Read by QxMD icon Read

Gut hormones

Ayesha Fawad, Andreas Bergmann, Joachim Struck, Peter M Nilsson, Marju Orho-Melander, Olle Melander
Context: The gut hormone neurotensin promotes fat absorption, diet-induced weight gain and liver steatosis. Its stable precursor-hormone fragment "proneurotensin" predicts cardiometabolic disease in middle-aged populations, especially in women. Objective: To test if proneurotensin predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes development in an elderly population and whether there are gender differences in this respect. Design, Setting and Participants: Fasting proneurotensin was measured in plasma from 4804 participants (mean age 69±6 years) of the Malmö Preventive Project (MPP) and subjects were followed up for development of CVD and diabetes during 5...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Cyndya A Shibao, Jorge E Celedonio, Robyn Tamboli, Reem Sidani, Latisha Love-Gregory, Terri Pietka, Yanhua Xiong, Yan Wei, Naji N Abumrad, Nada A Abumrad, Charles Robb Flynn
Context: Abnormal fatty acid (FA) metabolism contributes to diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The FA receptor CD36 has been linked to risk of metabolic syndrome. In rodents CD36 regulates various aspects of fat metabolism but whether it has similar actions in humans is unknown. We examined impact of a coding single-nucleotide polymorphism in CD36 on post-prandial hormone and bile acid (BA) responses. Objective: To examine if the minor allele (G) of coding CD36 variant rs3211938 (G/T) which reduces CD36 level by approximately 50% influences hormonal responses to a high-fat meal (HFM)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Pernille Wismann, Søren L Pedersen, Gitte Hansen, Karin Mannerstedt, Philip J Pedersen, Palle B Jeppesen, Niels Vrang, Keld Fosgerau, Jacob Jelsing
AIM: Analogues of several gastrointestinal peptide hormones have been developed into effective medicines for treatment of diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity and short bowel syndrome (SBS). In this study, we aimed to explore whether the combination of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) into a potent co-agonist could provide additional benefits compared to existing monotherapies. METHODS: A short-acting (GUB09-123) and a half-life extended (GUB09-145) GLP-1/GLP-2 co-agonist were generated using solid-phase peptide synthesis and tested for effects on food intake, body weight, glucose homeostasis, and gut proliferation in lean mice and in diabetic db/db mice...
March 11, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Sheng Y Ang, Bronwyn A Evans, Daniel P Poole, Romke Bron, Jesse J DiCello, Ross A D Bathgate, Martina Kocan, Dana S Hutchinson, Roger J Summers
Insulin-like peptide 5 (INSL5) is a newly discovered gut hormone expressed in colonic enteroendocrine L-cells but little is known about its biological function. Here, we show using RT-qPCR and in situ hybridisation that Insl5 mRNA is highly expressed in the mouse colonic mucosa, colocalised with proglucagon immunoreactivity. In comparison, mRNA for RXFP4 (the cognate receptor for INSL5) is expressed in various mouse tissues, including the intestinal tract. We show that the human enteroendocrine L-cell model NCI-H716 cell line, and goblet-like colorectal cell lines SW1463 and LS513 endogenously express RXFP4...
April 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
R M Tribe, P D Taylor, N M Kelly, D Rees, J Sandall, H P Kennedy
Caesarean section and instrumental delivery rates are increasing in many parts of the world due to a range of cultural and medical reasons, with limited consideration as to how 'mode of delivery' may impact on childhood and long-term health. However, babies born particularly by pre-labour caesarean section appear to have a subtly different physiology to those born by normal vaginal delivery, with both acute and chronic complications such as respiratory and other morbidities being apparent. It has been hypothesised that inherent mechanisms within the process of labour and vaginal delivery, far from being a passive mechanical process by which the fetus and placenta are expelled from the birth canal, may trigger certain protective developmental processes permissive for normal immunological and physiological development of the fetus postnatally...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Tom Podewin, Julia Ast, Johannes Broichhagen, Nicholas H F Fine, Daniela Nasteska, Philipp Leippe, Manuel Gailer, Teresa Buenaventura, Nisha Kanda, Ben J Jones, Celine M'Kadmi, Jean-Louis Baneres, Jacky Marie, Alejandra Tomas, Dirk Trauner, Anja Hoffmann-Röder, David J Hodson
Understanding the activation and internalization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) using conditional approaches is paramount to developing new therapeutic strategies. Here, we describe the design, synthesis, and testing of ExONatide , a benzylguanine-linked peptide agonist of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), a class B GPCR required for maintenance of glucose levels in humans. ExONatide covalently binds to SNAP-tagged GLP-1R-expressing cells, leading to prolonged cAMP generation, Ca2+ rises, and intracellular retention of the receptor...
