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Skeletal muscle blood flow

Shiteng Suo, Lan Zhang, Hui Tang, Qihong Ni, Suqin Li, Haimin Mao, Xiangyu Liu, Shengyun He, Jianxun Qu, Qing Lu, Jianrong Xu
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques including arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD), and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), are capable of measuring tissue perfusion-related parameters. We sought to evaluate and compare these three CMR techniques in characterizing skeletal muscle perfusion in lower extremities and to investigate their abilities to diagnose and assess the severity of peripheral arterial disease (PAD)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Sinead T J Mcdonagh, Lee J Wylie, Christopher Thompson, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M Jones
This article provides an overview of the current literature relating to the efficacy of dietary nitrate (NO3 - ) ingestion in altering aspects of cardiovascular and metabolic health and exercise capacity in healthy and diseased individuals. The consumption of NO3 - -rich vegetables, such as spinach and beetroot, have been variously shown to promote nitric oxide bioavailability, reduce systemic blood pressure, enhance tissue blood flow, modulate muscle O2 utilisation and improve exercise tolerance both in normoxia and in hypoxia, as is commonly observed in a number of disease states...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Hans Erik Botker, Thomas Ravn Lassen, Nichlas Riise Jespersen
Rapid admission and acute interventional treatment combined with modern antithrombotic pharmacologic therapy have improved outcome in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The next major target to further improve outcome, seems to be ischemia reperfusion injury, which may contribute significantly to the final infarct size and hence mortality and post-infarction heart failure. Mechanical conditioning strategies including local and remote ischemic pre-, per- and postconditioning have demonstrated consistent cardioprotective capacities in experimental models of acute IR injury...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Igor A Fernandes, Marcos P Rocha, Monique O Campos, João D Mattos, Daniel E Mansur, Helena N M Rocha, Paulo A C Terra, Vinícius P Garcia, Natália G Rocha, Niels H Secher, Antonio C L Nóbrega
KEY POINTS: Hypoxaemia evokes a repertoire of homeostatic adjustments that maintain oxygen supply to organs and tissues including the brain and skeletal muscles. Because hypertensive patients have impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation and an increased sympathetic response to arterial oxygen desaturation, we investigated whether hypertension impairs isocapnic hypoxia-induced cerebral and skeletal muscle hyperaemia to an extent that limits oxygen supply. In middle-aged hypertensive men, vertebral and femoral artery blood flow do not increase in response to isocapnic hypoxia, limiting brain and peripheral hyperaemia and oxygen supply...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Dereck L Salisbury, Rebecca Jl Brown, Ulf G Bronas, Laura N Kirk, Diane Treat-Jacobson
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a manifestation of generalized atherosclerosis which results in hemodynamic compromise of oxygen and substrate delivery to the lower extremity skeletal muscles. Hemodynamic assessments are vital in PAD diagnosis and in the evaluation of strategies aimed at treating claudication (i.e. exercise training, revascularization, and pharmacological agents). Venous occlusion plethysmography (VOP) is a century-old, non-invasive technique used to quantify limb blood flow and has been used to evaluate hemodynamic compromise in patients with PAD...
February 1, 2018: Vascular Medicine
Renata Luri Toma, Murilo Xavier Oliveira, Ana Cláudia Muniz Renno, E-Liisa Laakso
Muscle fatigue is a process influenced by several mechanisms such as concentration of metabolic substrates, changes in blood flow, and increases in reactive oxygen species that impair contractile muscle function. In this context, photobiomodulation has been investigated for preventing muscle fatigue, with reports of positive effects on muscle performance. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 904-nm LASER photobiomodulation on rectus femoris muscle performance in young women. Eighteen young women participated in a randomized, participant and assessor-blinded crossover trial with placebo control...
February 17, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
J E Jakobsgaard, M Christiansen, P Sieljacks, J Wang, T Groennebaek, F de Paoli, K Vissing
This study ascertains the ability of bodyweight blood flow-restricted (BFR) exercise training to promote skeletal muscle adaptations of significance for muscle accretion and metabolism. Six healthy young individuals (three males and three females) performed six weeks of bodyweight BFR training. Each session consisted of five sets of sit-to-stand BFR exercise to volitional failure with 30-second inter-set recovery. Prior to, and at least 72 h after training, muscle biopsies were taken from m. vastus lateralis to assess changes in fibre type-specific cross-sectional area (CSA), satellite cell (SC) and myonuclei content and capillarization, as well as mitochondrial protein expression...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Gregory D Sloop, Joseph J Weidman, John A St Cyr
The authors hypothesize that thrombosis causes both the complications of atherosclerosis as well as the underlying lesion, the atherosclerotic plaque, which develops from the organization of mural thrombi. These form in areas of slow blood flow, which develop because of flow separation created by changing vascular geometry and elevated blood viscosity. Many phenomena typically ascribed to inflammation or "chronic oxidative stress", such as the development of fatty streaks, "endothelial dysfunction," "vulnerable plaques," and the association of mild elevations of C-reactive protein and cytokines with atherothrombosis are better explained by hemorheologic and hemodynamic abnormalities, particularly elevated blood viscosity...
