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Skeletal muscle blood flow

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906869/early-and-sustained-vasopressin-infusion-augments-the-hemodynamic-efficacy-of-restrictive-fluid-resuscitation-and-improves-survival-in-a-liver-laceration-model-of-hemorrhagic-shock
#1
Raúl J Gazmuri, Kasen Whitehouse, Kruti Shah, Karla Whittinghill, Alvin Baetiong, Jeejabai Radhakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Current management of hemorrhagic shock favors restrictive fluid resuscitation before control of the bleeding source. We investigated the additional effects of early and sustained vasopressin infusion in a swine model of hemorrhagic shock produced by liver laceration. METHODS: Forty male domestic pigs (32 to 40 kg) had a liver laceration inflicted with an X-shaped blade clamp, 32 received a second laceration at minute 7.5, and 24 received two additional lacerations at minute 15...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904757/brain-hemorrhage-after-electrical-burn-injury-case-report-and-probable-mechanism
#2
Gutierrez Aceves Guillermo Axayacalt, Ceja Espinosa Alejandro, Rios Alanis Marcos, Ruiz Flores Milton Inocencio, Herrera Gonzalez Jose Alfredo
BACKGROUND: High-voltage electric injury may induce lesion in different organs. In addition to the local tissue damage, electrical injuries may lead to neurological deficits, musculoskeletal damage, and cardiovascular injury. Severe vascular damage may occur making the blood vessels involved prone to thrombosis and spontaneous rupture. CASE DESCRIPTION: Here, we present the case of a 39-year-old male who suffered an electrical burn with high tension wire causing intracranial bleeding...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889934/vascular-cell-transcriptomic-changes-to-exercise-training-differ-directionally-along-and-between-skeletal-muscle-arteriolar-trees
#3
M Harold Laughlin, Hsiao T Yang, Darla L Tharp, R Scott Rector, Jaume Padilla, Douglas K Bowles
EXT-induced arteriolar adaptations in skeletal muscle are heterogeneous because of spatial variations in muscle fiber type composition and fiber recruitment patterns during exercise. The purpose of this report is to summarize a series of experiments conducted to test the hypothesis that changes in vascular gene expression are signaled by alterations in shear stress resulting from increases in blood flow, muscle fiber type composition and fiber recruitment patterns. We also report results from a follow-up study of Ankrd23, one gene whose expression was changed by EXT...
November 27, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884421/interpreting-the-incremental-cardiopulmonary-exercise-test
#4
REVIEW
Samir Nusair
The incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is an increasingly used diagnostic method that serves to evaluate patients with chief complaint of dyspnea during exercise. Performing maximal symptom-limited CPET can show if the tested subject has a reduced exercise capacity and give clues to the mechanism of such exercise capacity reduction, cardiac, pulmonary, or pulmonary vascular source. In this review, it is suggested that the evaluation of the complex results of CPET should be performed by first determining if myocardial/circulatory insufficiency is present and second if there is gas exchange abnormality...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876411/disruption-of-mitochondrial-quality-control-in-peripheral-artery-disease-new-therapeutic-opportunities
#5
REVIEW
Cintia B Ueta, Katia S Gomes, Márcio A Ribeiro, Daria Mochly-Rosen, Julio C B Ferreira
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a multifactorial disease initially triggered by reduced blood supply to the lower extremities due to atherosclerotic obstructions. It is considered a major public health problem worldwide, affecting over 200 million people. Management of PAD includes smoking cessation, exercise, statin therapy, antiplatelet therapy, antihypertensive therapy and surgical intervention. Although these pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions usually increases blood flow to the ischemic limb, morbidity and mortality associated with PAD continue to increase...
