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Resistance exercise induced vasodilation

Heather Grimm, Jan Kretzschmar, Marc D Cook, Michael D Brown
INTRODUCTION: Optimal vascular function is a hallmark of cardiovascular health. Specifically, the balance of vasoconstricting and vasodilating substances is recognized as a marker of vascular health. One of the greatest challenges to vascular health and vasodilatory balance is tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) mediated inflammation. Uncovering effective strategies that maintain a vascular environment that is more vasodilatory and anti-thrombotic in the face of an inflammatory challenge is favorable...
April 30, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Mária Szekeres, György L Nádasy, Gabriella Dörnyei, Annamária Szénási, Akos Koller
PURPOSE: Exercise elicits early adaptation of coronary vessels enabling the coronary circulation to respond adequately to higher flow demands. We hypothesized that short-term daily exercise induces biomechanical and functional remodeling of the coronary resistance arteries related to pressure. METHODS: Male rats were subjected to a progressively increasing 4-week treadmill exercise program (over 60 min/day, 1 mph in the final step). In vitro pressure-diameter measurements were performed on coronary segments (119 ± 5 μm in diameter at 50 mm Hg) with microarteriography...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Vascular Research
Andrew O Kadlec, Chad Barnes, Matthew J Durand, David D Gutterman
BACKGROUND: Sedentary behavior and obesity are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Regular physical activity has independent protective effects on the cardiovascular system, but the mechanisms responsible remain elusive. Recent studies suggest that the protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) participates in the response to exercise training. We hypothesized that the arterioles of athletes maintain dilation to flow despite combined inhibition of multiple vasodilators, but loss of PGC-1α renders these vessels susceptible to inhibition of a single vasodilator pathway...
November 11, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
Robert M Rapoport, Daphne Merkus
Although endothelin (ET)-1 is a highly potent vasoconstrictor with considerable efficacy in numerous vascular beds, the role of endogenous ET-1 in the regulation of vascular tone remains unclear. The perspective that ET-1 plays little role in the on-going regulation of vascular tone at least under physiologic conditions is supported by findings that potential ET-1 constriction is minimized by the release of the vasodilator and ET-1 synthesis inhibitor, nitric oxide (NO). Indeed, ET-1 release and constriction is self-limited by ET-1-induced, endothelial ETB receptor-mediated release of NO...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jasdeep Kaur, Danielle Senador, Abhinav C Krishnan, Hanna W Hanna, Alberto Alvarez, Tiago M Machado, Donal S O'Leary
When oxygen delivery to active muscle is insufficient to meet the metabolic demand during exercise, metabolites accumulate and stimulate skeletal muscle afferents, inducing a reflex increase in blood pressure, termed the muscle metaboreflex. In healthy individuals, muscle metaboreflex activation (MMA) during submaximal exercise increases arterial pressure primarily via an increase in cardiac output (CO), as little peripheral vasoconstriction occurs. This increase in CO partially restores blood flow to ischemic muscle...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Tom L Broderick, Marek Jankowski, Jolanta Gutkowska
BACKGROUND: Regular exercise training (ET) and caloric restriction (CR) are the frontline strategies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus with the aim at reducing cardiometabolic risk. ET and CR improve body weight and glycemic control, and experimental studies indicate that these paradigms afford cardioprotection. In this study, the effects of combined ET and CR on the cardioprotective oxytocin (OT)-natriuretic peptide (NP) system were determined in the db/db mouse, a model of type 2 diabetes associated with insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and obesity...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Hsin-Fu Lin, Chun-Chung Chou, Hsiao-Han Chao, Hirofumi Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Muscle damage induced by an acute bout of eccentric exercise results in transient arterial stiffening. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of progressive eccentric resistance exercise training on vascular functions, and whether herb supplementation would enhance training adaptation by ameliorating the arterial stiffening effects. METHODS: By using a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled design, older adults were randomly assigned to either the Panax ginseng and Salvia miltiorrhiza supplementation group (N=12) or the placebo group (N=11)...
December 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Wai San Cheang, Wing Tak Wong, Lei Zhao, Jian Xu, Li Wang, Chi Wai Lau, Zhen Yu Chen, Ronald Ching Wan Ma, Aimin Xu, Nanping Wang, Xiao Yu Tian, Yu Huang
Physical activity has profound benefits on health, especially on cardiometabolic wellness. Experiments in rodents with trained exercise have shown that exercise improves vascular function and reduces vascular inflammation by modulating the balance between nitric oxide (NO) and oxidative stress. However, the upstream regulator of exercise-induced vascular benefits is unclear. We aimed to investigate the involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) in exercise-induced vascular functional improvement...
