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Low carbohydrate ketogenic

Fred Brouns
In the past, different types of diet with a generally low-carbohydrate content (< 50-< 20 g/day) have been promoted, for weight loss and diabetes, and the effectiveness of a very low dietary carbohydrate content has always been a matter of debate. A significant reduction in the amount of carbohydrates in the diet is usually accompanied by an increase in the amount of fat and to a lesser extent, also protein. Accordingly, using the term "low carb-high fat" (LCHF) diet is most appropriate...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
M Armeno, C Araujo, B Sotomontesano, R H Caraballo
INTRODUCTION: The ketogenic diet is a non-pharmacological treatment that has been used as a therapeutic alternative for the management of refractory epilepsy since 1921. It is a diet, high in fats and low in carbohydrates, which is used to treat paediatric refractory epilepsy, and is effective in around 50% of the patients that begin to follow it. It is a nutrition plan that is imbalanced in terms of both macro- and micro-nutrients, which can give rise to nutritional deficits in energy, proteins, minerals and vitamins, as well as an excess of lipids...
March 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Erika Meroni, Nadia Papini, Franca Criscuoli, Maria C Casiraghi, Luca Massaccesi, Nicoletta Basilico, Daniela Erba
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet based on the induction of the synthesis of ketone bodies (KB). Despite its widespread use, the systemic impact of KD is not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of physiological levels of KB on HMEC-1 endothelial cells. To this aim, DNA oxidative damage and the activation of Nrf2, a known transcriptional factor involved in cell responses to oxidative stress, were assessed. The exposure of cells to KB exerted a moderate genotoxic effect, measured by a significant increase in DNA oxidative damage...
February 22, 2018: Nutrients
Amelia J Carr, Avish P Sharma, Megan L Ross, Marijke Welvaert, Gary J Slater, Louise M Burke
Although short (up to 3 days) exposure to major shifts in macronutrient intake appears to alter acid-base status, the effects of sustained (>1 week) interventions in elite athletes has not been determined. Using a non-randomized, parallel design, we examined the effect of adaptations to 21 days of a ketogenic low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) or periodized carbohydrate (PCHO) diet on pre- and post-exercise blood pH, and concentrations of bicarbonate (HCO₃- ) and lactate (La- ) in comparison to a high carbohydrate (HCHO) control...
February 18, 2018: Nutrients
Guillaume Geffroy, Rayane Benyahia, Samuel Frey, Valerie Desquiret-Dumas, Naig Gueguen, Celine Bris, Sophie Belal, Aurore Inisan, Aurelie Renaud, Arnaud Chevrollier, Daniel Henrion, Dominique Bonneau, Franck Letournel, Guy Lenaers, Pascal Reynier, Vincent Procaccio
Ketogenic diet (KD) which combined carbohydrate restriction and the addition of ketone bodies has emerged as an alternative metabolic intervention used as an anticonvulsant therapy or to treat different types of neurological or mitochondrial disorders including MELAS syndrome. MELAS syndrome is a severe mitochondrial disease mainly due to the m.3243A > G mitochondrial DNA mutation. The broad success of KD is due to multiple beneficial mechanisms with distinct effects of very low carbohydrates and ketones...
