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Muscle protein synthesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351412/expression-of-ctgf-ccn2-in-response-to-lpa-is-stimulated-by-fibrotic-extracellular-matrix-via-the-integrin-fak-axis
#1
Camilo Riquelme-Guzman, Osvaldo Contreras, Enrique Brandan
Fibrosis is a common feature of several chronic diseases, and is characterized by exacerbated accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the development of this condition is crucial for designing efficient treatments for those pathologies. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is a pleiotropic protein with strong pro-fibrotic activity. In this report, we present experimental evidence showing that ECM stimulates the synthesis of CTGF in response to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)...
December 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351171/spinal-pkc-erk-signal-pathway-mediates-hyperalgesia-priming
#2
Wei-Hsin Chen, Ya-Ting Chang, Yong-Cyuan Chen, Sin-Jhong Cheng, Chien-Chang Chen
Chronic pain can be initiated by one or more acute stimulations to sensitize neurons into the primed state. In the primed state, the basal nociceptive thresholds of the animal are normal, but in response to another hyperalgesic stimulus, the animal develops enhanced and prolonged hyperalgesia. The exact mechanism of how primed state is formed is not completely understood. Here we showed that spinal PKC/ERK signal pathway is required for neuronal plasticity change, hyperalgesic priming formation and the development of chronic hyperalgesia using acid-induced muscle pain (AIMP) model in mice...
January 18, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350417/hepatitis-c-virus-core-protein-induces-dysfunction-of-liver-sinusoidal-endothelial-cell-by-down-regulation-of-silent-information-regulator-1
#3
Li-Jie Sun, Jian-Wu Yu, Yu-Guang Shi, Xiao-Yu Zhang, Meng-Ni Shu, Mo-Yang Chen
Objective Hepatic fibrosis is a frequent feature of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Some evidence has suggested the potential role of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in organ fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HCV core protein on expression of SIRT1 of liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) and function of LSEC. Methods LSECs were co-cultured with HepG2 cells or HepG2 cells expressing HCV core protein and LSECs cultured alone were used as controls. After co-culture, the activity and expression levels of mRNA and protein of SIRT1 in LSEC were detected by a SIRT1 fluorometric assay kit, real time-PCR (RT-PCR), Western blot, respectively...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341282/expression-analyses-of-candidate-genes-related-to-meat-quality-traits-in-squabs-from-two-breeds-of-meat-type-pigeon
#4
M Ye, M Xu, C Chen, Y He, M Ding, X Ding, W Wei, S Yang, B Zhou
In this study, meat quality traits were compared between squabs from two pigeon breeds: one Chinese indigenous breed, the Shiqi (SQ) meat-type pigeon, and an imported breed, the white king (WK) meat-type pigeon. Breed differences were detected in the content of intramuscular fat (IMF) in the breast muscle. SQ squabs had significantly higher IMF content than the WK birds. The shear force value (an objective measure of meat tenderness) of SQ birds was also relatively lower than that of the WK squabs. Further analysis of fatty acids profile revealed that SQ squabs exhibited significant advantage in the synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids, while WK squabs were significantly higher in the sum of monounsaturated fatty acids...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339735/phenotype-and-functional-features-of-human-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-immortalized-human-airway-smooth-muscle-cells-from-asthmatic-and-non-asthmatic-donors
#5
J K Burgess, A Ketheson, A Faiz, K A Limbert Rempel, B G Oliver, J P T Ward, A J Halayko
Asthma is an obstructive respiratory disease characterised by chronic inflammation with airway hyperresponsiveness. In asthmatic airways, there is an increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell bulk, which differs from non-asthmatic ASM in characteristics. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of hTERT immortalisation of human ASM cells as a research tool. Specifically we compared proliferative capacity, inflammatory mediator release and extracellular matrix (ECM) production in hTERT immortalised and parent primary ASM cells from asthmatic and non-asthmatic donors...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339038/curcumin-inhibits-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-connective-tissue-growth-factor-expression-through-the-interruption-of-smad2-signaling-in-human-gingival-fibroblasts
#6
Jung-Tsu Chen, Chen-Ying Wang, Min-Huey Chen
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Many fibrotic processes are associated with an increased level of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). TGF-β1 can increase synthesis of matrix proteins and enhance secretion of protease inhibitors, resulting in matrix accumulation. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a downstream profibrotic effector of TGF-β1 and is associated with the fibrosis in several human organs. Curcumin has been applied to reduce matrix accumulation in fibrotic diseases. This study was aimed to evaluate whether curcumin could suppress TGF-β1-induced CTGF expression and its related signaling pathway involving in this inhibitory action in primary human gingival fibroblasts...
