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Muscle protein synthesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919844/practical-nutritional-recovery-strategies-for-elite-soccer-players-when-limited-time-separates-repeated-matches
#1
REVIEW
Mayur Krachna Ranchordas, Joel T Dawson, Mark Russell
Specific guidelines that aim to facilitate the recovery of soccer players from the demands of training and a congested fixture schedule are lacking; especially in relation to evidence-based nutritional recommendations. The importance of repeated high level performance and injury avoidance while addressing the challenges of fixture scheduling, travel to away venues, and training commitments requires a strategic and practically feasible method of implementing specific nutritional strategies. Here we present evidence-based guidelines regarding nutritional recovery strategies within the context of soccer...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919842/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-nutrient-timing
#2
REVIEW
Chad M Kerksick, Shawn Arent, Brad J Schoenfeld, Jeffrey R Stout, Bill Campbell, Colin D Wilborn, Lem Taylor, Doug Kalman, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Richard B Kreider, Darryn Willoughby, Paul J Arciero, Trisha A VanDusseldorp, Michael J Ormsbee, Robert Wildman, Mike Greenwood, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Alan A Aragon, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review regarding the timing of macronutrients in reference to healthy, exercising adults and in particular highly trained individuals on exercise performance and body composition. The following points summarize the position of the ISSN:Nutrient timing incorporates the use of methodical planning and eating of whole foods, fortified foods and dietary supplements. The timing of energy intake and the ratio of certain ingested macronutrients may enhance recovery and tissue repair, augment muscle protein synthesis (MPS), and improve mood states following high-volume or intense exercise...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915727/the-protein-and-energy-metabolic-response-of-skeletal-muscle-to-the-low-protein-diets-in-growing-pigs
#3
Yinghui Li, Fengna Li, Yehui Duan, Qiuping Guo, Wenlong Wang, Chaoyue Wen, Xingguo Huang, Yulong Yin
This study was conducted to determine the effect of the low-protein diets on protein and energy metabolism in skeletal muscle, and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. A total of 18 growing pigs (average initial body weight = 36.47 kg) were individually penned and assigned to three treatments, each treatment was fed one of three diets containing either 18%, 15%, or 12% CP. The results showed that reducing dietary CP contents decreased (P < 0.05) the weight of half Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911148/age-related-anabolic-resistance-of-myofibrillar-protein-synthesis-is-exacerbated-in-obese-inactive-individuals
#4
Benoit Smeuninx, James Mckendry, Daisy Wilson, Una Martin, Leigh Breen
Context: A diminished muscle anabolic response to protein nutrition may underpin age-associated muscle loss. Objective: To determine how chronological and biological aging influence myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS). Design: Cross-sectional comparison. Setting: Clinical research facility. Participants: Ten older lean [OL: 71.7 ± 6 years; body mass index (BMI) ≤25 kg ⋅ m-2], 7 older obese (OO: 69...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911136/protein-rich-food-ingestion-stimulates-mitochondrial-protein-synthesis-in-sedentary-young-adults-of-different-bmis
#5
Joseph W Beals, Richard W A Mackenzie, Stephan van Vliet, Sarah K Skinner, Brandon A Pagni, Grace M Niemiro, Alexander V Ulanov, Zhong Li, Anna C Dilger, Scott A Paluska, Michael De Lisio, Nicholas A Burd
Context: Excess fat mass may diminish the anabolic potency of protein-rich food ingestion to stimulate muscle protein subfractional synthetic responses. However, the impact of adiposity on mitochondrial protein synthesis (MPS) rates after protein-rich food ingestion has not been thoroughly examined in vivo in humans. Objective: We compared basal and postprandial MPS and markers of muscle inflammation [toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) protein content] in young adults with different body mass indices (BMIs)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905505/biallelic-variants-in-wars2-encoding-mitochondrial-tryptophanyl-trna-synthase-in-six-individuals-with-mitochondrial-encephalopathy
#6
Saskia B Wortmann, Sharita Timal, Hanka Venselaar, Liesbeth T Wintjes, Robert Kopajtich, René G Feichtinger, Carla Onnekink, Mareike Mühlmeister, Ulrich Brandt, Jan A Smeitink, Joris A Veltman, Wolfgang Sperl, Dirk Lefeber, Ger Pruijn, Vesna Stojanovic, Peter Freisinger, Francjan V Spronsen, Terry Gj Derks, Hermine E Veenstra-Knol, Johannes A Mayr, Agnes Rötig, Mark Tarnopolsky, Holger Prokisch, Richard J Rodenburg
Mitochondrial protein synthesis involves an intricate interplay between mitochondrial DNA encoded RNAs and nuclear DNA encoded proteins, such as ribosomal proteins and aminoacyl-tRNA synthases. Eukaryotic cells contain 17 mitochondria-specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthases. WARS2 encodes mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthase (mtTrpRS), a homodimeric class Ic enzyme (mitochondrial tryptophan-tRNA ligase; EC 6.1.1.2). Here, we report six individuals from five families presenting with either severe neonatal onset lactic acidosis, encephalomyopathy and early death or a later onset, more attenuated course of disease with predominating intellectual disability...
