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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448057/mixed-primary-cultures-of-murine-small-intestine-intended-for-the-study-of-gut-hormone-secretion-and-live-cell-imaging-of-enteroendocrine-cells
#1
Arianna Psichas, Gwen Tolhurst, Cheryl A Brighton, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann
The gut is the largest endocrine organ of the body, with hormone-secreting enteroendocrine cells located along the length of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Despite their physiological importance, enteroendocrine cells represent only a small fraction of the epithelial cell population and in the past, their characterization has presented a considerable challenge resulting in a reliance on cell line models. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for the isolation and culture of mixed murine small intestinal cells...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447763/berberine-protects-against-diet-induced-obesity-through-regulating-metabolic-endotoxemia-and-gut-hormone-levels
#2
Jian Hui Xu, Xing Zhen Liu, Wei Pan, Da Jin Zou
Systemic inflammation, which can be induced by metabolic endotoxemia, and corresponding high‑fat diet‑mediated metabolic disorders are associated with gut microbiota. In the present study reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, pyrosequencing, ELISA and Oil Red O staining were performed to assess whether berberine can protect against diet-induced obesity, through modulating the gut microbiota and consequently improving metabolic endotoxemia and gastrointestinal hormone levels...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446037/caffeine-coffee-and-appetite-control-a-review
#3
Matthew M Schubert, Christopher Irwin, Rebekah F Seay, Holly E Clarke, Deanne Allegro, Ben Desbrow
Coffee and caffeine consumption has global popularity. However, evidence for the potential of these dietary constituents to influence energy intake, gut physiology, and appetite perceptions remains unclear. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence regarding coffee and caffeine's influence on energy intake and appetite control. The literature was examined for studies that assessed the effects of caffeine and coffee on energy intake, gastric emptying, appetite-related hormones, and perceptual measures of appetite...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441725/sweet-taste-receptor-activation-in-the-gut-is-of-limited-importance-for-glucose-stimulated-glp-1-and-gip-secretion
#4
Monika Y Saltiel, Rune E Kuhre, Charlotte B Christiansen, Rasmus Eliasen, Kilian W Conde-Frieboes, Mette M Rosenkilde, Jens J Holst
Glucose stimulates the secretion of the incretin hormones: glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). It is debated whether the sweet taste receptor (STR) triggers this secretion. We investigated the role of STR activation for glucose-stimulated incretin secretion from an isolated perfused rat small intestine and whether selective STR activation by artificial sweeteners stimulates secretion. Intra-luminal administration of the STR agonists, acesulfame K (3.85% w/v), but not sucralose (1...
April 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436760/diabetes-management-by-probiotics-current-knowledge-and-future-pespective
#5
Aziz Homayouni-Rad, Ahmad-Reza Soroush, Leila Khalili, Leila Norouzi-Panahi, Zahra Kasaie, Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed
Diabetes mellitus, a multifactorial disorder, is related to the intestinal microbiota via numerous molecular mechanisms. The vast increase in the prevalence of diabetes and its associated complications requires a natural and safe solution. There is a growing evidence of gut microbiota effi ciency in improving insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion, and metabolic complications in diabetic patients. Probiotics are defi ned as live microorganisms that, when ingested in adequate amounts, exert health benefi ts to the host...
April 24, 2017: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434728/short-communication-parameters-of-abomasal-emptying-and-glucose-insulin-dynamics-in-holstein-friesian-calves-at-2-ages-and-2-levels-of-milk-replacer-intake
#6
P Stahel, J A R MacPherson, H Berends, M A Steele, J P Cant
Elevated planes of nutrition in the preweaning period of dairy calf management can increase average daily gain, shorten age at puberty, and increase milk yield. In a previous study, 12 Holstein calves were fed 2 meals/d of 4 or 2 L milk replacer up to 7 wk of age. The objective of the current study was to estimate parameters of abomasal emptying and glucose-insulin dynamics in these calves by fitting a mechanistic model to postprandial appearances of plasma glucose, insulin, and the abomasal emptying marker acetaminophen measured at 4 and 7 wk of age...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434196/role-of-gut-microbiota-bile-acids-and-their-crosstalk-in-the-effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#7
Haijun Liu, Cheng Hu, Xueli Zhang, Weiping Jia
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide and has become one of the greatest threats to global health. Bariatric surgery was initially designed to achieve weight loss and subsequently was noted to induce improvements or remission of type 2 diabetes. Currently, these bariatric operations such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are the most effective procedures for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, the specific mechanism mediating the beneficial effects of metabolic surgery has remained largely unknown...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434033/the-gut-microbiome-as-a-target-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-hyperglycaemia-in-type-2-diabetes-from-current-human-evidence-to-future-possibilities
#8
REVIEW
Louise Brunkwall, Marju Orho-Melander
The totality of microbial genomes in the gut exceeds the size of the human genome, having around 500-fold more genes that importantly complement our coding potential. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes, such as the breakdown of indigestible dietary fibres to short-chain fatty acids, biosynthesis of amino acids and vitamins, and production of neurotransmitters and hormones. During the last decade, evidence has accumulated to support a role for gut microbiota (analysed from faecal samples) in glycaemic control and type 2 diabetes...
