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Resistance exercise induced vasodilation

Juefei Wu, David Barton, Feng Xie, Edward O'Leary, John Steuter, Gregory Pavlides, Thomas R Porter
BACKGROUND: Real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography (RTMCE) directly measures capillary flow (CBF), which in turn is a major regulator of coronary flow and resistance during demand or hyperemic stress. Although fractional flow reserve (FFR) was developed to assess the physiological relevance of an epicardial stenosis, it assumes maximal microvascular vasodilation and minimal resistance during vasodilator stress. Therefore, we sought to determine the relationship between CBF assessed with RTMCE during stress echocardiography and FFR in intermediate coronary lesions...
August 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
A I Hirasawa, Kohei Sato, Marina Yoneya, Tomoko Sadamoto, Damian M Bailey, Shigehiko Ogoh
PURPOSE: The present study was designed to explore to what extent low-intensity resistance exercise-induced acute hypertension influences intracranial cerebral perfusion. METHODS: Twelve healthy participants performed one-legged static knee extension exercise at 30% maximal voluntary contraction for 2 min. Blood flow to the internal and external carotid arteries (ICA/ECA) were evaluated by duplex ultrasonography. RESULTS: ICA blood flow increased and reached a plateau before stabilizing 60 s into exercise despite continued increases in cardiac output and arterial blood pressure...
September 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Ana Cavka, Ivana Jukic, Mohamed Ali, Melissa Goslawski, Jing-Tan Bian, Edward Wang, Ines Drenjancevic, Shane A Phillips
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that short-term high salt intake reduces macrovascular and microvascular endothelial function in the absence of changes in blood pressure and to determine whether acute exercise restores endothelial function after high salt in women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve women were administered high salt (11 g of sodium chloride for 7 days) and then underwent a weightlifting session. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and nitroglycerin dilation were measured with ultrasound at baseline, after high salt, and after weightlifting...
April 2016: Journal of Hypertension
José R Lemos, Cleber R Alves, Sílvia B C de Souza, Julia D C Marsiglia, Michelle S M Silva, Alexandre C Pereira, Antônio L Teixeira, Erica L M Vieira, José E Krieger, Carlos E Negrão, Guilherme B Alves, Edilamar M de Oliveira, Wladimir Bolani, Rodrigo G Dias, Ivani C Trombetta
Besides neuronal plasticity, the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is also important in vascular function. The BDNF has been associated with angiogenesis through its specific receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB). Additionally, Val66Met polymorphism decreases activity-induced BDNF. Since BDNF and TrkB are expressed in vascular endothelial cells and aerobic exercise training can increase serum BDNF, this study aimed to test the hypotheses: 1) Serum BDNF levels modulate peripheral blood flow; 2) The Val66Met BDNF polymorphism impairs exercise training-induced vasodilation...
February 2016: Physiological Genomics
J Yu, B Zhang, X-L Su, R Tie, P Chang, X-C Zhang, J-B Wang, G Zhao, M-Z Zhu, H-F Zhang, B-Y Chen
Proximal resistance vessels, such as the mesenteric arteries, contribute substantially to the peripheral resistance. The reactivity of resistance vessels to vasoactive substance like natriuretic peptides plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure. In current study, we investigated the reactivity of mesenteric arteries to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a well known vasodilating factor, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), as well as the effects of exercise training on it. As a result, ANP-induced vasorelaxation was attenuated in SHR with significantly increased phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), and decreased cGMP/ANP ratio, compared with WKY rats as control...
June 20, 2016: Physiological Research
T Dylan Olver, M Harold Laughlin
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) alters capillary hemodynamics, causes capillary rarefaction in skeletal muscle, and alters endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype, resulting in impaired vasodilatory responses. These changes contribute to altered blood flow responses to physiological stimuli, such as exercise and insulin secretion. T2D-induced microvascular dysfunction impairs glucose and insulin delivery to skeletal muscle (and other tissues such as skin and nervous), thereby reducing glucose uptake and perpetuating hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia...
February 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Michaela C Devries, Leigh Breen, Mark Von Allmen, Maureen J MacDonald, Daniel R Moore, Elizabeth A Offord, Marie-Noëlle Horcajada, Denis Breuillé, Stuart M Phillips
Step-reduction (SR) in older adults results in muscle atrophy and an attenuated rise in postprandial muscle protein synthesis (MPS): anabolic resistance. Knowing that resistance exercise (RT) can enhance MPS, we examined whether RT could enhance MPS following 2 weeks of SR. In addition, as we postulated that SR may impair feeding-induced vasodilation limiting nutrient delivery to muscle, we also examined whether citrulline (CIT), as an arginine and nitric oxide precursor, could attenuate muscle anabolic resistance accompanying SR...
