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Muscle protein synthesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533755/proteomic-analysis-of-chicken-skeletal-muscle-during-embryonic-development
#1
Hongjia Ouyang, Zhijun Wang, Xiaolan Chen, Jiao Yu, Zhenhui Li, Qinghua Nie
Embryonic growth and development of skeletal muscle is a major determinant of muscle mass, and has a significant effect on meat production in chicken. To assess the protein expression profiles during embryonic skeletal muscle development, we performed a proteomics analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) in leg muscle tissues of female Xinghua chicken at embryonic age (E) 11, E16, and 1-day post hatch (D1). We identified 3,240 proteins in chicken embryonic muscle and 491 of them were differentially expressed (fold change ≥ 1...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515334/central-acting-therapeutics-alleviate-respiratory-weakness-caused-by-heart-failure-induced-ventilatory-overdrive
#2
Andrew J Foster, Mathew J Platt, Jason S Huber, Ashley L Eadie, Alicia M Arkell, Nadya Romanova, David C Wright, Todd E Gillis, Coral L Murrant, Keith R Brunt, Jeremy A Simpson
Diaphragmatic weakness is a feature of heart failure (HF) associated with dyspnea and exertional fatigue. Most studies have focused on advanced stages of HF, leaving the cause unresolved. The long-standing theory is that pulmonary edema imposes a mechanical stress, resulting in diaphragmatic remodeling, but stable HF patients rarely exhibit pulmonary edema. We investigated how diaphragmatic weakness develops in two mouse models of pressure overload-induced HF. As in HF patients, both models had increased eupneic respiratory pressures and ventilatory drive...
May 17, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514904/effects-of-viola-mandshurica-on-atherosclerosis-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-apoe-formula-see-text-via-the-ampk-pathway
#3
Sun Haeng Park, Yoon-Young Sung, Kyoung Jin Nho, Dong Sun Kim, Ho Kyoung Kim
Atherosclerosis was previously thought to be a disease that primarily involves lipid accumulation in the arterial wall. In this report, we investigated the effect of Viola mandshurica W. Becker (V. mandshurica) water extract on atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE[Formula: see text]) mice. The administration of V. mandshurica to high-fat diet-fed mice reduced body weight, liver weight, and serum levels of lipids (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides), glucose, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513282/zanthoxylum-alkylamides-activate-phosphorylated-ampk-and-ameliorate-glycolipid-metabolism-in-the-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#4
Tingyuan Ren, Yuping Zhu, Jianquan Kan
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Zanthoxylum alkylamides on the glycolipid metabolism of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Diabetic rats were given daily oral treatments of 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg bw alkylamides for 28 days. Alkylamides significantly decreased fasting blood glucose and fructosamine content, as well as relieved organ enlargement caused by diabetes. The serum and liver triglyceride, malondialdehyde, and free fatty-acid contents of rats with STZ-induced diabetes were significantly reduced...
May 17, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512448/the-potential-role-of-contraction-induced-myokines-in-the-regulation-of-metabolic-function-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
Brian P Carson
Skeletal muscle represents the largest organ in the body, comprises 36-42% of body weight, and has recently been recognized as having an endocrine function. Proteins expressed and released by muscle that have autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine bioactivities have been termed myokines. It is likely that muscle contraction represents the primary stimulus for the synthesis and secretion of myokines to enable communication with other organs such as the liver, adipose tissue, brain, and auto-regulation of muscle metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506928/distinct-phosphodiesterase-5a-containing-compartments-allow-selective-regulation-of-cgmp-dependent-signalling-in-human-arterial-smooth-muscle-cells
#6
Lindsay S Wilson, Manhong Guo, M Bibiana Umana, Donald H Maurice
Cyclic GMP (cGMP) translates and integrates much of the information encoded by nitric oxide (NO(·)) and several natriuretic peptides, including the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). Previously, we reported that integration of a cGMP-specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, namely phosphodiesterase 5A (PDE5A), into a protein kinase G (PKG)- and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-containing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) signalosome allows localized control of PDE5A activity and of PKG-dependent inhibition of IP3-mediated release of ER Ca(2+) in human platelets...
