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Gut hormones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792935/lp533401-restores-bone-health-in-5-6-nephrectomized-rats-by-a-decrease-of-gut-derived-serotonin-and-regulation-of-serum-phosphate-through-the-inhibition-of-phosphate-co-transporters-expression-in-the-kidneys
#1
Dariusz Pawlak, Beata Znorko, Bartlomiej Kalaska, Tomasz Domaniewski, Radosław Zawadzki, Paweł Lipowicz, Michał Doroszko, Urszula Łebkowska, Piotr Grabowski, Krystyna Pawlak
LP533401 is an orally bioavailable small molecule that inhibits tryptophan hydroxylase-1, an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of gut-derived serotonin (GDS). Recently, we showed that increased GDS in rats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) affected bone strength and metabolism. We tested the hypothesis that treatment with LP533401 could reverse CKD-induced bone loss in uremia. Sixteen weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy, rats were randomized into untreated (CKD), treated with vehicle (VEH) and LP533401 at a dose of 30 or 100 mg/kg daily for 8 weeks...
May 21, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789564/establishing-quasi-steady-state-operations-of-microphysiological-systems-mps-using-tissue-specific-metabolic-dependencies
#2
Christian Maass, Matthew Dallas, Matthew E LaBarge, Michael Shockley, Jorge Valdez, Emily Geishecker, Cynthia L Stokes, Linda G Griffith, Murat Cirit
Microphysiological systems (MPS), consisting of tissue constructs, biomaterials, and culture media, aim to recapitulate relevant organ functions in vitro. MPS components are housed in fluidic hardware with operational protocols, such as periodic complete media replacement. Such batch-like operations provide relevant nutrients and remove waste products but also reset cell-secreted mediators (e.g. cytokines, hormones) and potentially limit exposure to drugs (and metabolites). While each component plays an essential role for tissue functionality, MPS-specific nutrient needs are not yet well-characterized nor utilized to operate MPSs at more physiologically-relevant conditions...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782837/phenylalanine-and-tryptophan-stimulate-gastrin-and-somatostatin-secretion-and-h-k-atpase-activity-in-pigs-through-calcium-sensing-receptor
#3
Yihan Xian, Xiuying Zhao, Chao Wang, Cuicui Kang, Liren Ding, Weiyun Zhu, Suqin Hang
In rodents and humans, aromatic amino acids increase gut hormone secretion and H+ -K+ -ATPase activity by modulating calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). However, the role of CaSR and its related signaling molecules in amino acid-induced gut hormone secretion in swine has not been investigated. Here, we examined whether a CaSR-dependent pathway modulated gastrin and somatostatin (SS) secretion and H+ -K+ -ATPase activity in pigs. Perfusion of pig stomach tissues in the presence of extracellular 80 mM l-phenylalanine (Phe) or 20 mM l-tryptophan (Trp) and a CaSR agonist cinacalcet triggered gastrin and SS secretion and H+ -K+ -ATPase activity (P < 0...
May 18, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779028/dietary-changes-involving-bifidobacterium-longum-and-other-nutrients-delays-chronic-kidney-disease-progression
#4
Yuko Iwashita, Masaki Ohya, Mitsuru Yashiro, Tomohiro Sonou, Kazuki Kawakami, Yuri Nakashima, Takuro Yano, Yu Iwashita, Toru Mima, Shigeo Negi, Kaoru Kubo, Koichi Tomoda, Toshitaka Odamaki, Takashi Shigematsu
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that prebiotic and/or probiotic treatments ameliorate kidney function in humans and animals by improving the gut environment. However, the gut microbiota and kidney disease interactions remain to be determined. This study investigated whether synbiotics modulate the gut microbiota and ameliorate kidney function using a rat model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). As uremic toxins are associated with CKD-related mineral and bone disorder, the secondary aim was to evaluate the relationship between synbiotics and secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT)...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776493/mechanisms-in-bariatric-surgery-gut-hormones-diabetes-resolution-and-weight-loss
#5
Jens Juul Holst, Sten Madsbad, Kirstine N Bojsen-Møller, Maria Saur Svane, Nils Bruun Jørgensen, Carsten Dirksen, Christoffer Martinussen
Gastric bypass surgery leads to profound changes in the secretion of gut hormones with effects on metabolism, appetite, and food intake. Here, we discuss their contributions to the improvement in glucose tolerance and the weight loss that results from the operations. We find that the improved glucose tolerance is due the following events: a negative energy balance and resulting weight loss, which improve first hepatic and later peripheral insulin sensitivity, in combination with increased postprandial insulin secretion elicited particularly by exaggerated glucagon-like peptide-1 responses...