April 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431559/effects-of-whole-grain-rye-with-and-without-resistant-starch-type-2-supplementation-on-glucose-tolerance-gut-hormones-inflammation-and-appetite-regulation-in-an-11-14-5%C3%A2-hour-perspective-a-randomized-controlled-study-in-healthy-subjects
#9
Jonna C Sandberg, Inger M E Björck, Anne C Nilsson
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and prevention is needed. Whole grain has shown potential to lower the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. One possible mechanism behind the benefits of whole grain is the gut fermentation of dietary fiber (DF), e.g. non-starch polysaccharides and resistant starch (RS), in whole grain. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of whole grain rye-based products on glucose- and appetite regulation...
April 21, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430903/co-storage-of-enteroendocrine-hormones-evaluated-at-the-cell-and-subcellular-levels-in-male-mice
#10
Linda J Fothergill, Brid Callaghan, Billie Hunne, David M Bravo, John B Furness
Recent studies reveal complex patterns of hormone co-expression within enteroendocrine cells (EEC), contrary to the traditional view that gut hormones are expressed individually in EEC. Moreover, different hormones have been found in separate subcellular vesicles. However, detailed analysis of relative expression of multiple hormones has not been made. Subcellular studies have been confined to peptide hormones, and have not included the indolamine, 5-HT, or the neuroendocrine protein, chromogranin A (CgA). In the present work, co-expression of 5-HT, CgA, secretin, CCK, ghrelin, and GLP-1 in mouse duodenum was quantified at a cellular and subcellular level by semi-automated cell counting and quantitative vesicle measurements...
April 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429513/distribution-and-hormonal-characterization-of-primary-murine-l-cells-throughout-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#11
Kazuyo Suzuki, Kanako Iwasaki, Yuki Murata, Norio Harada, Shunsuke Yamane, Akihiro Hamasaki, Kimitaka Shibue, Erina Joo, Akiko Sankoda, Yuta Fujiwara, Yoshitaka Hayashi, Nobuya Inagaki
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secreted from enteroendocrine L-cells is an incretin that potentiates insulin secretion and is already applied in therapies for type 2 diabetes. However, detailed examination of L-cells throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract remains unclear, because of difficulties in purifying scattered L-cells from other cells. In the present study, we identified characteristics of L-cells of the upper small intestine (UI), the lower small intestine (LI) and the colon using glucagon (Gcg)-green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing mice that express GFP driven by the proglucagon promoter...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428832/a-meta-analysis-testing-eusocial-co-option-theories-in-termite-gut-physiology-and-symbiosis
#12
Michael E Scharf, Yunpeng Cai, Yijun Sun, Ruchira Sen, Rhitoban Raychoudhury, Drion G Boucias
The termite gut accomplishes key physiologic functions that underlie termite symbiosis and sociality. However, potential candidate functions of the host-symbiont holobiome have not yet been explored across seemingly divergent processes such as digestion, immunity, caste differentiation, and xenobiotic tolerance. This study took a meta-analysis approach for concurrently studying host and symbiont gut metatranscriptome responses of the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes, which has ancestral characteristics and hosts a diverse mix of eukaryotic and bacterial symbionts...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428027/fructose-intervention-for-12-weeks-does-not-impair-glycemic-control-or-incretin-hormone-responses-during-oral-glucose-or-mixed-meal-tests-in-obese-men
#13
N Matikainen, S Söderlund, E Björnson, L H Bogl, K H Pietiläinen, A Hakkarainen, N Lundbom, B Eliasson, S M Räsänen, A Rivellese, L Patti, A Prinster, G Riccardi, J-P Després, N Alméras, J J Holst, C F Deacon, J Borén, M-R Taskinen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are affected early on in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiologic studies consistently link high fructose consumption to insulin resistance but whether fructose consumption impairs the incretin response remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: As many as 66 obese (BMI 26-40 kg/m(2)) male subjects consumed fructose-sweetened beverages containing 75 g fructose/day for 12 weeks while continuing their usual lifestyle...
March 18, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427951/uncovering-the-immune-responses-of-apis-mellifera-ligustica-larval-gut-to-ascosphaera-apis-infection-utilizing-transcriptome-sequencing
#14
Dafu Chen, Rui Guo, Xijian Xu, Cuiling Xiong, Qin Liang, Yanzhen Zheng, Qun Luo, Zhaonan Zhang, Zhijian Huang, Dhiraj Kumar, Weijun Xi, Xuan Zou, Min Liu
Honeybees are susceptible to a variety of diseases, including chalkbrood, which is capable of causing huge losses of both the number of bees and colony productivity. This research is designed to characterize the transcriptome profiles of Ascosphaera apis-treated and un-treated larval guts of Apis mellifera ligustica in an attempt to unravel the molecular mechanism underlying the immune responses of western honeybee larval guts to mycosis. In this study, 24, 296 and 2157 genes were observed to be differentially expressed in A...
