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Muscle protein synthesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785242/role-of-oxidative-stress-as-key-regulator-of-muscle-wasting-during-cachexia
#1
REVIEW
Johanna Ábrigo, Alvaro A Elorza, Claudia A Riedel, Cristian Vilos, Felipe Simon, Daniel Cabrera, Lisbell Estrada, Claudio Cabello-Verrugio
Skeletal muscle atrophy is a pathological condition mainly characterized by a loss of muscular mass and the contractile capacity of the skeletal muscle as a consequence of muscular weakness and decreased force generation. Cachexia is defined as a pathological condition secondary to illness characterized by the progressive loss of muscle mass with or without loss of fat mass and with concomitant diminution of muscle strength. The molecular mechanisms involved in cachexia include oxidative stress, protein synthesis/degradation imbalance, autophagy deregulation, increased myonuclear apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781585/group-i-paks-support-muscle-regeneration-and-counteract-cancer-associated-muscle-atrophy
#2
Andrea Cerquone Perpetuini, Andrea David Re Cecconi, Michela Chiappa, Giulia Benedetta Martinelli, Claudia Fuoco, Giovanni Desiderio, Luisa Castagnoli, Cesare Gargioli, Rosanna Piccirillo, Gianni Cesareni
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is characterized by an efficient regeneration potential that is often impaired during myopathies. Understanding the molecular players involved in muscle homeostasis and regeneration could help to find new therapies against muscle degenerative disorders. Previous studies revealed that the Ser/Thr kinase p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) was specifically down-regulated in the atrophying gastrocnemius of Yoshida hepatoma-bearing rats. In this study, we evaluated the role of group I Paks during cancer-related atrophy and muscle regeneration...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780359/the-mitotic-and-metabolic-effects-of-phosphatidic-acid-in-the-primary-muscle-cells-of-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus
#3
Tingting Wang, Xuan Wang, Huihui Zhou, Haowen Jiang, Kangsen Mai, Gen He
Searching for nutraceuticals and understanding the underlying mechanism that promote fish growth is at high demand for aquaculture industry. In this study, the modulatory effects of soy phosphatidic acids (PA) on cell proliferation, nutrient sensing, and metabolic pathways were systematically examined in primary muscle cells of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus ). PA was found to stimulate cell proliferation and promote G1/S phase transition through activation of target of rapamycin signaling pathway. The expression of myogenic regulatory factors, including myoD and follistatin , was upregulated, while that of myogenin and myostatin was downregulated by PA...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777737/type-i-collagen-induces-mesenchymal-cell-differentiation-into-myofibroblasts-through-yap-induced-tgf-%C3%AE-1-activation
#4
Xiaoling Liu, Xinyu Long, Weiwei Liu, Yeli Zhao, Toshihiko Hayashi, Masayuki Yamato, Kazunori Mizuno, Hitomi Fujisaki, Shunji Hattori, Shin-Ichi Tashiro, Takaaki Ogura, Yuji Atsuzawa, Takashi Ikejima
In organ fibrosis, mechanical stress and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) promote differentiation into myofibroblast from mesenchymal cells, leading to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling or active synthesis, deposition or degradation of ECM components. A major component of ECM, type I collagen (col I) triple helical molecules assemble into fibrils or are denatured to gelatin without triple-helicity in remodeling. However, whether changes of ECM components in remodeling have influence on mesenchymal cell differentiation remains elusive...
May 16, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770421/quantitative-proteomics-and-systems-analysis-of-cultured-h9c2-cardiomyoblasts-during-differentiation-over-time-supports-a-function-follows-form-model-of-differentiation
#5
Cynthia Kankeu, Kylie Clarke, Delphi Van Haver, Kris Gevaert, Francis Impens, Anna Dittrich, H Llewelyn Roderick, Egle Passante, Heinrich J Huber
The rat cardiomyoblast cell line H9C2 has emerged as a valuable tool for studying cardiac development, mechanisms of disease and toxicology. We present here a rigorous proteomic analysis that monitored the changes in protein expression during differentiation of H9C2 cells into cardiomyocyte-like cells over time. Quantitative mass spectrometry followed by gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that early changes in H9C2 differentiation are related to protein pathways of cardiac muscle morphogenesis and sphingolipid synthesis...
