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Gut hormones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159483/obestatin-can-potentially-differentiate-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-insulin-producing-cells
#1
Rana K El-Asfar, Mohamed M Kamal, Rania S Abd El-Razek, Ebtehal El-Demerdash, Hala O El-Mesallamy
In vitro-generation of β-cells from Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) could provide a potential basis for diabetes mellitus cell therapy. However, the generation of functional insulin-producing cells (IPCs) from WJ-MSCs remains a challenge. Recently, obestatin, a gut hormone, was found to promote β-cell generation from pancreatic precursor cells. Accordingly, we hypothesize that obestatin can induce the differentiation of WJ-MSCs into IPCs. Therefore, the purpose of the current study is to examine the ability of obestatin to generate IPCs in comparison to well-known extrinsic factors that are commonly used in IPCs differentiation protocols from MSCs, namely exendin-4 and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)...
November 20, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158344/effects-of-walking-in-water-on-gut-hormone-concentration-and-appetite-comparison-with-walking-on-land
#2
Shin-Ya Ueda, Hidehiro Nakahara, Eriko Kawai, Tatsuya Usui, Shintaro Tsuji, Tadayoshi Miyamoto
The effects of water exercise on gut hormone levels and appetite currently remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of treadmill walking in water on gut hormone levels and appetite. Thirteen men (mean±S.D. age: 21.6±2.2 years, body mass index: 22.7±2.8 kg/m2, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak): 49.8±7.8 ml/kg per min) participated in the walking in water and on land challenge. During the study period, ratings of subjective feelings of hunger, fullness, satiety, and motivation to eat were reported on a 100-mm visual analogue scale...
November 20, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154964/lipotoxicity-and-the-gut-liver-axis-in-nash-pathogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Fabio Marra, Gianluca Svegliati-Baroni
The pathogenesis of nanoalcoholic fatty liver disease is still incompletely understood, in particolar the mechanisms whereby a minority of patients develop a more severe phenotype characterized by hepatocellular damage, inflammation, and fibrosis. In this review we discuss two pivotal aspects of the pathogenesis of NASH. We first analyze the initial mechanisms responsible of hepatocellular damage and inflammation, which derive from the toxic effects of excess lipids. Accumulating data indicate that the total amount of triglycerides stored in hepatocytes is not the major determinant of lipotoxicity, and that specific lipid classes act as damaging agents on liver cells...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154190/-epicatechin-protects-the-intestinal-barrier-from-high-fat-diet-induced-permeabilization-implications-for-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance
#4
Eleonora Cremonini, Ziwei Wang, Ahmed Bettaieb, Ana M Adamo, Elena Daveri, David A Mills, Karen M Kalanetra, Fawaz G Haj, Sidika Karakas, Patricia I Oteiza
Increased permeability of the intestinal barrier is proposed as an underlying factor for obesity-associated pathologies. Consumption of high fat diets (HFD) is associated with increased intestinal permeabilization and increased paracellular transport of endotoxins which can promote steatosis and insulin resistance. This study investigated whether dietary (-)-epicatechin (EC) supplementation can protect the intestinal barrier against HFD-induced permeabilization and endotoxemia, and mitigate liver damage and insulin resistance...