May 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765501/peroxisomal-acyl-coa-oxidase-type-1-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-aging-properties-with-a-special-emphasis-on-studies-with-lps-and-argan-oil-as-a-model-transposable-to-aging
#6
REVIEW
Joseph Vamecq, Pierre Andreoletti, Riad El Kebbaj, Fatima-Ezzahra Saih, Norbert Latruffe, M' Hammed Saïd El Kebbaj, Gérard Lizard, Boubker Nasser, Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki
To clarify appropriateness of current claims for health and wellness virtues of argan oil, studies were conducted in inflammatory states. LPS induces inflammation with reduction of PGC1- α signaling and energy metabolism. Argan oil protected the liver against LPS toxicity and interestingly enough preservation of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase type 1 (ACOX1) activity against depression by LPS. This model of LPS-driven toxicity circumvented by argan oil along with a key anti-inflammatory role attributed to ACOX1 has been here transposed to model aging...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757063/gut-microbiota-composition-in-mid-pregnancy-is-associated-with-gestational-weight-gain-but-not-prepregnancy-body-mass-index
#7
Anna-Katariina Aatsinki, Henna-Maria Uusitupa, Eveliina Munukka, Henri Pesonen, Anniina Rintala, Sami Pietilä, Leo Lahti, Erkki Eerola, Linnea Karlsson, Hasse Karlsson
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a time of numerous hormonal, metabolic, and immunological changes for both the mother and the fetus. Furthermore, maternal gut microbiota composition (GMC) is altered during pregnancy. One major factor affecting GMC in pregnant and nonpregnant populations is obesity. The aim was to analyze associations between maternal overweight/obesity, as well as gestational weight gain (GWG) and GMC. Moreover, the modifying effect of depression and anxiety symptom scores on weight and GMC were investigated...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732709/restoration-of-enteroendocrine-and-pancreatic-function-after-internal-hernia-and-short-bowel-syndrome-in-a-young-woman-with-gastric-bypass-a-2-year-follow-up
#8
Märta Borghede, Lars Vinter-Jensen, Henrik H Rasmussen, Simon Veedfald, Jens F Rehfeld, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst, Filip K Knop, David P Sonne
A serious complication to the laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is internal hernia, which can lead to massive bowel necrosis that may result in short bowel syndrome. We determined postprandial enteropancreatic hormonal responses and metabolites in a 22-year-old nondiabetic woman with a history of RYGB experiencing severe internal herniation with widespread bowel necrosis. Extensive resections were performed leaving her with a saliva fistula from the pouch-enteric anastomosis, an intact duodenum, 15 cm of jejunum, 35 cm of ileum, and intact colon...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730732/mechanisms-underlying-the-weight-loss-effects-of-rygb-and-sg-similar-yet-different
#9
REVIEW
A Pucci, R L Batterham
The worldwide obesity epidemic continues unabated, adversely impacting upon global health and economies. People with severe obesity suffer the greatest adverse health consequences with reduced life expectancy. Currently, bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for people with severe obesity, resulting in marked sustained weight loss, improved obesity-associated comorbidities and reduced mortality. Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), the most common bariatric procedures undertaken globally, engender weight loss and metabolic improvements by mechanisms other than restriction and malabsorption...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718659/bacteria-carried-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-for-treatment-of-anemia
#10
Victor Garcés, Alba Rodriguez-Nogales, Ana Gonzalez, Natividad Gálvez, Elena Rodriguez-Cabezas, María-Luisa García-Martín, Lucía Gutiérrez, Deyanira Rondon, Monica Olivares, Julio Galvez, Jose Dominguez-Vera
The efficiency of maghemite nanoparticles for the treatment of anemia was sensibly higher when nanoparticles were incorporated onto the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus fermentum (MNP-bacteria) than when administrated as uncoated nanoparticles (MNP). Plasma iron and hemoglobin, intestine expression of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and duodenal cytochrome B (DcytB), as well as hepatic expression of the hormone hepcidin were fully restored to healthy levels after administration of MNP-bacteria but not of MNP...
