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Skeletal muscle blood flow

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323978/assisted-reproductive-technologies-predispose-to-insulin-resistance-and-obesity-in-male-mice-challenged-with-a-high-fat-diet
#1
David Cerny, Claudio Sartori, Stefano F Rimoldi, Théo Meister, Rodrigo Soria, Elisa Bouillet, Urs Scherrer, Emrush Rexhaj
ART alters glucose homeostasis in mice and humans, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. ART induces endothelial dysfunction and arterial hypertension by epigenetic alteration of the eNOS gene. In eNOS deficient mice, insulin resistance is related to impaired insulin stimulation of muscle blood flow and substrate delivery and defective intrinsic skeletal muscle glucose uptake. We, therefore, assessed glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity (euglycemic clamp), insulin stimulation of muscle blood flow in vivo and muscle glucose uptake in vitro in male ART and control mice fed a normal chow (NC) or challenged with a high fat diet (HFD) during 8 weeks...
February 8, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292763/oxygen-delivery-and-the-restoration-of-the-muscle-energetic-balance-following-exercise-implications-for-delayed-muscle-recovery-in-patients-with-copd
#2
Gwenael Layec, Corey R Hart, Joel D Trinity, Oh-Sung Kwon, Matthew J Rossman, Ryan M Broxterman, Yann Le Fur, Eun-Kee Jeong, Russell S Richardson
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience a delayed recovery from skeletal muscle fatigue following exhaustive exercise that likely contributes to their progressive loss of mobility. As this phenomenon is not well understood, this study sought to examine post-exercise peripheral oxygen (O2) transport and muscle metabolism dynamics in patients with COPD, two important determinants of muscle recovery. Twenty four subjects, 12 non-hypoxemic patients with COPD and 12 healthy subjects with a sedentary lifestyle, performed dynamic plantar flexion exercise at 40% of maximal work rate (WRmax) with phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS), near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and vascular Doppler ultrasound assessments...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273102/age-related-differences-in-skeletal-muscle-microvascular-response-to-exercise-as-detected-by-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-ceus
#3
Wulf Hildebrandt, Hans Schwarzbach, Anita Pardun, Lena Hannemann, Björn Bogs, Alexander M König, Andreas H Mahnken, Olaf Hildebrandt, Ulrich Koehler, Ralf Kinscherf
BACKGROUND: Aging involves reductions in exercise total limb blood flow and exercise capacity. We hypothesized that this may involve early age-related impairments of skeletal muscle microvascular responsiveness as previously reported for insulin but not for exercise stimuli in humans. METHODS: Using an isometric exercise model, we studied the effect of age on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) parameters, i.e. microvascular blood volume (MBV), flow velocity (MFV) and blood flow (MBF) calculated from replenishment of Sonovue contrast-agent microbubbles after their destruction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273101/classical-and-adaptive-control-of-ex-vivo-skeletal-muscle-contractions-using-functional-electrical-stimulation-fes
#4
Paola Jaramillo Cienfuegos, Adam Shoemaker, Robert W Grange, Nicole Abaid, Alexander Leonessa
Functional Electrical Stimulation is a promising approach to treat patients by stimulating the peripheral nerves and their corresponding motor neurons using electrical current. This technique helps maintain muscle mass and promote blood flow in the absence of a functioning nervous system. The goal of this work is to control muscle contractions from FES via three different algorithms and assess the most appropriate controller providing effective stimulation of the muscle. An open-loop system and a closed-loop system with three types of model-free feedback controllers were assessed for tracking control of skeletal muscle contractions: a Proportional-Integral (PI) controller, a Model Reference Adaptive Control algorithm, and an Adaptive Augmented PI system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264923/blood-pressure-in-healthy-humans-is-regulated-by-neuronal-no-synthase
#5
Husain Shabeeh, Sitara Khan, Benyu Jiang, Sally Brett, Narbeh Melikian, Barbara Casadei, Philip J Chowienczyk, Ajay M Shah
NO is physiologically generated by endothelial and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) isoforms. Although nNOS was first identified in brain, it is expressed in other tissues, including perivascular nerves, cardiac and skeletal muscle. Increasing experimental evidence suggests that nNOS has important effects on cardiovascular function, but its composite effects on systemic hemodynamics in humans are unknown. We undertook the first human study to assess the physiological effects of systemic nNOS inhibition on basal hemodynamics...