November 7, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152323/new-melanocortin-like-peptide-of-e-coli-can-suppress-inflammation-via-the-mammalian-melanocortin-1-receptor-mc1r-possible-endocrine-like-function-for-microbes-of-the-gut
#5
Xiaoling Qiang, Anthony S Liotta, Joseph Shiloach, J C Gutierrez, Haichao Wang, Mahendar Ochani, Kanta Ochani, Huan Yang, Aviva Rabin, Derek LeRoith, Maxine A Lesniak, Markus Böhm, Christian Maaser, Klaus Kannengiesser, Mark Donowitz, Shervin Rabizadeh, Christopher J Czura, Kevin J Tracey, Mark Westlake, Aida Zarfeshani, Syed F Mehdi, Ann Danoff, Xueliang Ge, Suparna Sanyal, Gary J Schwartz, Jesse Roth
E. coli releases a 33 amino acid peptide melanocortin-like peptide of E. coli (MECO-1) that is identical to the C-terminus of the E. coli elongation factor-G (EF-G) and has interesting similarities to two prominent mammalian melanocortin hormones, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH). Note that MECO-1 lacks HFRW, the common pharmacophore of the known mammalian melanocortin peptides. MECO-1 and the two hormones were equally effective in severely blunting release of cytokines (HMGB1 and TNF) from macrophage-like cells in response to (i) endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) or (ii) pro-inflammatory cytokine HMGB-1...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146657/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-duodenal-jejunal-bypass-sleeve-device-endobarrier-compared-with-standard-medical-therapy-for-the-management-of-obese-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Michael Alan Glaysher, Aruchuna Mohanaruban, Christina Gabriele Prechtl, Anthony P Goldstone, Alexander Dimitri Miras, Joanne Lord, Navpreet Chhina, Emanuela Falaschetti, Nicholas Andrew Johnson, Werd Al-Najim, Claire Smith, Jia V Li, Mayank Patel, Ahmed R Ahmed, Michael Moore, Neil Poulter, Stephen Bloom, Ara Darzi, Carel Le Roux, James P Byrne, Julian P Teare
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is increasing. Exclusion of the foregut, as occurs in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, has a key role in the metabolic improvements that occur following bariatric surgery, which are independent of weight loss. Endoscopically placed duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve devices, such as the EndoBarrier (GI Dynamics, Lexington, Massachusetts, USA), have been designed to create an impermeable barrier between chyme exiting the stomach and the mucosa of the duodenum and proximal jejunum...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144833/low-dietary-fiber-intake-increases-collinsella-abundance-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-overweight-and-obese-pregnant-women
#7
Luisa F Gomez-Arango, Helen L Barrett, Shelley A Wilkinson, Leonie K Callaway, H David McIntyre, Mark Morrison, Marloes Dekker Nitert
The gut microbiota contributes to the regulation of glucose metabolism in pregnancy. Abundance of the genus Collinsella is positively correlated with circulating insulin; however, it is unclear what determines Collinsella abundance. This study aims to validate the correlation between Collinsella and insulin and to elucidate if macronutrient intake alters Collinsella abundance and gut microbiota composition. Gut microbiota profiles were assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing in 57 overweight and 73 obese pregnant women from the SPRING (Study of PRobiotics IN Gestational diabetes) trial at 16 weeks gestation and correlated with metabolic hormone levels and macronutrient intake...
November 16, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144463/a-single-cell-survey-of-the-small-intestinal-epithelium
#8
Adam L Haber, Moshe Biton, Noga Rogel, Rebecca H Herbst, Karthik Shekhar, Christopher Smillie, Grace Burgin, Toni M Delorey, Michael R Howitt, Yarden Katz, Itay Tirosh, Semir Beyaz, Danielle Dionne, Mei Zhang, Raktima Raychowdhury, Wendy S Garrett, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Hai Ning Shi, Omer Yilmaz, Ramnik J Xavier, Aviv Regev
Intestinal epithelial cells absorb nutrients, respond to microbes, function as a barrier and help to coordinate immune responses. Here we report profiling of 53,193 individual epithelial cells from the small intestine and organoids of mice, which enabled the identification and characterization of previously unknown subtypes of intestinal epithelial cell and their gene signatures. We found unexpected diversity in hormone-secreting enteroendocrine cells and constructed the taxonomy of newly identified subtypes, and distinguished between two subtypes of tuft cell, one of which expresses the epithelial cytokine Tslp and the pan-immune marker CD45, which was not previously associated with non-haematopoietic cells...