May 2, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717927/food-intake-and-eating-behavior-after-bariatric-surgery
#11
Werd Al-Najim, Neil G Docherty, Carel W le Roux
Obesity is an escalating global chronic disease. Bariatric surgery is a very efficacious treatment for obesity and its comorbidities. Alterations to gastrointestinal anatomy during bariatric surgery result in neurological and physiological changes affecting hypothalamic signaling, gut hormones, bile acids, and gut microbiota, which coalesce to exert a profound influence on eating behavior. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying eating behavior is essential in the management of patients after bariatric surgery...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715187/possible-association-of-ghrelin-obestatin-balance-with-cardiometabolic-risk-in-obese-subjects-with-helicobacter-pylori
#12
Azza Saad Ibrahim, Mona Mohamed Eldeeb, Ola Ahmed Salama, Mona Mohamed Rashad, Khaled Mohamed Okasha
OBJECTIVES: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a common gastric infection associated with extragastric conditions. The association between H. pylori infection and obesity is unclear. H. pylori may affect gut hormones involved in food intake and energy expenditure. The aim of this study is to evaluate ghrelin/obestatin balance and leptin in obese subjects with H. pylori infection. METHODS: Sixty healthy volunteers were divided into: obese and non-obese groups. Each group was divided into H...
April 1, 2018: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702489/what-s-new-in-short-bowel-syndrome
#13
Lore Billiauws, Olivier Corcos, Francisca Joly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a rare disease but with many complications due to intestinal failure, parenteral nutrition and underlying disease. A better prevention, comprehension and treatment could improve the outcome of these patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have been published on acute intestinal failure, first cause of SBS, and gives us strategy to avoid extended intestinal resection and thus SBS. There has been progress in the comprehension of intestinal adaptation, characterized by improvements in intestinal absorption, changes on hormonal secretion, development of a hyperphagia and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota...
April 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698465/barley-%C3%AE-glucan-improves-metabolic-condition-via-short-chain-fatty-acids-produced-by-gut-microbial-fermentation-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#14
Junki Miyamoto, Keita Watanabe, Satsuki Taira, Mayu Kasubuchi, Xuan Li, Junichiro Irie, Hiroshi Itoh, Ikuo Kimura
Dietary intake of barley β-glucan (BG) is known to affect energy metabolism. However, its underlying mechanism remains poorly understood because studies have presented inconsistent results, with both positive and negative effects reported in terms of satiety, energy intake, weight loss, and glycemic control. The objective of this study was to clarify the physiological role underlying the metabolic benefits of barley BG using a mouse model of high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Male 4-wk-old C57BL/6J mice were fed an HFD with 20% barley flour containing either high BG (HBG; 2% BG) or low BG (LBG; 0...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694945/serum-obestatin-a-biomarker-of-cardiovascular-and-all-cause-mortality-in-hemodialysis-patients
#15
Ilia Beberashvili, Anna Katkov, Inna Sinuani, Ada Azar, Gregory Shapiro, Leonid Feldman, Oleg Gorelik, Kobi Stav, Shai Efrati
BACKGROUND: Recent experimental studies have suggested that obestatin, a proposed anorexigenic gut hormone and a physiological opponent of acyl-ghrelin, has protective cardiovascular effects. We tested the hypothesis that obestatin is independent of inflammatory mediators and/or acyl-ghrelin in predicting outcomes of the maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) population. METHODS: It was a 6-year cohort study on 261 MHD patients. Obestatin, acyl-ghrelin, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), markers of inflammation and nutrition, prospective all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were studied...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691526/black-pepper-based-beverage-induced-appetite-suppressing-effects-without-altering-postprandial-glycaemia-gut-and-thyroid-hormones-or-gastrointestinal-well-being-a-randomized-crossover-study-in-healthy-subjects
#16
Yoghatama Cindya Zanzer, Merichel Plaza, Anestis Dougkas, Charlotta Turner, Elin Östman
Pleiotropic effects of spices on health, particularly on glucose metabolism and energy regulation, deserve further clinical investigation into their efficacy. The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether consumption of a black pepper-based beverage (BPB) preload containing 20 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) would exert any effect on postprandial glycaemia, appetite sensations, gut hormones, thyroid function, and gastrointestinal well-being after a white wheat bread (WWB) challenge meal containing 50 g available carbohydrates (CHO) compared to a control beverage...