November 19, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861620/prazosin-can-prevent-glucocorticoid-mediated-capillary-rarefaction
#6
Erin R Mandel, Emily C Dunford, Anastassia Trifonova, Ghoncheh Abdifarkosh, Trevor Teich, Michael C Riddell, Tara L Haas
Glucocorticoids (GC) elicit skeletal muscle capillary rarefaction, which can subsequently impair blood distribution and muscle function; however, the mechanisms have not been established. We hypothesized that CORT would inhibit endothelial cell survival signals but that treatment with the alpha-1 adrenergic receptor inhibitor prazosin, which leads to angiogenesis in skeletal muscle of healthy rats, would reverse these effects and induce angiogenesis within the skeletal muscle of corticosterone (CORT)-treated rats...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856718/central-and-peripheral-responses-to-static-and-dynamic-stretch-of-skeletal-muscle-mechano-and-metabo-reflex-implications
#7
Massimo Venturelli, Emiliano Cé, Eloisa Limonta, Angela V Bisconti, Michela Devoto, Susanna Rampichini, Fabio Esposito
Passive static stretching (SS), circulatory cuff occlusion (CCO), and the combination of both (SS+CCO) have been used to investigate the mechano- and metabo-reflex, respectively. However, the effects of dynamic stretching (DS) alone or in combination with CCO (DS+CCO) on the same reflexes have never been explored. The aim of the study was to compare central and peripheral hemodynamic responses to DS, SS, DS+CCO, and SS+CCO. In ten participants, femoral blood flow (FBF), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were assessed during DS and SS of the quadriceps muscle with and without CCO...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834683/contribution-of-adenosine-to-the-increase-in-skeletal-muscle-blood-flow-caused-by-manual-acupuncture-in-rats
#8
Hisashi Shinbara, Satomi Nagaoka, Yasuyuki Izutani, Masamichi Okubo, Keisaku Kimura, Kunio Mizunuma, Eiji Sumiya
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Adenosine is believed to play an important role in local acupuncture analgesia. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of adenosine to the increase in skeletal muscle blood flow (MBF) caused by manual acupuncture (MA). METHODS: Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats (310-360 g) were anaesthetised and divided into four equal groups (n=8 each): Saline, Saline+MA, Theophylline, and Theophylline+MA. In the two MA groups, the sparrow-pecking MA technique was applied at 30 repetitions per min for 1 min to a depth of 15-18 mm using a stainless steel acupuncture needle (0...
November 10, 2016: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832434/monitoring-of-venus-transgenic-cell-migration-during-pregnancy-in-non-transgenic-rabbits
#9
N Lipták, O I Hoffmann, A Kerekes, G Iski, D Ernszt, K Kvell, L Hiripi, Z Bősze
Cell transfer between mother and fetus were demonstrated previously in several species which possess haemochorial placenta (e.g. in humans, mice, rats, etc.). Here we report the assessment of fetal and maternal microchimerism in non-transgenic (non-TG) New Zealand white rabbits which were pregnant with transgenic (TG) fetuses and in non-TG newborns of TG does. The TG construct, including the Venus fluorophore cDNA driven by a ubiquitous cytomegalovirus enhancer, chicken ß-actin promoter (CAGGS), was previously integrated into the rabbit genome by Sleeping Beauty transposon system...
November 10, 2016: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824313/evidence-of-a-metabolic-reserve-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-elderly-people
#10
Gwenael Layec, Joel D Trinity, Corey R Hart, Yann Le Fur, Jacob R Sorensen, Eun-Kee Jeong, Russell S Richardson
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether mitochondrial function is limited by O2 availability or the intrinsic capacity of mitochondria to synthesize ATP in elderly individuals. To this aim, we examined, in comparison to free-flow conditions (FF), the effect of superimposing reactive hyperemia (RH), induced by a period of brief ischemia during the last min of exercise, on O2 availability and mitochondrial function in the calf muscle. 12 healthy, untrained, elderly subjects performed dynamic plantar flexion exercise and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS), near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and Doppler ultrasound were used to assess muscle metabolism and peripheral hemodynamics...
