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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534852/effects-of-ketogenic-diets-on-cardiovascular-risk-factors-evidence-from-animal-and-human-studies
#1
REVIEW
Christophe Kosinski, François R Jornayvaz
The treatment of obesity and cardiovascular diseases is one of the most difficult and important challenges nowadays. Weight loss is frequently offered as a therapy and is aimed at improving some of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Among various diets, ketogenic diets, which are very low in carbohydrates and usually high in fats and/or proteins, have gained in popularity. Results regarding the impact of such diets on cardiovascular risk factors are controversial, both in animals and humans, but some improvements notably in obesity and type 2 diabetes have been described...
May 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502704/ketogenic-diet-leads-to-o-glcnac-modification-in-the-btbr-t-tf-j-mouse-model-of-autism
#2
Christopher Newell, Virginia L Johnsen, Nellie C Yee, Warren J Xu, Matthias S Klein, Aneal Khan, Jong M Rho, Jane Shearer
BACKGROUND: Protein O-linked-β-N-acetyl glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a post-translational modification to Ser/Thr residues that integrates energy supply with demand. Abnormal O-GlcNAc patterning is evident in several neurological disease states including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A potential treatment option for these disorders includes the high-fat, low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (KD). The goal of this study was to determine whether the KD induces changes in O-GlcNAc in the BTBR(T+tf/j) (BTBR) mouse model of ASD...
May 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489143/the-use-of-a-formula-based-ketogenic-diet-in-children-with-refractory-epilepsy
#3
Letícia Pereira de Brito Sampaio, Cristina Takakura, Maria Luiza Giraldes de Manreza
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a nonpharmacologic treatment that has been used for refractory epilepsy since 1921. The KD is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and restricted protein diet, which is calculated and weighed for each individual patient. Introducing and maintaining the diet for a long time remains a challenge. In this study, we evaluated the acceptability, tolerance, and efficacy of a formula-based KD in 10 children with refractory epilepsy. The ketogenic formula tested herein caused only mild KD-related adverse events and adequate adherence...
April 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476546/infantile-gangliosidoses-mapping-a-timeline-of-clinical-changes
#4
Jeanine R Jarnes Utz, Sarah Kim, Kelly King, Richard Ziegler, Lynn Schema, Evelyn S Redtree, Chester B Whitley
BACKGROUND: Infantile gangliosidoses include GM1 gangliosidosis and GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease, Sandhoff disease). To date, natural history studies in infantile GM2 (iGM2) have been retrospective and conducted through surveys. Compared to iGM2, there is even less natural history information available on infantile GM1 disease (iGM1). There are no approved treatments for infantile gangliosidoses. Substrate reduction therapy using miglustat has been tried, but is limited by gastrointestinal side effects...
April 29, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446244/ketogenic-diet-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy-in-children-under-the-age-of-2-years-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Siobhan Titre-Johnson, Natasha Schoeler, Christin Eltze, Ruth Williams, Katharina Vezyroglou, Helen McCullagh, Nick Freemantle, Simon Heales, Rachel Kneen, Louise Marston, Tim Martland, Irwin Nazareth, Elizabeth Neal, Andrew Lux, Alasdair Parker, Shakti Agrawal, Penny Fallon, J Helen Cross
BACKGROUND: The incidence of epilepsy is greatest in the first 2 years of life, an age group where there is generally a poor prognosis for both seizure control and neurodevelopmental outcome. Early control of seizures can be associated with better developmental outcome but many of the epilepsies presenting in infancy are poorly responsive to antiepileptic medication. The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet designed to mimic the effects of starvation on the body. Dietary fat is converted into ketones in the body and used as an energy source by the brain...