April 25, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689362/anorectic-response-to-the-trichothecene-t-2-toxin-correspond-to-plasma-elevations-of-the-satiety-hormone-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-and-peptide-yy-3-36
#17
Kun Sheng, Hua Zhang, Jianming Yue, Wei Gu, Chao Gu, Haibin Zhang, Wenda Wu
T-2 toxin, a potent type A trichothecene mycotoxin, is produced by various Fusarium species and can negatively impact animal and human health. Although anorexia induction is a common hallmark of T-2 toxin-induced toxicity, the underlying mechanisms for this adverse effect are not fully understood. The goal of this study was to determine the roles of two gut satiety hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and Peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36 ) in anorexia induction by T-2 toxin. Elevations of plasma GIP and PYY3-36 markedly corresponded to anorexia induction following oral exposure to T-2 toxin using a nocturnal mouse anorexia model...
April 21, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688303/free-fatty-acid-receptors-in-enteroendocrine-cells
#18
Van B Lu, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann
Free fatty acid receptors (FFAs) are highly enriched in enteroendocrine cells providing pathways to link dietary fats and microbially-generated short chain fatty acids (SCFA) to the secretion of a variety of gut hormones. FFA1 and FFA4 are receptors for long chain fatty acids that have been linked to the elevation of plasma gut hormones after fat ingestion. FFA2 and FFA3 are receptors for SCFA, which are generated at high concentrations by microbial fermentation of dietary fibre, and have also been implicated in enhancement of gut hormone secretion...
April 23, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684027/chronic-calcitriol-supplementation-improves-the-inflammatory-profiles-of-circulating-monocytes-and-the-associated-intestinal-adipose-tissue-alteration-in-a-diet-induced-steatohepatitis-rat-model
#19
Yen-Bo Su, Tzu-Hao Li, Chia-Chang Huang, Hung-Cheng Tsai, Shiang-Fen Huang, Yun-Cheng Hsieh, Ying-Ying Yang, Yi-Hsiang Huang, Ming-Chih Hou, Han-Chieh Lin
Vitamin D deficiency and up-regulated TNFα-related signals are reported to be involved in abnormalities including intestinal hyper-permeability, bacterial translocation, systemic/portal endotoxemia, intestinal/adipose tissue/hepatic inflammation, and hepatic steatosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aims to explore the molecular mechanisms and effects of chronic calcitriol [1,25-(OH)2D3, hormonal form of vitamin D] on gut-adipose tissue-liver axis abnormalities using a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rat model of NASH...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682542/gut-microbial-changes-interactions-and-their-implications-on-human-lifecycle-an-ageing-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Ravichandra Vemuri, Rohit Gundamaraju, Madhur D Shastri, Shakti Dhar Shukla, Krishnakumar Kalpurath, Madeleine Ball, Stephen Tristram, Esaki M Shankar, Kiran Ahuja, Rajaraman Eri
Gut microbiota is established during birth and evolves with age, mostly maintaining the commensal relationship with the host. A growing body of clinical evidence suggests an intricate relationship between the gut microbiota and the immune system. With ageing, the gut microbiota develops significant imbalances in the major phyla such as the anaerobic Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as well as a diverse range of facultative organisms, resulting in impaired immune responses. Antimicrobial therapy is commonly used for the treatment of infections; however, this may also result in the loss of normal gut flora...
2018: BioMed Research International
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