January 13, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338971/atorvastatin-impaired-glucose-metabolism-in-c2c12-cells-partly-via-inhibiting-cholesterol-dependent-glucose-transporter-4-translocation
#7
Binbin Sun, Zeyu Zhong, Fan Wang, Jiong Xu, Feng Xu, Weimin Kong, Zhaoli Ling, Nan Shu, Ying Li, Tong Wu, Mian Zhang, Liang Zhu, Xiaodong Liu, Li Liu
Skeletal muscle accounts for approximately 75% of glucose disposal in body and statins impair glucose metabolism. We aimed to investigate the effect of atorvastatin on glucose metabolism in C2C12 cells. Glucose metabolism and expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and hexokinase II (HXKII) were measured following incubation with atorvastatin or pravastatin. Roles of cholesterol in atorvastatin-induced glucose metabolism impairment were investigated via adding cholesterol or mevalonic acid and confirmed by cholesterol depletion with methyl-β-cyclodextrin...
January 12, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330356/metabolic-and-molecular-changes-associated-with-the-increased-skeletal-muscle-insulin-action-24-48%C3%A2-h-after-exercise-in-young-and-old-humans
#8
REVIEW
Francis B Stephens, Kostas Tsintzas
The molecular and metabolic mechanisms underlying the increase in insulin sensitivity (i.e. increased insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake, phosphorylation and storage as glycogen) observed from 12 to 48 h following a single bout of exercise in humans remain unresolved. Moreover, whether these mechanisms differ with age is unclear. It is well established that a single bout of exercise increases the translocation of the glucose transporter, GLUT4, to the plasma membrane. Previous research using unilateral limb muscle contraction models in combination with hyperinsulinaemia has demonstrated that the increase in insulin sensitivity and glycogen synthesis 24 h after exercise is also associated with an increase in hexokinase II (HKII) mRNA and protein content, suggesting an increase in the capacity of the muscle to phosphorylate glucose and divert it towards glycogen synthesis...
January 12, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329354/palmitate-induced-er-stress-and-inhibition-of-protein-synthesis-in-cultured-myotubes-does-not-require-toll-like-receptor-4
#9
Ben D Perry, Jill A Rahnert, Yang Xie, Bin Zheng, Myra E Woodworth-Hobbs, S Russ Price
Saturated fatty acids, such as palmitate, are elevated in metabolically dysfunctional conditions like type 2 diabetes mellitus. Palmitate has been shown to impair insulin sensitivity and suppress protein synthesis while upregulating proteolytic systems in skeletal muscle. Increased sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and subsequent activation of the unfolded protein response may contribute to the palmitate-induced impairment of muscle protein synthesis. In some cell types, ER stress occurs through activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324825/early-and-later-phases-satellite-cell-responses-and-myonuclear-content-with-resistance-training-in-young-men
#10
Felipe Damas, Cleiton A Libardi, Carlos Ugrinowitsch, Felipe C Vechin, Manoel E Lixandrão, Tim Snijders, Joshua P Nederveen, Aline V Bacurau, Patricia Brum, Valmor Tricoli, Hamilton Roschel, Gianni Parise, Stuart M Phillips
Satellite cells (SC) are associated with skeletal muscle remodelling after muscle damage and/or extensive hypertrophy resulting from resistance training (RT). We recently reported that early increases in muscle protein synthesis (MPS) during RT appear to be directed toward muscle damage repair, but MPS contributes to hypertrophy with progressive muscle damage attenuation. However, modulations in acute-chronic SC content with RT during the initial (1st-wk: high damage), early (3rd-wk: attenuated damage), and later (10th-wk: no damage) stages is not well characterized...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314548/clinical-biochemical-and-genetic-features-associated-with-vars2-related-mitochondrial-disease
#11
