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Muscle protein synthesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165772/pediatric-protein-metabolism-techniques-a-review
#1
G Liu, Z-G Li, H-W Wu
Some invasive techniques could be safely and ethically applied to estimate protein metabolism in children. Although these methodologies provide valuable information on whole body protein metabolism, a reflection of what is happening to thousands of protein molecules across a variety of different tissues. However, they provide little information regarding the contribution of specific tissues and proteins to the whole-body changes observed (e.g., whether the increase in protein synthesis was a result of the muscle or splanchnic tissues) which might otherwise be determined in more invasive procedures such as those with muscle biopsies...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163854/interactions-between-tgf-%C3%AE-1-canonical-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-and-ppar-%C3%AE-in-radiation-induced-fibrosis
#2
REVIEW
Alexandre Vallée, Yves Lecarpentier, Rémy Guillevin, Jean-Noël Vallée
Radiation therapy induces DNA damage and inflammation leading to fibrosis. Fibrosis can occur 4 to 12 months after radiation therapy. This process worsens with time and years. Radiation-induced fibrosis is characterized by fibroblasts proliferation, myofibroblast differentiation, and synthesis of collagen, proteoglycans and extracellular matrix. Myofibroblasts are non-muscle cells that can contract and relax. Myofibroblasts evolve towards irreversible retraction during fibrosis process. In this review, we discussed the interplays between transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) in regulating the molecular mechanisms underlying the radiation-induced fibrosis, and the potential role of PPAR γ agonists...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156739/electroacupuncture-alleviates-neuromuscular-dysfunction-in-an-experimental-rat-model-of-immobilization
#3
Jun Yang, Su Min, Fei Xie, Jingyuan Chen, Xuechao Hao, Li Ren
Immobilization-related skeletal muscle atrophy is a major concern to patients in Intensive Care Units and it has a profound effect on the quality of life. However, the underlying molecular events for the therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture to treat muscle atrophy have not been fully elucidated. Here we developed an immobilization mouse model and tested the hypothesis that skeletal muscle weakness may be caused by the increased expression of γ and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on muscle cell membranes, while electroacupuncture could decrease the expression of γ and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146573/prostanoid-ep4-agonist-l-902-688-activates-ppar%C3%AE-and-attenuates-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#4
Hsin-Hsien Li, Hsao-Hsun Hsu, Gwo-Jyh Chang, I-Chen Chen, Wan-Jing Ho, Pei-Chen Hsu, Wei-Jan Chen, Jong-Hwei Su Pang, Chung-Chi Huang, Ying-Ju Lai
Prostacyclin agonists that bind the prostacyclin receptor (IP) to stimulate cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis are effective vasodilators for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) but this signaling may occur through nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ). There is evidence of scant IP and PPARγ expression but stable prostanoid EP4 receptor (EP4) expression in IPAH patients. Both IP and EP4 functionally couple with stimulatory G protein (Gs), which activate signal transduction...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140140/the-physiological-mechanisms-of-effect-of-vitamins-and-amino-acids-on-tendon-and-muscle-healing-a-systematic-review
#5
Christopher Tack, Faye Shorthouse, Lindsy Kass
AIMS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate current literature via systematic review to ascertain whether amino acids/ vitamins provide any influence on musculotendinous healing, and by which physiological mechanisms Methods: EBSCO, PUBMED, Science Direct, Embase Classic/ Embase, and MEDLINE were searched using terms including "vitamins", "amino acids", "healing", "muscle" and "tendon". The primary search had 479 citations, 466 of which were excluded predominantly due to non-randomised design. Randomised human and animal studies investigating all supplement types/ forms of administration were included...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138805/extracellular-polysaccharides-purified-from-aureobasidium-pullulans-sm%C3%A2-2001-polycan-inhibit-dexamethasone%C3%A2-induced-muscle-atrophy-in-mice
#6
Jong-Min Lim, Young Joon Lee, Hyung-Rae Cho, Dong-Chan Park, Go-Woon Jung, Sae Kwang Ku, Jae-Suk Choi
The present study assessed the beneficial skeletal muscle‑preserving effects of extracellular polysaccharides from Aureobasidium pullulans SM‑2001 (Polycan) (EAP) on dexamethasone (DEXA)‑induced catabolic muscle atrophy in mice. To investigate whether EAP prevented catabolic DEXA‑induced muscle atrophy, and to examine its mechanisms of action, EAP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was administered orally, once a day for 24 days. EAP treatment was initiated 2 weeks prior to DEXA treatment (1 mg/kg, once a day for 10 days) in mice...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136210/the-effect-of-sexual-maturity-and-egg-production-on-skeletal-muscle-pectoralis-major-and-gastrocnemius-protein-turnover-in-broiler-breeder-pure-lines
#7
Karen Vignale, Justina V Caldas, Judy A England, Nirun Boonsinchai, Phiphob Sodsee, Erik D Pollock, Craig N Coon
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of sexual maturity on pectoralis major and gastrocnemius muscle protein turnover in broiler breeder pure lines. Protein turnover in skeletal muscle tissue was determined in 4 broiler breeder pure lines (Line A, Line B, Line C and Line D) at 22, 27, 33, 37, 44, and 50 wk of age. A completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement 4 × 6 (4 lines and 6 time periods (ages)) was used. There were 5 replicates per line/time and each hen represented a replicate...