September 14, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904937/effect-of-magnesium-supplement-on-pregnancy-outcomes-a-randomized-control-trial
#7
Elaheh Zarean, Amal Tarjan
BACKGROUND: Magnesium (Mg) is an essential mineral required to regulate body temperature, nucleic acid, and protein synthesis with an important role in maintaining nerve and muscle cell electrical potentials. It may reduce fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia as well as increase birth weight. This study aimed to assess the effects of consuming Mg supplementation during pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a randomized controlled trial with three sixty populated groups of pregnant women...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903957/within-day-protein-distribution-does-not-influence-body-composition-responses-during-weight-loss-in-resistance-training-adults-who-are-overweight
#8
Joshua L Hudson, Jung Eun Kim, Douglas Paddon-Jones, Wayne W Campbell
Background: Emerging research suggests that redistributing total protein intake from 1 high-protein meal/d to multiple moderately high-protein meals improves 24-h muscle protein synthesis. Over time, this may promote positive changes in body composition.Objective: We sought to assess the effects of within-day protein intake distribution on changes in body composition during dietary energy restriction and resistance training.Design: In a randomized parallel-design study, 41 men and women [mean ± SEM age: 35 ± 2 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900796/structural-rationale-for-the-cross-resistance-of-tumor-cells-bearing-the-a399v-variant-of-elongation-factor-eef1a1-to-the-structurally-unrelated-didemnin-b-ternatin-nannocystin-a-and-ansatrienin-b
#9
Pedro A Sánchez-Murcia, Álvaro Cortés-Cabrera, Federico Gago
At least four classes of structurally distinct natural products with potent antiproliferative activities target the translation elongation factor eEF1A1, which is best known as the G-protein that delivers amino acyl transfer RNAs (aa-tRNAs) to ribosomes during mRNA translation. We present molecular models in atomic detail that provide a common structural basis for the high-affinity binding of didemnin B, ternatin, ansatrienin B and nannocystin A to eEF1A1, as well as a rationale based on molecular dynamics results that accounts for the deleterious effect of replacing alanine 399 with valine...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899879/pronounced-energy-restriction-with-elevated-protein-intake-results-in-no-change-in-proteolysis-and-reductions-in-skeletal-muscle-protein-synthesis-that-are-mitigated-by-resistance-exercise
#10
Amy J Hector, Chris McGlory, Felipe Damas, Nicole Mazara, Steven K Baker, Stuart M Phillips
Preservation of lean body mass (LBM) may be important during dietary energy restriction (ER) and requires equal rates of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB). Currently, the relative contribution of MPS and MPB to the loss of LBM during ER in humans is unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of dietary protein intake and resistance exercise on MPS and MPB during a controlled short-term energy deficit. Adult men (body mass index, 28.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2); age 22 ± 1 yr) underwent 10 d of 40%-reduced energy intake while performing unilateral resistance exercise and consuming lower protein (1...