December 5, 2017: Curēus
Rebecca J Wilson, Joshua C Drake, Di Cui, Bevan M Lewellen, Carleigh C Fisher, Mei Zhang, David F Kashatus, Lisa A Palmer, Michael P Murphy, Zhen Yan
Deterioration of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) integrity and function is causal to muscle atrophy and frailty, ultimately hindering quality of life and increasing the risk of death. In particular, NMJ is vulnerable to ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury when blood flow is restricted followed by restoration. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism(s) and hence the lack of effective interventions. New evidence suggests that mitochondrial oxidative stress plays a causal role in IR injury, which can be precluded by enhancing mitochondrial protein S-nitrosation (SNO)...
February 9, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Sherif Sultan, Edel Patricia Kavanagh, Niamh Hynes
Critical limb ischaemia is the end stage of peripheral arterial disease before limb loss. Contemporary interventions to restore blood flow have high morbidity and mortality and fail to provide sustained restoration of peripheral circulation. Cell-based therapies designed to promote neovascularisation or angiogenesis have been shown in trials to be safe but clinically ineffective. Notwithstanding endless research in the area, no headway has been made in identifying a successful therapy designed specifically to target muscle disease in critical lower limb ischaemia...
January 1, 2018: Vascular
Danny Christiansen, Robyn M Murphy, Jens Bangsbo, Christos G Stathis, David J Bishop
AIM: This study explored the effects of blood flow restriction (BFR) on mRNA responses of PGC-1α (total, 1α1, and 1α4) and Na+ ,K+ -ATPase isoforms (NKA; α1-3 , β1-3 , and FXYD1) to an interval running session, and determined if these effects were related to increased oxidative stress, hypoxia, and fibre type-specific AMPK and CaMKII signalling, in human skeletal muscle. METHODS: In a randomised, crossover fashion, eight healthy men (26 ± 5 y and 57.4 ± 6...
January 31, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Leslie E Neidert, Mohammed Al-Tarhuni, Daniel Goldman, Heidi A Kluess, Dwayne N Jackson
The purpose of this study is to investigate that dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) released from skeletal and vascular smooth muscle can increase arteriolar diameter in a skeletal muscle vascular bed by reducing neuropeptide Y (NPY)-mediated vasoconstriction. We hypothesized that the effect of myokine DPP-IV would be greatest in the smallest and least in the largest arterioles. Eight male Sprague Dawley rats (age 7-9 weeks; mass, mean ± SD: 258 ± 41 g) were anesthetized and the gluteus maximus dissected in situ for intravital microscopy analysis of arteriolar diameter of the vascular network...
January 2018: Physiological Reports
Robert F Bentley, Joshua H Jones, Daniel M Hirai, Joel T Zelt, Matthew D Giles, James P Raleigh, Joe Quadrilatero, Brendon J Gurd, J Alberto Neder, Michael E Tschakovsky
Considerable interindividual differences in the Q˙-V˙O2 relationship during exercise have been documented but implications for submaximal exercise tolerance have not been considered. We tested the hypothesis that these interindividual differences were associated with differences in exercising muscle deoxygenation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) across a range of submaximal exercise intensities. A total of 31 (21 ± 3 years) healthy recreationally active males performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion 24 h following a resting muscle biopsy...
January 2018: Physiological Reports
Chandan-Ganesh Bangalore-Yogananda, Ryan Rosenberry, Sagar Soni, Hanli Liu, Michael D Nelson, Fenghua Tian
Noninvasive, direct measurement of local muscle blood flow in humans remains limited. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is an emerging technique to measure regional blood flow at the microvascular level. In order to better understand the strengths and limitations of this novel technique, we performed a validation study by comparing muscle blood flow changes measured with DCS and Doppler ultrasound during exercise. Nine subjects were measured (all males, 27.4 ± 2.9 years of age) for a rhythmic handgrip exercise at 20% and 50% of individual maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), followed by a post-exercise recovery...