April 26, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437190/consuming-a-ketogenic-diet-while-receiving-radiation-and-chemotherapy-for-locally-advanced-lung-cancer-and-pancreatic-cancer-the-university-of-iowa-experience-of-two-phase-1-clinical-trials
#6
Amir Zahra, Melissa A Fath, Emyleigh Opat, Kranti A Mapuskar, Sudershan K Bhatia, Daniel C Ma, Samuel N Rodman Iii, Travis P Snyders, Catherine A Chenard, Julie M Eichenberger-Gilmore, Kellie L Bodeker, Logan Ahmann, Brian J Smith, Sandy A Vollstedt, Heather A Brown, Taher Abu Hejleh, Gerald H Clamon, Daniel J Berg, Luke I Szweda, Douglas R Spitz, John M Buatti, Bryan G Allen
Ketogenic diets are low in carbohydrates and high in fat, which forces cells to rely more heavily upon mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids for energy. Relative to normal cells, cancer cells are believed to exist under a condition of chronic mitochondrial oxidative stress that is compensated for by increases in glucose metabolism to generate reducing equivalents. In this study we tested the hypothesis that a ketogenic diet concurrent with radiation and chemotherapy would be clinically tolerable in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pancreatic cancer and could potentially exploit cancer cell oxidative metabolism to improve therapeutic outcomes...
April 24, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424480/ketogenic-diet-attenuates-hepatopathy-in-mouse-model-of-respiratory-chain-complex-iii-deficiency-caused-by-a-bcs1l-mutation
#7
Janne Purhonen, Jayasimman Rajendran, Matthias Mörgelin, Kristiina Uusi-Rauva, Shintaro Katayama, Kaarel Krjutskov, Elisabet Einarsdottir, Vidya Velagapudi, Juha Kere, Matti Jauhiainen, Vineta Fellman, Jukka Kallijärvi
Mitochondrial disorders are among the most prevalent inborn errors of metabolism but largely lack treatments and have poor outcomes. High-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (KDs) have shown beneficial effects in mouse models of mitochondrial myopathies, with induction of mitochondrial biogenesis as the suggested main mechanism. We fed KD to mice with respiratory chain complex III (CIII) deficiency and progressive hepatopathy due to mutated BCS1L, a CIII assembly factor. The mutant mice became persistently ketotic and tolerated the KD for up to 11 weeks...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395176/the-ketogenic-diet-metabolite-beta-hydroxybutyrate-%C3%AE-hb-reduces-incidence-of-seizure-like-activity-sla-in-a-katp-and-gabab-dependent-manner-in-a-whole-animal-drosophila-melanogaster-model
#8
Jinglu Li, Emma I O'Leary, Geoffrey R Tanner
The high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective clinical treatment for epilepsy in juveniles, especially for drug-resistant seizures. The KD results in elevated production of ketone bodies (KB's), such as beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB), which are thought to have anticonvulsant properties; however, their exact mechanism of action is unknown. In vitro, KB effects on reducing neuronal firing rates are mediated in part by Katp channel activity and GABAb signaling. In order to study metabolic and pharmacological effects in a whole-animal model, we used the eas "bang-sensitive" (BS) mutant strain of Drosophila, which exhibits seizure-like activity (SLA) upon mechanical stimulation...
April 5, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381467/hepatic-ketogenesis-induced-by-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-mice
#9
Konrad Koch, Dirk Berressem, Jan Konietzka, Anna Thinnes, Gunter P Eckert, Jochen Klein
BACKGROUND: Ketone bodies are known to substitute for glucose as brain fuel when glucose availability is low. Ketogenic diets have been described as neuroprotective. Similar data have been reported for triheptanoin, a fatty oil and anaplerotic compound. In this study, we monitored the changes of energy metabolites in liver, blood, and brain after transient brain ischemia to test for ketone body formation induced by experimental stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were fed a standard carbohydrate-rich diet or 2 fat-rich diets, 1 enriched in triheptanoin and 1 in soybean oil...