Francesco Bruni, Ivano Di Meo, Emanuele Bellacchio, Bryn D Webb, Robert McFarland, Zofia M A Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Langping He, Ewa Skorupa, Isabella Moroni, Anna Ardissone, Anna Walczak, Henna Tyynismaa, Pirjo Isohanni, Hanna Mandel, Holger Prokisch, Tobias Haack, Penelope E Bonnen, Bertini Enrico, Ewa Pronicka, Daniele Ghezzi, Robert W Taylor, Daria Diodato
In recent years, an increasing number of mitochondrial disorders have been associated with mutations in mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (mt-aaRSs), which are key enzymes of mitochondrial protein synthesis. Bi-allelic functional variants in VARS2, encoding the mitochondrial valyl tRNA-synthetase, were first reported in a patient with psychomotor delay and epilepsia partialis continua associated with an oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex I defect, before being described in a patient with a neonatal form of encephalocardiomyopathy...
January 3, 2018: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305004/translational-control-of-the-myogenic-program-in-developing-regenerating-and-diseased-skeletal-muscle
#12
Ryo Fujita, Colin Crist
Translational control of genes that code for protein allows a cell to rapidly respond to changes in its environment, in part because translational control of gene expression does not depend on upstream events required to produce an mRNA molecule. The importance of translational control has been highlighted by studies concerning muscle development, regeneration, and disease. Translational control of specific mRNAs is achieved by microRNAs and RNA-binding proteins, which are particularly relevant to developmental myogenesis, where they ensure the stepwise differentiation of multipotent progenitors to committed myogenic progenitors that ultimately fuse into slow- or fast-type myofibers that make up skeletal muscle...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300303/lysophosphatidic-acid-signaling-axis-mediates-ceramide-1-phosphate-induced-proliferation-of-c2c12-myoblasts
#13
Caterina Bernacchioni, Francesca Cencetti, Alberto Ouro, Marina Bruno, Antonio Gomez-Muñoz, Chiara Donati, Paola Bruni
Sphingolipids are not only crucial for membrane architecture but act as critical regulators of cell functions. The bioactive sphingolipid ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P), generated by the action of ceramide kinase, has been reported to stimulate cell proliferation, cell migration and to regulate inflammatory responses via activation of different signaling pathways. We have previously shown that skeletal muscle is a tissue target for C1P since the phosphosphingolipid plays a positive role in myoblast proliferation implying a role in muscle regeneration...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295596/small-intestinal-absorption-of-methylsulfonylmethane-msm-and-accumulation-of-the-sulfur-moiety-in-selected-tissues-of-mice
#14
Thomas Wong, Richard J Bloomer, Rodney L Benjamin, Randal K Buddington
The principal dietary sources of sulfur, the amino acids methionine and cysteine, may not always be consumed in adequate amounts to meet sulfur requirements. The naturally occurring organosulfur compound, methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), is available as a dietary supplement and has been associated with multiple health benefits. Absorption of MSM by the small intestine and accumulation of the associated sulfur moiety in selected tissues with chronic (8 days) administration were evaluated using juvenile male mice...
December 25, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295548/potential-role-of-amino-acid-protein-nutrition-and-exercise-in-serum-albumin-redox-state
#15
REVIEW
Yasuaki Wada, Yasuhiro Takeda, Masashi Kuwahata
Albumin is the major protein in the serum of mammals. It is synthesized exclusively in the liver, before being secreted into the circulation. Similar to skeletal muscle protein, albumin synthesis is stimulated by dietary amino acids and proteins as well as exercise. Albumin has three isoforms based on the redox states of the free cysteine residue at position 34. The redox state of serum albumin has long been extensively investigated in terms of oxidative stress-related chronic diseases, with the redox state of serum albumin having been regarded as a marker of systemic oxidative stress...