January 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Katherine L Hayes, Louis M Messina, Lawrence M Schwartz, Jinglian Yan, Amy S Burnside, Sarah Witkowski
Peripheral artery disease is an atherosclerotic occlusive disease that causes limb ischemia and has few effective non-interventional treatments. Stem cell therapy is promising, but concomitant diabetes may limit its effectiveness. We evaluated the therapeutic potential of skeletal muscle pericytes to augment postischemic neovascularization in wild type and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) mice. Wild type C57BL/6J and leptin receptor spontaneous mutation db/db T2DM mice underwent unilateral femoral artery excision to induce limb ischemia...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Anthony K May, Aaron P Russell, Stuart A Warmington
PURPOSE: We examined the concurrent characteristics of the remote development of strength and cross-sectional area (CSA) of upper body skeletal muscle in response to lower body resistance training performed with an applied blood flow restriction (BFR). METHODS: Males allocated to an experimental BFR group (EXP; n = 12) or a non-BFR control group (CON; n = 12) completed 7-weeks of resistance training comprising three sets of unilateral bicep curls [50% 1-repetition maximum (1-RM)], then four sets of bilateral knee extension and flexion exercises (30% 1-RM)...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Gabriele Giacomo Schiattarella, Fabio Cattaneo, Albino Carrizzo, Roberta Paolillo, Nicola Boccella, Mariateresa Ambrosio, Antonio Damato, Gianluigi Pironti, Anna Franzone, Giusi Russo, Fabio Magliulo, Marinella Pirozzi, Marianna Storto, Michele Madonna, Giuseppe Gargiulo, Valentina Trimarco, Laura Rinaldi, Massimiliano De Lucia, Corrado Garbi, Antonio Feliciello, Giovanni Esposito, Carmine Vecchione, Cinzia Perrino
MitoAKAPs (mitochondrial A kinase anchoring proteins), encoded by the Akap1 gene, regulate multiple cellular processes governing mitochondrial homeostasis and cell viability. Although mitochondrial alterations have been associated to endothelial dysfunction, the role of mitoAKAPs in the vasculature is currently unknown. To test this, postischemic neovascularization, vascular function, and arterial blood pressure were analyzed in Akap1 knockout mice (Akap1-/- ) and their wild-type (wt) littermates. Primary cultures of aortic endothelial cells (ECs) were also obtained from Akap1-/- and wt mice, and ECs migration, proliferation, survival, and capillary-like network formation were analyzed under different experimental conditions...
January 15, 2018: Hypertension
Yan Yang, Ruolan Dong, Zhihui Chen, Danli Hu, Menglu Fu, Ying Tang, Dao Wen Wang, Xizhen Xu, Ling Tu
Ample evidences demonstrate that cytochrome P450 epoxygenase-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) exert diverse biological activities, which include potent vasodilatory, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protective effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of endothelium-specific CYP2J2 overexpression on age-related insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction. Endothelium-specific targeting of the human CYP epoxygenase, CYP2J2, transgenic mice (Tie2-CYP2J2-Tr mice) was utilized. The effects of endothelium-specific CYP2J2 overexpression on aging-associated obesity, inflammation, and peripheral insulin resistance were evaluated by assessing metabolic parameters in young (3 months old) and aged (16 months old) adult male Tie2-CYP2J2-Tr mice...
January 10, 2018: Aging Cell
Alexander Franz, Fina Pauline Queitsch, Michael Behringer, Constantin Mayer, Rüdiger Krauspe, Christoph Zilkens
Osteoarthritis of the knee is one of the most commonly diagnosed joint ailments and responsible for increased rates of total knee arthroplasty surgeries worldwide. Whereas the surgical approach is able to diminish the perceived knee pain of concerned patients', the postoperative recovery is often accompanied by persistent skeletal muscle dysfunctions and atrophy, which is responsible for functional deficits for up to several years. Recent findings indicate that surgery induced adverse effects on skeletal muscles are largely associated with the use of pneumatic tourniquets, wherefore several studies try to reduce tourniquet use in orthopedic surgery...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Daniel M Hirai, Steven W Copp, Scott K Ferguson, Clark T Holdsworth, K Sue Hageman, David C Poole, Timothy I Musch
Nitric oxide (NO) modulates oxygen delivery-utilization matching in resting and contracting skeletal muscle. Recent reports indicate that neuronal NO synthase (nNOS)-mediated vasoregulation during contractions is enhanced with exercise training and impaired with chronic heart failure (HF). Consequently, we tested the hypothesis that selective nNOS inhibition (S-methyl-l-thiocitrulline; SMTC, 2.1 μmol/kg) would produce attenuated reductions in muscle blood flow during moderate/heavy submaximal exercise in sedentary HF rats compared to their healthy counterparts...
December 27, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
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