November 6, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821937/effects-of-24-week-resistance-exercise-training-on-carotid-peak-systolic-and-end-diastolic-flow-velocity-in-healthy-older-adults
#11
Jinkee Park
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effect of resistance exercise on carotid intima-media thickness, luminal diameter, peak systolic flow velocity, end diastolic flow velocity, and wall shear rate in healthy elderly men. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy elderly men (age ≥65 years) were randomly divided into a control (n=15) and resistance exercise (n=15) groups. The 24-week exercise intervention consisted of 3 days of resistance exercise per week using an elastic band per week. Body composition, physical function, blood pressure, and carotid variables were measured at baseline and after 24 weeks...
October 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816483/sarcopenia-and-endothelial-function-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure-results-from-the-studies-investigating-comorbidities-aggravating-hf-sica-hf
#12
Marcelo R Dos Santos, Masakazu Saitoh, Nicole Ebner, Miroslava Valentova, Masaaki Konishi, Junichi Ishida, Amir Emami, Jochen Springer, Anja Sandek, Wolfram Doehner, Stefan D Anker, Stephan von Haehling
OBJECTIVES: Skeletal muscle wasting, also known as sarcopenia, has recently been identified as a serious comorbidity in patients with heart failure (HF). We aimed to assess the impact of sarcopenia on endothelial dysfunction in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Ambulatory patients with HF were recruited at Charité Medical School, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin, Germany...
November 2, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801542/calcium-and-electrical-signaling-in-arterial-endothelial-tubes-new-insights-into-cellular-physiology-and-cardiovascular-function
#13
Erik J Behringer
The integral role of the endothelium during the coordination of blood flow throughout vascular resistance networks has been recognized for decades. Early examination of the distinct anatomy and physiology of the endothelium as a signaling conduit along the vascular wall has prompted development and application of an intact endothelial "tube" study model isolated from rodent skeletal muscle resistance arteries. Vasodilatory signals such as increased endothelial cell (EC) Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+) ]i ) signals and hyperpolarization can take place in single ECs while being shared between electrically coupled ECs through gap junctions up to distances of millimeters (≥ 2 mm)...
November 1, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797410/regulation-of-microvascular-flow-and-metabolism-an-overview
#14
Michelle A Keske, Renee M Dwyer, Ryan D Russell, Sarah J Blackwood, Aascha A Brown, Donghua Hu, Dino Premilovac, Stephen M Richards, Stephen Rattigan
Skeletal muscle is an important site for insulin to regulate blood glucose levels. It is estimated that skeletal muscle is responsible for ~80% of insulin-mediated glucose disposal in the post-prandial period. The classical action of insulin to increase muscle glucose uptake involves insulin binding to insulin receptors on myocytes to stimulate glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4) translocation to the cell surface membrane, enhancing glucose uptake. However, an additional role of insulin that is often under-appreciated is its action to increase muscle perfusion thereby improving insulin and glucose delivery to myocytes...
October 31, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789766/obesity-type-2-diabetes-and-impaired-insulin-stimulated-blood-flow-role-of-skeletal-muscle-no-synthase-and-endothelin-1
#15
Leryn J Reynolds, Daniel P Credeur, Camila Manrique, Jaume Padilla, Paul J Fadel, John P Thyfault
Increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) and reduced endothelial nitric oxide phosphorylation (peNOS) are hypothesized to reduce insulin-stimulated blood flow in type 2 diabetes (T2D), but studies examining these links in humans are limited. We sought to assess basal and insulin-stimulated endothelial signaling proteins (ET-1 and peNOS) in skeletal muscle from T2D patients. Ten obese T2D (glucose disposal rate (GDR): 6.6±1.6 mg/kg LBM/min) and eleven lean insulin sensitive subjects (Lean GDR: 12.9±1.2 mg/kg LBM/min), underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with vastus lateralis biopsies taken before and 60 min into the clamp...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765769/microvascular-endothelial-dysfunction-in-sedentary-obese-humans-is-mediated-by-nadph-oxidase-influence-of-exercise-training
#16
Justin D La Favor, Gabriel S Dubis, Huimin Yan, Joseph D White, Margaret A M Nelson, Ethan J Anderson, Robert C Hickner
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of in vivo reactive oxygen species (ROS) on microvascular endothelial function in obese human subjects and the efficacy of an aerobic exercise intervention on alleviating obesity-associated dysfunctionality. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Young, sedentary men and women were divided into lean (body mass index 18-25; n=14), intermediate (body mass index 28-32.5; n=13), and obese (body mass index 33-40; n=15) groups...
