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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086768/probiotic-mixture-improves-fatty-liver-disease-by-virtue-of-its-action-on-lipid-profiles-leptin-and-inflammatory-biomarkers
#1
Hessah Mohammed Al-Muzafar, Kamal Adel Amin
BACKGROUND: A high fat diet has an essential role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This condition is characterized by hepatic fat accumulation (steatosis) and is associated with obesity, diabetes, and fibrosis or cirrhosis of the liver. Probiotics may be useful in the treatment of steatosis. This study examined the effects of an ingested probiotic formulation on the lipid profiles, liver functions, leptin levels, and inflammatory marker levels of rats with NAFLD that had been induced via high fat and sucrose diet (HFSD)...
January 13, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076485/glp-2-a-poorly-understood-mediator-enrolled-in-various-bariatric-metabolic-surgery-related-pathophysiologic-mechanisms
#2
Everton Cazzo, Martinho Antonio Gestic, Murillo Pimentel Utrini, Felipe David Mendonça Chaim, Bruno Geloneze, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
Introduction: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a gastrointestinal hormone whose effects are predominantly trophic on the intestinal mucosa. Aim: Critically evaluate the current literature on the influence of bariatric/metabolic surgery on the levels of GLP-2 and its potential clinical implications. Method: s: Narrative review through online research on the databases Medline and Lilacs. There were six prospective human studies, two cross-sectional human studies, and three experimental animal studies selected...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076481/correlation-between-pre-and-postoperative-levels-of-glp-1-glp-2-and-weight-loss-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-a-prospective-study
#3
Everton Cazzo, Martinho Antonio Gestic, Murillo Pimentel Utrini, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim, Bruno Geloneze, Maria Rita Lazzarini Barreto, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
Background: The role of gut hormones in glucose homeostasis and weight loss achievement and maintenance after bariatric surgery appears to be a key point in the understanding of the beneficial effects observed following these procedures. Aim: To determine whether there is a correlation between the pre and postoperative levels of both GLP-1 and GLP-2 and the excess weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Methods: An exploratory prospective study which enrolled 11 individuals who underwent RYGB and were followed-up for 12 months...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074537/neuroblastoma-causes-alterations-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-gut-hormones-inflammatory-cytokines-and-bile-acid-composition
#4
Christoph Castellani, Georg Singer, Margarita Kaiser, Thomas Kaiser, Jianfeng Huang, Daniela Sperl, Karl Kashofer, Guenter Fauler, Barbara Guertl-Lackner, Gerald Höfler, Holger Till
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of neuroblastoma (NB) on the intestinal microbiome, metabolism, and inflammatory parameters in a murine model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Athymic Hsd:Fox1nu mice received subperitoneal implantation of human NB cells (MHH-NB11) (tumor group, TG) or culture medium (sham group). Following 10 weeks of tumor growth, all animals were sacrificed to collect total white adipose tissue (WAT). Luminex assays were performed for gut hormone and inflammation marker analysis...
January 11, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073356/gut-microbiota-disturbance-during-helminth-infection-can-it-affect-cognition-and-behaviour-of-children
#5
Vanina Guernier, Bradley Brennan, Laith Yakob, Gabriel Milinovich, Archie C A Clements, Ricardo J Soares Magalhaes
BACKGROUND: Bidirectional signalling between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract is regulated at neural, hormonal, and immunological levels. Recent studies have shown that helminth infections can alter the normal gut microbiota. Studies have also shown that the gut microbiota is instrumental in the normal development, maturation and function of the brain. The pathophysiological pathways by which helminth infections contribute to altered cognitive function remain poorly understood...
January 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067386/iron-and-inflammation-the-gut-reaction
#6
REVIEW
Smriti Verma, Bobby J Cherayil
Anemia is a frequent complication of many inflammatory disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease. Although the pathogenesis of this problem is multifactorial, a key component is the abnormal elevation of the hormone hepcidin, the central regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Investigations over the last decade have resulted in important insights into the role of hepcidin in iron metabolism and the mechanisms that lead to hepcidin dysregulation in the context of inflammation. These insights provide the foundation for novel strategies to prevent and treat the anemia associated with inflammatory diseases...
January 9, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063079/the-thyroid-the-eyes-and-the-gut-a-possible-connection
#7
REVIEW
D Covelli, M Ludgate
INTRODUCTION: Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune disorder responsible for 60-90% of thyrotoxicosis, with an incidence of 1 to 2 cases per 1000 population per year in England. Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is the most frequent extrathyroidal manifestation, not provoked directly by abnormal thyroid hormone levels, but by the consequence of the underlying autoimmune process. The aetiology of autoimmune disorders is due to an interplay between susceptibility genes and environmental factors, such as infections and stress...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061687/new-targets-for-drug-treatment-of-obesity
#8
Georgios Valsamakis, Panagiota Konstantakou, George Mastorakos
Antiobesity medical management has shown unsatisfactory results to date in terms of efficacy, safety, and long-term maintenance of weight loss. This poor performance could be attributed to the complexity of appetite regulation mechanisms; the serious drug side effects; and, crucially, the lack of profile-matching treatment strategies and individualized, multidisciplinary follow-up. Nevertheless, antiobesity pharmacotherapy remains a challenging, exciting field of intensive scientific interest. According to the latest studies, the future of bariatric medicine lies in developing drugs acting at multiple levels of the brain-gut axis...
