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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223965/central-control-of-feeding-behavior-by-the-secretin-pacap-and-glucagon-family-of-peptides
#1
REVIEW
Revathi Sekar, Lei Wang, Billy Kwok Chong Chow
Constituting a group of structurally related brain-gut peptides, secretin (SCT), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), and glucagon (GCG) family of peptide hormones exert their functions via interactions with the class B1 G protein-coupled receptors. In recent years, the roles of these peptides in neuroendocrine control of feeding behavior have been a specific area of research focus for development of potential therapeutic drug targets to combat obesity and metabolic disorders. As a result, some members in the family and their analogs have already been utilized as therapeutic agents in clinical application...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219000/acute-ghrelin-changes-food-preference-from-high-fat-diet-to-chow-during-binge-like-eating-in-rodents
#2
Tina Bake, Kim T Hellgren, Suzanne L Dickson
Ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone released from the empty stomach, provides a gut-brain signal that promotes many appetitive behaviors, including anticipatory and goal-directed behaviors for palatable treats high in sugar and/or fat. Here we sought to determine whether ghrelin is able to influence and/or may even have a role in binge-like behavior in rodents. To this end, we used a palatable scheduled feeding (PSF) paradigm in which ad libitum chow-fed rodents are trained to "binge" on high fat diet (HFD) offered each day for a limited period of 2 hr...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217099/berberine-attenuates-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#3
Jing Gong, Meilin Hu, Zhaoyi Huang, Ke Fang, Dingkun Wang, Qingjie Chen, Jingbin Li, Desen Yang, Xin Zou, Lijun Xu, Kaifu Wang, Hui Dong, Fuer Lu
Background: Intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction plays an important role in the development of diabetes mellitus (DM). Berberine (BBR), a kind of isoquinoline alkaloid, is widely known to be effective for both DM and diarrhea. Here, we explored whether the anti-diabetic effect of BBR was related to the intestine mucosal barrier. Methods and Results: The rat model of T2DM was established by high glucose and fat diet feeding and intravenous injection of streptozocin. Then, those diabetic rats were treated with BBR at different concentrations for 9 weeks...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216550/the-acute-effects-of-simple-sugar-ingestion-on-appetite-gut-derived-hormone-response-and-metabolic-markers-in-men
#4
Adora M W Yau, John McLaughlin, William Gilmore, Ronald J Maughan, Gethin H Evans
This pilot study aimed to investigate the effect of simple sugar ingestion, in amounts typical of common ingestion, on appetite and the gut-derived hormone response. Seven healthy men ingested water (W) and equicaloric solutions containing 39.6 g glucose monohydrate (G), 36 g fructose (F), 36 g sucrose (S), and 19.8 g glucose monohydrate + 18 g fructose (C), in a randomised order. Serum concentrations of ghrelin, glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, lactate, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and d-3 hydroxybutyrate, were measured for 60 min...
February 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213891/opioids-and-the-immune-system-friend-or-foe
#5
REVIEW
Lisanne Mirja Plein, Heike L Rittner
Systemically administered opioids are among the most powerful analgesics for treating severe pain. Several negative side-effects (respiratory depression, addiction, nausea, confusion) and the risk of opioid-induced hyperalgesia accompany opioid administration. One other side effect is the potential of opioids to suppress the immune response and thereby to increase the vulnerability for infections. Several studies have investigated the link between opioids and immunosuppression in vitro, in vivo as well as in patients with divergent results: Exogenous opioids such as morphine and fentanyl can impair macrophage and natural killer cell as well as T cell function and weaken the gut barrier in vitro and in animal studies...