December 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753908/os-02-08-microvascular-tone-of-skeletal-muscle-resistance-arteries-the-regulatory-role-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue-and-insulin
#17
Ben Clark, Sarah Withers, Anthony Heagerty
OBJECTIVE: Resistance arteries significantly contribute to peripheral vascular resistance, and also determine insulin-sensitivity by controlling blood flow to skeletal muscle. Increased microvascular tone therefore facilitates the development of hypertension and insulin-resistance. Surrounding most blood vessels, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) exerts a vasorelaxant 'anti-contractile' effect. Few studies on skeletal muscle resistance arteries have investigated this vasorelaxant effect and the role of insulin...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749691/influence-of-l-citrulline-and-watermelon-supplementation-on-vascular-function-and-exercise-performance
#18
Arturo Figueroa, Alexei Wong, Salvador J Jaime, Joaquin U Gonzales
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: L-Citrulline, either synthetic or in watermelon, may improve vascular function through increased L-arginine bioavailability and nitric oxide synthesis. This article analyses potential vascular benefits of L-citrulline and watermelon supplementation at rest and during exercise. RECENT FINDINGS: There is clear evidence that acute L-citrulline ingestion increases plasma L-arginine, the substrate for endothelial nitric oxide synthesis. However, the subsequent acute improvement in nitric oxide production and mediated vasodilation is inconsistent, which likely explains the inability of acute L-citrulline or watermelon to improve exercise tolerance...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748729/effects-of-passive-leg-raising-on-microvascular-venous-compartment-in-critically-ill-patients
#19
Roberto A DE Blasi, Roberto Arcioni, Domitilla Brancadoro, Monica Rocco
BACKGROUND: Even though fluid loading is thought to improve organ perfusion, the way in which it does so remains unclear. We assessed how the microvascular bed in skeletal muscle reacts to passive leg raising in patients with and without sepsis or septic shock. METHODS: We studied 40 critically ill patients (group A) and 30 healthy controls (group B). The forearm microvascular bed was assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy before and after passive leg raising...
October 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746000/supplementing-essential-amino-acids-with-the-nitric-oxide-precursor-l-arginine-enhances-skeletal-muscle-perfusion-without-impacting-anabolism-in-older-men
#20
W Kyle Mitchell, Bethan E Phillips, Daniel J Wilkinson, John P Williams, Debbie Rankin, Jonathan N Lund, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton
Postprandial limb blood flow and skeletal muscle microvascular perfusion reduce with aging. Here we tested the impact of providing bolus essential amino acids (EAA) in the presence and absence of the nitric oxide precursor, l-Arginine (ARG), upon skeletal muscle blood flow and anabolism in older men. Healthy young (YOUNG: 19.7 ± 0.5 y, N = 8) and older men (OLD, 70 ± 0.8 y, N = 8) received 15 g EAA or (older only) 15 g EAA +3 g ARG (OLD-ARG, 69.2 ± 1.2 y, N = 8). We quantified responses in muscle protein synthesis (MPS; incorporation of (13)C phenylalanine into myofibrillar proteins), leg and muscle microvascular blood flow (Doppler/contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)) and insulin/EAA in response to EEA ± ARG...
October 6, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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