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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545056/effect-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-on-the-link-between-glp-1-expression-and-motility-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#1
Hirotsugu Eda, Hirokazu Fukui, Ryosuke Uchiyama, Yoshitaka Kitayama, Ken Hara, Mo Yang, Mio Kodani, Toshihiko Tomita, Tadayuki Oshima, Jiro Watari, Hiroko Tsutsui, Hiroto Miwa
BACKGROUND: Although Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is closely associated with the development of peptic ulcer, its involvement in pathophysiology in the lower intestinal tract and gastrointestinal (GI) motility remains unclear. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut hormone produced in the lower intestinal tract and involved in GI motility. Here, we investigated the effect of H. pylori infection on the link between GLP-1 expression and motility of the GI tract. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with a H...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538694/essential-role-of-growth-hormone-and-igf-1-in-therapeutic-effect-of-ghrelin-in-the-course-of-acetic-acid-induced-colitis
#2
Piotr Ceranowicz, Zygmunt Warzecha, Jakub Cieszkowski, Dagmara Ceranowicz, Beata Kuśnierz-Cabala, Joanna Bonior, Jolanta Jaworek, Tadeusz Ambroży, Krzysztof Gil, Rafał Olszanecki, Małgorzata Pihut, Artur Dembiński
Previous studies have shown that ghrelin exhibits a protective and therapeutic effect in the gut. The aim of the present study was to examine whether administration of ghrelin affects the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and to determine what is the role of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in this effect. In sham-operated or hypophysectomized male Wistar rats, colitis was induced by enema with 1 mL of 3% solution of acetic acid. Saline or ghrelin (given at the dose of 8 nmol/kg/dose) was administered intraperitoneally twice a day...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533020/the-role-of-pyy-in-pancreatic-islet-physiology-and-surgical-control-of-diabetes
#3
REVIEW
Claudia Guida, Sam Stephen, Romain Guitton, Reshma D Ramracheya
Bariatric surgery in obese individuals leads to rapid and lasting remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This phenomenon occurs independently of weight loss possibly via a combination of factors. The incretin hormone GLP-1 has so far been recognised as a critical factor. However, recent data have indicated that elevation in another gut hormone, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), may drive the beneficial effects of surgery. Here we discuss recent findings on PYY-mediated control of glucose homeostasis and its role in diabetes, in the context of what is known for GLP-1...
May 19, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531784/gut-microbiota-mediated-benefits-of-barley-kernel-products-on-metabolism-gut-hormones-and-inflammatory-markers-as-affected-by-co-ingestion-of-commercially-available-probiotics-a-randomized-controlled-study-in-healthy-subjects
#4
Anne Nilsson, Elin Johansson-Boll, Jonna Sandberg, Inger Björck
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Barley kernel based products have been shown to induce benefits on blood glucose regulation, cardio-metabolic risk markers and appetite regulating hormones in a time perspective of 11-16 h after intake. The mechanisms have been assigned to gut fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if the modulatory effects of barley on markers of metabolic- and appetite regulation are affected by a dietary background including a mixture of commercially available probiotics...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526488/-targeting-the-gut-liver-axis-in-liver-disease
#5
REVIEW
Reiner Wiest, Agustin Albillos, Michael Trauner, Jashmohan Bajaj, Rajiv Jalan
The gut is open to the outer environment, harbours the microbiome containing several fold more genetic material than the human genome and produces a myriad of metabolites as well as hormones/peptides. The liver is at the nexus between this vast source of nutrients, toxins and hormones and the remaining human body. Not surprisingly, this liver-gut-axis has hence, been demonstrated in experimental models and in-vitro systems to contribute to the pathogenesis of most liver diseases such as alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), -steatohepatitis (NASH), cholestatic liver diseases, hepatocellular carcinoma, acute-on-chronic liver failure, progression to fibrosis/cirrhosis and complications of cirrhosis...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526435/the-bidirectional-gut-brain-microbiota-axis-as-a-potential-nexus-between-traumatic-brain-injury-inflammation-and-disease
#6
Mark H Sundman, Nan-Kuei Chen, Vignesh Subbian, Ying-Hui Chou
As head injuries and their sequelae have become an increasingly salient matter of public health, experts in the field have made great progress elucidating the biological processes occurring within the brain at the moment of injury and throughout the recovery thereafter. Given the extraordinary rate at which our collective knowledge of neurotrauma has grown, new insights may be revealed by examining the existing literature across disciplines with a new perspective. This article will aim to expand the scope of this rapidly evolving field of research beyond the confines of the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524103/potential-impact-of-nutrition-on-immune-system-recovery-from-heavy-exertion-a-metabolomics-perspective
#7
REVIEW
David C Nieman, Susan Hazels Mitmesser
This review describes effective and ineffective immunonutrition support strategies for the athlete, with a focus on the benefits of carbohydrates and polyphenols as determined from metabolomics-based procedures. Athletes experience regular cycles of physiological stress accompanied by transient inflammation, oxidative stress, and immune perturbations, and there are increasing data indicating that these are sensitive to nutritional influences. The most effective nutritional countermeasures, especially when considered from a metabolomics perspective, include acute and chronic increases in dietary carbohydrate and polyphenols...