November 9, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134705/a-dystroglycan-mutation-p-cys667phe-associated-to-muscle-eye-brain-disease-with-multicystic-leucodystrophy-results-in-er-retention-of-the-mutant-protein
#8
Giulia Signorino, Sonia Covaceuszach, Manuela Bozzi, Wolfgang Hubner, Viola Mönkemöller, Petr V Konarev, Alberto Cassetta, Andrea Brancaccio, Francesca Sciandra
Dystroglycan (DG) is a cell adhesion complex composed by two subunits, the highly glycosylated α-DG and the transmembrane β-DG. In skeletal muscle, DG is involved in dystroglycanopathies, a group of heterogeneous muscular dystrophies characterized by a reduced glycosylation of α-DG. The genes mutated in secondary dystroglycanopathies are involved in the synthesis of O-mannosyl glycans and in the O-mannosylation pathway of α-DG. Mutations in the DG gene (DAG1), causing primary dystroglycanopathies, destabilize the α-DG core protein influencing its binding to modifying enzymes...
November 13, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133865/cold-acclimation-causes-fiber-type-specific-responses-in-glucose-and-fat-metabolism-in-rat-skeletal-muscles
#9
Diane M Sepa-Kishi, Yass Sotoudeh-Nia, Ayesha Iqbal, George Bikopoulos, Rolando B Ceddia
This study investigated fiber type-specific metabolic responses and the molecular mechanisms that regulate glucose and fat metabolism in oxidative and glycolytic muscles upon cold acclimation. Male Wistar rats were exposed to cold (4 °C) for 7 days, and then glycogen synthesis and content, glucose and palmitate oxidation, and the molecular mechanisms underlying these metabolic pathways were assessed in soleus (Sol), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and epitrochlearis (Epit) muscles. Cold acclimation increased glycogen synthesis, glycogen content, glucose oxidation, and reduced glycogen synthase (GS) phosphorylation only in Sol muscles...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131001/atorvastatin-calcium-inhibits-pdgf-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-induced-proliferation-and-migration-of-vsmcs-through-the-g0-g1-cell-cycle-arrest-and-suppression-of-activated-pdgfr%C3%AE-pi3k-akt-signaling-cascade
#10
Shuang Chen, Siyuan Dong, Zhao Li, Xiaofan Guo, Naijin Zhang, Bo Yu, Yingxian Sun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a hallmark of vascular lesions, such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. PDGF-ββ, an isoform of PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor), has been demonstrated to induce proliferation and migration of VSMCs. Atorvastatin calcium, a selective inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, has favorable protective effects on VSMCs. This study examined the effects of atorvastatin calcium on the proliferation and migration of PDGF-ββ-treated VSMCs, as well as its underlying mechanisms...
November 9, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130969/mechanistic-links-underlying-the-impact-of-c-reactive-protein-on-muscle-mass-in-elderly
#11
Britta Wåhlin-Larsson, Daniel J Wilkinson, Emelie Strandberg, Adrian Hosford-Donovan, Philip J Atherton, Fawzi Kadi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mechanisms underlying the relationship between systemic inflammation and age-related decline in muscle mass are poorly defined. The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between the systemic inflammatory marker CRP and muscle mass in elderly and to identify mechanisms by which CRP mediates its effects on skeletal muscle, in-vitro. METHODS: Muscle mass and serum CRP level were determined in a cohort of 118 older women (67±1.7 years)...