April 5, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366810/a-nutritional-perspective-of-ketogenic-diet-in-cancer-a-narrative-review
#10
Camila L P Oliveira, Stephanie Mattingly, Ralf Schirrmacher, Michael B Sawyer, Eugene J Fine, Carla M Prado
The predominant use of glucose anaerobically by cancer cells (Warburg effect) may be the most important characteristic the majority of these cells have in common and, therefore, a potential metabolic pathway to be targeted during cancer treatment. Because this effect relates to fuel oxidation, dietary manipulation has been hypothesized as an important strategy during cancer treatment. As such, the concept of a ketogenic diet (KD) in cancer emerged as a metabolic therapy (ie, targeting cancer cell metabolism) rather than a dietary approach...
March 30, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361745/short-term-impact-of-a-classical-ketogenic-diet-on-gut-microbiota-in-glut1-deficiency-syndrome-a-3-month-prospective-observational-study
#11
Anna Tagliabue, Cinzia Ferraris, Francesca Uggeri, Claudia Trentani, Simona Bertoli, Valentina de Giorgis, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Marina Elli
BACKGROUND&AIMS: The classical ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, very low-carbohydrate normocaloric diet used for drug-resistant epilepsy and Glucose Transporter 1 Deficiency Syndrome (GLUT1 DS). In animal models, high fat diet induces large alterations in microbiota producing deleterious effects on gut health. We carried out a pilot study on patients treated with KD comparing their microbiota composition before and after three months on the diet. METHODS: Six patients affected by GLUT1 DS were asked to collect fecal samples before and after three months on the diet...
February 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270747/metabolic-dysfunction-underlying-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-potential-treatment-approaches
#12
REVIEW
Ning Cheng, Jong M Rho, Susan A Masino
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in sociability and communication, and increased repetitive and/or restrictive behaviors. While the etio-pathogenesis of ASD is unknown, clinical manifestations are diverse and many possible genetic and environmental factors have been implicated. As such, it has been a great challenge to identify key neurobiological mechanisms and to develop effective treatments. Current therapies focus on co-morbid conditions (such as epileptic seizures and sleep disturbances) and there is no cure for the core symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239404/impact-of-a-6-week-non-energy-restricted-ketogenic-diet-on-physical-fitness-body-composition-and-biochemical-parameters-in-healthy-adults
#13
Paul Urbain, Lena Strom, Lena Morawski, Anja Wehrle, Peter Deibert, Hartmut Bertz
BACKGROUND: The ketogenic diet (KD) is a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat and adequate-protein diet that without limiting calories induces different metabolic adaptations, eg, increased levels of circulating ketone bodies and a shift to lipid metabolism. Our objective was to assess the impact of a 6-week non-energy-restricted KD in healthy adults beyond cohorts of athletes on physical performance, body composition, and blood parameters. METHODS: Our single arm, before-and-after comparison study consisted of a 6-week KD with a previous preparation period including detailed instructions during classes and individual counselling by a dietitian...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225305/limited-carbohydrate-refeeding-instruction-for-long-term-weight-maintenance-following-a-ketogenic-very-low-calorie-meal-plan
#14
J J Chang, J Bena, S Kannan, J Kim, B Burguera, S R Kashyap
OBJECTIVE: Weight loss maintenance following very-low-calorie meal plans is poorly studied. This report describes weight loss efficacy and predictors of weight loss maintenance of a ketogenic, very-low-calorie meal plan (protein-sparing modified fast, PSMF) in people with obesity. METHODS: 127 consecutive adults in the PSMF meal plan (27.2 ±19.5 weeks) and 48 adults on a conventional, hypocaloric meal plan (23.6 ±20.8 weeks) were retrospectively studied for percent weight change from baseline to end of intervention and at 6, 12, and 24 months post-intervention...