May 12, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505179/food-restriction-increase-the-expression-of-mtorc1-complex-genes-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-juvenile-pacu-piaractus-mesopotamicus
#7
Tassiana Gutierrez de Paula, Bruna Tereza Thomazini Zanella, Bruno Evaristo de Almeida Fantinatti, Leonardo Nazário de Moraes, Bruno Oliveira da Silva Duran, Caroline Bredariol de Oliveira, Rondinelle Artur Simões Salomão, Rafaela Nunes da Silva, Carlos Roberto Padovani, Vander Bruno Dos Santos, Edson Assunção Mareco, Robson Francisco Carvalho, Maeli Dal-Pai-Silva
Skeletal muscle is capable of phenotypic adaptation to environmental factors, such as nutrient availability, by altering the balance between muscle catabolism and anabolism that in turn coordinates muscle growth. Small noncoding RNAs, known as microRNAs (miRNAs), repress the expression of target mRNAs, and many studies have demonstrated that miRNAs regulate the mRNAs of catabolic and anabolic genes. We evaluated muscle morphology, gene expression of components involved in catabolism, anabolism and energetic metabolism and miRNAs expression in both the fast and slow muscle of juvenile pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) during food restriction and refeeding...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503190/essential-amino-acid-ingestion-alters-expression-of-genes-associated-with-amino-acid-sensing-transport-and-mtorc1-regulation-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#8
Ted G Graber, Michael S Borack, Paul T Reidy, Elena Volpi, Blake B Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Amino acid availability stimulates protein synthesis via the mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1) signaling pathway. In response to an increase in cellular amino acid availability, translocation of cytosolic mTORC1 to the lysosomal surface is required to stimulate mTORC1 kinase activity. However, research elucidating the amino acid responsive mechanisms have thus far only been conducted in in vitro models. Our primary objective was to determine whether an increase in amino acid availability within human skeletal muscle in vivo would alter the expression of genes associated with amino acid sensing, transport and mTORC1 regulation...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501115/postconditioning-attenuates-coronary-perivascular%C3%A2-and-interstitial-fibrosis-through-modulating-angiotensin-ii-receptors-and-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-after-myocardial-infarction
#9
Zhang-Feng Wang, Ning-Ping Wang, Suzanna Harmouche, Tiji Philip, Xue-Fen Pang, Feng Bai, Zhi-Qing Zhao
BACKGROUND: Postconditioning (Postcon) is known to reduce infarct size. This study tested the hypothesis that Postcon attenuates the perivascular and interstitial fibrosis after myocardial infarction through modulating angiotensin II-activated fibrotic cascade. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 45-min coronary occlusion followed by 1 and 6 wk of reperfusion. Postcon was applied at the onset of reperfusion with four cycles of 10/10-s reperfusion-ischemia at the onset of reperfusion...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500219/mechanisms-of-enhanced-phrenic-long-term-facilitation-in-sod1-g93a-rats
#10
Nicole L Nichols, Irawan Satriotomo, Latoya L Allen, Ashley M Grebe, Gordon S Mitchell
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative motor neuron disease, causing muscle paralysis and death from respiratory failure. Effective means to preserve/restore ventilation are necessary to increase the quality and duration of life in ALS patients. At disease end-stage in a rat ALS model (SOD1(G93A)), acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) restores phrenic nerve activity to normal levels via enhanced phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF). Mechanisms enhancing pLTF in end-stage SOD1(G93A) rats are not known...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499833/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-cancer-potential-roles-of-atf5-and-the-mitochondrial-upr
#11
REVIEW
Pan Deng, Cole M Haynes
Mitochondria form a cellular network of organelles, or cellular compartments, that efficiently couple nutrients to energy production in the form of ATP. As cancer cells rely heavily on glycolysis, historically mitochondria and the cellular pathways in place to maintain mitochondrial activities were thought to be more relevant to diseases observed in non-dividing cells such as muscles and neurons. However, more recently it has become clear that cancers rely heavily on mitochondrial activities including lipid, nucleotide and amino acid synthesis, suppression of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis as well as oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for growth and survival...