May 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513546/edible-plants-and-their-influence-on-the-gut-microbiome-and-acne
#8
REVIEW
Ashley K Clark, Kelly N Haas, Raja K Sivamani
Acne vulgaris affects most people at some point in their lives. Due to unclear etiology, likely with multiple factors, targeted and low-risk treatments have yet to be developed. In this review, we explore the multiple causes of acne and how plant-based foods and supplements can control these. The proposed causative factors include insulin resistance, sex hormone imbalances, inflammation and microbial dysbiosis. There is an emerging body of work on the human gut microbiome and how it mediates feedback between the foods we eat and our bodies...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510260/markers-of-enteral-adaptation-in-pediatric-cases-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#9
Masahiro Chiba, Yutaka Sanada, Akira Toki
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to ascertain if prospective determinations of specific gut hormones and growth factors could predict bowel adaptation in children with short bowel syndrome (SBS). METHODS: We studied parenteral nutrition (PN) independency as the short-term result and discontinuation of enteral nutrition (EN) as the long-term result from a retrospective chart review of 7 patients with SBS, who were managed in the absence of growth retardation. The correlation between increased numbers of enteral feedings or enteral nutrients and fasting levels of serum gastrin, glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2), citrulline, and diamine oxidase (DAO) activity was analyzed...
May 16, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507564/management-of-the-hormonal-syndrome-of-neuroendocrine-tumors
#10
Paweł Gut, Joanna Waligórska-Stachura, Agata Czarnywojtek, Nadia Sawicka-Gutaj, Maciej Bączyk, Katarzyna Ziemnicka, Jakub Fischbach, Kosma Woliński, Jarosław Kaznowski, Elżbieta Wrotkowska, Marek Ruchała
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP/NET) are unusual and rare neoplasms that present many clinical challenges. They characteristically synthesize store and secrete a variety of peptides and neuroamines which can lead to the development of distinct clinical syndrome, however many are clinically silent until late presentation with mass effects. Management strategies include surgery cure and cytoreduction with the use of somatostatin analogues. Somatostatin have a broad range of biological actions that include inhibition of exocrine and endocrine secretions, gut motility, cell proliferation, cell survival and angiogenesis...
April 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506816/ghrelin-suppresses-cholecystokinin-cck-peptide-yy-pyy-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-in-the-intestine-and-attenuates-the-anorectic-effects-of-cck-pyy-and-glp-1-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#11
Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Juan Ignacio Bertucci, Ana Isabel Valenciano, María Jesús Delgado, Suraj Unniappan
Ghrelin is an important gut-derived hormone with an appetite stimulatory role, while most of the intestinal hormones, including cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are appetite-inhibitors. Whether these important peptides with opposing roles on food intake interact to regulate energy balance in fish is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the putative crosstalk between ghrelin and CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus). We first determined the localization of CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in relation to ghrelin and its main receptor GHS-R1a (growth hormone secretagogue 1a) in the goldfish intestine by immunohistochemistry...
May 18, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501979/endocrine-cells-producing-peptide-hormones-in-the-intestine-of-nile-tilapia-distribution-and-effects-of-feeding-and-fasting-on-the-cell-density
#12
Raquel Tatiane Pereira, Thaiza Rodrigues de Freitas, Izabela Regina Cardoso de Oliveira, Leandro Santos Costa, Fabricio Andrés Vigliano, Priscila Vieira Rosa
Endocrine cells (ECs) act as a luminal surveillance system responding to either the presence or absence of food in the gut through the secretion of peptide hormones. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of feeding and fasting on the EC peptide-specific distribution along the intestine of Nile tilapia. We assessed the density of ECs producing gastrin (GAS), cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in nine segments of the intestine using immunohistochemistry...