February 22, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223292/muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-is-required-for-long-term-systemic-and-local-adaptations-to-a-ketogenic-diet-in-mice
#15
Svenia Schnyder, Kristoffer Svensson, Bettina Cardel, Christoph Handschin
Low carbohydrate/high-fat (LCHF) diets are increasingly popular dietary interventions for body weight control and as treatment for different pathological conditions. However, the mechanisms of action are still poorly understood, in particular in long-term administration. Besides liver, brain and heart, skeletal muscle is one of the major organs involved in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological ketosis. We now assessed the role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in skeletal muscle of male wild type control (CTRL) and PGC-1α muscle-specific knockout (PGC-1α mKO) mice upon 12 weeks of LCHF diet feeding...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193599/an-online-intervention-comparing-a-very-low-carbohydrate-ketogenic-diet-and-lifestyle-recommendations-versus-a-plate-method-diet-in-overweight-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Laura R Saslow, Ashley E Mason, Sarah Kim, Veronica Goldman, Robert Ploutz-Snyder, Hovig Bayandorian, Jennifer Daubenmier, Frederick M Hecht, Judith T Moskowitz
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent, chronic disease for which diet is an integral aspect of treatment. In our previous trial, we found that recommendations to follow a very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and to change lifestyle factors (physical activity, sleep, positive affect, mindfulness) helped overweight people with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes improve glycemic control and lose weight. This was an in-person intervention, which could be a barrier for people without the time, flexibility, transportation, social support, and/or financial resources to attend...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141738/new-insights-into-the-mechanisms-of-the-ketogenic-diet
#17
Detlev Boison
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets have been used for almost a century for the treatment of epilepsy. Used traditionally for the treatment of refractory pediatric epilepsies, in recent years the use of ketogenic diets has experienced a revival to include the treatment of adulthood epilepsies as well as conditions ranging from autism to chronic pain and cancer. Despite the ability of ketogenic diet therapy to suppress seizures refractory to antiepileptic drugs and reports of lasting seizure freedom, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140467/a-survey-of-commercially-available-isomaltooligosaccharide-based-food-ingredients
#18
Lee R Madsen, Sarah Stanley, Peter Swann, Jack Oswald
Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMOs) are included in many commercially available food products including protein/fiber bars, shakes, and other dietary supplements. Marketed as "high fiber," "prebiotic soluble fiber," and/or as a "low-calorie, low glycemic sweetener," IMO may be present in significant amounts, for example, more than 15 g/item or serving. Herein, high-pressure anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection and high-pressure liquid chromatography with differential refractive index detection are used to compare 7 commercially available IMO-containing bulk food ingredients...
February 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100888/%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-levels-in-serum-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-under-ketone-body-metabolism-in-rats
#19
Xiaomeng Wang, Qi Liu, Jian Zhou, Xiuhua Wu, Qingan Zhu
A high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet (KD) or calorie restriction in the form of every-other-day fasting (EODF) results in ketone body metabolism with an increasing β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) level. Previous studies have supported that a KD and EODF have a neuroprotective effect. However, the βOHB levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) resulting from a KD and EODF remain unknown. The aim of this study was to detect βOHB levels in rats fed a KD, EODF diet, and every-other-day ketogenic diet (EODKD) and to compare the serum βOHB level with the CSF βOHB level...
May 3, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093985/ketogenic-diet-and-other-dietary-intervention-strategies-in-the-treatment-of-cancer
#20
Matteo Vergati, Eriseld Krasniqi, Girolamo Del Monte, Silvia Riondino, Doriana Vallone, Fiorella Guadagni, Patrizia Ferroni, Mario Roselli
Pre-clinical and clinical studies have investigated the role of a dysregulated metabolism in the sustainability of tumor initiation and progression. One of the most familiar metabolic alterations encountered in several types of cancers is the upregulation of glycolysis, which is also maintained in conditions of normal oxygen tension (aerobic glycolysis, Warburg effect) while oxidative phosphorylation is apparently reduced. As a result, cancer cells convert most incoming glucose to lactate. Although more rapid, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production by glycolysis is less efficient in terms of ATP generated per unit of glucose consumed than oxidative phosphorylation...
January 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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