May 9, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499042/proteomic-analysis-reveals-changes-in-carbohydrate-and-protein-metabolism-associated-with-broiler-breast-myopathy
#12
Vivek A Kuttappan, Walter Bottje, Ranjith Ramnathan, Steven D Hartson, Craig N Coon, Byung-Whi Kong, Casey M Owens, Mercedes Vazquez-Añon, Billy M Hargis
White Striping (WS) and Woody Breast (WB) are 2 conditions that adversely affect consumer acceptance as well as quality of poultry meat and meat products. Both WS and WB are characterized with degenerative myopathic changes. Previous studies showed that WS and WB in broiler fillets could result in higher ultimate pH, increased drip loss, and decreased marinade uptake. The main objective of the present study was to compare the proteomic profiles of muscle tissue (n = 5 per group) with either NORM (no or few minor myopathic lesions) or SEV (with severe myopathic changes)...
May 12, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494385/l-leucine-dietary-supplementation-modulates-muscle-protein-degradation-and-increases-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-tumour-bearing-rats
#13
Bread Cruz, André Oliveira, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes
Cancer cachexia is characterised by involuntary weight loss associated with systemic inflammation and metabolic changes. Studies aimed at maintaining lean body mass in cachectic tumour-bearing hosts have made important contributions reducing the number of deaths and improving the quality of life. In recent years, leucine has demonstrated effective action in maintaining lean body mass by decreasing muscle protein degradation. Currently, there is a growing need to understand how leucine stimulates protein synthesis and acts protectively in a cachectic organism...
May 8, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492873/sphingosine-1-phosphate-mediates-fibrosis-in-orbital-fibroblasts-in-graves-orbitopathy
#14
JaeSang Ko, Min Kyoung Chae, Joon H Lee, Eun Jig Lee, Jin Sook Yoon
Purpose: To investigate the effect of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) on fibrosis in orbital fibroblasts in Graves' orbitopathy (GO). Methods: Orbital fibroblasts were cultured from orbital adipose/connective tissues of patients with GO and healthy control subjects. Effects of treatment with TGF-β and cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on S1P receptor (S1PR) messenger RNA (mRNA) and S1P expression were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488575/proteomics-analysis-of-bladder-cancer-invasion-targeting-eif3d-for-therapeutic-intervention
#15
Agnieszka Latosinska, Marika Mokou, Manousos Makridakis, William Mullen, Jerome Zoidakis, Vasiliki Lygirou, Maria Frantzi, Ioannis Katafigiotis, Konstantinos Stravodimos, Marie C Hupe, Maciej Dobrzynski, Walter Kolch, Axel S Merseburger, Harald Mischak, Maria G Roubelakis, Antonia Vlahou
Patients with advanced bladder cancer have poor outcomes, indicating a need for more efficient therapeutic approaches. This study characterizes proteomic changes underlying bladder cancer invasion aiming for the better understanding of disease pathophysiology and identification of drug targets. High resolution liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry analysis of tissue specimens from patients with non-muscle invasive (NMIBC, stage pTa) and muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC, stages pT2+) was conducted...