September 12, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887989/biomimetic-microenvironment-complexity-to-redress-the-balance-between-biodegradation-and-de-novo-matrix-synthesis-during-early-phase-of-vascular-tissue-engineering
#11
Elham Vatankhah, Molamma P Prabhakaran, Seeram Ramakrishna
Physiological functionality of a tissue engineered vascular construct depends on the phenotype of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) cultured into the scaffold and mechanical robust of the construct relies on two simultaneous mechanisms including scaffold biodegradation and de novo matrix synthesis by SMCs which both can be influenced by scaffold properties and culture condition. Our focus in this study was to provide an appropriate environmental condition within tissue engineering context to meet foregoing requisites for a successful vascular regeneration...
December 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887874/small-molecule-inhibition-of-murf1-attenuates-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-and-dysfunction-in-cardiac-cachexia
#12
Thomas Scott Bowen, Volker Adams, Sarah Werner, Tina Fischer, Paulien Vinke, Maria Noel Brogger, Norman Mangner, Axel Linke, Peter Sehr, Joe Lewis, Dittmar Labeit, Alexander Gasch, Siegfried Labeit
BACKGROUND: Muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) is a muscle-specific ubiquitin E3 ligase activated during clinical conditions associated with skeletal muscle wasting. Yet, there remains a paucity of therapeutic interventions that directly inhibit MuRF1 function, particularly in vivo. The current study, therefore, developed a novel compound targeting the central coiled coil domain of MuRF1 to inhibit muscle wasting in cardiac cachexia. METHODS: We identified small molecules that interfere with the MuRF1-titin interaction from a 130 000 compound screen based on Alpha Technology...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886156/loss-of-sprr3-in-apoe-mice-leads-to-atheroma-vulnerability-through-akt-dependent-and-independent-effects-in-vsmcs
#13
Caressa D Lietman, Amanda K Segedy, Bin Li, Sergio Fazio, James B Atkinson, MacRae F Linton, Pampee P Young
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) represent important modulators of plaque stability in advanced lesions. We previously reported that loss of small proline-rich repeat protein 3 (Sprr3), leads to VSMC apoptosis in a PI3K/Akt-dependent manner and accelerates lesion progression. Here, we investigated the role of Sprr3 in modulating plaque stability in hyperlipidemic ApoE-/- mice. We show that loss of Sprr3 increased necrotic core size and reduced cap collagen content of atheromas in brachiocephalic arteries with evidence of plaque rupture and development of intraluminal thrombi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883046/case-studies-in-physiology-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-protein-synthesis-and-respiration-in-response-to-the-energetic-stress-of-an-ultra-endurance-race
#14
Adam R Konopka, William M Castor, Christopher A Wolff, Robert V Musci, Justin J Reid, Jaime L Laurin, Zackary J Valenti, Karyn L Hamilton, Benjamin F Miller
The 2016 Colorado Trail Race (CTR) was an ultra-endurance mountain bike race where competitors cycled for up to 24 hrs/day between altitudes of 1675 to 4025 meters to complete 800 kilometers and 21,000 meters of elevation gain. In one athlete, we had the unique opportunity to characterize skeletal muscle protein synthesis and mitochondrial respiration in response to a normal activity control period (CON) and the CTR. We hypothesized that mitochondrial protein synthesis would be elevated and mitochondrial respiration would be maintained during the extreme stresses of the CTR...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880122/expression-of-ampk-sirt1-and-acc-differs-between-winter-and-summer-acclimatized-djungarian-hamsters
#15
Sanni M E Kinnunen, Satu K Mänttäri, Seppo Y O Saarela
The wintering strategy of the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) includes a naturally occurring decrease in food intake and body mass. Our aim was to investigate the conceivable role of the metabolic regulators, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), in the seasonal adaptation of the Djungarian hamster. In addition, a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation, acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), was studied. Relative protein expressions and phosphorylated forms (pAMPK and pACC) were determined by Western blot from subcutaneous white adipose tissues (sWAT), abdominal white adipose tissues (aWAT), interscapular brown adipose tissues (iBAT), skeletal muscle, and hypothalamus of winter- and summer-acclimatized hamsters...