February 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Charlotte Veyrat-Durebex, Pascal Reynier, Vincent Procaccio, Rudolf Hergesheimer, Philippe Corcia, Christian R Andres, Hélène Blasco
A ketogenic diet (KD) is a normocaloric diet composed by high fat (80-90%), low carbohydrate, and low protein consumption that induces fasting-like effects. KD increases ketone body (KBs) production and its concentration in the blood, providing the brain an alternative energy supply that enhances oxidative mitochondrial metabolism. In addition to its profound impact on neuro-metabolism and bioenergetics, the neuroprotective effect of specific polyunsaturated fatty acids and KBs involves pleiotropic mechanisms, such as the modulation of neuronal membrane excitability, inflammation, or reactive oxygen species production...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Joanne G Mirtschin, Sara F Forbes, Louise E Cato, Ida A Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall, Louise M Burke
We describe the implementation of a 3-week dietary intervention in elite race walkers at the Australian Institute of Sport, with a focus on the resources and strategies needed to accomplish a complex study of this scale. Interventions involved: traditional guidelines of high carbohydrate (CHO) availability for all training sessions (HCHO); a periodized CHO diet which integrated sessions with low CHO and high CHO availability within the same total CHO intake, and a ketogenic low-CHO high-fat diet (LCHF). 7-day menus and recipes were constructed for a communal eating setting to meet nutritional goals as well as individualized food preferences and special needs...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Jie Zhang, Ping-Ping Jia, Qing-Le Liu, Ming-Hua Cong, Yun Gao, Han-Ping Shi, Wei-Nan Yu, Ming-Yong Miao
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, very-low-carbohydrate diet that triggers a fasting state by decreasing glucose and increasing ketone bodies, such as β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB). In experimental models and clinical trials, the KD has shown anti-tumor effects, possibly by reducing energy supplies to cells, which damages the tumor microenvironment and inhibits tumor growth. Here, we determined expression levels of genes encoding the ketolytic enzymes 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 (BDH1) and succinyl-CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA transferase 1 (OXCT1) in 33 human cancer cell lines...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Stella Iacovides, Rebecca M Meiring
BACKGROUND: Many physiological health benefits observed after following a ketogenic diet (KD) can be attributed to the associated weight loss. The KD has become more prominent as a popular health choice, not only in obese/overweight individuals, but also in healthy adults. The study aims to determine the effects of a KD, independent of weight loss, on various aspects of physiological health including: sleep, thyroid function, cognition, and cardio-metabolic health. The study will also aim to determine whether a change in basal metabolic rate may be associated with any changes observed...
January 23, 2018: Trials
Lorenzo Cenci, Antonio Paoli, Hesham R Omar, Prachiti Dalvi, Enrico M Camporesi, Devanand Mangar, Silvia Quartesan, Alberto Fiorito, Gerardo Bosco
Ketogenic diet is being increasingly utilized in recent decades because of its success as an effective tool for short and intermediate-term weight loss. Promoting physiological ketosis from a drastically low carbohydrate diet is the fundamental basis for this diet regime. Though debated, these diets have been demonstrated to be effective, at least in the short- to medium terms, to manage excess weight, hyperlipidemia, and other cardiovascular risk factors. We reviewed the cardiovascular, metabolic, anesthetic, and postsurgical profiles in the literature and summarized technical issues of anesthesia and surgery along with long-term changes from published papers...
March 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Kyoung-Chul Chun, Shun-Chieh Ma, Hyoungil Oh, Jong M Rho, Do Young Kim
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a leading cause of premature mortality in patients with epilepsy, and has been linked to multiple risk factors, including gender and early age at seizure onset. Despite the lack of a targeted therapy for SUDEP, it has recently been shown that a high-fat, low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) enhances longevity in the epileptic Kcna1-null (KO) mouse, a validated model of SUDEP. Here, we asked whether the KD-driven prolongation of lifespan in KO mice is dependent on sex and/or age at treatment onset...
November 21, 2017: Epilepsy Research
Marwa Elamin, David N Ruskin, Susan A Masino, Paola Sacchetti
The ketogenic diet's (KD) anticonvulsant effects have been well-documented for nearly a century, including in randomized controlled trials. Some patients become seizure-free and some remain so after diet cessation. Many recent studies have explored its expanded therapeutic potential in diverse neurological disorders, yet no mechanism(s) of action have been established. The diet's high fat, low carbohydrate composition reduces glucose utilization and promotes the production of ketone bodies. Ketone bodies are a more efficient energy source than glucose and improve mitochondrial function and biogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Brianna J Stubbs, Pete J Cox, Rhys D Evans, Peter Santer, Jack J Miller, Olivia K Faull, Snapper Magor-Elliott, Satoshi Hiyama, Matthew Stirling, Kieran Clarke
Background and aims: Currently there is considerable interest in ketone metabolism owing to recently reported benefits of ketosis for human health. Traditionally, ketosis has been achieved by following a high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diet, but adherence to such diets can be difficult. An alternative way to increase blood D-β-hydroxybutyrate (D-βHB) concentrations is ketone drinks, but the metabolic effects of exogenous ketones are relatively unknown. Here, healthy human volunteers took part in three randomized metabolic studies of drinks containing a ketone ester (KE); (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate, or ketone salts (KS); sodium plus potassium βHB...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Barbara Scolnick
This hypothesis suggest that starvation-induced ketosis, which leads to a fundamental biochemical change in the metabolic fuel supply of the brain, is uniquely anxiolytic and rewarding to patients prone to AN. Ketosis can easily be replicated by a unique diet marked by high fat, moderate protein, and very low carbohydrate. This diet, known as a ketogenic diet (KGD) mimics starvation, thus allowing the patient to experience the anxiolytic state of ketosis, and yet avoid the morbidity of starvation.