August 2015: Physiological Reports
Jae-Seok Lee, Charles L Stebbins, Eunji Jung, Hosung Nho, Jong-Kyung Kim, Myoung-Jei Chang, Hyun-Min Choi
While acute treatment with beetroot juice (BRJ) containing nitrate (NO3 (-)) can lower systolic blood pressure (SBP), afterload, and myocardial O2 demand during submaximal exercise, effects of chronic supplementation with BRJ (containing a relatively low dose of NO3 (-), 400 mg) on cardiac output (CO), SBP, total peripheral resistance (TPR), and the work of the heart in response to dynamic exercise are not known. Thus, in 14 healthy males (22 ± 1 yr), we compared effects of 15 days of both BRJ and nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (NDBRJ) supplementation on plasma concentrations of NOx (NO3 (-)/NO2 (-)), SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), CO, TPR, and rate pressure product (RPP) at rest and during progressive cycling exercise...
September 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Youhua Wang, Zhenjun Tian, Weijin Zang, Hongke Jiang, Youyou Li, Shengpeng Wang, Shengfeng Chen
Myocardial infarction (MI) induces cardiac dysfunction and insulin resistance (IR). This study examines the effects of MI-related IR on vasorelaxation and its underlying mechanisms, with a specific focus on the role of exercise in reversing the impaired vasorelaxation. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: Sham, MI, and MI+Exercise. MI+Exercise rats were subjected to 8 weeks of treadmill training. Cardiac contraction, myocardial and arterial structure, vasorelaxation, levels of inflammatory cytokines, expression of eNOS and TNF-α, and activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) were determined in aortas...
April 2015: Physiological Reports
Anton J M Wagenmakers, Juliette A Strauss, Sam O Shepherd, Michelle A Keske, Matthew Cocks
This review concludes that a sedentary lifestyle, obesity and ageing impair the vasodilator response of the muscle microvasculature to insulin, exercise and VEGF-A and reduce microvascular density. Both impairments contribute to the development of insulin resistance, obesity and chronic age-related diseases. A physically active lifestyle keeps both the vasodilator response and microvascular density high. Intravital microscopy has shown that microvascular units (MVUs) are the smallest functional elements to adjust blood flow in response to physiological signals and metabolic demands on muscle fibres...
April 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Susan K Morton, Daniel J Chaston, Lauren Howitt, Jillian Heisler, Bruce J Nicholson, Stephen Fairweather, Stefan Bröer, Anthony W Ashton, Klaus I Matthaei, Caryl E Hill
During activity, coordinated vasodilation of microcirculatory networks with upstream supply vessels increases blood flow to skeletal and cardiac muscles and reduces peripheral resistance. Endothelial dysfunction in humans attenuates activity-dependent vasodilation, resulting in exercise-induced hypertension in otherwise normotensive individuals. Underpinning activity-dependent hyperemia is an ascending vasodilation in which the endothelial gap junction protein, connexin (Cx)40, plays an essential role. Because exercise-induced hypertension is proposed as a forerunner to clinical hypertension, we hypothesized that endothelial disruption of Cx40 function in mice may create an animal model of this condition...
March 2015: Hypertension
Frédéric Chagué, Charles Guenancia, Aurélie Gudjoncik, Daniel Moreau, Yves Cottin, Marianne Zeller
Smokeless tobacco (snuff) is a finely ground or shredded tobacco that is sniffed through the nose or placed between the cheek and gum. Chewing tobacco is used by putting a wad of tobacco inside the cheek. Smokeless tobacco is widely used by young athletes to enhance performance because nicotine improves some aspects of physiology. However, smokeless tobacco has harmful health effects, including cardiovascular disorders, linked to nicotine physiological effects, mainly through catecholamine release. Nicotine decreases heart rate variability and the ventricular fibrillation threshold, and promotes the occurrence of various arrhythmias; it also impairs endothelial-dependent vasodilation and could therefore promote premature atherogenesis...
January 2015: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
Matthew J Durand, Kodlipet Dharmashankar, Jing-Tan Bian, Emon Das, Mladen Vidovich, David D Gutterman, Shane A Phillips
Brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation in exercise-trained (ET) individuals is maintained after a single bout of heavy resistance exercise compared with sedentary individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine whether vasodilation is also maintained in the microcirculation of ET individuals. A total of 51 sedentary and ET individuals underwent gluteal subcutaneous fat biopsy before and after performing a single bout of leg press exercise. Adipose arterioles were cannulated in an organ bath, and vasodilation to acetylcholine was assessed±the endothelial nitric oxide inhibitorl-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, or the hydrogen peroxide scavenger polyethylene glycol catalase...