May 17, 2018: Molecular omics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767729/a-comparative-study-on-the-excretion-of-urinary-metabolites-in-goats-and-sheep-to-evaluate-spot-sampling-applied-to-protein-nutrition-trials
#6
A C S Dos Santos, S A Santos, G G P Carvalho, L D S Mariz, M S L Tosto, S C Valadares Filho, J A G Azevedo
The main objective of this study was to establish a protocol to validate urine spot samples to estimate N excretion and microbial synthesis in goat and sheep; and to study factors that affect daily creatinine and purine derivatives urinary excretion. Also a performance trial was carried out to compare goat and sheep slaughtered after different feedlot periods. Twelve Boer goats (20.6 kg±3.4 initial BW) and twelve Dorper sheep (18.4 kg±2.3 initial BW), all 4-month-old, males, were used. Eight animals (four goats and four sheep) were randomly allocated to be slaughtered at 28, 56 and 84 days in feedlot...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765446/inhibitory-effect-of-pdgf-bb-and-serum-stimulated-responses-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-by-hinokitiol-via-up-regulation-of-p21-and-p53
#7
Jiun-Yi Li, Chun-Ping Liu, Wei-Cheng Shiao, Thanasekaran Jayakumar, Yi-Shin Li, Nen-Chung Chang, Shih-Yi Huang, Cheng-Ying Hsieh
Introduction: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation plays a major role in the progression of vascular diseases. In the present study, we established the efficacy and the mechanisms of action of hinokitiol, a tropolone derivative found in Chamaecyparis taiwanensis , Cupressaceae, in relation to platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and serum-dependent VSMC proliferation. Material and methods: Primary cultured rat VSMCs were pre-treated with hinokitiol and then stimulated by PDGF-BB (10 ng/ml) or serum (10% fetal bovine serum)...
April 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758402/lactation-related-changes-in-tissue-expression-of-pedf-in-dairy-cows
#8
H Sadri, B Saremi, S Dänicke, J Rehage, M Mielenz, A Hosseini, H Sauerwein
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is evolving as metabolic regulatory protein. Albeit mostly considered in only pathological conditions related to excess energy intake resulting in obesity and insulin resistance, PEDF is likely to be involved in other physiological processes such as the homeorhetic adaptation of metabolism to lactation. We aimed to characterize the expression of PEDF and its association to the concomitant mobilization of body reserves during lactation in nonobese subjects. This mobilization is particularly distinct in dairy cows, and we therefore assessed the mRNA expression of PEDF and its putative receptors in different tissues in 2 trials with dairy cows fed with or without conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs)...
April 17, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758013/selenium-dependent-antioxidant-enzymes-actions-and-properties-of-selenoproteins
#9
REVIEW
Evangelos Zoidis, Isidoros Seremelis, Nikolaos Kontopoulos, Georgios P Danezis
Unlike other essential trace elements that interact with proteins in the form of cofactors, selenium (Se) becomes co-translationally incorporated into the polypeptide chain as part of 21st naturally occurring amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec), encoded by the UGA codon. Any protein that includes Sec in its polypeptide chain is defined as selenoprotein. Members of the selenoproteins family exert various functions and their synthesis depends on specific cofactors and on dietary Se. The Se intake in productive animals such as chickens affect nutrient utilization, production performances, antioxidative status and responses of the immune system...
May 14, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757673/rapamycin-insensitive-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-regulates-basal-and-resistance-exercise-induced-muscle-protein-synthesis
#10
Riki Ogasawara, Takeshi Suginohara
We investigated whether rapamycin-insensitive mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling plays a role in regulating resistance exercise-induced muscle protein synthesis. We used a rodent model of resistance exercise and compared the effect of rapamycin, an allosteric mTOR inhibitor, with the effect of AZD8055, an ATP-competitive mTOR kinase inhibitor. The right gastrocnemius muscle of male Sprague-Dawley rats age 11 wk was contracted isometrically via percutaneous electrical stimulation (100 Hz, 5 sets of ten 3-s contractions, 7 s of rest between contractions, 3 min of rest between sets), and the left gastrocnemius muscle served as control...