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141969/cardiovascular-and-antiobesity-effects-of-resveratrol-mediated-through-the-gut-microbiota
#9
REVIEW
Julia K Bird, Daniel Raederstorff, Peter Weber, Robert E Steinert
Encouraging scientific research into the health effects of dietary bioactive resveratrol has been confounded by its rapid first-pass metabolism, which leads to low in vivo bioavailability. Preliminary studies have shown that resveratrol can modulate gut microbiota composition, undergo biotransformation to active metabolites via the intestinal microbiota, or affect gut barrier function. In rodents, resveratrol can modify the relative Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio and reverse the gut microbial dysbiosis caused by a high-fat diet...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138359/comparative-effects-of-intraduodenal-amino-acid-infusions-on-food-intake-and-gut-hormone-release-in-healthy-males
#10
Robert E Steinert, Sina S Ullrich, Nori Geary, Lori Asarian, Marco Bueter, Michael Horowitz, Christine Feinle-Bisset
In contrast to the many studies of the effects of individual amino acids (AAs) on eating, no studies have compared the effects of different AAs on eating and underlying preabsorptive gastrointestinal mechanisms. To compare the effects of intraduodenal infusions of l-tryptophan (TRP), l-leucine (LEU), l-phenylalanine (PHE) and l-glutamine (GLN) on appetite, gastrointestinal hormone responses (including ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1]), glycemia (glucagon, insulin and glucose) and test meal size in healthy males, we retrospectively analyzed data from four published independent, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of 90-min intraduodenal infusions of the individual AAs...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136633/impaired-enterohormone-response-following-a-liquid-test-meal-in-gastrectomized-patients
#11
Lidia Santarpia, Maria Carmen Pagano, Iolanda Cioffi, Lucia Alfonsi, Rosario Cuomo, Giuseppe Labruna, Lucia Sacchetti, Franco Contaldo, Fabrizio Pasanisi
BACKGROUND: Total gastrectomy (TG) is responsible for symptoms or disturbance of alimentary status (changes in body weight, food intake per meal and frequency of meal per day) which, in turn are responsible for weight loss and malnutrition. The study evaluates the gut hormone responses in totally gastrectomized (TG) patients after a liquid meal test. METHODS: Twenty total gastrectomized cancer-free patients (12 M, 8 F, 56.4 ± 10.2 years, BMI 21.4 ± 2.2 kg/m2) and 10 healthy volunteers (4 M, 6 F, 48...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135487/update-on-endocrine-aspects-of-childhood-obesity
#12
Charumathi Baskaran, Nurgun Kandemir
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although childhood obesity has leveled off in the last decade, 'severe obesity' continues to be on the rise. Various genetic, environmental and hormonal factors contribute to obesity. This article reviews the most current understanding of obesity's multifactorial origin and recent recommendations for its management in childhood and adolescence. RECENT FINDINGS: Epigenetics plays a key role in transmitting obesity risk to offspring. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms at genetic loci for adipokines and their receptors are associated with obesity...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135334/maternal-high-fat-diet-and-its-consequence-on-the-gut-microbiome-a-rat-model
#13
Phyllis E Mann, Kevin Huynh, Giovanni Widmer
The biological changes that occur during pregnancy in the female mammal include shifts in hormonal regulation in preparation for parturition and lactation, and changes in energy metabolism. In women, studies have also shown that during pregnancy there is a reduction in bacterial species richness in the gut. In the current experiment rats were used to model the interaction of diet, reproductive status, and intestinal bacterial microbiota during pregnancy and lactation. In Experiment 1 rats were exposed to either standard chow or high-fat chow (60%) and were divided into two groups: unmated (NULL) or mated (RE)...
November 14, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134359/anxiety-depression-and-the-microbiome-a-role-for-gut-peptides
#14
REVIEW
Gilliard Lach, Harriet Schellekens, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The complex bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain is finely orchestrated by different systems, including the endocrine, immune, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. Moreover, increasing evidence supports the role of the microbiome and microbiota-derived molecules in regulating such interactions; however, the mechanisms underpinning such effects are only beginning to be resolved. Microbiota-gut peptide interactions are poised to be of great significance in the regulation of gut-brain signaling...