December 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287759/comparative-proteomics-analysis-of-trichinella-spiralis-muscle-larvae-exposure-to-albendazole-sulfoxide-stress
#16
Ruo Yu Peng, Hui Jun Ren, Chun Li Zhang, Pin Lv, Gao Hui Wei, Zhong Quan Wang, Jing Cui, Liang Ming
The drug albendazole (ABZ) has a positive effect against Trichinella spiralis infection and has been used for the treatment and prevention of trichinellosis in both humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanism of ABZ's effects on T. spiralis remains unknown now. Albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO) is the main intermediary metabolic product of ABZ, and often used as a substitute of ABZ for the metabolism and bioavailability researches. Herein, isobaric tagging reagents for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based LC-MS/MS analysis was used to identify the effect of ABZSO on the proteome of T...
December 26, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282529/the-development-of-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy-through-resistance-training-the-role-of-muscle-damage-and-muscle-protein-synthesis
#17
REVIEW
Felipe Damas, Cleiton A Libardi, Carlos Ugrinowitsch
Resistance training (RT)-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy is a highly intricate process. Despite substantial advances, we are far from understanding exactly how muscle hypertrophy develops during RT. The aim of the present review is to discuss new insights related to the role of skeletal muscle damage and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in mediating RT-induced hypertrophy. Specifically, the thesis that in the early phase of RT (≤ 4 previous RT sessions) increases in muscle cross-sectional area are mostly attributable to muscle damage-induced muscle swelling; then (after ~ 10 sessions), a modest magnitude of muscle hypertrophy ensues; but only during a latter phase of RT (after ~ 18 sessions) is true muscle hypertrophy observed...
December 27, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278358/characterisation-of-l-type-amino-acid-transporter-1-lat1-expression-in-human-skeletal-muscle-by-immunofluorescent-microscopy
#18
Nathan Hodson, Thomas Brown, Sophie Joanisse, Nick Aguirre, Daniel W D West, Daniel R Moore, Keith Baar, Leigh Breen, Andrew Philp
The branch chain amino acid leucine is a potent stimulator of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. Leucine rapidly enters the cell via the L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 (LAT1); however, little is known regarding the localisation and distribution of this transporter in human skeletal muscle. Therefore, we applied immunofluorescence staining approaches to visualise LAT1 in wild type (WT) and LAT1 muscle-specific knockout (mKO) mice, in addition to basal human skeletal muscle samples. LAT1 positive staining was visually greater in WT muscles compared to mKO muscle...
December 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248911/irisin-and-volume-overload-are-associated-with-protein-energy-wasting-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#19
Si-Jia Zhou, Qing-Feng Han, Ai-Hua Zhang, Wen Tang, Ling-Hua Sun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Protein energy wasting (PEW) is a common medical phenomenon that is observed in maintenance dialysis patients. PEW also increases morbidity and mortality of these patients. Its pathogenesis is unclear. We hypothesize that serum irisin levels and volume overload may induce PEW in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The aim of this study is to measure serum irisin levels, evaluate volume status of PD patients, and study their correlations with PEW in PD patients. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional study with 160 PD patients from the PD center of Peking University Third Hospital and 35 healthy control subjects...
December 14, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248570/synthetic-capacity-does-not-predict-elasmobranchs-ability-to-maintain-trimethylamine-oxide-without-a-dietary-contribution
#20
Abigail B Bockus, Brad A Seibel
Trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) is an organic osmolyte and universal protein stabilizer. Its role as a cytoprotectant is particularly important in ureosmotic elasmobranchs that accumulate high levels of urea, a macromolecular perturbant. Feeding is a key component in the turnover and maintenance of these nitrogenous compounds. However, previous studies examining TMAO regulation have been largely completed using starved individuals, when nitrogen balance is altered. Here, under fed conditions, we test the importance of dietary TMAO on long-term maintenance in three elasmobranch species with differing endogenous synthetic capacities...
December 14, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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