April 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486700/dysregulation-of-the-adam17-notch-signalling-pathways-in-endometriosis-from-oxidative-stress-to-fibrosis
#16
Iñaki González-Foruria, Pietro Santulli, Sandrine Chouzenoux, Francisco Carmona, Charles Chapron, Frédéric Batteux
STUDY QUESTION: Is oxidative stress associated with the A disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAM) metallopeptidase domain 17 (ADAM17)/Notch signalling pathway and fibrosis in the development of endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Oxidative stress is correlated with hyperactivation of the ADAM17/Notch signalling pathway and a consequent increase in fibrosis in patients with endometriosis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: It is nowadays accepted that oxidative stress plays an important role in the onset and progression of endometriosis...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483921/lack-of-liver-glycogen-causes-hepatic-insulin-resistance-and-steatosis-in-mice
#17
Jose M Irimia, Catalina M Meyer, Dyann M Segvich, Sneha Surendran, Anna A DePaoli-Roach, Nuria Morral, Peter J Roach
Disruption of the Gys2 gene that encodes the liver isoform of glycogen synthase generates a mouse (LGSKO mouse) with an almost complete lack of hepatic glycogen, impaired glucose disposal and a pre-disposition to enter the fasted state. This study explores how the lack of liver glycogen increases fat accumulation and the development of liver insulin resistance. Insulin signaling in LGSKO mice is reduced in liver, but not in muscle, suggesting an organ specific defect. Phosphorylation of several components of the hepatic insulin signaling pathway, IRS1, Akt, and GSK3, were decreased in LGSKO mice and, after insulin stimulation, their responses were significantly suppressed, both temporally and in an insulin dose response...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482746/neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-combined-with-protein-ingestion-preserves-thigh-muscle-mass-but-not-muscle-function-in-healthy-older-adults-during-5-days-of-bed-rest
#18
Paul Reidy, Alec McKenzie, Preston Brunker, Daniel Nelson, Katherine Barrows, Mark Supiano, Paul LaStayo, Micah Drummond
Short-term bed rest in older adults is characterized by significant loss in leg lean mass and strength posing significant health consequences. The purpose of this study was to determine in healthy older adults if the daily combination of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and protein supplementation (NMES+PRO) would protect muscle mass and function after 5-days of bed rest. Twenty healthy older adults (~70y) were subjected to 5-days of continuous bed rest and were randomized into one of two groups: NMES+PRO (n=10) or CON (n=10)...
May 8, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479388/acceleration-based-training-a-new-mode-of-training-in-senescent-rats-improving-performance-and-left-ventricular-and-muscle-functions
#19
Thierry Launay, Iman Momken, Serge Carreira, Nathalie Mougenot, Xian-Long Zhou, Leanne De Koning, Romain Niel, Bruno Riou, Véronique Billat, Sophie Besse
High intensity training (HIT) has been shown to improve maximal aerobic capacity and muscle protein synthesis but has not yet been investigated in senescent rats. We hypothesized that the change of speed (acceleration) during each bout of HIT acts as a stimulus responsible for the adaptations of the organism to exercise. Twenty two month-old (mo) rats (n=14) were subjected to a short acceleration protocol (20-30min) of exercise, comprising 3 independent bouts of acceleration and compared to an age-matched sedentary group (n=14)...
May 4, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475928/development-and-characterization-of-mitochondrial-membrane-affinity-chromatography-columns-derived-from-skeletal-muscle-and-platelets-for-the-study-of-mitochondrial-transmembrane-proteins
#20
Nagendra Surendra Singh, Kaia-Liisa Habicht, Ruin Moaddel, Ruth Shimmo
Mitochondrial membrane fragments from human platelets and monkey skeletal muscles were successfully immobilized onto immobilized artificial membrane chromatographic support for the first time, resulting in mitochondrial membrane affinity chromatography (MMAC) columns. These columns were validated by characterization of translocator protein (TSPO), where multiple concentrations of dipyridamole were run and the binding affinities (Kd) determined. Further, the relative ranking data of TSPO ligands was consistent with previously reported rankings for both, the platelet (MMAC-Platelet) and the skeletal muscle (MMAC-Muscle) column (dipyridamole>PK11195>protoporphyrin IX>rotenone)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
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