March 6, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255088/oral-n-acetylcysteine-and-exercise-tolerance-in-mild-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#6
Daniel M Hirai, Joshua H Jones, Joel T Zelt, Marianne L da Silva, Robert F Bentley, Brittany Ann Edgett, Brendon James Gurd, Michael E Tschakovsky, Denis E O'Donnell, J Alberto Neder
Heightened oxidative stress is implicated in the progressive impairment of skeletal muscle vascular and mitochondrial function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whether accumulation of reactive oxygen species contribute to exercise intolerance in the early stages of COPD is unknown. We examined the effects of oral antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on respiratory, cardiovascular and locomotor muscle function and exercise tolerance in patients with mild COPD. Thirteen patients with forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC) < lower limit of normal (LLN) and FEV1 ≥ LLN were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized crossover study to receive NAC (1800 mg/day) or placebo for 4 days...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242634/ketone-body-infusion-with-3-hydroxybutyrate-reduces-myocardial-glucose-uptake-and-increases-blood-flow-in-humans-a-positron-emission-tomography-study
#7
Lars C Gormsen, Mads Svart, Henrik Holm Thomsen, Esben Søndergaard, Mikkel H Vendelbo, Nana Christensen, Lars Poulsen Tolbod, Hendrik Johannes Harms, Roni Nielsen, Henrik Wiggers, Niels Jessen, Jakob Hansen, Hans Erik Bøtker, Niels Møller
BACKGROUND: High levels of ketone bodies are associated with improved survival as observed with regular exercise, caloric restriction, and-most recently-treatment with sodium-glucose linked transporter 2 inhibitor antidiabetic drugs. In heart failure, indices of ketone body metabolism are upregulated, which may improve energy efficiency and increase blood flow in skeletal muscle and the kidneys. Nevertheless, it is uncertain how ketone bodies affect myocardial glucose uptake and blood flow in humans...
February 27, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236373/insidious-incrementalism-the-silent-failure-of-the-microcirculation-with-increasing-peripheral-vascular-disease-risk
#8
REVIEW
Kent Lemaster, Dwayne Jackson, Daniel Goldman, Jefferson C Frisbee
This review summarizes material presented in "Adaptive Outcomes of Microvascular Networks to Obesity and Type II Diabetes/Insulin Resistance" on July 30, 2016, at the Joint Meeting of the American Physiological Society and the Physiological Society, in Dublin, Ireland. We discuss the poor predictive power of traditional markers of vascular dysfunction for functional outcomes of muscle fatigue-resistance and active hyperemia within the setting of elevated peripheral vascular disease risk. Using the obese Zucker rat model of the metabolic syndrome, we describe how blood flow distribution at arteriolar bifurcations (γ) is altered with PVD risk reflecting increased spatial heterogeneity of distribution within networks...
February 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231611/leg-vascular-and-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-adaptations-to-aerobic-high-intensity-exercise-training-are-enhanced-in-the-early-postmenopausal-phase
#9
Michael Nyberg, Jon Egelund, Camilla M Mandrup, Caroline B Andersen, Karen M B E Hansen, Ida-Marie F Hergel, Nicholai Valbak-Andersen, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Bente Stallknecht, Jens Bangsbo, Ylva Hellsten
Exercise training leads to favourable adaptations within skeletal muscle; however, this effect of exercise training may be blunted in postmenopausal women due to the loss of oestrogens. Furthermore, postmenopausal women may have an impaired vascular response to acute exercise. We examined the haemodynamic response to acute exercise in matched pre- and postmenopausal women before and after 12 weeks of aerobic high intensity exercise training. Twenty premenopausal and 16 early postmenopausal (3.1 ± 0.5 [mean ± SEM] years after final menstrual period) women only separated by 4 (50 ± 0 versus 54 ± 1) years of age were included...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199786/alpha-adrenergic-receptor-blockade-increases-capillarisation-and-fractional-o2-extraction-and-lowers-blood-flow-in-contracting-human-skeletal-muscle
#10
Stefan P Mortensen, Stuart Egginton, Mads Madsen, Jonas B Hansen, Gregers D W Munch, Ulrik Winning Iepsen, Thorbjörn Åkerström, Bente K Pedersen, Ylva Hellsten
AIM: To investigate the effect of elevated basal shear stress on angiogenesis in humans, and the role of enhanced skeletal muscle capillarisation on blood flow and O2 extraction. METHODS: Limb haemodynamics and O2 extraction was measured at rest and during one-leg knee-extensor exercise (12 and 24W) in 10 healthy untrained young men before and after 4 weeks treatment with an α1 receptor-antagonist (Terazosin, 1-2 mg day(-1) ). Corresponding biopsies were taken from the m...
