. This review revisits a well-established physiological neurohormonally-mediated feedback loop, the so called ileal brake mechanism, with a special emphasis on the gut hormone peptide tyrosine tyrosine. The manuscript not only highlights the potential role of the ileal brake mechanism in weight loss and weight maintenance thereafter following obesity surgery, it also provides a compelling argument for using this appetite suppressing feedback loop to enable sustained long-term weight loss in patients undergoing surgery for morbid obesity...
June 8, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591806/quantitative-proteomics-of-intestinal-mucosa-from-male-mice-lacking-intestinal-epithelial-insulin-receptors
#9
Stina Rikke Jensen, Erwin M Schoof, Sarah E Wheeler, Henning Hvid, Jonas Ahnfelt-Rønne, Bo Falck Hansen, Erica Nishimura, Grith Skytte Olsen, Thomas Kislinger, Patricia L Brubaker
The goal of the present study was to determine whether loss of the insulin receptor alters the molecular landscape of the intestinal mucosa, using intestinal-epithelial insulin receptor knockout (IE-irKO) mice and both genetic (IRfl/fl and Villin-cre) controls. Quantitative proteomic analysis by Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) was applied to jejunal and colonic mucosa from mice fed a chow- or Western diet (WD). Jejunal mucosa from IE-irKO mice demonstrated alterations in all intestinal cell linages, Paneth, goblet, absorptive and enteroendocrine cells, whereas only goblet and absorptive cells were affected in the colon...
June 7, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591631/gut-brain-glucose-signaling-in-energy-homeostasis
#10
REVIEW
Maud Soty, Amandine Gautier-Stein, Fabienne Rajas, Gilles Mithieux
Intestinal gluconeogenesis is a recently identified function influencing energy homeostasis. Intestinal gluconeogenesis induced by specific nutrients releases glucose, which is sensed by the nervous system surrounding the portal vein. This initiates a signal positively influencing parameters involved in glucose control and energy management controlled by the brain. This knowledge has extended our vision of the gut-brain axis, classically ascribed to gastrointestinal hormones. Our work raises several questions relating to the conditions under which intestinal gluconeogenesis proceeds and may provide its metabolic benefits...
June 6, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590260/ghrelin-and-autophagy
#11
Silvia Ezquerro, Gema Frühbeck, Amaia Rodríguez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A compromised autophagy is associated with the onset of obesity, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Our aim is to review the potential role of ghrelin, a gut hormone involved in energy homeostasis, in the regulation of autophagy. RECENT FINDINGS: In the recent years, it has been demonstrated that autophagy constitutes an important mechanism by which ghrelin exerts a plethora of central and peripheral actions...
June 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586308/an-extract-from-the-atlantic-brown-algae-sacchorhiza-polyschides-counteracts-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice-via-a-gut-related-multi-factorial-mechanisms
#12
Patricia Huebbe, Sibylle Nikolai, Anke Schloesser, Diran Herebian, Graeme Campbell, Claus-Christian Glüer, Annette Zeyner, Tobias Demetrowitsch, Karin Schwarz, Cornelia C Metges, Thomas Roeder, Gerhard Schultheiss, Ignacio R Ipharraguerre, Gerald Rimbach
In this study we addressed the questions whether an Atlantic brown algae extract (BAE) affects diet induced obesity in mice and which would be the primary targets and underlying key mechanisms.Male C57 BL/6 mice were fed a hypercaloric diet, referred to as high fat diet (HFD), supplemented with a freeze-dried aqueous BAE from Sacchorizia polyschides (5 %) for 8 months. Compared to the control group, dietary BAE supplementation significantly attenuated increase in body weight and fat mass. We observed apparent metabolic improvement including normalization of blood glucose, reduced plasma leptin, reduced fecal bile salt hydrolase activity with lower microbial production of toxic bile acid metabolites in the gut and increased systemic bile acid circulation in BAE-fed mice counteracting adverse effects of long term HFD feeding...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584525/gastrointestinal-motility-disorders-and-their-clinical-implications-in-cirrhosis
#13
REVIEW
Eleni Theocharidou, Ameet Dhar, David Patch
Gastrointestinal motility is impaired in a substantial proportion of patients with cirrhosis. Cirrhosis-related autonomic neuropathy, increased nitric oxide production, and gut hormonal changes have been implicated. Oesophageal dysmotility has been associated with increased frequency of abnormal gastro-oesophageal reflux. Impaired gastric emptying and accommodation may result in early satiety and may have an impact on the nutritional status of these patients. Small intestinal dysmotility might be implicated in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased bacterial translocation...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577340/abnormal-growth-and-feeding-behavior-persist-after-removal-of-upper-airway-obstruction-in-juvenile-rats
#14
Mohammad H Assadi, Elena Shknevsky, Yael Segev, Ariel Tarasiuk
Pediatric obstructive sleep-disordered breathing is associated with growth retardation, but also with obesity that has a tendency to persist following treatment. We investigated the effect of upper airways obstruction (AO) and of obstruction removal (OR) in juvenile rats on gut-derived ghrelin and related hypothalamic factors, feeding, and growth hormone (GH) homeostasis. Here, we show that after seven weeks of AO, animals gained less weight compared to controls, despite an increase in food intake due to elevated ghrelin and hypothalamic feeding factors...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573213/chemoproteomic-profiling-of-bile-acid-interacting-proteins
#15
Shentian Zhuang, Qiang Li, Lirong Cai, Chu Wang, Xiaoguang Lei
Bile acids (BAs) are a family of endogenous metabolites synthesized from cholesterol in liver and modified by microbiota in gut. Being amphipathic molecules, the major function of BAs is to help with dietary lipid digestion. In addition, they also act as signaling molecules to regulate lipid and glucose metabolism as well as gut microbiota composition in the host. Remarkably, recent discoveries of the dedicated receptors for BAs such as FXR and TGR5 have uncovered a number of novel actions of BAs as signaling hormones which play significant roles in both physiological and pathological conditions...