January 2015: Hypertension
Nina C Franklin, Mohamed Ali, Melissa Goslawski, Edward Wang, Shane A Phillips
Obesity contributes to stress induced impairments in endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV), a precursor to atherosclerosis. Since obesity is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, we sought to determine if a single bout of strenuous weight lifting (SWL) reduces EDV among sedentary obese adults. Participants included 9 obese (OB) (BMI 30.0-40.0 kg/m(2)) and 8 lean (LN) (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)) sedentary young women. All participants underwent a single bout of SWL using a progressive leg-press protocol...
2014: Frontiers in Physiology
Åsa Beijer, Hans Degens, Tobias Weber, André Rosenberger, Sebastian Gehlert, Frankyn Herrera, Matthias Kohl-Bareis, Jochen Zange, Wilhelm Bloch, Jörn Rittweger
Whole-body vibration (WBV) training is commonly practiced and may enhance peripheral blood flow. Here, we investigated muscle morphology and acute microcirculatory responses before and after a 6-week resistive exercise training intervention without (RE) or with (RVE) simultaneous whole-body vibrations (20 Hz, 6 mm peak-to-peak amplitude) in 26 healthy men in a randomized, controlled parallel-design study. Total haemoglobin (tHb) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) were measured in gastrocnemius muscle (GM) with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)...
November 2015: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Eun Yeong Seo, Hae Jin Kim, Zai Hao Zhao, Ji Hyun Jang, Chun Zi Jin, Hae Young Yoo, Yin-Hua Zhang, Sung Joon Kim
K(+) channels determine the plasma membrane potential of vascular myocytes, influencing arterial tone. In many types of arteries, a moderate increase in [K(+)]e induces vasorelaxation by augmenting the inwardly rectifying K(+) channel current (I Kir). K(+)-vasodilation matches regional tissue activity and O2 supply. In chronic hypertension (HT), small arteries and arterioles undergo various changes; however, ion channel remodeling is poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether K(+) channels and K(+)-induced vasodilation are affected in deep femoral (DFA) and cerebral artery (CA) myocytes of angiotensin II-induced hypertensive rats (Ang-HT)...
November 2014: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Zhichao Zhou, Vincent J de Beer, Shawn B Bender, A H Jan Danser, Daphne Merkus, M Harold Laughlin, Dirk J Duncker
Nitric oxide (NO)-induced coronary vasodilation is mediated through production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and through inhibition of the endothelin-1 (ET) system. We previously demonstrated that phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5)-mediated cGMP breakdown and ET each exert a vasoconstrictor influence on coronary resistance vessels. However, little is known about the integrated control of coronary resistance vessel tone by these two vasoconstrictor mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of PDE5 and ET to the regulation of coronary resistance vessel tone in swine both in vivo, at rest and during graded treadmill exercise, and in vitro...
March 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Johannes-Peter Stasch, Oleg V Evgenov
Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is a key enzyme in the nitric oxide (NO) signalling pathway. On binding of NO to its prosthetic haem group, sGC catalyses the synthesis of the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which promotes vasodilation and inhibits smooth muscle proliferation, leukocyte recruitment, platelet aggregation and vascular remodelling through a number of downstream mechanisms. The central role of the NO-sGC-cGMP pathway in regulating pulmonary vascular tone is demonstrated by the dysregulation of NO production, sGC activity and cGMP degradation in pulmonary hypertension (PH)...
2013: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Noboru Toda, Tomio Okamura
Obesity dramatically increases the risk of development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Endothelial dysfunction induced by obesity is an important risk factor that impairs blood flow controls in various organs. Impaired endothelial function occurs early in life in obese children. Obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction is associated with decreased nitric oxide (NO) production due to impaired endothelial NO synthase activity and expression and increased production of superoxide anion and the endogenous NOS inhibitor ADMA, together with increased vasoconstrictor factors, such as endothelin-1 and sympathetic nerve activation...
December 2013: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Elisabetta Marongiu, Massimo Piepoli, Raffaele Milia, Luca Angius, Marco Pinna, Pierpaolo Bassareo, Silvana Roberto, Filippo Tocco, Alberto Concu, Antonio Crisafulli
The aim of the present study was to test the contribution of stroke volume (SV) in hemodynamic response to muscle metaboreflex activation in healthy individuals. We hypothesized that an acute decrease in cardiac afterload and preload due to the administration of a vasodilating agent could reduce postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI)-induced SV response. Ten healthy males (age 33.6 ± 1.3 yr) were enrolled and randomly assigned to the following study protocol: 1) PEMI session, 2) control exercise recovery (CER) session, 3) PEMI after sublingual administration of 5 mg of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), and 4) CER after ISDN...
November 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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