February 15, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183821/exercise-induced-upregulation-of-endothelial-adhesion-molecules-in-human-skeletal-muscle-and-number-of-circulating-cells-with-remodeling-properties
#11
Anna Strömberg, Eric Rullman, Eva Jansson, Thomas Gustafsson
Multipotent cells have received great interest due to their potential capacity to repair and remodel peripheral tissues. We examined the effect of an acute exercise bout on the number of circulating cells with known remodeling properties, and the level of factors in plasma and skeletal muscle tissue with potential to recruit these cells. Twenty healthy male subjects performed a 60 min cycling exercise. Blood samples for flow cytometry were drawn from 10 subjects (Group 1) before and up to 2 h after exercise, and absolute cell counts of the classical (CD14(++)CD16(-)), intermediate (CD14(++)CD16(+)), and nonclassical (CD14(+)CD16(++)) monocyte (MO) subpopulations, and of CD45(dim)CD34(+)VEGFR2(+) endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were measured using bead-based determination...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174344/glucagon-like-peptide-1-elicits-vasodilation-in-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle-in-healthy-men
#12
Ali Asmar, Meena Asmar, Lene Simonsen, Sten Madsbad, Jens J Holst, Bolette Hartmann, Charlotte M Sorensen, Jens Bülow
In healthy subjects, we recently demonstrated that during acute administration of GLP-1, cardiac output increased significantly, whereas renal blood flow remained constant. We therefore hypothesize that GLP-1 induces vasodilation in other organs, for example, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and/or splanchnic tissues. Nine healthy men were examined twice in random order during a 2-hour infusion of either GLP-1 (1.5 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) or saline. Cardiac output was continuously estimated noninvasively concomitantly with measurement of intra-arterial blood pressure...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174322/4d-microvascular-analysis-reveals-that-regenerative-angiogenesis-in-ischemic-muscle-produces-a-flawed-microcirculation
#13
John-Michael Arpino, Zengxuan Nong, Fuyan Li, Hao Yin, Nour W Ghonaim, Stephanie Milkovich, Brittany Balint, Caroline O'Neil, Graham M Fraser, Daniel Goldman, Christopher G Ellis, J G Pickering
RATIONALE: Angiogenesis occurs following ischemic injury to skeletal muscle and enhancing this response has been a therapeutic goal. However, to appropriately deliver oxygen, a precisely organized and exquisitely responsive microcirculation must form. Whether these network attributes exist in a regenerated microcirculation is unknown and methodologies for answering this have been lacking. OBJECTIVE: To develop 4D methodologies for elucidating microarchitecture and function of the reconstructed microcirculation in skeletal muscle...
February 7, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151429/the-influence-of-adipose-tissue-on-spatially-resolved-near-infrared-spectroscopy-derived-skeletal-muscle-oxygenation-the-extent-of-the-problem
#14
Victor M Niemeijer, Jasper P Jansen, Thomas van Dijk, Ruud F Spee, Eduard J Meijer, Hareld M C Kemps, Pieter F F Wijn
OBJECTIVE: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements of tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) are useful for the assessment of skeletal muscle perfusion and function during exercise, however, they are influenced by overlying skin and adipose tissue. This study explored the extent and nature of the influence of adipose tissue thickness (ATT) on StO2. APPROACH: NIR spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) derived oxygenation was measured on vastus lateralis in 56 patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and 20 healthy control (HC) subjects during rest and moderate intensity exercise with simultaneous assessment of oxygen uptake kinetics (τ [Formula: see text])...