February 2017: Diabetes
Helena Lenasi, Markos Klonizakis
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with cardiovascular complications. Impairment of glycemic control induces noxious glycations, an increase in oxydative stress and dearangement of various metabolic pathways. DM leads to dysfunction of micro- and macrovessels, connected to metabolic, endothelial and autonomic nervous system. Thus, assessing vascular reactivity might be one of the clinical tools to evaluate the impact of harmful effects of DM and potential benefit of treatment; skin and skeletal muscle microcirculation have usually been tested...
2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Juefei Wu, David Barton, Feng Xie, Edward O'Leary, John Steuter, Gregory Pavlides, Thomas R Porter
BACKGROUND: Real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography (RTMCE) directly measures capillary flow (CBF), which in turn is a major regulator of coronary flow and resistance during demand or hyperemic stress. Although fractional flow reserve (FFR) was developed to assess the physiological relevance of an epicardial stenosis, it assumes maximal microvascular vasodilation and minimal resistance during vasodilator stress. Therefore, we sought to determine the relationship between CBF assessed with RTMCE during stress echocardiography and FFR in intermediate coronary lesions...
August 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
A I Hirasawa, Kohei Sato, Marina Yoneya, Tomoko Sadamoto, Damian M Bailey, Shigehiko Ogoh
PURPOSE: The present study was designed to explore to what extent low-intensity resistance exercise-induced acute hypertension influences intracranial cerebral perfusion. METHODS: Twelve healthy participants performed one-legged static knee extension exercise at 30% maximal voluntary contraction for 2 min. Blood flow to the internal and external carotid arteries (ICA/ECA) were evaluated by duplex ultrasonography. RESULTS: ICA blood flow increased and reached a plateau before stabilizing 60 s into exercise despite continued increases in cardiac output and arterial blood pressure...
September 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Ana Cavka, Ivana Jukic, Mohamed Ali, Melissa Goslawski, Jing-Tan Bian, Edward Wang, Ines Drenjancevic, Shane A Phillips
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that short-term high salt intake reduces macrovascular and microvascular endothelial function in the absence of changes in blood pressure and to determine whether acute exercise restores endothelial function after high salt in women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve women were administered high salt (11 g of sodium chloride for 7 days) and then underwent a weightlifting session. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and nitroglycerin dilation were measured with ultrasound at baseline, after high salt, and after weightlifting...
April 2016: Journal of Hypertension
José R Lemos, Cleber R Alves, Sílvia B C de Souza, Julia D C Marsiglia, Michelle S M Silva, Alexandre C Pereira, Antônio L Teixeira, Erica L M Vieira, José E Krieger, Carlos E Negrão, Guilherme B Alves, Edilamar M de Oliveira, Wladimir Bolani, Rodrigo G Dias, Ivani C Trombetta
Besides neuronal plasticity, the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is also important in vascular function. The BDNF has been associated with angiogenesis through its specific receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB). Additionally, Val66Met polymorphism decreases activity-induced BDNF. Since BDNF and TrkB are expressed in vascular endothelial cells and aerobic exercise training can increase serum BDNF, this study aimed to test the hypotheses: 1) Serum BDNF levels modulate peripheral blood flow; 2) The Val66Met BDNF polymorphism impairs exercise training-induced vasodilation...
February 2016: Physiological Genomics
J Yu, B Zhang, X-L Su, R Tie, P Chang, X-C Zhang, J-B Wang, G Zhao, M-Z Zhu, H-F Zhang, B-Y Chen
Proximal resistance vessels, such as the mesenteric arteries, contribute substantially to the peripheral resistance. The reactivity of resistance vessels to vasoactive substance like natriuretic peptides plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure. In current study, we investigated the reactivity of mesenteric arteries to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a well known vasodilating factor, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), as well as the effects of exercise training on it. As a result, ANP-induced vasorelaxation was attenuated in SHR with significantly increased phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), and decreased cGMP/ANP ratio, compared with WKY rats as control...