November 13, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132230/combination-therapy-for-obesity
#15
John Ph Wilding
Obesity is a chronic disease with serious consequences and although lifestyle modification is considered first line treatment, it is often ineffective, especially in the long term. Relatively few people with obesity will undergo the most effective currently available treatment of bariatric surgery. Pharmacotherapy can bridge the gap between lifestyle modification and surgery, but many monotherapies have only modest efficacy or require high doses with unacceptable side effects. As with many other areas of medicine, combination therapy is now becoming accepted as a way of optimising efficacy for weight management, whilst minimising adverse effects...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127753/-intestinal-adaptation-following-gut-resection
#16
Jarmila Křížová, Pavel Trachta, Eva Kotrlíková
Gut resection is followed by wide changes in the gastrointestinal tract. The goal is to increase nutrient, water and mineral absorption in the remnant intestine. These changes are going on for several months. They affect gut mucosa structure, intestine peristaltic activity and enterocytes function. The crucial role is ileum preserving. Ileum has higher adaptation ability comparing to jejunum and inhibits peristaltic function of proximal parts of GIT. A lot of factors involved in intestinal adaptation were identified, hormones, growth factors, regulating peptides, intracellular signalizing cascades, cytokines and tissue factors...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121700/difference-in-the-gut-microbiome-between-ovariectomy-induced-obesity-and-diet-induced-obesity
#17
Sungmi Choi, Yu-Jin Hwang, Min-Jeong Shin, Hana Yi
During menopausal transition, the imbalance of estrogen causes body weight gain. Although gut microbiome dysbiosis has been reported in postmenopausal obesity, it is not clear whether there is any difference in the microbiome profile between dietary-induced obesity and postmenopausal obesity. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed intestinal samples from ovariectomized mice and compared them to those of mice with high fat diet-induced obesity. To further evaluate the presence of menopause-specific bacteria-gene interactions, we also analyzed the liver transcriptome...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115211/measurement-of-gastrointestinal-hormones
#18
Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen
Towards the end of the 20th century, the number of subjects with diabetes and obesity rose exponentially. The discoveries of insulin- and appetite-modulating chemical signals, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), secreted from the gastrointestinal system, led to development of a new group of drugs which now are being used for glucose-lowering therapy and weight loss. Understanding of the physiology of gut derived signals and their pathophysiologi-cal importance requires accurate measurements of their circulat-ing levels...
November 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113813/altered-glucose-metabolism-after-bariatric-surgery-what-s-glp-1-got-to-do-with-it
#19
REVIEW
Eric P Smith, Georgina Polanco, Abid Yaqub, Marzieh Salehi
Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for obesity. The two widely performed weight-loss procedures, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG), alter postprandial glucose pattern and enhance gut hormone secretion immediately after surgery before significant weight loss. This weight-loss independent glycemic effects of GB has been attributed to an accelerated nutrient transit from stomach pouch to the gut and enhanced secretion of insulinotropic gut factors; in particular, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)...
November 4, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109040/chronic-chlorpyrifos-exposure-elicits-diet-specific-effects-on-metabolism-and-the-gut-microbiome-in-rats
#20
Bing Fang, Jin Wang Li, Ming Zhang, Fa Zheng Ren, Guo Fang Pang
Chlorpyrifos is a commonly-used pesticide which was reported to interfere with hormone signaling and metabolism, however, little is known about its effect on gut microbiota. In this study, adult male rats fed a normal (NF) or high fat (HF) diet were exposed to 0.3 or 3.0 mg chlorpyrifos/kg bodyweight/day or vehicle alone for 9 weeks. Effects on bodyweight, serum levels of glucose, lipid, cytokines, and gut microbiome community structure were measured. The effects of chlorpyrifos on metabolism were dose- and diet-dependent, with NF-fed rats administered the low dose showing the largest metabolic changes...
November 3, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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