January 6, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060822/transcriptome-sequencing-reveals-large-scale-changes-in-axenic-aedes-aegypti-larvae
#9
Kevin J Vogel, Luca Valzania, Kerri L Coon, Mark R Brown, Michael R Strand
Mosquitoes host communities of microbes in their digestive tract that consist primarily of bacteria. We previously reported that Aedes aegypti larvae colonized by a native community of bacteria and gnotobiotic larvae colonized by only Escherichia coli develop very similarly into adults, whereas axenic larvae never molt and die as first instars. In this study, we extended these findings by first comparing the growth and abundance of bacteria in conventional, gnotobiotic, and axenic larvae during the first instar...
January 6, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052282/changes-in-intestinal-motility-and-gut-microbiota-composition-in-a-rat-stress-model
#10
Takaaki Murakami, Kazuhiro Kamada, Katsura Mizushima, Yasuki Higashimura, Kazuhiro Katada, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Osamu Handa, Tomohisa Takagi, Yuji Naito, Yoshito Itoh
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) causes chronic abdominal pain and abnormal bowel movements. The etiology involves complicated interactions among visceral hypersensitivity, disorders related to bowel movements, and stress. Changes in the microbiota affect the IBS pathophysiology. We investigated changes in colorectal motility, structure, and microbiota in response to stress due to maternal separation (MS) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) administration in rats. SUMMARY: Neonatal rats were separated from their mothers for 3 h daily from postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND14...
2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042237/gut-microbiome-surgical-complications-and-probiotics
#11
REVIEW
George Stavrou, Katerina Kotzampassi
The trigger for infectious complications in patients following major abdominal operations is classically attributed to endogenous enteral bacterial translocation, due to the critical condition of the gut. Today, extensive gut microbiome analysis has enabled us to understand that almost all "evidence-based" surgical or medical intervention (antibiotics, bowel preparation, opioids, deprivation of nutrition), in addition to stress-released hormones, could affect the relative abundance and diversity of the enteral microbiome, allowing harmful bacteria to proliferate in the place of depressed beneficial species...
2017: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042022/ghrelin-modulates-gene-and-protein-expression-of-digestive-enzymes-in-the-intestine-and-hepatopancreas-of-goldfish-carassius-auratus-via-the-ghs-r1a-possible-roles-of-plc-pkc-and-ac-pka-intracellular-signaling-pathways
#12
Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Juan Ignacio Bertucci, Aída Sánchez-Bretaño, María Jesús Delgado, Ana Isabel Valenciano, Suraj Unniappan
Ghrelin, a multifunctional gut-brain hormone, is involved in the regulation of gastric functions in mammals. This study aimed to determine whether ghrelin modulates digestive enzymes in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Immunofluorescence microscopy found colocalization of ghrelin, GHS-R1a and the digestive enzymes sucrase-isomaltase, aminopeptidase A, trypsin and lipoprotein lipase in intestinal and hepatopancreatic cells. In vitro ghrelin treatment in intestinal and hepatopancreas explant culture led to a concentration- and time-dependent modulation (mainly stimulatory) of most of the digestive enzymes tested...
December 29, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040488/systemic-administration-of-anorexic-gut-peptide-hormones-impairs-hedonic-driven-sucrose-consumption-in-mice
#13
Erina Yamaguchi, Yasunobu Yasoshima, Tsuyoshi Shimura
A number of reports suggest that gut hormones such as cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY(3-36) (PYY3-36), which are released postprandially, suppress homeostatic food intake and result in satiety and the termination of feeding. However, it remains unclear whether these peptide hormones also suppress non-homeostatic consumption of palatable foods or fluids. To examine whether gut hormones reduce hedonically motivated sugar consumption, we assessed the effects of intraperitoneal administration of these gut hormones on the consumption of a highly palatable sucrose solution, using a mouse model we previously established for binge-like sucrose overconsumption (Yasoshima and Shimura, 2015)...