February 28, 2018: ACS Central Science
Jie An, Liping Wang, Michael L Patnode, Vanessa K Ridaura, Jonathan M Haldeman, Robert D Stevens, Olga Ilkayeva, James R Bain, Michael J Muehlbauer, Erin L Glynn, Steven Thomas, Deborah Muoio, Scott A Summers, James E Vath, Thomas E Hughes, Jeffrey I Gordon, Christopher B Newgard
Current obesity interventions suffer from lack of durable effects and undesirable complications. Fumagillin, an inhibitor of methionine aminopeptidase-2, causes weight loss by reducing food intake, but with effects on weight that are superior to pair-feeding. Here, we show that feeding of rats on a high-fat diet supplemented with fumagillin (HF/FG) suppresses the aggressive feeding observed in pair-fed controls (HF/PF) and alters expression of circadian genes relative to the HF/PF group. Multiple indices of reduced energy expenditure are observed in HF/FG but not HF/PF rats...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
Henrik Maagensen, Anders E Junker, Niklas R Jørgensen, Lise L Gluud, Filip K Knop, Tina Vilsbøll
Context: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and vice versa, and both conditions are associated with an increased risk of fractures and altered bone turnover. While NAFLD patients typically suffer from decreased bone mineral density (BMD), T2D is associated with normal to high BMD. The pathophysiology is uncertain, but may involve the gut-bone axis. Objective: We investigated the influence of the gut on glucose-induced changes in plasma bone turnover markers in healthy controls and patients with T2D and/or biopsy-verified NAFLD...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Rizaldy C Zapata, Arashdeep Singh, Nadia M Ajdari, Prasanth K Chelikani
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of graded dietary restriction of tryptophan on food intake, energy expenditure, body composition, gut hormones, and select fecal bacterial populations in obesity-prone rats. METHODS: Obesity-prone rats were randomized to isocaloric diets with varying degrees of tryptophan restriction: control (100% requirements), 70% tryptophan (70TRP), 40% tryptophan (40TRP), or 10% tryptophan (10TRP) for 21 days. The sympathetic system was challenged with a subcutaneous injection of propranolol on days 15 to 17...
March 4, 2018: Obesity
Gitanjali Srivastava, Caroline Apovian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is a global health crisis with detrimental effects on all organ systems leading to worsening disease state and rising costs of care. Persons with obesity failing lifestyle therapies need to be escalated to appropriate pharmacological treatment modalities, medical devices, and/or bariatric surgery if criteria are met and more aggressive intervention is needed. The progression of severe obesity in the patient population coupled with related co-morbidities necessitates the development of novel therapies for the treatment of obesity...
March 5, 2018: Current Obesity Reports
Ceyda Tugba Pekmez, Lars Ove Dragsted, Lena Kirchner Brahe
The gut microbiome affects the health status of the host through different mechanisms and is associated with a wide variety of diseases. Both childhood undernutrition and obesity are linked to alterations in composition and functionality of the gut microbiome. One of the possible mechanisms underlying the interplay between microbiota and host metabolism is through appetite-regulating hormones (including leptin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1). Short chain fatty acids, the end product of bacterial fermentation of non-digestible carbohydrates, might be able to alter energy harvest and metabolism through enteroendocrine cell signaling, adipogenesis and insulin-like growth factor-1 production...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Andreas Brønden, Kristian Mikkelsen, David P Sonne, Morten Hansen, Christoffer Våben, Maria N Gabe, Mette Rosenkilde, Valentina Tremaroli, Hao Wu, Fredrik Bäckhed, Jens F Rehfeld, Jens J Holst, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K Knop
AIMS: Sevelamer, a non-absorbable amine-based resin used for treatment of hyperphosphatemia, has been demonstrated to hold a marked bile acid-binding potential alongside beneficial effects on lipid and glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the glucose-lowering effect and mechanism(s) of sevelamer in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this double-blinded randomized controlled trial, we randomized 30 patients with type 2 diabetes to sevelamer (n=20) or placebo (n=10)...
March 1, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
R B Jones, T L Alderete, A A Martin, B A Geary, D H Hwang, S L Palmer, M I Goran
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that there are links between obesity, liver fat and the gut microbiome. However, there are mixed results on whether probiotics could impact the gut microbiome and/or help to decrease liver fat and obesity outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether a probiotic supplement (VSL#3® ) intervention altered gut microbiota and/or gut hormones associated with appetite regulation. The secondary aim of this study was to determine whether VSL#3® altered body composition and liver fat and fibrosis...