February 2, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134997/mass-transport-circulatory-system-with-emphasis-on-nonendothermic-species
#15
Dane A Crossley, Warren W Burggren, Carl L Reiber, Jordi Altimiras, Kenneth J Rodnick
Mass transport can be generally defined as movement of material matter. The circulatory system then is a biological example given its role in the movement in transporting gases, nutrients, wastes, and chemical signals. Comparative physiology has a long history of providing new insights and advancing our understanding of circulatory mass transport across a wide array of circulatory systems. Here we focus on circulatory function of nonmodel species. Invertebrates possess diverse convection systems; that at the most complex generate pressures and perform at a level comparable to vertebrates...
December 6, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129889/sarcopenia-but-not-excess-weight-or-increased-caloric-intake-is-associated-with-coronary-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-the-very-elderly
#16
Alessandra M Campos, Filipe A Moura, Simone N Santos, Wladimir M Freitas, Andrei C Sposito
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Excess weight is a widespread condition related to increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Sarcopenia is a catabolic pathway common of the aging process and also associated with CHD. In the elderly, both changes occur concurrently and it remains unclear the relative contribution on CHD risk. We aimed to investigate whether sarcopenia, excess weight, or both are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and/or endothelial dysfunction in very elderly individuals...
March 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124127/acute-low-intensity-cycling-with-blood-flow-restriction-has-no-effect-on-metabolic-signaling-in-human-skeletal-muscle-compared-to-traditional-exercise
#17
William J Smiles, Miguel S Conceição, Guilherme D Telles, Mara P T Chacon-Mikahil, Cláudia R Cavaglieri, Felipe C Vechin, Cleiton A Libardi, John A Hawley, Donny M Camera
PURPOSE: Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system sensitive to hypoxia and exercise-induced perturbations to cellular bioenergetics. We determined the effects of low-intensity endurance-based exercise performed with blood-flow restriction (BFR) on cell signaling adaptive responses regulating autophagy and substrate metabolism in human skeletal muscle. METHODS: In a randomized cross-over design, nine young, healthy but physically inactive males completed three experimental trials separated by 1 week of recovery consisting of either a resistance exercise bout (REX: 4 × 10 leg press repetitions, 70% 1-RM), endurance exercise (END: 30 min cycling, 70% VO2peak), or low-intensity cycling with BFR (15 min, 40% VO2peak)...
January 25, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109110/-effects-of-polyethylene-oxide-on-blood-perfusion-in-the-hind-limbs-of-rats-with-chronic-hindlimb-ischemia
#18
De-Zhong Zheng, Tao Zhou, Dao-Gang Zha
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of polyethylene oxide (PEO) on blood perfusion in hind limb skeletal muscles in a rat model of chronic hind limb ischemia. METHDOS: Twelve rat models of chronic hind limb ischemia established by unilateral femoral artery ligation were randomized into PEO and control groups (n=6) and treated with intravenous infusion of PEO and saline through the internal jugular vein every other day for 2 weeks. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was performed after the treatments to evaluate the blood flow in the skeletal muscles at different time points and blood flow reserve in the ischemic hind limbs on day 28...
January 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060442/effects-of-6%C3%A2-months-of-aerobic-and-resistance-exercise-training-on-carotid-artery-intima-media-thickness-in-overweight-and-obese-older-women
#19
Jinkee Park, Hyuntea Park
AIM: We studied the effects of exercise on carotid intima-media thickness, luminal diameter, and flow velocity in overweight and obese older women, and the associations between carotid parameters changes and other variables. METHODS: A total of 41 overweight and obese older women (aged 65-77 years, fat mass percent ≥ 32%), who were divided into a control group (n = 20) and a supervised combined exercise group (n = 21). The 24-week combined exercise program (aerobic and resistance exercise) consisted of sessions 40-80 min in length 5 days per week under the supervision of an exercise specialist...
January 6, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055302/t-type-ca-2-channels-and-autoregulation-of-local-blood-flow
#20
Lars Jørn Jensen, Morten Schak Nielsen, Max Salomonsson, Charlotte Mehlin Sørensen
L-type voltage gated Ca(2+) channels are considered to be the primary source of calcium influx during the myogenic response. However, many vascular beds also express T-type voltage gated Ca(2+) channels. Recent studies suggest that these channels may also play a role in autoregulation. At low pressures (40-80 mmHg) T-type channels affect myogenic responses in cerebral and mesenteric vascular beds. T-type channels also seem to be involved in skeletal muscle autoregulation. This review discusses the expression and role of T-type voltage gated Ca(2+) channels in the autoregulation of several different vascular beds...
January 5, 2017: Channels
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