November 9, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130633/the-mitochondrial-metabolic-reprogramming-agent-trimetazidine-as-an-exercise-mimetic-in-cachectic-c26-bearing-mice
#12
Francesca Molinari, Fabrizio Pin, Stefania Gorini, Sergio Chiandotto, Laura Pontecorvo, Fabio Penna, Emanuele Rizzuto, Simona Pisu, Antonio Musarò, Paola Costelli, Giuseppe Rosano, Elisabetta Ferraro
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is characterized by muscle depletion and exercise intolerance caused by an imbalance between protein synthesis and degradation and by impaired myogenesis. Myofibre metabolic efficiency is crucial so as to assure optimal muscle function. Some drugs are able to reprogram cell metabolism and, in some cases, to enhance metabolic efficiency. Based on these premises, we chose to investigate the ability of the metabolic modulator trimetazidine (TMZ) to counteract skeletal muscle dysfunctions and wasting occurring in cancer cachexia...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123487/hypertrophy-stimulation-at-the-onset-of-type-i-diabetes-maintains-the-soleus-but-not-the-edl-muscle-mass-in-wistar-rats
#13
Marco A S Fortes, Maria V M Scervino, Gabriel N Marzuca-Nassr, Kaio F Vitzel, Carlos H da Justa Pinheiro, Rui Curi
Diabetes mellitus induces a reduction in skeletal muscle mass and strength. Strength training is prescribed as part of treatment since it improves glycemic control and promotes increase of skeletal muscle mass. The mechanisms involved in overload-induced muscle hypertrophy elicited at the establishment of the type I diabetic state was investigated in Wistar rats. The purpose was to examine whether the overload-induced hypertrophy can counteract the hypotrophy associated to the diabetic state. The experiments were performed in oxidative (soleus) or glycolytic (EDL) muscles...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122965/the-impact-of-dairy-protein-during-limb-immobilization-and-recovery-on-muscle-size-and-protein-synthesis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Cameron J Mitchell, Randall F D'Souza, Sarah M Mitchell, Vandre Casagrande Figueiredo, Benjamin F Miller, Karyn L Hamilton, Frederick F Peelor, Marcelli Coronet, Chantal A Pileggi, Brenan Durainayagam, Aaron C Fanning, Sally D Poppitt, David Cameron-Smith
Muscle disuse results in the loss of muscular strength and size, due to an imbalance between protein synthesis (MPS) and breakdown (MPB). Protein ingestion stimulates MPS, although it is not established if protein is able to attenuate muscle loss with immobilization (IM) or influence the recovery consisting of ambulatory movement followed by resistance training (RT). Thirty men (49.9±0.6 years) underwent 14 days of unilateral leg IM, 14 days of ambulatory recovery (AR) and a further 6 RT sessions over 14 days...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121593/stimulation-of-liver-igf-1-expression-promotes-peak-bone-mass-achievement-in-growing-rats-a-study-with-pomegranate-seed-oil
#15
Deepa Bachagol, Gilbert Stanley Joseph, Govindraj Ellur, Kalpana Patel, Pamisetty Aruna, Monika Mittal, Shyamsundar Pal China, Ravendra Pratap Singh, Kunal Sharan
Peak bone mass (PBM) achieved at adulthood is a strong determinant of future onset of osteoporosis, and maximizing it is one of the strategies to combat the disease. Recently, pomegranate seed oil (PSO) has been shown to have bone-sparing effect in ovariectomized mice. However, its effect on growing skeleton and its molecular mechanism remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of PSO on PBM in growing rats and associated mechanism of action. PSO was given at various doses to 21-day-old growing rats for 90 days by oral gavage...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121115/the-response-of-gene-expression-associated-with-lipid-metabolism-fat-deposition-and-fatty-acid-profile-in-the-longissimus-dorsi-muscle-of-gannan-yaks-to-different-energy-levels-of-diets
#16
Chao Yang, Jianbin Liu, Xiaoyun Wu, Pengjia Bao, Ruijun Long, Xian Guo, Xuezhi Ding, Ping Yan
The energy available from the diet, which affects fat deposition in vivo, is a major factor in the expression of genes regulating fat deposition in the longissimus dorsi muscle. Providing high-energy diets to yaks might increase intramuscular fat deposition and fatty acid concentrations under a traditional grazing system in cold seasons. A total of fifteen adult castrated male yaks with an initial body weight 274.3 ± 3.14 kg were analyzed for intramuscular adipose deposition and fatty acid composition. The animals were divided into three groups and fed low-energy (LE: 5...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120091/running-wheel-activity-delays-mitochondrial-respiratory-flux-decline-in-aging-mouse-muscle-via-a-post-transcriptional-mechanism