February 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213760/endocrine-regulation-of-fueling-by-hyperphagia-in-migratory-birds
#6
Cas Eikenaar
To support migratory endurance flight, birds accumulate large amounts of fat by hyperphagia (fueling). Whereas the factors influencing migrants' motivation to fuel are well described, the physiological mechanism regulating fueling is largely unknown. Hormones are likely involved and arguably the best studied with respect to food intake and fueling is corticosterone. Corticosterone has a permissive effect, as blocking the hormone's actions prohibits efficient fueling. There are no indications, though that corticosterone stimulates fueling, and some studies even observed negative correlations between corticosterone level and food intake and speed of fueling...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213045/identification-of-the-causes-for-chronic-hypokalemia-importance-of-urinary-sodium-and-chloride-excretion
#7
Kun-Lin Wu, Chih-Jen Cheng, Chih-Chen Sung, Ming-Hua Tseng, Yu-Juei Hsu, Sung-Sen Yang, Tom Chau, Shih-Hua Lin
BACKGROUND: Uncovering the correct diagnosis of chronic hypokalemia with potassium (K(+)) wasting from the kidneys or gut can be fraught with challenges. We identified clinical and laboratory parameters helpful for differentiating the causes of chronic hypokalemia. METHODS: Normotensive patients referred to our tertiary academic medical center for the evaluation of chronic hypokalemia were prospectively enrolled over five years. Clinical features, laboratory examinations-including blood and spot urine electrolytes, acid-base status, biochemistries and hormones-as well as genetic analysis were determined...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202805/chenodeoxycholic-acid-stimulates-glucagon-like-peptide-1-secretion-in-patients-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#8
Signe Nielsen, Maria S Svane, Rune E Kuhre, Trine R Clausen, Viggo B Kristiansen, Jens F Rehfeld, Jens J Holst, Sten Madsbad, Kirstine N Bojsen-Moller
Postprandial secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is enhanced after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), but the precise molecular mechanisms explaining this remain poorly understood. Plasma concentrations of bile acids (BAs) increase after RYGB, and BAs may act as molecular enhancers of GLP-1 secretion through activation of TGR5-receptors. We aimed to evaluate GLP-1 secretion after oral administration of the primary bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and the secondary bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) (which are available for oral use) in RYGB-operated participants...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202005/impact-of-gut-hormone-fgf-19-on-type-2-diabetes-and-mitochondrial-recovery-in-a-prospective-study-of-obese-diabetic-women-undergoing-bariatric-surgery
#9
Lucia Martinez de la Escalera, Ioannis Kyrou, Jana Vrbikova, Voitech Hainer, Petra Sramkova, Martin Fried, Milan K Piya, Sudhesh Kumar, Gyanendra Tripathi, Philip G McTernan
BACKGROUND: The ileal-derived hormone, fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), may promote weight loss and facilitate type-2 diabetes mellitus remission in bariatric surgical patients. We investigated the effect of different bariatric procedures on circulating FGF-19 levels and the resulting impact on mitochondrial health in white adipose tissue (AT). METHODS: Obese and type-2 diabetic women (n = 39, BMI > 35 kg/m(2)) undergoing either biliopancreatic diversion (BPD), laparoscopic greater curvature plication (LGCP), or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) participated in this ethics approved study...
February 16, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193513/the-importance-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-in-controlling-food-intake-and-regulating-energy-balance
#10
M P Monteiro, R L Batterham
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the key interface between ingested nutrients and the body, plays a critical role in regulating energy homeostasis. Gut-derived signals convey information regarding incoming nutrients to the brain, initiating changes in eating behavior and energy expenditure, to maintain energy balance. Here we review hormonal, neural and nutrient signals emanating from the GI tract and evidence for their role in controlling feeding behavior. Mechanistic studies that have utilized pharmacological and/or transgenic approaches targeting an individual hormone/mediator have yielded somewhat disappointing bodyweight changes, often leading to the hormone/mediator in question being dismissed as a potential obesity therapy...
February 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185153/role-of-the-gut-on-glucose-homeostasis-lesson-learned-from-metabolic-surgery
#11
REVIEW
V Kamvissi-Lorenz, M Raffaelli, S Bornstein, G Mingrone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bariatric surgery was initially intended to reduce weight, and only subsequently was the remission of type two diabetes (T2D) observed as a collateral event. At the moment, the term "metabolic surgery" is used to underline the fact that this type of surgery is performed specifically to treat diabetes and its metabolic complications, such as hyperlipidemia. RECENT FINDINGS: Randomized, controlled studies have recently supported the use of bariatric surgery, and in particular of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) as an effective treatment for decompensated T2D...
February 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182013/duodenal-glp-1-signaling-regulates-hepatic-glucose-production-through-a-pkc-%C3%AE-dependent-neurocircuitry
#12
Mengliu Yang, Jinzhi Wang, Shaobo Wu, Lei Yuan, Xiaodong Zhao, Chaohong Liu, Jing Xie, Yanjun Jia, Yerui Lai, Allan Zijian Zhao, Guenther Boden, Ling Li, Gangyi Yang
Intestinal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a hormone that stimulates insulin secretion and acts as a neuropeptide to control glucose homeostasis, but little is known whether intestinal GLP-1 has any effect in the control of hepatic glucose production (HGP). Here we found that intraduodenal infusion of GLP-1 activated duodenal PKC-δ, lowered HGP and was accompanied by a decrease in hepatic expression of gluconeogenic enzymes and an increase in hepatic insulin signaling in rats. However, gut co-infusion of either the GLP-1 receptor antagonist Ex-9, or the PKC-δ inhibitor rottlerin with GLP-1, negated the ability of gut GLP-1 to lower HGP and to increase hepatic insulin signaling during clamps...