May 13, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498396/diverse-expression-patterns-and-tumorigenic-role-of-neurotensin-signaling-components-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#13
Ji Tae Kim, Heidi L Weiss, B Mark Evers
Colorectal cancer (CRC), which is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, results from an accumulation of genetic and epigenetic modifications including DNA methylation. Neurotensin (NTS), a hormone localized to the gut and central nervous system, mediates its physiological and pathological effects, including growth stimulation for a variety of cancers, through three distinct NTS receptors (NTSRs). Most NTS functions are mediated through the high-affinity receptor NTSR1, and expression of NTSR1 is increased in many cancers including CRC...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493909/hnf1%C3%AE-defect-influences-post-prandial-lipid-regulation
#14
Matthieu St-Jean, François Boudreau, André C Carpentier, Marie-France Hivert
PURPOSE: Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1α) defects cause Mature Onset Diabetes of the Young type 3 (MODY3), characterized by defects in beta-cell insulin secretion. However, HNF1α is involved in many other metabolic pathways with relevance for monogenic or polygenic type 2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate gut hormones, lipids, and insulin regulation in response to a meal test in HNF1α defect carriers (MODY3) compared to non-diabetic subjects (controls) and type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492284/inhibition-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-1-and-activation-of-receptor-2-protect-against-colonic-injury-and-promote-epithelium-repair
#15
Bo Li, Carol Lee, Tali Filler, Alison Hock, Richard You Wu, Qi Li, Shigang Chen, Yuhki Koike, Wan Ip, Lijun Chi, Elke Zani-Ruttenstock, Pekka Määttänen, Tanja Gonska, Paul Delgado-Olguin, Augusto Zani, Philip M Sherman, Agostino Pierro
Maternal separation (MS) in neonates can lead to intestinal injury. MS in neonatal mice disrupts mucosal morphology, induces colonic inflammation and increases trans-cellular permeability. Several studies indicate that intestinal epithelial stem cells are capable of initiating gut repair in a variety of injury models but have not been reported in MS. The pathophysiology of MS-induced gut injury and subsequent repair remains unclear, but communication between the brain and gut contribute to MS-induced colonic injury...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486222/biomarkers-to-stratify-risk-groups-among-children-with-malnutrition-in-resource-limited-settings-and-to-monitor-response-to-intervention
#16
Christine J McGrath, Michael B Arndt, Judd L Walson
Despite global efforts to reduce childhood undernutrition, current interventions have had little impact on stunting and wasting, and the mechanisms underlying growth faltering are poorly understood. There is a clear need to distinguish populations of children most likely to benefit from any given intervention and to develop tools to monitor response to therapy prior to the development of morbid sequelae. In resource-limited settings, environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is common among children, contributing to malnutrition and increasing childhood morbidity and mortality risk...
May 9, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485065/heterogeneity-of-enterochromaffin-cells-within-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#17
REVIEW
S Diwakarla, L J Fothergill, J Fakhry, B Callaghan, J B Furness
Enterochromaffin cells were the first endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract to be chemically distinguished, almost 150 years ago. It is now known that the chromaffin reaction of these cells was due to their content of the reactive aromatic amine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, also known as serotonin). They have commonly been thought to be a special class of gut endocrine cells (enteroendocrine cells) that are distinct from the enteroendocrine cells that contain peptide hormones. The study by Martin et al...
June 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484425/protein-digestion-derived-peptides-and-the-peripheral-regulation-of-food-intake
#18
REVIEW
Juliette Caron, Dorothée Domenger, Pascal Dhulster, Rozenn Ravallec, Benoit Cudennec
The gut plays a central role in energy homeostasis. Food intake regulation strongly relies on the gut-brain axis, and numerous studies have pointed out the significant role played by gut hormones released from enteroendocrine cells. It is well known that digestive products of dietary protein possess a high satiating effect compared to carbohydrates and fat. Nevertheless, the processes occurring in the gut during protein digestion involved in the short-term regulation of food intake are still not totally unraveled...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482009/the-microbiota-the-gut-and-the-brain-in-eating-and-alcohol-use-disorders-a-m%C3%A3-nage-%C3%A3-trois
#19
Jamie E Temko, Sofia Bouhlal, Mehdi Farokhnia, Mary R Lee, John F Cryan, Lorenzo Leggio
Aims: Accumulating evidence for the influence of the gut microbiota on the bidirectional communication along the gut-brain axis suggests a role of the gut microbiota in eating disorders (EDs) and alcohol and substance use disorders. The potential influence of altered gut microbiota (dysbiosis) on behaviors associated with such disorders may have implications for developing therapeutic interventions. Methods: A systematic review of preclinical and clinical studies evaluating the gut microbiota, EDs and alcohol and substance use disorders was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science databases with the objective being to examine the role of the gut microbiota in behavioral correlates of these disorders...
May 8, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462693/sarcopenia-in-patients-with-advanced-liver-disease
#20
Francesca Romana Ponziani, Antonio Gasbarrini
Sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass and function, affecting up to 70% of patients with advanced liver disease. Liver cirrhosis is characterized by an altered glucose metabolism, lipid oxidation, ketogenesis and protein catabolism, leading to the loss of adipose and muscle tissue. The gastrointestinal dysfunction of cirrhotic patients results in inadequate nutrients intake and is responsible for muscle weakness thus limiting physical exercise and perpetuating the reduction of muscle mass. Recently, alterations of hormonal pathways involved in muscle growth, increased intestinal permeability and changes in the gut microbiota composition have been reported in cirrhotic patients...
April 28, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
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