February 28, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
Mahalaqua Nazli Khatib, Anuraj H Shankar, Richard Kirubakaran, Abhay Gaidhane, Shilpa Gaidhane, Padam Simkhada, Zahiruddin Quazi Syed
BACKGROUND: Cancer sufferers are amongst the most malnourished of all the patient groups. Studies have shown that ghrelin, a gut hormone can be a potential therapeutic agent for cachexia (wasting syndrome) associated with cancer. A variety of mechanisms of action of ghrelin in people with cancer cachexia have been proposed. However, safety and efficacy of ghrelin for cancer-associated cachexia have not been systematically reviewed. The aim of this review was to assess whether ghrelin is associated with better food intake, body composition and survival than other options for adults with cancer cachexia...
February 28, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Caroline M Gorvin, Angela Rogers, Michelle Stewart, Anju Paudyal, Tertius A Hough, Lydia Teboul, Sara Wells, Steve Dm Brown, Roger D Cox, Rajesh V Thakker
The adaptor protein-2 sigma subunit (AP2σ), encoded by AP2S1 , forms a heterotetrameric complex, with AP2α, AP2β, and AP2μ subunits, that is pivotal for clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and AP2σ loss-of-function mutations impair internalization of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G-protein-coupled receptor, and cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type-3 (FHH3). Mice with AP2σ mutations that would facilitate investigations of the in vivo role of AP2σ, are not available, and we therefore embarked on establishing such mice...
May 2, 2017: JBMR Plus
Mohammed K Hankir, Florian Seyfried, Alexander D Miras, Michael A Cowley
Metabolic surgical procedures, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), uniquely reprogram feeding behavior and body weight in obese subjects. Clinical neuroimaging and animal studies are only now beginning to shed light on some of the underlying central mechanisms. We present here the roles of key brain neurotransmitter/neuromodulator systems in food choice, value, and intake at various stages after RYGB. In doing so, we elaborate on how known signals emanating from the reorganized gut, including peptide hormones and microbiota products, impinge on newly mapped homeostatic and hedonic brain feeding circuits...
February 20, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Iain R Tough, Sarah Forbes, Herbert Herzog, Robert M Jones, Thue W Schwartz, Helen M Cox
The lipid sensor GPR119 is highly expressed by enteroendocrine L-cells and pancreatic β-cells that release the hormones, PYY and GLP-1, and insulin, respectively. Endogenous oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and the dietary metabolite, 2-monoacylglycerol (2-OG) can each activate GPR119. Here we compared mucosal responses to selective, synthetic GPR119 agonists (AR440006, AR231453) and the lipids, OEA, 2-OG and N-oleoyldopamine (OLDA) monitoring epithelial ion transport as a read-out for L-cell activity in native mouse and human gastrointestinal (GI) mucosae...
February 19, 2018: Endocrinology
Shermel Sherman, Nadeen Sarsour, Marziyeh Salehi, Allen Schroering, Blair Mell, Bina Joe, Jennifer W Hill
BACKGROUND: Conditions of excess androgen in women, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), often exhibit intergenerational transmission. One way in which the risk for PCOS may be increased in daughters of affected women is through exposure to elevated androgens in utero. Hyperandrogenemic conditions have serious health consequences, including increased risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Recently, gut dysbiosis has been found to induce hypertension in rats, such that blood pressure can be normalized through fecal microbial transplant...
February 22, 2018: Gut Microbes
Anwesha Mandal, Kedar S Prabhavalkar, Lokesh K Bhatt
The connection between the gastrointestinal hormones and the brain has been established many years ago. This relation is termed the gut-brain axis (GBA). The GBA is a bidirectional communication which not only regulates gastrointestinal homeostasis but is also linked with higher emotional and cognitive functions. Hypothalamus plays a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism, nutrient partitioning and control of feeding behaviors. Various gut hormones are released inside the gastrointestinal tract on food intake...
February 18, 2018: Peptides
D Fouque
The nutrition care of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a central question which is permanently studied. The benefits of a dietary protein restriction are once again enlightened, either by reducing the urea found to be hyperglycemic, thus improving the peripheric insulin sensitivity, or by decreasing phosphorus and FGF23 hormone, whose reductions are respectively associated with nephroprotection and diminution of cardiovascular events. The numerous researches conducted on the gut microbiota also open promising avenues to better understand the role of this ecosystem in CKD...
June 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"