#17
Sarah Stolle, Jolita Ciapaite, Aaffien C Reijne, Alzbeta Talarovicova, Justina C Wolters, Raúl Aguirre-Gamboa, Pieter van der Vlies, Kim de Lange, Pieter B Neerincx, Gerben van der Vries, Patrick Deelen, Morris A Swertz, Yang Li, Rainer Bischoff, Hjalmar P Permentier, Peter L Horvatovitch, Albert K Groen, Gertjan van Dijk, Dirk-Jan Reijngoud, Barbara M Bakker
Loss of mitochondrial respiratory flux is a hallmark of skeletal muscle aging, contributing to a progressive decline of muscle strength. Endurance exercise alleviates the decrease in respiratory flux, both in humans and in rodents. Here, we dissect the underlying mechanism of mitochondrial flux decline by integrated analysis of the molecular network. Mice were given a lifelong ad libitum low-fat or high-fat sucrose diet and were further divided into sedentary and running-wheel groups. At 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, muscle weight, triglyceride content and mitochondrial respiratory flux were analysed...
November 9, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120065/biallelic-mutations-in-mitochondrial-tryptophanyl-trna-synthetase-cause-levodopa-rresponsive-infantile-onset-parkinsonism
#18
E A Burke, S J Frucht, K Thompson, L A Wolfe, T Yokoyama, M Bertoni, Y Huang, M Sincan, D R Adams, R W Taylor, W A Gahl, C Toro, M C V Malicdan
Mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (mtARSs) are essential, ubiquitously expressed enzymes that covalently attach amino acids to their corresponding tRNA molecules during translation of mitochondrial genes. Deleterious variants in the mtARS genes cause a diverse array of phenotypes, many of which involve the nervous system. Moreover, distinct mutations in mtARSs often cause different clinical manifestations. Recently, the gene encoding mitochondrial tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase (WARS2) was reported to cause two different neurological phenotypes, a form of autosomal recessive intellectual disability and a syndrome of severe infantile-onset leukoencephalopathy...
November 9, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111103/muscle-specific-knockout-of-general-control-of-amino-acid-synthesis-5-gcn5-does-not-enhance-basal-or-endurance-exercise-induced-mitochondrial-adaptation
#19
Jessica R Dent, Vitor F Martins, Kristoffer Svensson, Samuel A LaBarge, Noah C Schlenk, Mary C Esparza, Elisa H Buckner, Gretchen A Meyer, D Lee Hamilton, Simon Schenk, Andrew Philp
OBJECTIVE: Lysine acetylation is an important post-translational modification that regulates metabolic function in skeletal muscle. The acetyltransferase, general control of amino acid synthesis 5 (GCN5), has been proposed as a regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis via its inhibitory action on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). However, the specific contribution of GCN5 to skeletal muscle metabolism and mitochondrial adaptations to endurance exercise in vivo remain to be defined...
October 16, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107962/apoptosis-signal-regulating-kinase-1-inhibition-attenuates-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-cardiorenal-fibrosis-induced-by-uremic-toxins-implications-for-cardiorenal-syndrome
#20
Feby Savira, Longxing Cao, Ian Wang, Wendi Yang, Kevin Huang, Yue Hua, Beat M Jucker, Robert N Willette, Li Huang, Henry Krum, Zhiliang Li, Qiang Fu, Bing Hui Wang
Intracellular accumulation of protein-bound uremic toxins in the setting of cardiorenal syndrome leads to adverse effects on cardiorenal cellular functions, where cardiac hypertrophy and cardiorenal fibrosis are the hallmarks. In this study, we sought to determine if Apoptosis Signal-Regulated Kinase 1 (ASK1), an upstream regulator of cellular stress response, mediates cardiac hypertrophy and cardiorenal fibrosis induced by indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresol sulfate (PCS) in vitro, and whether ASK1 inhibition is beneficial to ameliorate these cellular effects...
2017: PloS One
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