May 14, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757056/whey-protein-augments-leucinemia-and-post-exercise-p70s6k1-activity-compared-to-a-hydrolysed-collagen-blend-when-in-recovery-from-training-with-low-carbohydrate-availability
#11
Samuel G Impey, Kelly M Hammond, Robert Naughton, Carl Langan-Evans, Sam O Shepherd, Adam P Sharples, Jessica Cegielski, Kenneth Smith, Stewart Jeromson, D Lee Hamilton, Graeme L Close, James P Morton
We examined the effects of whey versus collagen protein on skeletal muscle cell signalling responses associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and protein synthesis in recovery from an acute training session completed with low carbohydrate (CHO) availability. In a repeated measures design (after adhering to a 36-h exercise-dietary intervention to standardise pre-exercise muscle glycogen), eight males completed a 75-min non-exhaustive cycling protocol and consumed 22 g of a hydrolysed collagen blend (COLLAGEN) or whey (WHEY) protein 45 min prior to exercise, 22 g during exercise and 22 g immediately post-exercise...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754289/the-novel-adipokine-wisp1-associates-with-insulin-resistance-and-impairs-insulin-action-in-human-myotubes-and-mouse-hepatocytes
#12
Tina Hörbelt, Christopher Tacke, Mariya Markova, Daniella Herzfeld de Wiza, Frederique Van de Velde, Marlies Bekaert, Yves Van Nieuwenhove, Silke Hornemann, Maria Rödiger, Nicole Seebeck, Elisabeth Friedl, Wenke Jonas, G Hege Thoresen, Oliver Kuss, Anke Rosenthal, Volker Lange, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Annette Schürmann, Bruno Lapauw, Natalia Rudovich, Olga Pivovarova, D Margriet Ouwens
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Wingless-type (Wnt) inducible signalling pathway protein-1 (WISP1) has been recently identified as a proinflammatory adipokine. We examined whether WISP1 expression and circulating levels are altered in type 2 diabetes and whether WISP1 affects insulin signalling in muscle cells and hepatocytes. METHODS: Serum and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) biopsies, for analysis of circulating WISP1 levels by ELISA and WISP1 mRNA expression by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, were collected from normal-weight men (control group, n = 33) and obese men with (n = 46) and without type 2 diabetes (n = 56) undergoing surgery...
May 12, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753766/licorice-flavonoid-oil-enhances-muscle-mass-in-kk-a-y-mice
#13
Yasukiyo Yoshioka, Yoko Yamashita, Hideyuki Kishida, Kaku Nakagawa, Hitoshi Ashida
AIMS: Muscle mass is regulated by the balance between the synthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. Loss of skeletal muscle mass is associated with an increased risk of developing metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of licorice flavonoid oil on muscle mass in KK-Ay /Ta mice. MAIN METHODS: Male genetically type II diabetic KK-Ay /Ta mice received 0, 1, or 1.5 g/kg BW of licorice flavonoid oil by mouth once daily for 4 weeks...
May 10, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750251/effect-of-aerobic-exercise-training-and-essential-amino-acid-supplementation-for-24-weeks-on-physical-function-body-composition-and-muscle-metabolism-in-healthy-independent-older-adults-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
Melissa M Markofski, Kristofer Jennings, Kyle L Timmerman, Jared M Dickinson, Christopher S Fry, Michael S Borack, Paul T Reidy, Rachel R Deer, Amanda Randolph, Blake B Rasmussen, Elena Volpi
Background: Essential amino acids (EAA) and aerobic exercise (AE) acutely and independently stimulate skeletal muscle protein anabolism in older adults. Objective: In this Phase 1, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized clinical trial, we determined if chronic EAA supplementation, AE training, or a combination of the two interventions could improve muscle mass and function by stimulating muscle protein synthesis. Methods: We phone screened 971, enrolled 109, and randomized 50 independent, low-active, non-frail, non-diabetic older adults (age 72±1 yrs)...
May 10, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750000/pathophysiological-analyses-of-skeletal-muscle-in-obese-type-2-diabetes-sdt-fatty-rats
#15
Yusuke Kemmochi, Takeshi Ohta, Yu Motohashi, Akihiro Kaneshige, Sohei Katsumi, Kochi Kakimoto, Yuzo Yasui, Akiko Anagawa-Nakamura, Kaoru Toyoda, Eriko Taniai-Riya, Akemi Takahashi, Toshiyuki Shoda, Takahisa Yamada
Sarcopenia is the age-related decrease of muscle mass and function. Diabetes and obesity are known to be risk factors that exacerbate sarcopenia, but the underlying mechanism of diabetes-related sarcopenia is still unknown. Obese type 2 diabetes SDT fatty rats show early onset of severe diabetes and there have been no reports on the characteristics of their skeletal muscle. Therefore, pathophysiological analyses were performed for the skeletal muscle in these rats. Diabetic male SDT fatty rats were sacrificed at 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 weeks of age...