February 9, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181979/microbiota-gut-brain-axis-part-1-an-integrated-system-of-immunological-neural-and-hormonal-signals
#13
Stephanie Maxine Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Holistic Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178326/quantitative-liver-proteomics-identifies-fgf19-targets-that-couple-metabolism-and-proliferation
#14
Vittoria Massafra, Alexandra Milona, Harmjan R Vos, Boudewijn M T Burgering, Saskia W C van Mil
Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is a gut-derived peptide hormone that is produced following activation of Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR). FGF19 is secreted and signals to the liver, where it contributes to the homeostasis of bile acid (BA), lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. FGF19 is a promising therapeutic target for the metabolic syndrome and cholestatic diseases, but enthusiasm for its use has been tempered by FGF19-mediated induction of proliferation and hepatocellular carcinoma. To inform future rational design of FGF19-variants, we have conducted temporal quantitative proteomic and gene expression analyses to identify FGF19-targets related to metabolism and proliferation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173692/insoluble-dietary-fiber-from-pear-pomace-can-prevent-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats-mainly-by-improving-the-structure-of-gut-microbiota
#15
Shimin Chang, Xingtian Cui, Mingzhang Guo, Yiling Tian, Wentao Xu, Kunlun Huang, Yuxing Zhang
Supplement of dietary fibers (DF) was regarded as one of the most effective way to prevent and relieve chronic diseases caused by long term intake of high-fat diet in current society. The health benefits of soluble dietary fibers (SDF) have been widely researched and applied, while the insoluble dietary fibers (IDF), which represent more proportion in plant food, were mistakenly through to have effects only in fecal bulking. In this article, we proved the anti-obesity and glucose homeostasis improvement effects of IDF from pear pomace at first, and then the mechanisms responsible for these effects were analyzed...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167127/-with-a-little-help-from-my-friends-the-role-of-microbiota-in-thyroid-hormone-metabolism-and-enterohepatic-recycling
#16
Camilla Virili, Marco Centanni
The gut microbiota is composed of over 1200 species of anaerobes and aerobes bacteria along with bacteriophages, viruses and fungal species. Increasing evidence indicates that the intestinal microbiota, beside digestive equilibrium, is also crucial for immunologic, hormonal and metabolic homeostasis. The intestinal microbiota interacts with distant organs by signals which may be part of the bacteria themselves or their metabolites. Dysbiosis has been observed in inflammatory or autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis or type 1 diabetes as well as in obesity and type 2 diabetes...
February 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154011/involvement-of-gut-microbiota-in-the-association-between-glp-1-glp-1-receptor-expression-and-gastrointestinal-motility
#17
Mo Yang, Hirokazu Fukui, Hirotsugu Eda, Xin Xu, Yoshitaka Kitayama, Ken Hara, Mio Kodani, Toshihiko Tomita, Tadayuki Oshima, Jiro Watari, Hiroto Miwa
Microbiota in the gut is known to play a pivotal role in host physiology by interacting with the immune and neuroendocrine systems in gastrointestinal (GI) tissues. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a gut hormone, is involved in metabolism as well as GI motility. We examined how gut microbiota affects the link between GLP-1/GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) expression and motility of the GI tract. Germ-free (GF) mice (6 weeks old) were orally administered a fecal bacterial suspension prepared from specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice, and then after fecal transplantation (FT) GI tissues were obtained from the GF mice at various time points...
February 2, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144395/new-therapeutic-approaches-to-metastatic-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-a-glimpse-into-the-future
#18
REVIEW
Esther Una Cidon
Neuroendocrine (NE) gastroenteropancreatic tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasias arising from neuroendocrine cells of the embryological gut. Their incidence have increased significantly over the past 3 decades probably due to the improvements in imaging and diagnosis. The recent advances in molecular biology have translated into an expansion of therapeutic approaches to these patients. Somatostatin analogs, which initially were approved for control of hormonal syndromes, have recently been proven to inhibit tumor growth...
January 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144278/altered-sympathovagal-balance-and-pain-hypersensitivity-in-tnbs-induced-colitis
#19
Katarzyna Ciesielczyk, Agata Furgała, Łukasz Dobrek, Kajetan Juszczak, Piotr Thor
INTRODUCTION: Pain hypersensitivity, abnormal motility and autonomic dysfunction contribute to functional symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aim of this study was to assess: nociceptive thresholds for mechanical allodynia (MA) and thermal hyperalgesia (TH), intestinal motility (distal colonic transit and emptying), and cardiac autonomic neuropathy (indices of heart rate variability - HRV) in male Wistar rats with experimental trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis...
February 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141700/endothelial-and-perivascular-adipose-tissue-abnormalities-in-obesity-related-vascular-dysfunction-novel-targets-for-treatment
#20
Francesca Schinzari, Manfredi Tesauro, Carmine Cardillo
The heavy impact of obesity on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease has sparked sustained efforts to uncover the mechanisms linking excess adiposity to vascular dysfunction. In addition to its well-established role in maintaining vascular homeostasis, the endothelium has been increasingly recognized as a key player in modulating healthy adipose tissue expansion in response to excess calories by providing adipocyte precursors and driving angiogenesis. When this increased storage need is unmet, excessive deposition of fat occurs at ectopic locations, including perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT)...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
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