May 24, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557822/gut-microbiota-and-the-gut-brain-axis-new-insights-in-the-pathophysiology-of-metabolic-syndrome
#16
Nicolien de Clercq, Myrthe N Frissen, Albert K Groen, Max Nieuwdorp
OBJECTIVE: Emerging pre-clinical evidence has shown that the bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain, the so-called gut-brain axis, plays an important role in both host metabolism and behavior. In this review, we will discuss the potential mechanisms of the brain-gut axis in relation to the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: A selective literature review was conducted to evaluate gastrointestinal and brain interactions...
May 27, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550272/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-chronic-disease-of-the-21-st-century
#17
Metrakos Peter, Nilsson Tommy
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a spectrum of metabolic states ranging from simple steatosis to inflammation with associated fibrosis to cirrhosis. Though accumulation of hepatic fat is not associated with a significant increase in mortality rates, hepatic inflammation is, as this augments the risk of terminal liver disease, i.e., cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation (liver failure) and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. Disease progression is usually slow, over a decade or more and, for the most part, remains asymptomatic...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546539/microbiota-modulation-counteracts-alzheimer-s-disease-progression-influencing-neuronal-proteolysis-and-gut-hormones-plasma-levels
#18
Laura Bonfili, Valentina Cecarini, Sara Berardi, Silvia Scarpona, Jan S Suchodolski, Cinzia Nasuti, Dennis Fiorini, Maria Chiara Boarelli, Giacomo Rossi, Anna Maria Eleuteri
Gut microbiota has a proven role in regulating multiple neuro-chemical pathways through the highly interconnected gut-brain axis. Oral bacteriotherapy thus has potential in the treatment of central nervous system-related pathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Current AD treatments aim to prevent onset, delay progression and ameliorate symptoms. In this work, 3xTg-AD mice in the early stage of AD were treated with SLAB51 probiotic formulation, thereby affecting the composition of gut microbiota and its metabolites...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545056/effect-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-on-the-link-between-glp-1-expression-and-motility-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#19
Hirotsugu Eda, Hirokazu Fukui, Ryosuke Uchiyama, Yoshitaka Kitayama, Ken Hara, Mo Yang, Mio Kodani, Toshihiko Tomita, Tadayuki Oshima, Jiro Watari, Hiroko Tsutsui, Hiroto Miwa
BACKGROUND: Although Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is closely associated with the development of peptic ulcer, its involvement in pathophysiology in the lower intestinal tract and gastrointestinal (GI) motility remains unclear. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut hormone produced in the lower intestinal tract and involved in GI motility. Here, we investigated the effect of H. pylori infection on the link between GLP-1 expression and motility of the GI tract. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with a H...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538694/essential-role-of-growth-hormone-and-igf-1-in-therapeutic-effect-of-ghrelin-in-the-course-of-acetic-acid-induced-colitis
#20
Piotr Ceranowicz, Zygmunt Warzecha, Jakub Cieszkowski, Dagmara Ceranowicz, Beata Kuśnierz-Cabala, Joanna Bonior, Jolanta Jaworek, Tadeusz Ambroży, Krzysztof Gil, Rafał Olszanecki, Małgorzata Pihut, Artur Dembiński
Previous studies have shown that ghrelin exhibits a protective and therapeutic effect in the gut. The aim of the present study was to examine whether administration of ghrelin affects the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and to determine what is the role of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in this effect. In sham-operated or hypophysectomized male Wistar rats, colitis was induced by enema with 1 mL of 3% solution of acetic acid. Saline or ghrelin (given at the dose of 8 nmol/kg/dose) was administered intraperitoneally twice a day...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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