November 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878131/physiological-adaptations-to-resistance-exercise-as-a-function-of-age
#16
Bethan E Phillips, John P Williams, Paul L Greenhaff, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton
BACKGROUND: The impact of resistance exercise training (RE-T) across the life span is poorly defined. METHODS: To resolve this, we recruited three distinct age cohorts of young (18-28 years; n = 11), middle-aged (45-55 years; n = 20), and older (nonsarcopenic; 65-75 years; n = 17) individuals to a cross-sectional intervention study. All subjects participated in 20 weeks of fully supervised whole-body progressive RE-T, undergoing assessment of body composition, muscle and vascular function, and metabolic health biomarkers before and after RE-T...
September 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870245/mice-overexpressing-growth-hormone-exhibit-increased-skeletal-muscle-myostatin-and-murf1-with-attenuation-of-muscle-mass
#17
Leslie A Consitt, Alicson Saneda, Gunjan Saxena, Edward O List, John J Kopchick
BACKGROUND: In contrast to the acute effects of growth hormone (GH) on skeletal muscle protein synthesis, long-term GH treatment appears to have negligible effects on muscle mass. Despite this knowledge, little is known regarding the chronic effects of GH on skeletal muscle protein synthesis and atrophy signaling pathways. The purpose of this study was to determine if protein synthesis pathways are attenuated and/or muscle atrophy intracellular signaling pathways are altered in the skeletal muscle of transgenic bovine GH (bGH) mice...
September 4, 2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869034/plasticity-and-function-of-human-skeletal-muscle-in-relation-to-disuse-and-rehabilitation-influence-of-ageing-and-surgery
#18
Charlotte Suetta
In order to study the influence of disuse and aging on skeletal muscle homeostasis, different human models were employed. Effects of chronic disuse were investigated in elderly patients suffering from uni-lateral hip-osteoarthritis, whereas the effect of short-term disuse (4 and 14 days of unilateral lower limb immobilisation) was assessed in healthy young and old individuals. In summary, chronic muscle disuse in the elderly was associated with marked quantitative as well as qualitative neuromuscular impairments...
August 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867395/nanoformulated-copper-zinc-superoxide-dismutase-exerts-differential-effects-on-glucose-vs-lipid-homeostasis-depending-on-the-diet-composition-possibly-via-altered-ampk-signaling
#19
Gopalakrishnan Natarajan, Curtis Perriotte-Olson, Fatema Bhinderwala, Robert Powers, Cyrus V Desouza, Geoffrey A Talmon, Jiang Yuhang, Matthew C Zimmerman, Alexander V Kabanov, Viswanathan Saraswathi
Evidence suggests that superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) promotes glucose vs lipid metabolism depending on the diet type. We recently reported that nanoformulated SOD1 (Nano) improved lipid metabolism without altering glucose homeostasis in high-fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Here, we sought to determine the effects and potential mechanisms of Nano in modulating glucose and lipid homeostasis in mice fed a normal chow diet (CD) vs HF diet. Mice were fed a CD or a HF diet (45%) for 10 wk and injected with Nano once every 2 days for 15 days...
October 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863190/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-pectoral-muscles-of-local-chickens-and-commercial-broilers-using-ribo-zero-ribonucleic-acid-sequencing
#20
Yanhua Zhang, Donghua Li, Ruili Han, Yanbin Wang, Guoxi Li, Xiaojun Liu, Yadong Tian, Xiangtao Kang, Zhuanjian Li
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms underlying meat quality and muscle growth are not clear. The meat quality and growth rates of local chickens and commercial broilers are very different. The Ribo-Zero RNA-Seq technology is an effective means of analyzing transcript groups to clarify molecular mechanisms. The aim of this study was to provide a reference for studies of the differences in the meat quality and growth of different breeds of chickens. RESULTS: Ribo-Zero RNA-Seq technology was used to analyze the pectoral muscle transcriptomes of Gushi chickens and AA broilers...
2017: PloS One
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