December 28, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027914/vitamin-d-and-intestinal-calcium-transport-after-bariatric-surgery
#14
REVIEW
Anne L Schafer
Bariatric surgery is a highly effective treatment for obesity, but it may have detrimental effects on the skeleton. Skeletal effects are multifactorial but mediated in part by nutrient malabsorption. While there is increasing interest in non-nutritional mechanisms such as changes in fat-derived and gut-derived hormones, nutritional factors are modifiable and thus represent potential opportunities to prevent and treat skeletal complications. This review begins with a discussion of normal intestinal calcium transport, including recent advances in our understanding of its regulation by vitamin D, and areas of continued uncertainty...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013323/ghrelin-pancreatic-polypeptide-plasma-concentrations-and-gastric-myoelectric-activity-in-celiac-disease
#15
Magdalena Przybylska-Feluś, Agata Furgała, Jolanta Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Piotr Thor, Tomasz Mach, Małgorzata Zwoińska-Wcisło
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of celiac disease(CED) on the upper-gut motility and release of enteral hormones (ghrelin and pancreatic peptide (PP)). MATERIALS AND METHODS: the study included 25 patients diagnosed with CED and 30 healthy controls. Gastric myoelectric activities (EGG) in a fasted and fed state were recorded. The plasma concentrations of ghrelin and PP were determined. R e s u l t s: CED patients presented in a fasted state a decreased percentage of normogastria 54...
2016: Folia Medica Cracoviensia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012830/individual-differences-in-stress-vulnerability-the-role-of-gut-pathobionts-in-stress-induced-colitis
#16
Dominik Langgartner, Daniel Peterlik, Sandra Foertsch, Andrea M Füchsl, Petra Brokmann, Peter J Flor, Zeli Shen, James G Fox, Nicole Uschold-Schmidt, Christopher A Lowry, Stefan O Reber
Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC), an established mouse model for chronic psychosocial stress, promotes a microbial signature of gut inflammation, characterized by expansion of Proteobacteria, specifically Helicobacter spp., in association with colitis development. However, whether the presence of Helicobacter spp. during CSC is critically required for colitis development is unknown. Notably, during previous CSC studies performed at Regensburg University (University 1), male specific-pathogen-free (SPF) CSC mice lived in continuous subordination to a physically present and Helicobacter spp...
December 21, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007490/gut-brain-nutrient-sensing-in-food-reward
#17
Ari Shechter, Gary J Schwartz
For the past several decades, vagal and hormonal gut-brain negative feedback signaling mechanisms that promote satiety and subsequent suppression of food intake have been explored. In addition, a separate positive feedback process termed "appetition," involving postoral signaling from the gut to the brain, has been shown to promote food intake and produce flavor-nutrient preference conditioning. Afferent fibers emerging from the vagus nerve form the main pathway by which information is relayed from the abdominal viscera to the hindbrain and eventually other higher brain regions involved in food intake...
December 20, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004304/changes-in-fasting-and-prandial-gut-and-adiposity-hormones-following-vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy-or-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-an-18-month-prospective-study
#18
Naji Alamuddin, Marion L Vetter, Rexford S Ahima, Louise Hesson, Scott Ritter, Alyssa Minnick, Lucy F Faulconbridge, Kelly C Allison, David B Sarwer, Jesse Chittams, Noel N Williams, Matthew R Hayes, James W Loughead, Ruben Gur, Thomas A Wadden
BACKGROUND: Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) produce substantial weight loss, both primarily through gastric restriction but with potentially different hormonal signaling. This prospective, observational study compared changes in gut-derived hormones in VSG, RYGB, and weight-stable participants at 6 and 18 months post-surgery. METHODS: Sixty-four obese, non-diabetic women, including 18 VSG, 23 RYGB, and 23 weight-stable controls completed assessments at baseline and 6 months, before and after consuming a mixed-nutrient meal; blood sampling occurred for 180 min post-meal...
December 21, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004148/an-enzymatically-stable-gip-xenin-hybrid-peptide-restores-gip-sensitivity-enhances-beta-cell-function-and-improves-glucose-homeostasis-in-high-fat-fed-mice
#19
Annie Hasib, Ming T Ng, Victor A Gault, Dawood Khan, Vadivel Parthsarathy, Peter R Flatt, Nigel Irwin
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and xenin, regulatory gut hormones secreted from enteroendocrine K cells, exert important effects on metabolism. In addition, xenin potentiates the biological actions of GIP. The present study assessed the actions and therapeutic utility of a (DAla(2))GIP/xenin-8-Gln hybrid peptide, in comparison with the parent peptides (DAla(2))GIP and xenin-8-Gln. METHODS: Following confirmation of enzymatic stability, insulin secretory activity of (DAla(2))GIP/xenin-8-Gln was assessed in BRIN-BD11 beta cells...
December 21, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003008/glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-receptor-agonists-in-the-treatment-of-obese-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#20
Themistoklis Tzotzas, Spyridon N Karras, Niki Katsiki
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in females and is often associated with a number of cardiometabolic disorders such as central obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia, glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a gut hormone secreted after a meal, enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and additionally suppresses appetite and gastric motility. Most studies found impaired GLP-1 kinetics in obese individuals, whereas small studies in PCOS reported reduced, normal or even elevated GLP-1 levels...
December 21, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
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