April 18, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427431/from-inflammation-to-gastric-cancer-the-importance-of-hedgehog-gli-signaling-in-helicobacter-pylori-induced-chronic-inflammatory-and-neoplastic-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Silja Wessler, Linda M Krisch, Dominik P Elmer, Fritz Aberger
Infections with the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are closely associated with the development of inflammatory disorders and neoplastic transformation of the gastric epithelium. Drastic changes in the micromilieu involve a complex network of H. pylori-regulated signal transduction pathways leading to the release of proinflammatory cytokines, gut hormones and a wide range of signaling molecules. Besides controlling embryonic development, the Hedgehog/GLI signaling pathway also plays important roles in epithelial proliferation, differentiation, and regeneration of the gastric physiology, but also in the induction and progression of inflammation and neoplastic transformation in H...
April 20, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426765/allatotropin-a-pleiotropic-neuropeptide-that-elicits-mosquito-immune-responses
#16
Salvador Hernández-Martínez, Minerva Sánchez-Zavaleta, Kevin Brito, Antonia Herrera-Ortiz, Sheila Ons, Fernando G Noriega
Allatotropins (AT) are neuropeptides with pleotropic functions on a variety of insect tissues. They affect processes such as juvenile hormone biosynthesis, cardiac rhythm, oviduct and hindgut contractions, nutrient absorption and circadian cycle. The present work provides experimental evidence that AT elicits immune responses in two important mosquito disease vectors, Anopheles albimanus and Aedes aegypti. Hemocytes and an immune-competent mosquito cell line responded to AT by showing strong morphological changes and increasing bacterial phagocytic activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420790/honeybee-gut-microbiota-promotes-host-weight-gain-via-bacterial-metabolism-and-hormonal-signaling
#17
Hao Zheng, J Elijah Powell, Margaret I Steele, Carsten Dietrich, Nancy A Moran
Social bees harbor a simple and specialized microbiota that is spatially organized into different gut compartments. Recent results on the potential involvement of bee gut communities in pathogen protection and nutritional function have drawn attention to the impact of the microbiota on bee health. However, the contributions of gut microbiota to host physiology have yet to be investigated. Here we show that the gut microbiota promotes weight gain of both whole body and the gut in individual honey bees. This effect is likely mediated by changes in host vitellogenin, insulin signaling, and gustatory response...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420089/suppression-of-ghs-r-in-agrp-neurons-mitigates-diet-induced-obesity-by-activating-thermogenesis
#18
Chia-Shan Wu, Odelia Y N Bongmba, Jing Yue, Jong Han Lee, Ligen Lin, Kenji Saito, Geetali Pradhan, De-Pei Li, Hui-Lin Pan, Allison Xu, Shaodong Guo, Yong Xu, Yuxiang Sun
Ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone released primarily from the gut, signals the hypothalamus to stimulate growth hormone release, enhance appetite and promote weight gain. The ghrelin receptor, aka Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor (GHS-R), is highly expressed in the brain, with highest expression in Agouti-Related Peptide (AgRP) neurons of the hypothalamus. We recently reported that neuron-specific deletion of GHS-R completely prevents diet-induced obesity (DIO) in mice by activating non-shivering thermogenesis...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401307/immunohistochemical-mapping-and-transcript-expression-of-the-gpa2-gpb5-receptor-in-tissues-of-the-adult-mosquito-aedes-aegypti
#19
David A Rocco, Doo Hyun Kim, Jean-Paul V Paluzzi
GPA2/GPB5 is a glycoprotein hormone found in most bilateral metazoans including the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. To elucidate physiological roles and functions of GPA2/GPB5, we aim to identify prospective target tissues by examining the tissue- and sex-specific expression profile of its receptor, the leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 1 (LGR1) in the adult mosquito. Western analyses using a heterologous system with CHO-K1 cells, transiently expressing A. aegypti LGR1, yielded a 112-kDa monomeric band and high-molecular weight multimers, which associated with membrane-protein fractions...
April 11, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396144/supplementation-of-diet-with-galacto-oligosaccharides-increases-bifidobacteria-but-not-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-prediabetic-individuals
#20
Emanuel E Canfora, Christina M van der Beek, Gerben D A Hermes, Gijs H Goossens, Johan W E Jocken, Jens J Holst, Hans M van Eijk, Koen Venema, Hauke Smidt, Erwin G Zoetendal, Cornelis H C Dejong, Kaatje Lenaerts, Ellen E Blaak
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The gut microbiota affects host lipid and glucose metabolism, satiety, and chronic low-grade inflammation to contribute to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Fermentation end products, in particular the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) acetate, are believed to be involved in these processes. We investigate the long-term effects of supplementation with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), an acetogenic fiber, on the composition of the human gut microbiota and human metabolism. METHODS: We performed a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel intervention study of 44 overweight or obese (body mass index, 28-40 kg/m2) prediabetic men and women (ages, 45-70 years) from October 2014 through October 2015 in Maastricht, The Netherlands...
April 7, 2017: Gastroenterology
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