June 20, 2016: Physiological Research
T Dylan Olver, M Harold Laughlin
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) alters capillary hemodynamics, causes capillary rarefaction in skeletal muscle, and alters endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype, resulting in impaired vasodilatory responses. These changes contribute to altered blood flow responses to physiological stimuli, such as exercise and insulin secretion. T2D-induced microvascular dysfunction impairs glucose and insulin delivery to skeletal muscle (and other tissues such as skin and nervous), thereby reducing glucose uptake and perpetuating hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia...
February 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Michaela C Devries, Leigh Breen, Mark Von Allmen, Maureen J MacDonald, Daniel R Moore, Elizabeth A Offord, Marie-Noëlle Horcajada, Denis Breuillé, Stuart M Phillips
Step-reduction (SR) in older adults results in muscle atrophy and an attenuated rise in postprandial muscle protein synthesis (MPS): anabolic resistance. Knowing that resistance exercise (RT) can enhance MPS, we examined whether RT could enhance MPS following 2 weeks of SR. In addition, as we postulated that SR may impair feeding-induced vasodilation limiting nutrient delivery to muscle, we also examined whether citrulline (CIT), as an arginine and nitric oxide precursor, could attenuate muscle anabolic resistance accompanying SR...
August 2015: Physiological Reports
Jae-Seok Lee, Charles L Stebbins, Eunji Jung, Hosung Nho, Jong-Kyung Kim, Myoung-Jei Chang, Hyun-Min Choi
While acute treatment with beetroot juice (BRJ) containing nitrate (NO3 (-)) can lower systolic blood pressure (SBP), afterload, and myocardial O2 demand during submaximal exercise, effects of chronic supplementation with BRJ (containing a relatively low dose of NO3 (-), 400 mg) on cardiac output (CO), SBP, total peripheral resistance (TPR), and the work of the heart in response to dynamic exercise are not known. Thus, in 14 healthy males (22 ± 1 yr), we compared effects of 15 days of both BRJ and nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (NDBRJ) supplementation on plasma concentrations of NOx (NO3 (-)/NO2 (-)), SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), CO, TPR, and rate pressure product (RPP) at rest and during progressive cycling exercise...
September 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Youhua Wang, Zhenjun Tian, Weijin Zang, Hongke Jiang, Youyou Li, Shengpeng Wang, Shengfeng Chen
Myocardial infarction (MI) induces cardiac dysfunction and insulin resistance (IR). This study examines the effects of MI-related IR on vasorelaxation and its underlying mechanisms, with a specific focus on the role of exercise in reversing the impaired vasorelaxation. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: Sham, MI, and MI+Exercise. MI+Exercise rats were subjected to 8 weeks of treadmill training. Cardiac contraction, myocardial and arterial structure, vasorelaxation, levels of inflammatory cytokines, expression of eNOS and TNF-α, and activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) were determined in aortas...
April 2015: Physiological Reports
Anton J M Wagenmakers, Juliette A Strauss, Sam O Shepherd, Michelle A Keske, Matthew Cocks
This review concludes that a sedentary lifestyle, obesity and ageing impair the vasodilator response of the muscle microvasculature to insulin, exercise and VEGF-A and reduce microvascular density. Both impairments contribute to the development of insulin resistance, obesity and chronic age-related diseases. A physically active lifestyle keeps both the vasodilator response and microvascular density high. Intravital microscopy has shown that microvascular units (MVUs) are the smallest functional elements to adjust blood flow in response to physiological signals and metabolic demands on muscle fibres...
April 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Susan K Morton, Daniel J Chaston, Lauren Howitt, Jillian Heisler, Bruce J Nicholson, Stephen Fairweather, Stefan Bröer, Anthony W Ashton, Klaus I Matthaei, Caryl E Hill
During activity, coordinated vasodilation of microcirculatory networks with upstream supply vessels increases blood flow to skeletal and cardiac muscles and reduces peripheral resistance. Endothelial dysfunction in humans attenuates activity-dependent vasodilation, resulting in exercise-induced hypertension in otherwise normotensive individuals. Underpinning activity-dependent hyperemia is an ascending vasodilation in which the endothelial gap junction protein, connexin (Cx)40, plays an essential role. Because exercise-induced hypertension is proposed as a forerunner to clinical hypertension, we hypothesized that endothelial disruption of Cx40 function in mice may create an animal model of this condition...
March 2015: Hypertension
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