April 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738878/identification-and-expression-of-carbonic-anhydrase-2-myosin-regulatory-light-chain-2-and-selenium-binding-protein-1-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-implication-for-age-related-biomarkers
#16
Shuoqi Feng, Su Wang, Yashuo Wang, Qingyun Yang, Dejing Wang, Hongyan Li
Proteomic study has determined age-related changes in synthesis of carbonic anhydrase 2, myosin regulatory light chain 2 and selenium-binding protein 1 in muscle of post-menopausal women. However, little information is available regarding the expression and role of these proteins in early development and life span. In this study we showed that zebrafish ca2, myl2a, myl2b and selenbp1 were highly identical to their mammalian counterparts in primary and tertiary structures as well as genomic organization and syntenic map...
May 5, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737795/the-anti-wasting-effects-of-l-carnitine-supplementation-on-cancer-experimental-data-and-clinical-studies
#17
Mahsa Esfahani, Sahar Sahafi, Ali Derakhshandeh, Azadeh Moghaddas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cachexia is a paraneoplastic syndrome that affects the large majority of patients with end-stage cancer. No known therapy exists to effectively overcome the severe symptoms of cachexia, which include anorexia, weight loss and fatigue. This study considered the results of both experimental and clinical studies to evaluate the suitability of L-carnitine and its derivatives as potential therapies for cachexia in patients with cancer. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: All available English-language papers on the use of L-carnitine in patients with cachexia related to cancer, including reviews, case reports, case series, and clinical trials, were obtained by searching multiple databases, including all Elsevier publications, Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus, clinical trials, and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732660/facile-chemoenzymatic-synthesis-of-o-mannosyl-glycans
#18
Lei Li, Shuaishuai Wang, Qing Zhang, Congcong Chen, Yuxi Guo, Madhusudhan Reddy Gadi, Jin Yu, Ulrika Westerlind, Yunpeng Liu, Xuefeng Cao, Peng Wang
O-Mannosylation is a vital protein modification involved in brain and muscle development, whereas the biological relevance of O-mannosyl glycans remains largely unknown, due to the lack of structurally defined glycoforms. An efficient scaffold synthesis/ enzymatic extension (SSEE) strategy was thus developed to prepare such structures, by combining gram-scale convergent chemical synthesis of 3 scaffolds and strictly controlled sequential enzymatic extension catalyzed by glycosyltransferases. Totally, 45 O-mannosyl glycans were obtained, covering majority of identified mammalian structures...
May 6, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731967/anti-cachectic-effect-of-antrodia-cinnamomea-extract-in-lung-tumor-bearing-mice-under-chemotherapy
#19
Meng-Chuan Chen, Wen-Lin Hsu, Tz-Chong Chou
Skeletal muscle atrophy, the most characteristic feature of cancer cachexia, often occurs in patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) a widely used edible medical fungus, exhibits hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we investigated whether combined treatment with the ethonolic extract of AC ameliorates cachexia symptoms, especially muscle wasting, in lung tumor-bearing mice treated with chemotherapy. Our results revealed that gemcitabine and cisplatin-induced severe body weight loss and skeletal muscle atrophy in the mice with cancer were greatly attenuated after AC extract administration...
April 13, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730709/lysine-supplement-benefits-the-growth-performance-protein-synthesis-and-muscle-development-of-megalobrama-amblycephala-fed-diets-with-fish-meal-replaced-by-rice-protein-concentrate
#20
Wan-Cun Cai, Wen-Bin Liu, Guang-Zhen Jiang, Kai-Zhou Wang, Cun-Xin Sun, Xiang-Fei Li
This study aimed to investigate the effects of lysine supplement on the growth performance of blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala fed diets with fish meal (FM) replaced by rice protein concentrate (RPC) with the potential mechanisms characterized. Fish were fed three diets, including the FM diet (containing FM), the RPC diet (FM replaced by RPC), and the MRPC diet (the RPC diet supplemented with lysine) for 8 weeks. Weight gain, protein efficiency ratio, and nitrogen and energy utilization of fish fed the FM diet were all significantly higher than those of the RPC treatment, but they showed no statistical difference with those of the MRPC group...
May 5, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
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