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Fionn T McSwiney, Bruce Wardrop, Parker N Hyde, Richard A Lafountain, Jeff S Volek, Lorna Doyle
BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate diets have recently grown in popularity among endurance athletes, yet little is known about the long-term (>4 wk) performance implications of consuming a low-carbohydrate high fat ketogenic diet (LCKD) in well-trained athletes. METHODS: Twenty male endurance-trained athletes (age 33 ± 11y, body mass 80 ± 11kg; BMI 24.7 ± 3.1 kg/m2) who habitually consumed a carbohydrate-based diet, self-selected into a high-carbohydrate (HC) group (n = 11, %carbohydrate:protein:fat = 65:14:20), or a LCKD group (n = 9, 6:17:77)...
November 3, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Karen K Ryan, Amy E B Packard, Karlton R Larson, Jayna Stout, Sarah M Fourman, Abigail M K Thompson, Kristen Ludwick, Kirk M Habegger, Kerstin Stemmer, Nobuyuki Itoh, Diego Perez-Tilve, Matthias H Tschöp, Randy J Seeley, Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai
In response to an acute threat to homeostasis or well-being, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is engaged. A major outcome of this HPA axis activation is the mobilization of stored energy, to fuel an appropriate behavioral and/ or physiological response to the perceived threat. Importantly, the extent of HPA axis activity is thought to be modulated by an individual's nutritional environment. In this study, we report that nutritional manipulations signaling a relative depletion of dietary carbohydrates, thereby inducing nutritional ketosis, acutely and chronically activate the HPA axis...
October 25, 2017: Endocrinology
Chao Huang, Peng Wang, Xing Xu, Yaru Zhang, Yu Gong, Wenfeng Hu, Minhui Gao, Yue Wu, Yong Ling, Xi Zhao, Yibin Qin, Rongrong Yang, Wei Zhang
Direct induction of macrophage ramification has been shown to promote an alternative (M2) polarization, suggesting that the ramified morphology may determine the function of immune cells. The ketone body metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) elevated in conditions including fasting and low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) can reduce neuroinflammation. However, how exactly BHB impacts microglia remains unclear. We report that BHB as well as its producing stimuli fasting and KD induced obvious ramifications of murine microglia in basal and inflammatory conditions in a reversible manner, and these ramifications were accompanied with microglial profile toward M2 polarization and phagocytosis...
October 23, 2017: Glia
Arkadiusz Damian Liśkiewicz, Daniela Kasprowska-Liśkiewicz, Anna Sługocka, Marta Maria Nowacka-Chmielewska, Jan Wiaderkiewicz, Halina Jędrzejowska-Szypułka, Jarosław Jerzy Barski, Joanna Lewin-Kowalik
The high fat and low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (HFKD) is extensively studied within the fields of numerous diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders. Since most studies incorporate animal models, ensuring the quality of ketogenic rodent diets is important, both in the context of laboratory animal welfare as well as for the accuracy of the obtained results. In this study we implemented a modification to a commonly-used ketogenic rodent chow by replacing non-resorbable cellulose with wheat bran...
October 18, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Detlev Boison, Christian Steinhäuser
Epilepsy is a complex neurological syndrome characterized by neuronal hyperexcitability and sudden, synchronized electrical discharges that can manifest as seizures. It is now increasingly recognized that impaired astrocyte function and energy homeostasis play key roles in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Excessive neuronal discharges can only happen, if adequate energy sources are made available to neurons. Conversely, energy depletion during seizures is an endogenous mechanism of seizure termination. Astrocytes control neuronal energy homeostasis through neurometabolic coupling...
October 17, 2017: Glia
Abbi R Hernandez, Caesar M Hernandez, Keila T Campos, Leah M Truckenbrod, Yasemin Sakarya, Joseph A McQuail Ph D, Christy S Carter, Jennifer L Bizon, Andrew P Maurer, Sara N Burke
Nutritional ketosis is induced by high fat/low carbohydrate dietary regimens, which produce high levels of circulating ketone bodies, shifting metabolism away from glucose utilization. While ketogenic diets (KD) were initially introduced to suppress seizures, they are garnering attention for their potential to treat a myriad of neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders that are associated with advanced age. The feasibility and physiological impact of implementing a long-term KD in old animals, however, has not been systematically examined...
October 12, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
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